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Hunting is the practice of seeking, pursuing and capturing or killing
wildlife Wildlife traditionally refers to undomesticated animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular A multicellular organism is an organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functi ...

wildlife
or
feral animal in St. Kilda, Scotland, St Kilda, Scotland A feral animal or plant (from la, fera, 'a wild beast') is one that lives in the wild but is descended from Domestication, domesticated specimens. As with an introduced species, the introduction of ...
s. The most common reasons for
human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A speci ...

human
s to hunt are to harvest useful
animal product An animal product, also known as lacticinia, is any material derived from the body of an animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are organisms that form the Animalia. With few exceptions, animals , , are , can , and grow from a hollow s ...
s (
meat Meat is animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals Heterotroph, consume organic material, Cellular respiratio ...

meat
,
fur Fur is a thick growth of hair Hair is a protein filament In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular bi ...

fur
/
hide__NOTOC__ Hide or hides may refer to: Common uses * Hide (skin), the cured skin of an animal * Bird hide, a structure for observing birds without causing disturbance * Gamekeeper's hide or hunting hide or hunting blind, a structure to hide in when ...
,
bone A bone is a rigid tissue Tissue may refer to: Biology * Tissue (biology), an ensemble of similar cells that together carry out a specific function * ''Triphosa haesitata'', a species of geometer moth found in North America * ''Triphosa dubit ...

bone
/
tusk Tusks are elongated, continuously growing front teeth A tooth (plural teeth) is a hard, calcification, calcified structure found in the jaws (or mouths) of many vertebrates and used to Mastication, break down food. Some animals, particularly c ...

tusk
s,
horn Horn usually refers to: *Horn (acoustic), a conical or bell shaped aperture used to guide sound ** Horn (instrument), collective name for tube-shaped wind musical instruments *Horn (anatomy), a pointed, bony projection on the head of various anima ...
/
antler Antlers are extensions of an animal's skull found in members of the deer Deer or true deer are ed s forming the Cervidae. The two main groups of deer are the , including the , the (wapiti), the , and the ; and the , including the ( ...

antler
, etc), for
recreation Recreation is an activity of leisure Leisure has often been defined as a quality of experience or as free time. Free time is spent away from , , , , and , as well as necessary activities such as and ing. Leisure as an experience usuall ...

recreation
/
taxidermy Taxidermy is the art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and intel ...

taxidermy
(see
trophy hunting Trophy hunting is hunting Hunting is the practice of seeking, pursuing and capturing or killing wildlife or feral animals. The most common reasons for humans to hunt are to harvest useful animal products (meat, fur/hide (skin), hide, bone/tu ...
), to remove
predator Predation is a biological interaction In ecology Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "study of") is the study of the relationships between living organisms, including humans, and their physical env ...

predator
s dangerous to humans or
domestic animal This page gives a list of domestic animals, also including a list of domestication of animals, animals which are or may be currently undergoing the process of domestication and animals that have an extensive relationship with humans beyond simple pr ...
s (e.g.
wolf hunting Wolf hunting is the practice of hunting gray wolves ''(Canis lupus)'' or other species of wolves The wolf (''Canis lupus''), also known as the gray wolf or grey wolf, is a large canine native to Eurasia Eurasia () is the largest ...
), to eliminate
pest Pest or The Pest may refer to: Science and medicine * Pest (organism), an animal or plant detrimental to humans or human concerns ** Weed, a plant considered undesirable * Infectious disease, an illness resulting from an infection ** Plague (diseas ...
s and
nuisance animal Nuisance wildlife management is the term given to the process of selective removal of problem individuals or populations of specific species of wildlife. Other terms for the field include wildlife damage management, wildlife control, and animal da ...
s that damage
crop A crop is a plant that can be grown and harvested extensively for profit or subsistence. Crops may refer either to the harvested parts or to the harvest in a more refined state. Most crops are cultivated in agriculture or aquaculture. A crop ma ...

crop
s/
livestock Livestock are the domesticated Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictabl ...
/
poultry Poultry () are domesticated Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictable s ...

poultry
or spread diseases (see varminting), for trade/tourism (see
safari A safari (; ) is an overland journey to or (in more recent times) observe , especially in or . The so-called animals of Africa – , , , , and – particularly form an important part of the safari market, both for and . Etymology The ...

safari
), or for
ecological conservation Conservation biology is the study of the conservation of nature and of Earth's biodiversity with the aim of protecting species, their habitats, and ecosystems from excessive rates of extinction and the erosion of biotic interactions. It is an int ...
against
overpopulation Overpopulation or overabundance occurs when a species' population In biology, a population is a number of all the organisms of the same group or species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classifica ...

overpopulation
and
invasive species An invasive species is an introduced organism that becomes overpopulated and negatively alters its new environment. Although their spread can have beneficial aspects, invasive species adversely affect the invaded habitat Ibex in an ...
(see
culling In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechan ...
). Recreationally hunted species are generally referred to as the "
game A game is a structured form of play Play most commonly refers to: * Play (activity), an activity done for enjoyment * Play (theatre), a work of drama Play may refer also to: Computers and technology * Google Play, a digital content serv ...
", and are usually
mammal Mammals (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be i ...
s and
bird Birds are a group of warm-blooded vertebrate Vertebrates () comprise all species of animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With ...

bird
s. A person participating in a hunt is a hunter or (less commonly) huntsman; a
natural area A nature reserve (also known as a natural reserve, wildlife refuge, wildlife sanctuary, biosphere reserve or bioreserve, natural or nature preserve, or nature conservation area), is a protected area of importance for flora, fauna, or features o ...
used for hunting is called a
game reserve A game reserve (also known as a wildlife preserve or a game park) is a large area of land where wild animals live safely or are hunted in a controlled way for sport. If hunting is prohibited, a game reserve may be considered a nature reserve; h ...
; and an experienced hunter who helps organize a hunt and/or managing the game reserve is known as a
gamekeeper A professional hunter (less frequently referred to as market or commercial hunter and regionally, especially in Britain and Ireland, as professional stalker or gamekeeper) is a person who Hunting, hunts and/or manages Game (hunting), game by profes ...
. Many non-human animals also hunt (see
predation Predation is a biological interaction In ecology Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "study of") is the study of the relationships between living organisms, including humans, and their physical en ...

predation
) as part of their
feeding Eating (also known as consuming) is the ingestion of food, typically to provide a heterotrophic organism with food energy, energy and to allow for :wikt:growth, growth. Animals and other heterotrophs must eat in order to survive — carnivores ...

feeding
and
parental A parent is a caregiver of the offspring In biology, offspring are the young born of living organism, organisms, produced either by a single organism or, in the case of sexual reproduction, two organisms. Collective offspring may be known as a ...

parental
behaviors, sometimes in quantities exceeding immediate dietary needs. The one that does the hunting is the ''
predator Predation is a biological interaction In ecology Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "study of") is the study of the relationships between living organisms, including humans, and their physical env ...

predator
'', and the one being hunted is the ''
prey Predation is a biological interaction In ecology Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "study of") is the study of the relationships between living organisms, including humans, and their physical env ...

prey
''. Hunting activities by humans arose in ''
Homo erectus ''Homo erectus'' (meaning "upright Body relative directions (also known as egocentric coordinates) are geometrical orientations relative to a body such as a human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread s ...

Homo erectus
'' or earlier, in the order of millions of years ago. Hunting has become deeply embedded in various
human culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found in human Society, societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, Social norm, customs, capabilities, and habits of the individuals i ...
s and was once an important part of the
rural In general, a rural area or a countryside is a geographic area that is located outside town A town is a . Towns are generally larger than s and smaller than , though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in differen ...

rural
economies — classified by economists as part of
primary production In ecology, primary production is the synthesis of organic compounds from atmospheric or aqueous carbon dioxide. It principally occurs through the process of photosynthesis, which uses light as its source of energy, but it also occurs through ch ...
alongside
forestry Forestry is the science and craft of creating, managing, planting, using, conserving and repairing forest A forest is an area of land dominated by tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, ste ...
,
agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exercise trends, Increases in sedentary behaviors su ...

agriculture
and
fishery Fishery can mean either the enterprise of raising or harvesting fish Fish are , , -bearing animals that lack with . Included in this definition are the living , s, and and as well as various extinct related groups. Around 99% of living ...

fishery
. Modern regulations (see
game law Game laws are statuteA statute reffers to the body of law that are made by legislature of the nation with instrument which govern the state, country or any nation. it includes laws, rules and the reulation whichhas to be followed by each citizen in ...
) distinguish lawful hunting activities from illegal
poaching Poaching has been defined as the illegal hunting Hunting is the practice of seeking, pursuing and capturing or killing wildlife or feral animals. The most common reasons for humans to hunt are to harvest useful animal products (meat, fur/h ...
, which involves the unauthorized and unregulated
killing Killing or Killings may refer to: Types of killing *-cide, a suffix that refers to types of killing (see List of types of killing), such as: ** Homicide, one human killing another *** Murder, unlawful killing of another human without justification ...
,
trapping Animal trapping, or simply trapping, is the use of a device to remotely catch an animal. Animals may be trapped for a variety of purposes, including food, the fur trade, hunting, pest control, and wildlife management. History Neolithic ...

trapping
or capture of animals. Apart from
food Food is any substance consumed to provide Nutrient, nutritional support for an organism. Food is usually of plant, animal or Fungus, fungal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, protein (nutrient), proteins, vi ...

food
provision, hunting can be a means of
population control Population control is the practice of artificially maintaining the size of any population. It simply refers to the act of limiting the size of an animal population so that it remains manageable, as opposed to the act of protecting a species from e ...
. Hunting advocates state that regulated hunting can be a necessary component of modern
wildlife management Wildlife management is the management process influencing interactions among and between wildlife A ground pangolin Wildlife traditionally refers to undomesticated animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic ...
, for example to help maintain a healthy proportion of animal populations within an environment's ecological
carrying capacity The carrying capacity of an environment Environment most often refers to: __NOTOC__ * Natural environment, all living and non-living things occurring naturally * Biophysical environment, the physical and biological factors along with their chemical ...
when natural checks such as natural predators are absent or insufficient, or to provide funding for
breeding program A breeding program is the planned breeding of a group of animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals Heterotroph, co ...
s and maintenance of
natural reserve A nature reserve (also known as a natural reserve, wildlife refuge, wildlife sanctuary, biosphere reserve or bioreserve, natural or nature preserve, or nature conservation area) is a protected area of importance for flora, fauna, or features o ...
s and
conservation park
conservation park
s. However, excessive hunting has also heavily contributed to the
endangerment Endangerment is a type of crime In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority. The term ''crime'' does not, in modern criminal law, have any simple and universally accepted definition,Farmer, Li ...
,
extirpation Local extinction, also known as extirpation, is the condition of a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A specie ...
and
extinction Extinction is the termination of a kind of organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biol ...

extinction
of many animals."Red List Overview". IUCN Red List. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 8 September 2010. Some animal rights and
anti-hunting Opposition to hunting is espoused by people or groups who object to the practice of hunting, often seeking anti-hunting legislation and sometimes taking on acts of civil disobedience, such as hunt saboteur, hunt sabotage. Anti-hunting laws, such ...
activists regard hunting as a
cruel Cruelty is pleasure in inflicting suffering or inaction towards another's suffering when a clear remedy is readily available. Sadomasochism, Sadism can also be related to this form of action or concept. Cruel ways of inflicting suffering may inv ...
, perverse and unnecessary
blood sport A blood sport or bloodsport is a category of sport Sport pertains to any form of competitive Competition is a rivalry A rivalry is the state of two people or groups engaging in a lasting competitive relationship. Rivalry is the "a ...
. Certain hunting practices, such as canned hunts and ludicrously paid/
bribed Bribery is defined by ''Black's Law Dictionary'' as the Offer and acceptance, offering, Gift, giving, Offer and acceptance, receiving, or Solicitation, soliciting of any item of value to influence the actions of an official, or other person, in ch ...

bribed
trophy tour
trophy tour
s (especially to poor countries), are considered
unethical Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that "involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong action (philosophy), behavior".''Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy'"Ethics"/ref> The field of ethics, alo ...
and exploitative even by some hunters.
Marine mammal Marine mammals are aquatic mammals that rely on the ocean and other marine ecosystems for their existence. They include animals such as Pinniped, seals, Cetacea, whales, Sirenia, manatees, sea otters and polar bears. They are an informal group, ...
s such as
whale Whales are a widely distributed and diverse group of fully s. They are an informal grouping within the infraorder , which usually excludes s and s. Whales, dolphins and porpoises belong to the order , which consists of s. Their closest n ...

whale
s and
pinniped Pinnipeds (pronounced ), commonly known as seals, are a widely range (biology), distributed and diverse clade of carnivorous, fin-footed, List of semiaquatic tetrapods, semiaquatic, mostly marine mammal, marine mammals. They comprise the extan ...
s are also targets of hunting, both recreationally and commercially, often with heated controversies regarding the morality, ethics and legality of such practices. The pursuit, harvesting or
catch and release Catch and release is a practice within recreational fishing Recreational fishing, also called sport fishing, is fishing Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish Fish are Aquatic animal, aquatic, craniate, gill-bearing anima ...
of
fish Fish are aquatic Aquatic means relating to water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the ...

fish
and
aquatic Aquatic means relating to water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the fluids of all known li ...
cephalopod A cephalopod is any member of the mollusca Mollusca is the second-largest phylum In biology, a phylum (; plural The plural (sometimes list of glossing abbreviations, abbreviated ), in many languages, is one of the values of the gram ...
s and
crustacean Crustaceans (Crustacea ) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, Caridea, shrimp, krill, Dendrobranchiata, prawns, woodlice, barnacles, copepods, amphipoda, amphipods and mantis shrimp. The ...
s is called
fishing Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish Fish are , , -bearing animals that lack with . Included in this definition are the living , s, and and as well as various extinct related groups. Around 99% of living fish species are ...

fishing
, which however is widely accepted and not commonly categorised as a form of hunting, even though it essentially is. It is also not considered hunting to pursue animals without intent to kill them, as in
wildlife photography Wildlife photography is a genre of photography Photography is the art, application, and practice of creating durable images by recording light, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive mat ...

wildlife photography
,
birdwatching Birdwatching, or birding, is a form of wildlife observation in which the observation of bird Birds are a group of warm-blooded vertebrates constituting the class (biology), class Aves , characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaw ...

birdwatching
, or scientific-research activities which involve tranquilizing or tagging of animals, although green hunting is still called so. The practices of
netting In law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is described by its ...
or
trapping Animal trapping, or simply trapping, is the use of a device to remotely catch an animal. Animals may be trapped for a variety of purposes, including food, the fur trade, hunting, pest control, and wildlife management. History Neolithic ...
insect Insects (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in ...

insect
s and other
arthropod An arthropod (, (gen. ποδός)) is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton, a Segmentation (biology), segmented body, and paired jointed appendages. Arthropods form the phylum Euarthropoda,Reference showing that Euarthropoda is a phylum: ...
s for
trophy collection
trophy collection
, or the
foraging Foraging is searching for wild food resources. It affects an animal's fitness because it plays an important role in an animal's ability to survive and reproduce. Foraging theory is a branch of behavioral ecology Behavioral ecology, also spe ...
or gathering of
plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cellular respiration, can later be released to fuel ...

plant
s and
mushroom A mushroom or toadstool is the fleshy, spore )'', growing on a thinning, thinned hybrid black poplar ''(populus, Populus x canadensis)''. The last stage of the moss#Life cycle, moss lifecycle is shown, where the sporophytes are visible befor ...

mushroom
s, are also not regarded as hunting. Skillful
tracking Tracking may refer to: In science and technology In computing * Tracking, in computer graphics, in match moving In visual effects, match moving is a technique that allows the insertion of computer graphics into live-action footage with corr ...
and acquisition of an elusive target has caused the word ''hunt'' to be used in the
vernacular A vernacular or vernacular language refers to the language or dialect that is spoken by people that are inhabiting a particular country or region. The vernacular is typically the native language, normally Spoken language, spoken informally rath ...
as a
metaphor A metaphor is a figure of speech A figure of speech or rhetorical figure is a word or phrase that entails an intentional deviation from ordinary language use in order to produce a rhetoric Rhetoric () is the Art (skill), art of ...
for searching and obtaining something, as in "
treasure hunting Treasure hunting is the physical search for treasure. For example, treasure hunters try to find sunken shipwrecks and retrieve artifacts with market value. This industry is generally fueled by the market for antiquities. The practice of treasu ...
", " bargain hunting", "
hunting for votes
hunting for votes
" and even "
hunting down
hunting down
"
corruption Corruption is a form of dishonesty Dishonesty is to act without honesty. It is used to describe a lack of probity, cheating, lying, or deliberately withholding information, or being deliberately deceptive or a lack in integrity, knavishness, ...

corruption
and
waste Waste (or wastes) are unwanted or unusable materials. Waste is any substance which is discarded after primary use, or is worthless, defective and of no use. A by-product A by-product or byproduct is a secondary product derived from a produ ...

waste
.


Etymology

The word ''hunt'' serves as both a
noun A noun () is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning (linguistics), meaning. In many l ...

noun
("the act of chasing game") and a
verb A verb () is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (''bring'', ''read'', ''walk'', ''run'', ''learn''), an occurrence (''happen'', ''become''), or a state of being (''be'', ''exist'', ''stand''). In the usual description of E ...
. The noun has been dated to the early 12th century, from the verb ''hunt''.
Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language ...
had ''huntung'', ''huntoþ''. The meaning of "a body of persons associated for the purpose of hunting with a pack of hounds" is first recorded in the 1570s. "The act of searching for someone or something" is from about 1600. The verb, Old English ''huntian'' "to chase game" (
transitive Transitivity or transitive may refer to: Grammar * Transitivity (grammar), a property of verbs that relates to whether a verb can take direct objects * Transitive verb, a verb which takes an object * Transitive case, a grammatical case to mark arg ...
and
intransitive In grammar In linguistics, the grammar (from Ancient Greek ''grammatikḗ'') of a natural language is its set of structure, structural constraints on speakers' or writers' composition of clause (linguistics), clauses, phrases, and words. Th ...
), perhaps developed from ''hunta'' "hunter," is related to ''hentan'' "to seize," from
Proto-Germanic Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; also called Common Germanic) is the reconstructed Reconstruction may refer to: Politics, history, and sociology *Reconstruction (law), the transfer of a company's (or several companies') business to a new ...
''huntojan'' (the source also of
Gothic Gothic or Gothics may refer to: People and languages *Goths or Gothic people, the ethnonym of a group of East Germanic tribes **Gothic language, an extinct East Germanic language spoken by the Goths **Crimean Gothic, the Gothic language spoken by ...
''hinþan'' "to seize, capture,"
Old High German Old High German (OHG, german: Althochdeutsch, German abbr. ) is the earliest stage of the German language German ( Standard High German: , ) is a West Germanic language mainly spoken in Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Euro ...
''hunda'' "booty"), which is of uncertain origin. The general sense of "search diligently" (for anything) is first recorded c. 1200.


Types

* Recreational hunting, also known as
trophy hunting Trophy hunting is hunting Hunting is the practice of seeking, pursuing and capturing or killing wildlife or feral animals. The most common reasons for humans to hunt are to harvest useful animal products (meat, fur/hide (skin), hide, bone/tu ...
,
sport hunting Trophy hunting is hunting of wild animals as trophies, with the whole or parts of the hunted animal kept and usually displayed to represent the success of the hunter. The preferred target animal, known as the game (hunting), game, is typically a ...
or
sport Sport pertains to any form of Competition, competitive physical activity or game that aims to use, maintain or improve physical ability and Skill, skills while providing enjoyment to participants and, in some cases, entertainment to spectato ...
ing **
Big game hunting Big-game hunting is the hunting Hunting is the practice of seeking, pursuing and capturing or killing wildlife Wildlife traditionally refers to undomesticated animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular A mul ...
***
Big Five game In Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , '' ...

Big Five game
(
lion The lion (''Panthera leo'') is a large cat The cat (''Felis catus'') is a domestic Domestic may refer to: In the home * Anything relating to the human home A home, or domicile, is a space used as a permanent or semi-perma ...
,
elephant Elephants are the largest existing land animals. Three living species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A specie ...
,
buffalo
buffalo
/
bison Bison are large, even-toed ungulate The even-toed ungulates (Artiodactyla , ) are ungulate Ungulates ( ) are members of the diverse clade A clade (; from grc, , ''klados'', "branch"), also known as a monophyletic group or natural gro ...
,
African leopard The African leopard (''Panthera pardus pardus'') is the nominate subspecies of the leopard, native to many countries in Africa. It is widely distributed in most of sub-Saharan Africa, but the historical range has been Habitat fragmentation, fragm ...

African leopard
,
rhinoceros A rhinoceros (, , ), commonly abbreviated to rhino, is a member of any of the five extant Extant is the opposite of the word extinct Extinction is the termination of a kind of organism or of a group of kinds (taxon), usually a species. T ...
) *** Bear hunting *** Tiger hunting *** Reindeer hunting in Greenland, Caribou hunting ** Medium/small game hunting *** Fox hunting *** Deer hunting/deer stalking, stalking *** Boar hunting *** Mink hunting *** Coon hunting ** Fowling *** Waterfowl hunting *** Shorebird hunting (snipe#Hunting, snipe, woodcock#Hunting, woodcock, curlew, sandpiper, plover) *** Upland hunting (quail hunting, quail, pheasant shooting, pheasant, grouse hunting, grouse, turkey hunting, turkey) * Pest control/nuisance wildlife management, nuisance management ** Predator
culling In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechan ...
*** Wolf hunting *** Jackal coursing *** Coyote#Hunting, Coyote hunting *** Bobcat#Conservation, Bobcat hunting ** Varmint hunting *** Rabbiting *** Tree squirrel#Relationship with humans, Squirrel hunting *** Rook shooting * Commercial hunting ** Seal hunting ** Whaling, dolphin drive hunting, dolphin drive, dugong hunting in Australia, dugong hunting ** Alligator hunting ** Kangaroo meat, Kangaroo hunting


History


Lower to Middle Paleolithic

Hunting has a long history. It pre-dates the emergence of ''Homo sapiens'' (anatomically modern humans) and may even predate the genus ''Homo''. The oldest undisputed evidence for hunting dates to the Early Pleistocene, consistent with the emergence and early dispersal of ''
Homo erectus ''Homo erectus'' (meaning "upright Body relative directions (also known as egocentric coordinates) are geometrical orientations relative to a body such as a human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread s ...

Homo erectus
'', about 1.7 million years ago (Acheulean). While it is undisputed that ''Homo erectus'' were hunters, the importance of this for the emergence of ''Homo erectus'' from its australopithecine ancestors, including the production of stone tools and eventually the control of fire, is emphasised in the so-called "hunting hypothesis" and de-emphasised in scenarios that stress omnivory and social interaction. There is no direct evidence for hunting predating ''Homo erectus'', in either ''Homo habilis'' or in ''Australopithecus''. The early hominidae, hominid ancestors of humans were probably frugivores or omnivores, with a partially carnivore diet from scavenging rather than hunting. Evidence for australopithecine meat consumption was presented in the 1990s. It has nevertheless often been assumed that at least occasional hunting behavior may have been present well before the emergence of ''Homo''. This can be argued on the basis of comparison with Common chimpanzee, chimpanzees, the closest extant relatives of humans, who also engage in hunting, indicating that the behavioral trait may have been present in the Chimpanzee–human last common ancestor as early as 5 million years ago. The common chimpanzee (''Pan troglodytes'') regularly engages in troop predation behaviour where bands of beta males are led by an alpha male. Bonobos (''Pan paniscus'') have also been observed to occasionally engage in group hunting, although more rarely than ''Pan troglodytes'', mainly subsisting on a frugivorous diet. Indirect evidence for Oldowan era hunting, by early ''Homo'' or late ''Australopithecus'', has been presented in a 2009 study based on an Oldowan site in southwestern Kenya. Louis Binford (1986) criticised the idea that early hominids and early humans were hunters. On the basis of the analysis of the skeletal remains of the consumed animals, he concluded that hominids and early humans were mostly scavengers, not hunters, Blumenschine (1986) proposed the idea of ''confrontational scavenging'', which involves challenging and scaring off other
predator Predation is a biological interaction In ecology Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "study of") is the study of the relationships between living organisms, including humans, and their physical env ...

predator
s ''after'' they have made a kill, which he suggests could have been the leading method of obtaining protein-rich meat by early humans. Stone spearheads dated as early as 500,000 years ago were found in South Africa. Wood does not preserve well, however, and Craig Stanford, a primatologist and professor of anthropology at the University of Southern California, has suggested that the discovery of spear use by chimpanzees probably means that early humans used wooden spears as well, perhaps, five million years ago. The earliest dated find of surviving wooden hunting spears dates to the very end of the Lower Paleolithic, just before 300,000 years ago. The Schöningen spears, found in 1976 in Germany, are associated with ''Homo heidelbergensis''. The hunting hypothesis sees the emergence of behavioral modernity in the Middle Paleolithic as directly related to hunting, including Mating, mating behaviour, the establishment of language, culture, and origin of religion, religion, mythology and animal sacrifice. Sociologist David Nibert of Wittenberg University argues that the emergence of the organized hunting of animals undermined the communal, egalitarian nature of early human societies, with the status of women and less powerful males declining as the status of men quickly became associated with their success at hunting, which also increased human violence within these societies.


Upper Paleolithic to Mesolithic

Evidence exists that hunting may have been one of the multiple environmental factors leading to the Holocene extinction of megafauna and their replacement by smaller herbivores. North American megafauna extinction was coincidental with the Younger Dryas impact event, possibly making hunting a less critical factor in prehistoric species loss than had been previously thought. However, in other locations such as Australia, humans are thought to have played a very significant role in the extinction of the Australian megafauna that was widespread prior to human occupation. Hunting was a crucial component of hunter-gatherer societies before the domestication of livestock and the Neolithic Revolution, dawn of agriculture, beginning about 11,000 years ago in some parts of the world. In addition to the spear, hunting weapons developed during the Upper Paleolithic include the atlatl (a spear-thrower; before 30,000 years ago) and the Bow (weapon), bow (18,000 years ago). By the Mesolithic, Hunting strategy, hunting strategies had diversified with the development of these more far-reaching weapons and the domestication of the dog about 15,000 years ago. Evidence puts the earliest known mammoth hunting in Asia with spears to approximately 16,200 years ago. Many species of animals have been hunted throughout history. One theory is that in North America and Eurasia, reindeer, caribou and wild reindeer "may well be the species of single greatest importance in the entire anthropological literature on hunting""In North America and Eurasia the species has long been an important resource—in many areas ''the'' most important resource—for peoples inhabiting the northern Taiga, boreal forest and tundra regions. Known human dependence on caribou/wild reindeer has a long history, beginning in the Middle Pleistocene (Banfield 1961:170; Kurtén 1968:170) and continuing to the present. […] The caribou/wild reindeer is thus an animal that has been a major resource for humans throughout a tremendous geographic area and across a time span of tens of thousands of years." (see also Reindeer Age), although the varying importance of different species depended on the geographic location. Mesolithic hunter-gathering lifestyles remained prevalent in some parts of the Americas, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Siberia, as well as all of Australia, until the European Age of Discovery. They still persist in some tribal societies, albeit in rapid decline. Peoples that preserved Paleolithic hunting-gathering until the recent past include some List of indigenous peoples in Brazil, indigenous peoples of the Amazonas (Aché), some Central and Southern African (San people), some peoples of New Guinea (Fayu people, Fayu), the Mlabri people, Mlabri of Thailand and Laos, the Vedda people of Sri Lanka, and a handful of uncontacted peoples. In Africa, one of the last remaining hunter-gatherer tribes are the Hadza people, Hadza of Tanzania. However, 9000-year-old remains of a female hunter along with a toolkit of projectile points and animal processing implements were discovered at the Andes, Andean site of Wilamaya Patjxa, Puno District in Peru.


Neolithic and Antiquity

Even as domestication#Animals, animal domestication became relatively widespread and after the development of agriculture, hunting was usually a significant contributor to the human food supply. The supplementary meat and materials from hunting included protein,
bone A bone is a rigid tissue Tissue may refer to: Biology * Tissue (biology), an ensemble of similar cells that together carry out a specific function * ''Triphosa haesitata'', a species of geometer moth found in North America * ''Triphosa dubit ...

bone
for implements, sinew for rope, cordage,
fur Fur is a thick growth of hair Hair is a protein filament In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular bi ...

fur
, feathers, Rawhide (textile), rawhide and leather used in clothing. Hunting is still vital in marginal climates, especially those unsuited for pastoral uses or agriculture. For example, Inuit people in the Arctic trap and hunt animals for clothing and use the skins of Marine mammal, sea mammals to make kayaks, clothing, and footwear. On ancient reliefs, especially from Mesopotamia, kings are often depicted as hunters of Big game hunting, big game such as lions and are often portrayed hunting from a war chariot. The cultural and psychological importance of hunting in ancient societies is represented by deities such as Horned God, the horned god Cernunnos and Lunar deity, lunar goddesses of classical antiquity, the Greek Artemis or Roman Diana (mythology), Diana. Taboos are often related to hunting, and mythological association of prey species with a divinity could be reflected in hunting restrictions such as a Nature reserve, reserve surrounding a temple. Euripides' tale of Artemis and Actaeon, for example, may be seen as a caution against disrespect of prey or impudent boasting. With the domestication of the dog, Bird of prey, birds of prey, and the ferret, various forms of animal-aided hunting developed, including Medieval hunting, venery (scent hound hunting, such as fox hunting), coursing (sight hound hunting), falconry, and ferreting. While these are all associated with medieval hunting, over time, various dog breeds were selected for very precise tasks during the hunt, reflected in such names as Pointing breed, pointer and setter.


Pastoral and agricultural societies

Even as agriculture and animal husbandry became more prevalent, hunting often remained as a part of human culture where the environment and social conditions allowed. Hunter-gatherer societies persisted, even when increasingly confined to marginal areas. And within agricultural systems, hunting served to kill animals that prey upon List of domesticated animals, domestic and wild animals or to attempt to Local extinction, extirpate animals seen by humans as competition for resources such as water or forage. When hunting moved from a subsistence activity to a selective one, two trends emerged: # the development of the role of the specialist hunter, with special training and equipment # the option of hunting as a "sport" for members of an upper social class The meaning of the word ''game'' in Middle English evolved to include an animal which is hunted. As the domestication of animals for meat grew, subsistence hunting remained among the lowest classes; however, the stylised pursuit of game in European societies became a luxury. Dangerous hunting, such as for lions or wild boars, often done on horseback or from a chariot, had a function similar to Tournament (medieval), tournaments and manly sports. Hunting ranked as an honourable, somewhat competitive pastime to help the aristocracy practice skills of war in times of peace. In most parts of medieval Europe, the upper class obtained the sole rights to hunt in certain areas of a feudal territory. Game in these areas was used as a source of food and furs, often provided via professional huntsmen, but it was also expected to provide a form of recreation for the aristocracy. The importance of this proprietary view of game can be seen in the Robin Hood legends, in which one of the primary charges against the outlaws is that they "hunt the King's deer". In contrast, settlers in Anglophone colonies gloried democratically in hunting for all. In Medieval Europe, hunting was considered by Johannes Scotus Eriugena to be part of the set of ''mechanic arts, seven mechanical arts''.


Use of dog

Although various other animals have been used to aid the hunter, such as ferrets, the dog has assumed many very important uses to the hunter. The domestication of the dog has led to a Symbiosis, symbiotic relationship in which the dog's independence from humans is deferred. Though dogs can survive independently of humans, and in many cases do ferrally, when raised or adopted by humans the species tends to defer to its control in exchange for habitation, food and support. Dogs today are used to find, chase, retrieve, and sometimes kill game. Dogs allow humans to pursue and kill prey that would otherwise be very difficult or dangerous to hunt. Different breeds of specifically bred hunting dog are used for different types of hunting. Waterfowl are commonly hunted using retrieving dogs such as the Labrador Retriever, the Golden Retriever, the Chesapeake Bay Retriever, the Brittany Spaniel, and other similar breeds. Upland game bird, Game birds are flushed out using flushing spaniels such as the English Springer Spaniel, the various Cocker Spaniels and similar breeds. The hunting of wild mammals in England and Wales with dogs was banned under the Hunting Act 2004. The wild mammals include fox, hare, deer and mink. There are, however, exceptions in the Act.


Religion

Many prehistoric deities are depicted as predators or prey of humans, often in a zoomorphic form, perhaps alluding to the importance of hunting for most Palaeolithic cultures. In many pagan religions, specific rituals are conducted before or after a hunt; the rituals done may vary according to the species hunted or the season the hunt is taking place. Often a hunting ground, or the hunt for one or more species, was reserved or prohibited in the context of a temple cult. In Roman religion, Diana (mythology), Diana is the goddess of the hunt.


Indian and Eastern religions

Hindu scriptures describe hunting as an acceptable occupation, as well as a sport of the kingly. Even figures considered divine are described to have engaged in hunting. One of the names of the god Shiva is Mrigavyadha, which translates as "the deer hunter" (''mriga'' means deer; ''vyadha'' means hunter). The word ''Mriga'', in many Indian languages including Malayalam, not only stands for deer, but for all animals and animal instincts (Mriga Thrishna). Shiva, as Mrigavyadha, is the one who destroys the animal instincts in human beings. In the epic Ramayana, Dasharatha, the father of Rama, is said to have the ability to hunt in the dark. During one of his hunting expeditions, he accidentally killed Shravana, mistaking him for game. During Rama's exile in the forest, Ravana kidnapped his wife, Sita, from their hut, while Rama was asked by Sita to capture a golden deer, and his brother Lakshman went after him. According to the Mahabharat, Pandu, the father of the Pandavas, accidentally killed the sage Kindama and his wife with an arrow, mistaking them for a deer. Krishna is said to have died after being accidentally wounded by an arrow of a hunter. Jainism teaches followers to have tremendous respect for all of life. Prohibitions for hunting and meat eating are the fundamental conditions for being a Jain. Buddhism's first precept is the respect for all sentient life. The general approach by all Buddhists is to avoid killing any living animals. Gautama Buddha, Buddha explained the issue by saying "all fear death; comparing others with oneself, one should neither kill nor cause to kill." In Sikhism, only meat obtained from hunting, or slaughtered with the Jhatka is permitted. The Sikh gurus, especially Guru Hargobind and Guru Gobind Singh were ardent hunters. Many old Sikh Sikh Rehat Maryada, Rehatnamas like Prem Sumarag, recommend hunting wild boar and deer. However, among modern Sikhs, the practise of hunting has died down; some even saying that all meat is forbidden.


Christianity, Judaism, and Islam

From early Christian times, hunting has been forbidden to Roman Catholic Church clerics. Thus the ''Corpus Juris Canonici'' (C. ii, X, De cleric. venat.) says, "We forbid to all servants of God hunting and expeditions through the woods with hounds; and we also forbid them to keep hawks or falcons." The Fourth Council of the Lateran, held under Pope Innocent III, decreed (canon xv): "We interdict hunting or hawking to all clerics." The decree of the Council of Trent is worded more mildly: "Let clerics abstain from illicit hunting and hawking" (Sess. XXIV, De reform., c. xii), which seems to imply that not all hunting is illicit, and canonists generally make a distinction declaring noisy (''clamorosa'') hunting unlawful, but not quiet (''quieta'') hunting. Ferraris gives it as the general sense of canonists that hunting is allowed to clerics if it be indulged in rarely and for sufficient cause, as necessity, utility or "honest" recreation, and with that moderation which is becoming to the ecclesiastical state. Ziegler, however, thinks that the interpretation of the canonists is not in accordance with the letter or spirit of the laws of the church. Nevertheless, although a distinction between lawful and unlawful hunting is undoubtedly permissible, it is certain that a bishop can absolutely prohibit all hunting to the clerics of his diocese, as was done by synods at Milan, Avignon, Liège, Cologne, and elsewhere. Benedict XIV declared that such synodal decrees are not too severe, as an absolute prohibition of hunting is more conformable to the Canon law, ecclesiastical law. In practice, therefore, the synodal statutes of various localities must be consulted to discover whether they allow quiet hunting or prohibit it altogether. In Jewish law hunting is not forbidden although there is an aversion to it. The great 18th-century authority Rabbi Yechezkel Landau after a study concluded although "hunting would not be considered cruelty to animals insofar as the animal is generally killed quickly and not tortured... There is an unseemly element in it, namely cruelty." The other issue is that hunting can be dangerous and Judaism places an extreme emphasis on the value of human life. Islamic Sharia, Sharia Law permits hunting of lawful animals and birds if they cannot be easily caught and slaughtered.


National traditions


Africa

A safari, from a Swahili language, Swahili word meaning "a long journey", especially in Africa, is defined as an overland journey. Safari as a distinctive way of hunting was popularized by the US author Ernest Hemingway and President Theodore Roosevelt. A safari may consist of a several-days – or even weeks-long journey, with camping in the bush or jungle, while pursuing Game (food), big game. Nowadays, it is often used to describe tours through African List of African national parks, national parks to watch or hunt wildlife. Hunters are usually tourists, accompanied by hunting license, licensed and highly Regulation, regulated professional hunters, local guides, Skinner (profession), skinners, and Porter (carrier), porters in more difficult terrains. A special safari type is the solo-safari, where all the license acquiring, stalking, preparation, and outfitting is done by the hunter himself.


Indian subcontinent

During the Indian feudalism, feudal and colonial India, colonial times in British Raj, British India, hunting or ''shikar'' was regarded as a regal sport in the numerous princely states, as many maharajas and nawabs, as well as British officers, maintained a whole corps of ''shikari''s (big-game hunting, big-game hunters), who were native professional hunters. They would be headed by a master of the hunt, who might be styled ''mir-shikar''. Often, they recruited the normally low-ranking local tribes because of their traditional knowledge of the environment and hunting techniques. Big game, such as Bengal tigers, might be hunted from the back of an Indian elephant. Regional Norm (sociology), social norms are generally antagonistic to hunting, while a few sects, such as the Bishnoi, lay special emphasis on the conservation of particular species, such as the antelope. India's Wildlife Protection Act of 1972 bans the killing of all wild animals. However, the Indian Forest Service, Chief Wildlife Warden may, if satisfied that any wild animal from a specified list has become dangerous to human life, or is so disabled or diseased as to be beyond recovery, permit any person to hunt such an animal. In this case, the body of any wild animal killed or wounded becomes government property. The practice among the soldiers in British India during the 1770s of going out to hunt snipes, a shorebird considered extremely challenging for hunters due to its alertness, camouflaging color and erratic flight behavior, is believed to be the origin of the modern word for sniper, as snipe-hunters needed to be stealthy in addition to having tracking (hunting), tracking skills and marksmanship. The term was first attested militarily in 1824, and became common usage in the First World War.


United Kingdom

Unarmed fox hunting on horseback with hounds is the type of hunting most closely associated with the United Kingdom; in fact, "hunting" without qualification implies fox hunting. What in other countries is called "hunting" is called "shooting" (birds) or "stalking" (deer) in Britain. Originally a form of vermin control to protect livestock, fox hunting became a popular social activity for newly wealthy upper classes in Victorian era, Victorian times and a traditional rural activity for riders and foot followers alike. Similar to fox hunting in many ways is the chasing of hares with hounds. Pairs of sighthounds (or long-dogs), such as greyhounds, may be used to pursue a hare in coursing, where the greyhounds are marked as to their skill in coursing the hare (but are not intended to actually catch it), or the hare may be pursued with scent hounds such as beagles or harriers. Other sorts of foxhounds may also be used for hunting stag, stags (deer) or American mink, mink. Deer stalking with rifles is carried out on foot without hounds, using stealth. These forms of hunting have been controversial in the UK. Animal welfare supporters believe that hunting causes unnecessary suffering to foxes, horses, and hounds. Proponents argue that it is culturally and perhaps economically important. Using dogs to chase wild mammals was fox hunting legislation, made illegal in February 2005 by the Hunting Act 2004; there were a number of exemptions (under which the activity may not be illegal) in the act for hunting with hounds, but no exemptions at all for hare-coursing.


Shooting traditions

Game birds, especially pheasants, are shot with shotguns for sport in the UK; the British Association for Shooting and Conservation says that over a million people per year participate in shooting, including game shooting, clay pigeon shooting, and Shooting sports, target shooting. Shooting as practised in Britain, as opposed to traditional hunting, requires little questing for game—around thirty-five million birds are released onto shooting estates every year, some having been factory farming, factory farmed. Shoots can be elaborate affairs with guns placed in assigned positions and assistants to help load shotguns. When in position, "beaters" move through the areas of cover, swinging sticks or flags to drive the game out. Such events are often called "drives". The open season for grouse in the UK begins on 12 August, the so-called Glorious Twelfth. The definition of game in the United Kingdom is governed by the Game Act 1831. A similar tradition exists in :es:Ojeo, Spain.


United States

North American hunting pre-dates the United States by thousands of years and was an important part of many pre-Columbian Native American cultures. Native Americans retain some hunting rights and are exempt from some laws as part of Indian treaties and otherwise under federal law—examples include eagle feather laws and exemptions in the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, Marine Mammal Protection Act. This is considered particularly important in Alaska Native, Alaskan native communities. Hunting is primarily regulated by State law (United States), state law; additional regulations are imposed through United States environmental law in the case of migratory birds and endangered species. Regulations vary widely from state to state and govern the areas, time periods, techniques and methods by which specific game animals may be hunted. Some states make a distinction between protected species and unprotected species (often vermin or varmints for which there are no hunting regulations). Hunters of protected species require a hunting license in all states, for which completion of a hunting safety course is sometimes a prerequisite. Typically, game animals are divided into several categories for regulatory purposes. Typical categories, along with example species, are as follows: * ''Big game'': white-tailed deer, mule deer, moose, elk, caribou, bear, bighorn sheep, pronghorn, boar, javelina, bison * ''Small game'': rabbit, hare, squirrel, opossum, raccoon, porcupine, skunk, ring-tailed cat, armadillo, ruffed grouse * ''Furbearers'': beaver, red fox, mink, pine marten, musk rat, otter, bobcat, coyote * ''Predators'': cougar (mountain lion and Panthera, panther), Gray wolf, wolf, coyote * ''Upland game bird'': grouse, woodcock, Chukar partridge, chukar, pheasant, quail, dove * ''Waterfowl'': duck, common teal, teal, merganser, Goose, geese, swan Hunting big game typically requires a "tag" for each animal harvested. Tags must be purchased in addition to the hunting license, and the number of tags issued to an individual is typically limited. In cases where there are more prospective hunters than the quota for that species, tags are usually assigned by lottery. Tags may be further restricted to a specific area, or wildlife management unit. Waterfowl hunting, Hunting migratory waterfowl requires a duck stamp from the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Fish and Wildlife Service in addition to the appropriate state hunting license. Harvest of animals other than big game is typically restricted by a bag limit and a possession limit. A bag limit is the maximum number of a specific animal species that an individual can harvest in a single day. A possession limit is the maximum number of a specific animal species that can be in an individual's possession at any time.


Shooting

Gun usage in hunting is typically regulated by game category, area within the state, and time period. Regulations for big-game hunting often specify a minimum caliber or muzzle energy for firearms. The use of rifles is often banned for safety reasons in areas with high population density, population densities or limited Terrain, topographic relief. Regulations may also limit or ban the use of lead in ammunition because of environmental concerns. Specific seasons for Bow (weapon), bow hunting or Muzzle-loader, muzzle-loading Black powder, black-powder guns are often established to limit competition with hunters using more effective weapons. Hunting in the United States is not associated with any particular class or culture; a 2006 poll showed seventy-eight percent of Americans supported legal hunting, although relatively few Americans actually hunt. At the beginning of the 21st century, just six percent of Americans hunted. Southern United States, Southerners in states along the eastern seaboard hunted at a rate of five percent, slightly below the national average, and while hunting was more common in other parts of the South at nine percent, these rates did not surpass those of the Plains states, where twelve percent of Midwesterners hunted. Hunting in other areas of the country fell below the national average. Overall, in the 1996–2006 period, the number of hunters over the age of sixteen declined by ten percent, a drop attributable to a number of factors including Habitat destruction, habitat loss and changes in recreation habits.


Regulation

Regulation of hunting within the United States dates from the 19th century. Some modern hunters see themselves as Conservation movement, conservationists and sportsmen in the mode of Theodore Roosevelt and the Boone and Crockett Club. Local hunting clubs and national organizations provide hunter education and help protect the future of the sport by buying land for future hunting use. Some groups represent a specific hunting interest, such as Ducks Unlimited, Pheasants Forever, or the Delta Waterfowl Foundation. Many hunting groups also participate in lobbying the federal government and state government. Each year, nearly $200 million in hunters' federal excise taxes are distributed to state agencies to support wildlife management programs, the purchase of lands open to hunters, and hunter education and safety classes. Since 1934, the sale of Federal Duck Stamps, a required purchase for migratory waterfowl hunters over sixteen years old, has raised over $700 million to help purchase more than of habitat for the National Wildlife Refuge System lands that support waterfowl and many other wildlife species and are often open to hunting. States also collect money from hunting licenses to assist with management of game animals, as designated by law. A key task of federal and state park rangers and game wardens is to enforce laws and regulations related to hunting, including species protection, hunting seasons, and hunting bans.


Varmint hunting

Varmint hunting is an American phrase for the selective killing of non-game animals seen as pests. While not always an efficient form of pest control, varmint hunting achieves selective control of pests while providing recreation and is much less regulated. Varmint species are often responsible for detrimental effects on crops, livestock, landscaping, infrastructure, and pets. Some animals, such as wild rabbits or squirrels, may be utilised for fur or meat, but often no use is made of the carcass. Which species are varmints depends on the circumstance and area. Common varmints may include various rodents, coyotes, Corvus (genus), crows, foxes, feral cats, and feral pig, hogs. Some animals once considered varmints are now protected, such as wolves. In the US state of Louisiana, a non-native rodent, the coypu, has become so destructive to the local ecosystem that the state has initiated a Bounty (reward), bounty program to help control the population.


Fair chase

The principles of the fair chase have been a part of the American hunting tradition for over one hundred years. The role of the hunter-conservationist, popularised by Theodore Roosevelt, and perpetuated by Roosevelt's formation of the Boone and Crockett Club, has been central to the development of the modern fair chase tradition. ''Beyond Fair Chase: The Ethic and Tradition of Hunting'', a book by Jim Posewitz, describes fair chase:
"Fundamental to ethical hunting is the idea of fair chase. This concept addresses the balance between the hunter and the hunted. It is a balance that allows hunters to occasionally succeed while animals generally avoid being taken."
When Internet hunting was introduced in 2005, allowing people to hunt over the Internet using remotely controlled guns, the practice was widely criticised by hunters as violating the principles of fair chase. As a representative of the National Rifle Association (NRA) explained, "The NRA has always maintained that fair chase, being in the field with your firearm or bow, is an important element of hunting tradition. Sitting at your desk in front of your computer, clicking at a mouse, has nothing to do with hunting."Humane Society Wildlife Abuse Campaign
Fact Sheet on Internet Hunting
/ref> One hunting club declares that a fair chase shall not involve the taking of animals under the following conditions: * Helpless in a trap, deep snow or water, or on ice. * From any power vehicle or power boat. * By "spotlighting, jacklighting" or shining at night. * By the use of any tranquilizers or poisons. * While inside escape-proof fenced enclosures. * By the use of any power vehicle or power boat for herding or driving animals, including use of aircraft to land alongside or to communicate with or direct a hunter on the ground. * By the use of electronic devices for attracting, locating or pursuing game or guiding the hunter to such game, or by the use of a bow or arrow to which any electronic device is attached.


Ranches

Indian blackbuck, nilgai, axis deer, fallow deer, zebras, barasingha and many other exotic game species can now be found on game farm and ranches in Texas, where they were introduced for sport hunting. These hunters can be found paying in excess of $10,000 dollars to take trophy animals on these controlled ranches.


Russia

The Russian imperial hunts evolved from hunting traditions of early Russian rulers—Grand Princes and Russian Czar, Tsars—under the influence of hunting customs of European royal courts. The imperial hunts were organised mainly in Petergof, Peterhof, Tsarskoye Selo, and Gatchina.


Australia

Hunting in Australia has evolved around the hunting and eradication of various animals considered to be pests or
invasive species An invasive species is an introduced organism that becomes overpopulated and negatively alters its new environment. Although their spread can have beneficial aspects, invasive species adversely affect the invaded habitat Ibex in an ...
. All native animals are protected by law, and certain species such as kangaroos and ducks can be hunted by hunting license, licensed shooters but only under a special permit on public lands during hunting season, open seasons. The introduced species that are targeted include European rabbits, red foxes, deers (sambar deer, sambar, hog deer, hog, red deer, red, fallow deer, fallow, chital deer, chital and rusa deer, rusa), feral cats in Australia, feral cats, feral pig#Australia, pigs, feral goats in Australia, goats, brumby, brumbies, feral donkeys in Australia, donkeys and occasionally Australian feral camel, camels, as well as introduced upland birds such as quails, pheasants and partridges.


New Zealand

New Zealand has a strong hunting culture. When humans arrived, the only mammals present on the islands making up New Zealand were bats, although seals and other marine mammals were present along the coasts. However, when humans arrived they brought other species with them. Polynesian voyagers introduced kuri (dogs), kiore (Polynesian rats), as well as a range of plant species. European explorers further added to New Zealand's biota, particularly pigs which were introduced by either Captain Cook or the French explorer De Surville in the 1700s. During the nineteenth century, as European colonisation took place, Acclimatisation society, acclimatisation societies were established. The societies introduced a large number of species with no use other than as prey for hunting. Species that adapted well to the New Zealand terrain include deer, pigs, goats, hare, tahr and chamois. With wilderness areas, suitable forage, and no natural predators, their populations exploded. Government agencies view the animals as pests due to their effects on the natural environment and on agricultural production, but hunters view them as a resource.


Iran

Iranian tradition regarded hunting as an essential part of a prince’s education, and hunting was well recorded for the education of the upper-class youths during history of Iran#Classical antiquity, pre-Islamic Persia. As of October 2020, a hunting licence costs $20,000. The Department of Environment although do not report the number of permits issued.


Japan

The numbers of licensed hunters in Japan, including those using snare trap, snares and guns, is generally decreasing, while their average age is increasing. , there were approximately 190,000 registered hunters, approximately 65% of whom were sixty years old or older.


Trinidad and Tobago

There is a very active tradition of hunting small to medium-sized wild game in Trinidad and Tobago. Hunting is carried out with firearms, slingshots and cage traps, and sometimes aided by the use of hounds. The illegal use of trap guns and snare nets also occurs. With approximately 12,000 to 13,000 hunters applying for and being granted hunting permits in recent years, there is some concern that the practice might not be sustainable. In addition there are at present no bag limits and the open season is comparatively very long (5 months – October to February inclusive). As such hunting pressure from legal hunters is very high. Added to that, there is a thriving and very lucrative black market for poached wild game (sold and enthusiastically purchased as expensive luxury delicacies) and the numbers of commercial poachers in operation is unknown but presumed to be fairly high. As a result, the populations of the five major mammalian game species (red-rumped agouti, lowland paca, nine-banded armadillo, collared peccary and red brocket deer) are thought to be relatively low when compared to less-hunted regions in nearby mainland South America (although scientifically conducted population studies are only just recently being conducted ). It appears that the red brocket deer population has been extirpated in Tobago as a result of over-hunting. By some time in the mid 20th century another extirpation due to over-hunting occurred in Trinidad with its population of horned screamer (a large game bird). Various herons, ducks, doves, the green iguana, the cryptic golden tegu, the spectacled caiman, the common opossum and the capybara are also commonly hunted and poached. There is also some poaching of 'fully protected species', including Guyanan red howler, red howler monkey and capuchin monkeys, southern tamandua, Brazilian porcupine, yellow-footed tortoise, the critically endangered island endemic Trinidad piping guan and even one of the national birds, the scarlet ibis. Legal hunters pay relatively small fees to obtain hunting licences and undergo no official basic conservation biology or hunting-ethics/fair chase training, and are not assessed regarding their knowledge and comprehension of the local wildlife conservation laws. There is presumed to be relatively little subsistence hunting in the country (with most hunting for either sport or commercial profit). The local wildlife management authorities are under-staffed and under-funded, and as such little in the way of enforcement is done to uphold existing wildlife management laws, with hunting/poaching occurring both in and out of season and even in wildlife sanctuaries. There is some indication that the government is beginning to take the issue of wildlife management more seriously, with well drafted legislation being brought before Parliament in 2015. It remains to be seen if the drafted legislation will be fully adopted and financially supported by the current and future governments, and if the general populace will move towards a greater awareness of the importance of wildlife conservation and change the culture of wanton consumption to one of sustainable management.


Wildlife management

Hunting is claimed to give Wildlife management, resource managers an important tool in managing populations that might exceed the
carrying capacity The carrying capacity of an environment Environment most often refers to: __NOTOC__ * Natural environment, all living and non-living things occurring naturally * Biophysical environment, the physical and biological factors along with their chemical ...
of their habitat and threaten the well-being of other species, or, in some instances, damage human health or safety. In some cases, hunting actually can increase the population of predators such as coyotes by removing territorial bounds that would otherwise be established, resulting in excess neighbouring migrations into an area, thus artificially increasing the population. Hunting advocates assert that hunting reduces intraspecific competition for food and shelter, reducing mortality among the remaining animals. Some environmentalists assert that (re)introducing
predator Predation is a biological interaction In ecology Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "study of") is the study of the relationships between living organisms, including humans, and their physical env ...

predator
s would achieve the same end with greater efficiency and less negative effect, such as introducing significant amounts of free lead into the environment and food chain. In the United States, wildlife managers are frequently part of hunting regulatory and licensing bodies, where they help to set rules on the number, manner and conditions in which game may be hunted. Management agencies sometimes rely on hunting to control specific animal populations, as has been the case with deer in North America. These hunts may sometimes be carried out by professional shooters, although others may include amateur hunters. Many US city and local governments hire professional and amateur hunters each year to reduce populations of animals such as deer that are becoming hazardous in a restricted area, such as neighbourhood parks and metropolitan area, metropolitan open spaces. A large part of managing populations involves managing the number and, sometimes, the size or age of animals harvested so as to ensure the sustainability of the population. Tools that are frequently used to control harvest are bag limits and season closures, although gear restrictions such as archery-only seasons are becoming increasingly popular in an effort to reduce hunter success rates in countries that rely on bag limits per hunter instead of per area.


Laws

Illegal hunting and harvesting of wild species contrary to local and international Conservation (ethic), conservation and wildlife management laws is called poaching. Game preservation is one of the tactics used to prevent poaching. Violations of hunting laws and regulations involving poaching are normally punishable by law. Punishment can include Confiscation, confiscation of equipment, Fine (penalty), fines or a prison sentence.


Right to hunt

The right to hunt − sometimes in combination with the right to fish − is protected implicitly, as a consequence of the Property rights (economics), right of ownership, or explicitly, as a Rights, right on its own, in a number of jurisdictions. For instance, as of 2019, a total of 22 U.S. states explicitly recognize a subjective right to hunt in their constitutions.


Bag limits

Bag limits are provisions under the law that control how many animals of a given species or group of species can be killed, although there are often species for which bag limits do not apply. There are also jurisdictions where bag limits are not applied at all or are not applied under certain circumstances. The phrase ''bag limits'' comes from the custom among hunters of small game to carry successful kills in a small basket, similar to a fishing creel. Where bag limits are used, there can be daily or seasonal bag limits; for example, ducks can often be harvested at a rate of six per hunter per day. Big game, like moose, most often have a seasonal bag limit of one animal per hunter. Bag limits may also regulate the size, sex, or age of animal that a hunter can kill. In many cases, bag limits are designed to allocate harvest among the hunting population more equitably rather than to protect animal populations, as protecting the population would necessitate regional density-dependent maximum bags.


Closed and open season

A closed season is a time during which hunting an animal of a given species is contrary to law. Typically, closed seasons are designed to protect a species when they are most vulnerable or to protect them during their breeding season. By extension, the period that is not the closed season is known as the Open season (hunting), open season.


Methods

Historical, subsistence, and sport hunting techniques can differ radically, with modern hunting regulations often addressing issues of where, when, and how hunts are conducted. Techniques may vary depending on government regulations, a hunter's personal ethics, local custom, hunting equipment, and the animal being hunted. Often a hunter will use a combination of more than one technique. Laws may forbid sport hunters from using some methods used primarily in poaching and wildlife management. * ''Bait (luring substance), Baiting'' is the use of decoys, lures, scent, or food. * ''wikt:battue, Battue'' involves scaring animals (by beating sticks) into a killing zone or ambush. * ''Beagling'' is the use of beagles in hunting rabbits, and sometimes in hunting foxes. * ''Beating'' uses human beaters to flush out game from an area or drive it into position. * ''Stand hunting'' or ''blind hunting'' is waiting for animals from a concealed or elevated position, for example from tree stands, hunting blinds or other types of shooting stands. * ''Calling'' is the use of animal noises to attract or drive animals. * ''Camouflage'' is the use of visual or odour concealment to blend with the environment. * ''Hunting dog, Dogs'' may be used to coursing, course or to help flush, herd, drive, track, point at, pursue, or retrieve prey. * ''Driving'' is the herding of animals in a particular direction, usually toward another hunter in the group. * ''Flushing'' is the practice of scaring animals from concealed areas. * ''Ghillie suit'' is a type of gear a person can wear to blend with environment. * ''Glassing'' is the use of optics, such as binoculars, to locate animals more easily. * ''Glue'' is an indiscriminate passive form to kill birds. * ''Internet hunting'' is a method of hunting over the Internet using webcams and remotely controlled guns. * ' involves using Net (device), nets, including active netting with the use of cannon netting, cannon nets and rocket nets. * ''Persistence hunting'' is the use of running and tracking to pursue the prey to exhaustion. *''Posting'' is done by sitting or standing in a particular place with the intentions of intercepting your game of choice along their travel corridor. * ''Scouting'' for game is typically done prior to a hunt and will ensure the desired species are in a chosen area. Looking for animal sign such as tracks, scat, etc.... and utilizing "trail cameras" are commonly used tactics while scouting. * ''Shooting'' is the use of a ranged weapon such as a gun, bow, crossbow, or slingshot. * ''Solunar theory'' says that animals move according to the location of the moon in comparison to their bodies and is said to have been used long before this by hunters to know the best times to hunt their desired game. * ''Spotlighting'' or ''shining'' is the use of artificial light to find or blind animals before killing. * ''Game stalker, Stalking'' or ''still hunting'' is the practice of walking quietly in search of animals or in pursuit of an individual animal. * ''Tracking (hunting), Tracking'' is the practice of reading physical evidence in pursuing animals. * ''Animal trapping, Trapping'' is the use of devices such as snare trap, snares, Trapping pit, pits, and deadfall trap, deadfalls to capture or kill an animal.


Statistics


Table


Graph


Trophy hunting

Trophy hunting is the selective seeking and killing of wild game animals to take trophies for private collection, personal collection, boasting, bragging rights or as a status symbol. It may also include the controversial hunting of captive or semi-captive animals expressly bred and raised under controlled or semi-controlled conditions so as to attain trophy characteristics; this is sometimes known as canned hunts.


History

In the 19th century, southern and central European sport hunters often pursued game only for a trophy, usually the head or fur, pelt of an animal, which was then displayed as a sign of prowess. The rest of the animal was typically discarded. Some cultures, however, disapprove of such waste. In Nordic countries, hunting for trophies was — and still is — frowned upon. Hunting in North America in the 19th century was done primarily as a way to supplement food supplies, although it is now undertaken mainly for sport. The Hunting#Safari, safari method of hunting was a development of sport hunting that saw elaborate travel in Africa, India and other places in pursuit of trophies. In modern times,
trophy hunting Trophy hunting is hunting Hunting is the practice of seeking, pursuing and capturing or killing wildlife or feral animals. The most common reasons for humans to hunt are to harvest useful animal products (meat, fur/hide (skin), hide, bone/tu ...
persists and is a significant industry in some areas.


Conservation tool

According to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, hunting "provides an economic incentive" for ranchers to continue to breed those species, and that hunting "reduces the threat of the species' extinction." A scientific study in the journal, ''Biological Conservation'', states that trophy hunting is of "major importance to conservation in Africa by creating economic incentives for conservation over vast areas, including areas which may be unsuitable for alternative wildlife-based land uses such as photographic ecotourism." However, another study states that less than 3% of a trophy hunters' expenditures reach the local level, meaning that the economic incentive and benefit is "minimal, particularly when we consider the vast areas of land that hunting concessions occupy."http://www.ifaw.org/sites/default/files/Ecolarge-2013-200m-question.pdf Financial incentives from trophy hunting effectively more than double the land area that is used for wildlife conservation, relative to what would be conserved relying on national parks alone according to ''Biological Conservation'', although local communities usually derive no more than 18 cents per hectare from trophy hunting. Trophy hunting has been considered essential for providing economic incentives to conserve large carnivores according to research studies in ''Conservation Biology'', ''Journal of Sustainable Tourism'', ''Wildlife Conservation by Sustainable Use'', and ''Animal Conservation''. Studies by the Centre for Responsible Tourism and the IUCN state that ecotourism, which includes more than hunting, is a superior economic incentive, generating twice the revenue per acre and 39 times more permanent employment. At the crosssection of trophy hunting, ecotourism and conservation is green hunting, a trophy hunting alternative where hunters pay to dart animals that need to be tranquilized for conservation projects. The U.S. House Committee on Natural Resources in 2016 concluded that trophy hunting may be contributing to the extinction of certain animals. Animal welfare organizations, including the IFAW, International Fund for Animal Welfare, claim that trophy hunting is a key factor in the "silent extinction" of giraffes. According to a national survey that the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service conducts every five years, fewer people are hunting, even as population rises. National Public Radio reported, a graph shows 2016 statistics, that only about 5 percent of Americans, 16 years old and older, actually hunt, which is half of what it was 50 years ago. The decline in popularity of hunting is expected to accelerate over the next decade, which threatens how US will pay for conservation.


Controversy

Trophy hunting is most often criticised when it involves rare or endangered animals. Opponents may also see trophy hunting as an issue of morality or cruelty to animals, animal cruelty, criticising the killing of living creatures for
recreation Recreation is an activity of leisure Leisure has often been defined as a quality of experience or as free time. Free time is spent away from , , , , and , as well as necessary activities such as and ing. Leisure as an experience usuall ...

recreation
. Victorian era dramatist W. S. Gilbert remarked, "Deer-stalking would be a very fine sport if only the deer had guns." There is also debate about the extent to which trophy hunting benefits the local economy. Hunters argue that fees paid contribute to the local economy and provide value to animals that would otherwise be seen as competition for grazing, livestock, and crops. However, the argument is disputed by animal welfare organizations and other opponents of trophy hunting. It is argued that the animals are worth more to the community for ecotourism than hunting.


Economics

A variety of industries benefit from hunting and support hunting on economic grounds. In Tanzania, it is estimated that a safari hunter spends fifty to one hundred times that of the average ecotourist. While the average photo tourist may seek luxury accommodation, the average safari hunter generally stays in tented camps. Safari hunters are also more likely to use remote areas, uninviting to the typical ecotourist. Advocates argue that these hunters allow for anti-poaching activities and revenue for local communities. In the United Kingdom, the game hunting of birds as an industry is said to be extremely important to the rural economy. The Cobham Report of 1997 suggested it to be worth around £700 million, and hunting and shooting lobby groups claimed it to be worth over a billion pounds less than ten years later. Hunting also has a significant financial impact in the United States, with many companies specialising in hunting sports equipment, equipment or speciality tourism. Many different technologies have been created to assist hunters. Today's hunters come from a broad range of economic, social, and cultural backgrounds. In 2001, over thirteen million hunters averaged eighteen days hunting, and spent over $20.5 billion on their sport. In the US, proceeds from hunting licences contribute to state game management programs, including preservation of wildlife habitat. Hunting contributes to a portion of caloric intake of people and may have positive impacts on greenhouse gas emissions by avoidance of utilization of meat raised under industrial methods.


Environmental problems

Lead bullets that miss their target or remain in an unretrieved carcass could become a toxicant in the environment but lead in ammunition because of its metallic form has a lower solubility and higher resistance to corrosion than other forms of lead making it hardly available to biological systems. Waterfowl or other birds may ingest the lead and poison themselves with the neurotoxicant, but studies have demonstrated that effects of lead in ammunition are negligible on animal population size and growth. Since 1991, US federal law forbids lead shot in waterfowl hunts, and 30 states have some type of restriction. In December 2014, a federal appeals court denied a lawsuit by environmental groups that the EPA must use the Toxic Substances Control Act to regulate lead in shells and cartridges. The groups sought EPA to regulate "spent lead", yet the court found EPA could not regulate spent lead without also regulating cartridges and shells.


Conservation

Hunters have been driving forces throughout history in the movement to ensure the preservation of Habitat (ecology), wildlife habitats and
wildlife Wildlife traditionally refers to undomesticated animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular A multicellular organism is an organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functi ...

wildlife
for further hunting. However, excessive hunting and poachers have also contributed heavily to the endangerment, extirpation and extinction of many animals, such as the quagga, the great auk, Steller's sea cow, the thylacine, the bluebuck, the Arabian oryx, the Caspian tiger, Caspian and Javan tigers, the markhor, the Sumatran rhinoceros, the bison, the North American cougar, the Altai argali sheep, the Asian elephant and many more, primarily for commercial sale or sport. All these animals have been hunted to
endangerment Endangerment is a type of crime In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority. The term ''crime'' does not, in modern criminal law, have any simple and universally accepted definition,Farmer, Li ...
or extinction.{{refn, Talbot, Lee Merriam (1960). A Look at Threatened Species. The Fauna Preservation Society. pp. 84–91. Poaching currently threatens bird and mammalian populations around the world. The 2019 ''Global Assessment Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services'' lists the direct exploitation of organisms, including hunting, as the second leading cause of biodiversity loss, after land use for
agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exercise trends, Increases in sedentary behaviors su ...

agriculture
.


Legislation


Pittman–Robertson Wildlife Restoration Act of 1937

In 1937, American hunters successfully lobbied the US Congress to pass the Pittman–Robertson Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Act, Pittman-Robertson Wildlife Restoration Act, which placed an eleven percent tax on all hunting equipment. This self-imposed tax now generates over $700 million each year and is used exclusively to establish, restore and protect wildlife habitats. The act is named for Nevada Senator Key Pittman and Virginia Congressman Absalom Willis Robertson.


Federal Duck Stamp program

On 16 March 1934, Franklin D. Roosevelt, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act, which requires an annual stamp purchase by all hunters over the age of sixteen. The stamps are created on behalf of the program by the US Postal Service and depict wildlife artwork chosen through an annual contest. They play an important role in habitat conservation because ninety-eight percent of all funds generated by their sale go directly toward the purchase or lease of wetland habitat for protection in the National Wildlife Refuge, National Wildlife Refuge System. In addition to waterfowl, it is estimated that one third of the nation's endangered species seek food and shelter in areas protected using Duck Stamp funds.{{citation needed, date=August 2013 Since 1934, the sale of Federal Duck Stamps has generated $670 million, and helped to purchase or lease {{convert, 5200000, acres, sqmi km2 of habitat. The stamps serve as a license to hunt migratory birds, an entrance pass for all National Wildlife Refuge areas, and are also considered collectors items often purchased for aesthetic reasons outside of the hunting and birding communities. Although non-hunters buy a significant number of Duck Stamps, eighty-seven percent of their sales are contributed by hunters. Distribution of funds is managed by the Migratory Bird Conservation Commission (MBCC).


Species


Arabian oryx

The Arabian oryx, a species of large antelope, once inhabited much of the desert areas of the Middle East. However, the species' striking appearance made it (along with the closely related scimitar-horned oryx and addax) a popular quarry for sport hunters, especially foreign executives of oil companies working in the region.{{citation needed, date=July 2014 The use of automobiles and high-powered rifles destroyed their only advantage: speed, and they became extinct in the wild exclusively due to sport hunting in 1972. The scimitar-horned oryx followed suit, while the addax became critically endangered. However, the Arabian oryx has now made a comeback and been upgraded from "extinct in the wild" to "vulnerable" due to conservation efforts like captive breeding


Markhor

The markhor is an endangered species of wild goat which inhabits the mountains of Central Asia and Pakistan. The colonization of these regions by British Empire, Britain gave British sport hunters access to the species, and they were hunted heavily, almost to the point of extinction. Only their willingness to breed in captivity and the inhospitability of their mountainous habitat prevented this. Despite these factors, the markhor is still endangered.


American bison

The American bison is a large bovid which inhabited much of western North America prior to the 1800s, living on the prairies in large herds. However, the vast herds of bison attracted market hunters, who killed dozens of bison for their hides only, leaving the rest to rot. Thousands of these hunters quickly eliminated the bison herds, bringing the population from several million in the early 1800s to a few hundred by the 1880s. Conservation efforts have allowed the population to increase, but the bison remains near-threatened due to lack of habitat.


White rhino

The ''Journal of International Wildlife Law and Policy'' cites that the legalization of white rhinoceros hunting in South Africa motivated private landowners to reintroduce the species onto their lands. As a result, the country saw an increase in white rhinos from fewer than one hundred individuals to more than 11,000, even while a limited number were killed as trophies. However, the illegal hunting of rhinoceros for their horns is highly damaging to the population and is currently growing globally, with 1004 being killed in South Africa alone according to the most recent estimate.


Other species

According to Richard Conniff, Namibia is home to 1,750 of the roughly 5,000 black rhinos surviving in the wild because it allows trophy hunting of various species. Namibia's mountain zebra population has increased to 27,000 from 1,000 in 1982. Elephants, which "are gunned down elsewhere for their ivory", have gone to 20,000 from 15,000 in 1995. Lions, which were on the brink of extinction "from Senegal to Kenya", are increasing in Namibia. In contrast, Botswana in 2012 banned trophy hunting following a precipitous wildlife decline. The numbers of antelope plummeted across Botswana, with a resultant decline in predator numbers, while elephant numbers remained stable and hippopotamus numbers rose. According to the government of Botswana, trophy hunting is at least partly to blame for this, but many other factors, such as poaching, drought and habitat loss are also to blame. Uganda recently did the same, arguing that "the share of benefits of sport hunting were lopsided and unlikely to deter poaching or improve [Uganda's] capacity to manage the wildlife reserves." In 2020, Botwana reopened trophy hunting on public lands.


Studies

A study published by the Wildlife Society concluded that hunting and trapping are cost effective tools that reduce wildlife damage by reducing a population below the capacity of the environment to carry it and changing the behaviors of animals to stop them from causing damage. The study furthermore states that the cessation of hunting could cause wildlife to be severely harmed, rural property values to fall, and the incentive of landowners to maintain natural habitats to diminish. Although deforestation and forest degradation have long been considered the most significant threats to tropical biodiversity, across Southeast Asia (Northeast India, Indochina, Sundaland, Philippines) substantial areas of natural habitat have few wild animals (>1 kg), bar a few hunting‐tolerant species.{{Cite journal , doi = 10.1111/acv.12588, title = Combining camera‐trap surveys and hunter interviews to determine the status of mammals in protected rainforests and rubber plantations of Menglun, Xishuangbanna, SW China, year = 2020, last1 = Huang, first1 = G., last2 = Sreekar, first2 = R., last3 = Velho, first3 = N., last4 = Corlett, first4 = R. T., last5 = Quan, first5 = R.‐C., last6 = Tomlinson, first6 = K. W., journal = Animal Conservation


Opposition to hunting

{{expand section, date=December 2018 {{Main, Opposition to hunting It has been argued by animal rights activists that killing animals for sport is unethical, cruel, and unnecessary. They note the suffering and cruelty inflicted on animals hunted for sport: "Many animals endure prolonged, painful deaths when they are injured but not killed by hunters [...] Hunting disrupts migration and hibernation patterns and destroys families." Animal rights activists also comment that hunting is not needed to maintain an ecological balance, and that "nature takes care of its own". They say that hunting can be combated on public lands by "spread[ing] deer repellent or human hair (from barber shops) near hunting areas". Animal rights activists also argue that hunting is speciesism, speciesist:
Whether hunters try to justify their killing by citing human deaths caused by wild animals, by making conservationist claims, by claiming that it’s acceptable to hunt as long as the animals' bodies are eaten, or simply because of the pleasure it brings them, the fact remains that hunting is morally unacceptable if we consider the interests of nonhuman animals. Hunted animals endure fear and pain, and then are deprived of their lives. Understanding the injustices of speciesism and the interests of nonhuman animals makes it clear that human pleasure cannot justify nonhuman animals' pain.


Hunting in the arts

File:Larnax, hunting of deer and ibex, Prepalatial, AM, Rethymno, 076107.jpg, Hunting of deer and ibex, Minoan civilization, Minoan larnax, prepalatial period File:TombofNebamun-2.jpg, Hunting in the papyrus thicket, mural from a tomb in Thebes, Egypt, before 1350 BC File:Stag hunt mosaic, Pella.jpg, The Stag hunt mosaic, {{circa, 300 BC, Pella, Greece File:Mosaico de Las Tiendas (MNAR Mérida) 01.jpg, Man hunting a boar, Roman mosaic, 4th century AD File:Falconry Book of Frederick II 1240s.jpg, Illustration from the falconry book ''De arte venandi cum avibus'' written by Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, Emperor Frederick II, {{circa, 1245 File:Musée des Augustins Toulouse 14.JPG, Giovanni di Francesco (?),
''La caccia'', {{circa, 1455, tempera on wood, detail File:Hunt in the forest by paolo uccello.jpg, Paolo Uccello, ''The Hunt in the Forest, Caccia notturna (The Hunt in the Forest)'', {{circa, 1475 File:Carpaccio, caccia nella laguna, 1490-95 ca. 01.JPG, Vittore Carpaccio, ''Caccia in laguna (Hunt in the Lagoon)'', {{circa, 1490 File:Piero di Cosimo - Scena di caccia.jpg, Piero di Cosimo,
''A Hunting Scene'', 1508 File:Lucas Cranach d.Ä. - Hirschjagd des Kurfürsten Friedrich des Weisen (KHM Wien).jpg, Lucas Cranach the Elder, ''A Stag Hunt with the Elector Friedrich the Wise'', 1529 File:Peter Paul Rubens 083.jpg, Peter Paul Rubens, ''Hippopotamus and Crocodile Hunt'', {{circa, 1615 File:Peter Paul Rubens 110.jpg, Peter Paul Rubens, ''Tiger and Lion Hunt'', 1618 File:A Forest at Dawn with a Deer Hunt MET DT4532.jpg, Peter Paul Rubens, ''A Forest at Dawn with a Deer Hunt'', {{circa, 1635 File:Charles André van Loo, fermata durante la caccia, 1737, 01.jpg, Charles André van Loo, ''Halte de chasse (Halt During the Hunt)'', 1737 File:Partida de caza.jpg, Francisco Goya, ''The Quail Shoot'', 1775 File:Biche morte by Courbet.png, Gustave Courbet, ''Biche morte (Dead hind)'', 1857 File:Gustave Courbet - The Hunt Breakfast - WGA5468.jpg, Gustave Courbet, ''The Hunt Breakfast'', 1858 File:Eugène Delacroix - Chasse au lion (1858).jpg, Eugène Delacroix, ''Chasse au lion (Lion Hunt)'', 1858 File:After the Hunt MET DT1963.jpg, Gustave Courbet, ''Après la chasse (After the Hunt)'', 1859 File:Édouard Manet - Pertuiset, le chasseur de lions.jpg, Édouard Manet, '':fr:Portrait de M. Pertuiset, le chasseur de lions, Portrait de M. Pertuiset, le chasseur de lions (Mister Pertuiset, The Lion Hunter)'', 1881


See also

{{Div col, colwidth=22em * Air travel with firearms and ammunition * Anti-hunting * Bambi effect * Blood sport * Bowhunting * Bushfood * Bushmeat * Chase (land), Chase * Defaunation * Federation of Associations for Hunting and Conservation of the EU * Hiking equipment * Human hunting * Hunt Saboteurs Association (HSA) * Hunting horn * Nimrod * Esau * Sir Gawain and the Green Knight#Hunting and seduction, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight * Tapetum lucidum eyeshine * ''The Sound of His Horn'' * Backpacking (wilderness), Wilderness backpacking {{div col end


References

{{Reflist


Further reading

{{refbegin, 30em
International Journal of Environmental Studies (2013) Special Edition: Conservation and Hunting in North America. IJES v 70.

International Journal of Environmental Studies (2015) Special Edition: Conservation and Hunting in North America II. IJES v72.

IUCN (2016) Briefing Paper: Informing Decisions on Trophy Hunting.

IUCN Species Survival Commission (2012) Guiding Principles on Trophy Hunting as a Tool for Creating Conservation Incentives.
* Dickson D. Bruce Jr., Mississippi Quarterly (Spring 1977). * Kenneth S. Greenberg, Honor and Slavery: Lies, Duels, Noses, Masks, Dressing as a Woman, Gifts, Strangers, Humanitarianism, Death, Slave Rebellions, the Pro-Slavery Argument, Baseball, Hunting, and Gambling in the Old South (1996). * Steven Hahn, Radical History Review (1982). * Charles H. Hudson Jr., in Indians, Animals, and the Fur Trade, ed., Shephard Krech III (1981). * Stuart A. Marks, Southern Hunting in Black and White: Nature, History, and Ritual in a Carolina Community (1991). * Ted Ownby, Subduing Satan: Religion, Recreation, and Manhood in the Rural South, 1865–1920 (1990). * Wiley C. Prewitt, "The Best of All Breathing: Hunting and Environmental Change in Mississippi, 1900–1980" M.A. thesis, (1991). * Nicolas W. Proctor, Bathed in Blood: Hunting and Mastery in the Old South (2002). * Jacob F. Rivers III, Cultural Values in the Southern Sporting Narrative (2002).
Salem, D.J., and A.N. Rowan, eds. 2003. ''The State of the Animals II: 2003''
Washington, D.C.: Humane Society Press. ({{ISBN, 0-9658942-7-4) * Timothy Silver, A New Face on the Countryside: Indians, Colonists, and Slaves in South Atlantic Forests, 1500–1800 (1990). * Richard C. Stedman and Thomas A. Heberlein, Rural Sociology (2001). * Nancy L. Struna, People of Prowess: Sport, Leisure, and Labor in Early Anglo-America (1996). * Marek Zukow-Karczewski, ''Polowania w dawnej Polsce'' (Hunting in the old Poland), "AURA" (A Monthly for the protection and shaping of human environment) 12 (1990). {{refend


External links

{{wiktionary {{wikiquote * {{Commons category-inline
The Theodore Roosevelt Hunting Library
at the Library of Congress has 254 items on this topic. {{Animal rights {{Mammals in culture {{Authority control Hunting, Cruelty to animals Survival skills Lifestyles