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The full stop (
Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading language of inte ...
), period (
North American English North American English (NAmE, NAE) is the most generalized variety (linguistics), variety of the English language as spoken in the United States and Canada. Because of their related histories and cultures, plus the similarities between the pronu ...
) or full point is a
punctuation mark Punctuation (or sometimes interpunction) is the use of spacing, conventional signs (called punctuation marks), and certain typographical devices as aids to the understanding and correct reading of written text, whether read silently or aloud. Ano ...
. It is used for several purposes, most often to mark the end of a declarative sentence (as opposed to a question or exclamation); this sentence-terminal use, alone, defines the strictest sense of ''full stop''. The mark is also often used, singly, to indicate omitted characters or in a series, as an
ellipsis The ellipsis , , or (as a single glyph) , also known informally as dot-dot-dot, is a series of (usually three) dots that indicates an intentional omission of a word, sentence, or whole section from a text without altering its original meaning. ...

ellipsis
(), to indicate omitted words. It may be placed after an initial letter used to stand for a name, or after each individual letter in an initialism or acronym (e.g., "U.S.A."); however, this style is declining, and many initialisms without punctuation (e.g., "UK" and "NATO") have become accepted norms. A full point is also frequently used at the end of word
abbreviation An abbreviation (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of t ...
s – in British usage, primarily truncations like ''Rev.'', but not after contractions like ''Revd (''in
American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American English is the most influential form of ...
it is used in both cases). In Anglophone countries, it is used for the
decimal point A decimal separator is a symbol used to separate the integer An integer (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spok ...
and other purposes, and may be called a point. In computing, it is called a dot. It is sometimes called a baseline dot to distinguish it from the
interpunct An interpunct, , also known as an interpoint, middle dot, middot and centered dot or centred dot, is a punctuation mark consisting of a vertically centered dot used for interword separation in ancient Latin alphabet, Latin script. (Word-separatin ...

interpunct
(or middle dot). While ''full stop'' technically only applies to the full point when used to terminate a sentence, the distinction – drawn since at least 1897 – is not maintained by all modern style guides and dictionaries.


History


Ancient Greek origin

The full stop symbol derives from the
Greek punctuationThe orthography An orthography is a set of conventions for writing Writing is a medium of human communication that involves the representation of a language with written symbols. Writing systems are not themselves human languages (with the ...
introduced by
Aristophanes of Byzantium __NOTOC__ Aristophanes of Byzantium Byzantium () or Byzantion ( grc-gre, Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient worl ...
in the 3rd century . In his system, there were a series of dots whose placement determined their meaning.


''stigmḕ teleía'', ''stigmḕ mésē'' and ''hypostigmḕ''

The full stop at the end of a completed thought or expression was marked by a high dot ⟨˙⟩, called the ''stigmḕ teleía'' () or "terminal dot". The "middle dot" ⟨·⟩, the ''stigmḕ mésē'' (), marked a division in a thought occasioning a longer breath (essentially a
semicolon The semicolon or semi-colon is a symbol commonly used as orthographic punctuation Punctuation (or sometimes interpunction) is the use of spacing, conventional signs (called punctuation marks), and certain typographical devices as aids to ...

semicolon
), while the low dot ⟨.⟩, called the ''hypostigmḕ'' () or "underdot", marked a division in a thought occasioning a shorter breath (essentially a
comma The comma is a punctuation Punctuation (or sometimes interpunction) is the use of spacing, conventional signs (called punctuation marks), and certain typographical devices as aids to the understanding and correct reading of written text, wh ...

comma
).


Medieval simplification

In practice, scribes mostly employed the terminal dot; the others fell out of use and were later replaced by other symbols. From the 9th century onwards, the full stop began appearing as a low mark (instead of a high one), and by the time
printing Printing is a process for mass reproducing text and images An Synthetic aperture radar, SAR radar imaging, radar image acquired by the SIR-C/X-SAR radar on board the Space Shuttle Endeavour shows the Teide volcano. The city of Santa Cru ...

printing
began in Western Europe, the lower dot was regular and then universal.


Medieval Latin and modern English ''period''

The name ''period'' is first attested (as the
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant la ...
loanword ) in
Ælfric of Eynsham Ælfric of Eynsham ( ang, Ælfrīc; la, Alfricus, Elphricus; ) was an English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, e ...
's
Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventu ...
treatment on grammar. There, it is distinguished from the full stop (the ), and continues the Greek underdot's earlier function as a comma between phrases.''Oxford English Dictionary'', "period, ''n.'', ''adj.'', and ''adv.''"
Oxford University Press Oxford University Press (OUP) is the university press 200px, The Pitt Building in Cambridge, which used to be the headquarters of Cambridge University Press, and now serves as a conference centre for the Press. A university press is an academic ...

Oxford University Press
, 2005,
It shifted its meaning, to a dot marking a full stop, in the works of the 16th-century grammarians. In 19th-century texts, both
British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that has undergone substantial codification of grammar and usage and is employed by a populatio ...
and
American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American English is the most influential form of ...
were consistent in their usage of the terms ''period'' and ''full stop''. The word ''period'' was used as a name for what printers often called the "full point", the punctuation mark that was a dot on the baseline and used in several situations. The phrase ''full stop'' was only used to refer to the punctuation mark when it was used to terminate a sentence. This terminological distinction seems to be eroding. For example, the 1998 edition of ''
Fowler's Modern English Usage ''A Dictionary of Modern English Usage'' (1926), by Henry Watson Fowler (1858–1933), is a style guide to British English usage, pronunciation, and writing. Covering topics such as English plural, plurals and literary technique, distinctions a ...
'' used ''full point'' for the mark used after an abbreviation, but ''full stop'' or ''full point'' when it was employed at the end of a sentence; the 2015 edition, however, treats them as synonymous (and prefers ''full stop''), and ''
New Hart's Rules ''Hart's Rules for Compositors and Readers at the University Press, Oxford''—today published under the short title ''New Hart's Rules''—is an authoritative reference book and style guide A style guide or manual of style is a set of stan ...
'' does likewise (but prefers ''full point''). Essentially the same text is found in the previous edition under various titles, including ''New Hart's Rules'', ''Oxford Style Manual'', and ''The Oxford Guide to Style''. In 1989, the last edition (1989) of the original ''Hart's Rules'' (before it became ''
The Oxford Guide to Style ''Hart's Rules for Compositors and Readers at the University Press, Oxford''—today published under the short title ''New Hart's Rules''—is an authoritative reference book and style guide A style guide or manual of style is a set of stan ...
'' in 2002) exclusively used ''full point''.


Usage

Full stops are one of the most commonly used punctuation marks; analysis of texts indicate that approximately half of all punctuation marks used are full stops.


Ending sentences

Full stops indicate the end of sentences that are not questions or exclamations.


After initials

It is usual in North American English to use full stops after initials; e.g. A. A. Milne,
George W. Bush George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician and businessman who served as the 43rd president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the Unit ...

George W. Bush
. British usage is less strict. A few style guides discourage full stops after initials. However, there is a general trend and initiatives to spell out names in full instead of abbreviating them in order to avoid ambiguity.


Abbreviations

A full stop is used after some
abbreviation An abbreviation (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of t ...
s. If the abbreviation ends a declaratory sentence there is no additional period immediately following the full stop that ends the abbreviation (e.g. "My name is Gabriel Gama, Jr."). Though two full stops (one for the abbreviation, one for the sentence ending) might be expected, conventionally only one is written. This is an intentional omission, and thus not
haplographyHaplography (from Greek: haplo- 'single' + -graphy 'writing'), also known as lipography, is a scribal or typographical error where a letter or group of letters that should be written twice is written once. It is not to be confused with haplology, wh ...
, which is unintentional omission of a duplicate. In the case of an interrogative or exclamatory sentence ending with an abbreviation, a question or exclamation mark can still be added (e.g. "Are you Gabriel Gama Jr.?").


Abbreviations and personal titles of address

According to the ''Oxford A–Z of Grammar and Punctuation'', "If the abbreviation includes both the first and last letter of the abbreviated word, as in 'Mister' Mr'and 'Doctor' Dr' a full stop is not used." This does not include, for example, the standard abbreviations for titles such as ''Professor'' ("Prof.") or ''Reverend'' ("Rev."), because they do not end with the last letter of the word they are abbreviating. In
American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American English is the most influential form of ...
, the common convention is to include the period after all such abbreviations.


Acronyms and initialisms

In acronyms and
initialisms An acronym is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning (linguistics), meaning. In many la ...
, the modern style is generally to not use full points after each initial (e.g.: ''DNA'', ''UK'', ''USSR''). The punctuation is somewhat more often used in American English, most commonly with ''U.S.'' and ''U.S.A.'' in particular. However, this depends much upon the house style of a particular writer or publisher. As some examples from American style guides, ''
The Chicago Manual of Style ''The Chicago Manual of Style'' (abbreviated in writing as ''CMOS'' or ''CMS'', or sometimes as ''Chicago'') is a style guide for American English published since 1906 by the University of Chicago Press. Its 17 editions have prescribed writi ...
'' (primarily for book and academic-journal publishing) deprecates the use of full points in acronyms, including ''U.S.'', while ''
The Associated Press Stylebook The ''AP Stylebook'', also known by its full name ''The Associated Press Stylebook and Briefing on Media Law'', is an American-English grammar style and usage guide created by American journalists working for or connected with the Associated Pres ...
'' (primarily for journalism) dispenses with full points in acronyms except for certain two-letter cases, including ''U.S.'', ''U.K.'', and '''', but not ''''.


Mathematics

The period
glyph The term glyph is used in typography File:metal movable type.jpg, 225px, Movable type being assembled on a composing stick using pieces that are stored in the type case shown below it Typography is the art and technique of typesetting, arr ...
is used in the presentation of numbers, but in only one of two alternate styles at a time. In the more prevalent usage in English-speaking countries, the point represents a
decimal separator A decimal separator is a symbol used to separate the integer An integer (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spok ...

decimal separator
, visually dividing whole numbers from fractional (decimal) parts. The comma is then used to separate the whole-number parts into groups of three digits each, when numbers are sufficiently large. * 1.007 (one and seven thousandths) * 1,002.007 (one thousand two and seven thousandths) * 1,002,003.007 (one million two thousand three and seven thousandths) The more prevalent usage in much of Europe, southern Africa, and Latin America (with the exception of Mexico due to the influence of the United States), reverses the roles of the comma and point, but sometimes substitutes a ( thin-)space for a point. * 1,007 (one and seven thousandths) * 1.002,007 or 1 002,007 (one thousand two and seven thousandths) * 1.002.003,007 or 1 002 003,007 (one million two thousand three and seven thousandths) (To avoid problems with spaces, another convention sometimes used is to use
apostrophe The apostrophe ( or ) is a punctuation Punctuation (or sometimes interpunction) is the use of spacing, conventional signs (called punctuation marks), and certain typographical devices as aids to the understanding and correct reading of wri ...

apostrophe
signs (') instead of spaces.)
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
,
Bangladesh Bangladesh (, bn, বাংলাদেশ, ), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-c ...

Bangladesh
,
Nepal Nepal (; ne, नेपाल ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal ( ne, सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल ), is a landlocked country in South Asia. It is ma ...

Nepal
, and
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, fifth-most populous country, with a popul ...

Pakistan
follow the
Indian numbering system The Indian numbering system is used in the Indian subcontinent (Bangladesh Bangladesh (; bn, বাংলাদেশ, ), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependen ...
, which utilizes commas and decimals much like the aforementioned system popular in most English-speaking countries, but separates values of one hundred thousand and above differently, into divisions of ''lakh'' and ''crore'': *1.007 (one and seven thousandths) *1,002.007 (one thousand two and seven thousandths) *10,02,003.007 (one million two thousand three and seven thousandths or ten ''lakh'' two thousand three and seven thousandths) In countries that use the comma as a decimal separator, the point is sometimes found as a
multiplication Multiplication (often denoted by the cross symbol , by the mid-line dot operator , by juxtaposition, or, on computers, by an asterisk ) is one of the four Elementary arithmetic, elementary Operation (mathematics), mathematical operations ...

multiplication
sign; for example, 5,2 . 2 = 10,4; this usage is impractical in cases where the point is used as a decimal separator, hence the use of the
interpunct An interpunct, , also known as an interpoint, middle dot, middot and centered dot or centred dot, is a punctuation mark consisting of a vertically centered dot used for interword separation in ancient Latin alphabet, Latin script. (Word-separatin ...

interpunct
: 5.2 · 2 = 10.4. This notation is also seen when multiplying units in science; for example, 50 km/h could be written as 50 km·h−1. However, the point is used in all countries to indicate a
dot product In mathematics, the dot product or scalar productThe term ''scalar product'' is often also used more generally to mean a symmetric bilinear form, for example for a pseudo-Euclidean space. is an algebraic operation that takes two equal-length seque ...
, i.e. the scalar product of two vectors.


Logic

In older literature on
mathematical logic Mathematical logic is the study of formal logic within mathematics. Major subareas include model theory, proof theory, set theory, and recursion theory. Research in mathematical logic commonly addresses the mathematical properties of formal sys ...
, the period glyph used to indicate how expressions should be bracketed (see Glossary of ''Principia Mathematica'').


Computing

In
computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and software. It has sci ...

computing
, the full point, usually called a ''dot'' in this context, is often used as a
delimiter A delimiter is a sequence of one or more character Character(s) may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''Character'' (novel), a 1936 Dutch novel by Ferdinand Bordewijk * ''Characters'' (Theophrastus), a classical Greek ...
, such as in
DNS The Domain Name System (DNS) is the hierarchical and Decentralised system, decentralized naming system used to identify computers, Internet#Applications_and_services, services, and other resources reachable through the internet or other intern ...

DNS
lookups, Web addresses,
file File or filing may refer to: Mechanical tools and processes * File (tool) A file is a tool used to remove fine amounts of material from a workpiece. It is common in woodworking, metalworking, and other similar trade and hobby tasks. Most are ...
names and software release versions: * www.wikipedia.org * document.txt * 192.168.0.1 * Chrome 92.0.4515.130 It is used in many
programming languages A programming language is a formal language comprising a set of Formal language#Words over an alphabet, strings that produce various kinds of Machine code, machine code output. Programming languages are one kind of computer language, and are us ...
as an important part of the syntax. C uses it as a means of accessing a member of a
struct In computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical techniques for their application. Computer science is the study of Algori ...
, and this syntax was inherited by
C++ C++ () is a general-purpose programming language In computer software, a general-purpose programming language is a programming language dedicated to a general-purpose, designed to be used for writing software in a wide variety of application ...

C++
as a means of accessing a member of a
class Class or The Class may refer to: Common uses not otherwise categorized * Class (biology), a taxonomic rank * Class (knowledge representation), a collection of individuals or objects * Class (philosophy), an analytical concept used differently f ...
or
object Object may refer to: General meanings * Object (philosophy), a thing, being, or concept ** Entity, something that is tangible and within the grasp of the senses ** Object (abstract), an object which does not exist at any particular time or pl ...
.
Java Java ( id, Jawa, ; jv, ꦗꦮ; su, ) is one of the Greater Sunda Islands in Indonesia. It is bordered by the Indian Ocean to the south and the Java Sea to the north. With a population of 147.7 million people, Java is the world's List of ...
and
Python PYTHON was a Cold War contingency plan of the Government of the United Kingdom, British Government for the continuity of government in the event of Nuclear warfare, nuclear war. Background Following the report of the Strath Committee in 1955, the ...
also follow this convention.
Pascal Pascal, Pascal's or PASCAL may refer to: People and fictional characters * Pascal (given name), including a list of people with the name * Pascal (surname), including a list of people and fictional characters with the name ** Blaise Pascal, French ...
uses it both as a means of accessing a member of a record set (the equivalent of struct in C), a member of an object, and after the ''end'' construct that defines the body of the program. In APL it is also used for generalised
inner product In mathematics, an inner product space or a Hausdorff space, Hausdorff pre-Hilbert space is a vector space with a binary operation called an inner product. This operation associates each pair of vectors in the space with a Scalar (mathematics), ...
and
outer product In linear algebra Linear algebra is the branch of mathematics concerning linear equations such as: :a_1x_1+\cdots +a_nx_n=b, linear maps such as: :(x_1, \ldots, x_n) \mapsto a_1x_1+\cdots +a_nx_n, and their representations in vector spaces and t ...
. In Erlang,
Prolog Prolog is a logic programming Logic programming is a programming paradigm which is largely based on formal logic. Any program written in a logic programming language is a set of sentences in logical form, expressing facts and rules about some ...

Prolog
, and
Smalltalk Smalltalk is an object-oriented programming, object-oriented, dynamically typed reflection (computer science), reflective programming language. Smalltalk was created as the language underpinning the "new world" of computing exemplified by "human ...

Smalltalk
, it marks the end of a statement ("sentence"). In a
regular expression A regular expression (shortened as regex or regexp; also referred to as rational expression) is a sequence of Character (computing), characters that specifies a ''search pattern matching, pattern''. Usually such patterns are used by string-se ...
, it represents a match of any character. In
Perl Perl is a family of two high-level High-level and low-level, as technical terms, are used to classify, describe and point to specific Objective (goal), goals of a systematic operation; and are applied in a wide range of contexts, such as, for ...
and
PHP PHP is a general-purpose scripting language A scripting language or script language is a programming language A programming language is a formal language comprising a Instruction set architecture, set of instructions that produce various k ...

PHP
, the dot is the
string concatenation In formal language, formal language theory and computer programming, string concatenation is the operation of joining character string (computer science), character strings wikt:end-to-end, end-to-end. For example, the concatenation of "snow" ...
operator. In the Haskell standard library, it is the
function composition In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). ...
operator. In
COBOL COBOL (; an acronym An acronym is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning (lingui ...

COBOL
a full stop ends a statement. In
file systems In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and softwa ...
, the dot is commonly used to separate the extension of a file name from the name of the file.
RISC OS RISC OS is a computer operating system An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware, computer software, software resources, and provides common daemon (computing), services for computer programs. Time-sharing ...

RISC OS
uses dots to separate levels of the hierarchical file system when writing path names—similar to / (forward-slash) in
Unix Unix (; trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser Multi-user software is computer software Software is a collection of Instruction (computer science), instructions that tell a computer how to work. This is in contrast t ...

Unix
-based systems and \ (back-slash) in
MS-DOS MS-DOS ( ; acronym for Microsoft Disk Operating System, also known as Microsoft DOS) is an operating system An operating system (OS) is system software System software is software designed to provide a platform for other software. Example ...
-based systems and the
Windows NT Windows NT is a proprietary {{Short pages monitor There have been a number of practices relating to the spacing after a full stop. Some examples are listed below: * One word space (" French spacing"). This is the current convention in most countries that use the
ISO basic Latin alphabet The ISO basic Latin alphabet is a Latin-script alphabet A Latin-script alphabet (Latin alphabet or Roman alphabet) is an alphabet that uses Letter (alphabet), letters of the Latin script. The 21-letter archaic Latin alphabet and the 23-lette ...
for published and final written work, as well as digital media. * Two word spaces (" English spacing"). It is sometimes claimed that the two-space convention stems from the use of the
monospaced font A monospaced font, also called a fixed-pitch, fixed-width, or non-proportional font, is a font whose letters and characters each occupy the same amount of horizontal space. This contrasts with Typeface#Proportion, variable-width fonts, where th ...
on
typewriters File:Typewriter.ogv, Video showing the operation of a typewriter A typewriter is a machine, mechanical or electromechanical machine for typing characters. Typically, a typewriter has an array of Button (control), keys, and each one causes a dif ...

typewriters
, but in fact that convention replicates much earlier typography — the intent was to provide a clear break between sentences. This spacing method was gradually replaced by the single space convention in published print, where space is at a premium, and continues in much digital media. * One widened space (such as an
em space An em is a typographic unit, unit in the field of typography, equal to the currently specified Point (typography), point size. For example, one em in a 16-point typeface is 16 points. Therefore, this unit is the same for all typefaces at a given po ...
). This spacing was seen in
historical History (from Ancient Greek, Greek , ''historia'', meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study and the documentation of the past. Events before the History of writing#Inventions of writing, invention of writing systems a ...
typesetting practices (until the early 20th century). It has also been used in other typesetting systems such as the
Linotype machine The Linotype machine ( ) is a "line casting" machine used in printing sold by the Mergenthaler Linotype Company and related It was a hot metal typesetting system that cast blocks of metal type for individual uses. Linotype became one of the m ...

Linotype machine
and the
TeX TeX (, see below), stylized within the system as TeX, is a typesetting system which was designed and mostly written by Donald Knuth and released in 1978. TeX is a popular means of typesetting complex mathematical formulae; it has been noted ...
system. Modern computer-based digital fonts can adjust the spacing after terminal punctuation as well, creating a space slightly wider than a standard word space.


Full stops in other scripts


Greek

Although the present Greek full stop (, ''teleía'') is
romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign lan ...
as a Latin full stop 'Ellīnikós_Organismós_Typopoíīsīs'',_"Hellenic_Organization_for_Standardization".html" ;"title="Hellenic Organization for Standardization">'Ellīnikós Organismós Typopoíīsīs'', "Hellenic Organization for Standardization"">Hellenic Organization for Standardization">'Ellīnikós Organismós Typopoíīsīs'', "Hellenic Organization for Standardization" [''ELOT 743, 2ī Ekdosī'', "ELOT 743, "]. ELOT (Athens), 2001. . and encoded identically with the full stop in Unicode,Nicolas, Nick.
Greek Unicode Issues: Punctuation
". 2005. Accessed 7 Oct 2014.
the historic full stop in Greek was a ''high'' dot and the ''low'' dot functioned as a kind of
comma The comma is a punctuation Punctuation (or sometimes interpunction) is the use of spacing, conventional signs (called punctuation marks), and certain typographical devices as aids to the understanding and correct reading of written text, ...
, as noted above. The low dot was increasingly but irregularly used to mark full stops after the 9th century and was fully adapted after the advent of print. The teleia should also be distinguished from the ano teleia mark, which is named "''high'' stop" but looks like an
interpunct An interpunct, , also known as an interpoint, middle dot, middot and centered dot or centred dot, is a punctuation mark consisting of a vertically centered dot used for interword separation in ancient Latin alphabet, Latin script. (Word-separatin ...

interpunct
(a ''middle'' dot) and principally functions as the Greek
semicolon The semicolon or semi-colon is a symbol commonly used as orthographic punctuation Punctuation (or sometimes interpunction) is the use of spacing, conventional signs (called punctuation marks), and certain typographical devices as aids to ...

semicolon
.


Armenian

The
Armenian script The Armenian alphabet ( hy, Հայոց գրեր, ' or , '; Eastern Armenian: ; Western Armenian: ) is an alphabet An alphabet is a standardized set of basic written symbols A symbol is a mark, sign, or word In linguistics, a word of ...

Armenian script
uses the ։ (, ). It looks similar to the
colon Colon commonly refers to: * Colon (punctuation) (:), a punctuation mark * Major part of large intestine, the final section of the digestive system Colon may also refer to: Places * Colon, Michigan, US * Colon, Nebraska, US * Kowloon, Hong Kong, s ...

colon
(:).


Chinese and Japanese

In
Simplified Chinese Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters Chinese characters, also called ''hanzi'' (), are logogram In a written language A written language is the representation of a spoken or gestural language by ...
and Japanese, a small circle is used instead of a solid dot: "。︀" (U+3002 " Ideographic Full Stop"). Traditional Chinese uses the same symbol centered in the line rather than aligned to the baseline.


Korean

Korean uses the Latin full stop along with Hangul, its native script, while Vietnamese uses both the Latin alphabet and punctuation.


Devanagari

In the Devanagari, Devanagari script, used to write Hindi and Sanskrit among other Languages of India, Indian languages, a vertical line ("।") (U+0964 "Devanagari Danda") is used to mark the end of a sentence. It is known as (full stop) in Hindi and in Bengali. Some Indian languages also use the full stop, such as Marathi language, Marathi. In Tamil, it is known as , which means ''end dot''.


Sinhala

In Sinhala language, Sinhala, it is known as ''kundaliya'': "෴" (U+0DF4 "Sinhala Punctuation Kunddaliya"). Periods were later introduced into Sinhala script after the introduction of paper due to the influence of Western languages. See also Sinhala numerals.


Urdu

A ( ur, , ) is used as a full stop at the end of sentences and in abbreviations. It looks similar to a lowered dash .


Thai

In Thai language, Thai, no symbol corresponding to the full stop is used as ''terminal punctuation''. A sentence is written without spaces and a space is typically used to mark the end of a clause or sentence.


Ge'ez

In the Ge'ez script used to write Amharic language, Amharic and several other Ethiopian and Eritrean languages, the equivalent of the full stop following a sentence is the "።"—which means ''four dots''. The two dots on the right are slightly ascending from the two on the left, with space in between.


Encodings

The character is encoded by Unicode at . There is also , used in several shorthand (stenography) systems. The character is Halfwidth and fullwidth forms, full-width encoded at . This form is used alongside CJK characters.


In text messages

Researchers from Binghamton University performed a small study, published in 2016, on young adults and found that text messages that included sentences ended with full stops—as opposed to those with no terminal punctuation—were perceived as insincere, though they stipulated that their results apply only to this particular medium of communication: "Our sense was, is that because [text messages] were informal and had a chatty kind of feeling to them, that a period may have seemed stuffy, too formal, in that context," said head researcher Cecelia Klin. The study did not find handwritten notes to be affected. A 2016 story by Jeff Guo in ''The Washington Post'', stated that the line break had become the default method of punctuation in texting, comparable to the use of line breaks in poetry, and that a period at the end of a sentence causes the tone of the message to be perceived as cold, angry or passive-aggressive. According to Gretchen McCulloch, an internet linguist, using a full stop to end messages is seen as "rude" by more and more people. She said this can be attributed to the way we text and use instant messaging apps like WhatsApp and Facebook Messenger. She added that the default way to break up one's thoughts is to send each thought as an individual message.


See also

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References

{{Authority control Punctuation Ancient Greek punctuation