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An esterase is a
hydrolase Hydrolase is a class of enzyme that commonly perform as biochemical catalysts that use water to break a chemical bond, which typically results in dividing a larger molecule into smaller molecules. Some common examples of hydrolase enzymes are este ...
enzyme Enzymes () are proteins that act as biological catalysts (biocatalysts). Catalysts accelerate chemical reactions. The molecules upon which enzymes may act are called substrate (chemistry), substrates, and the enzyme converts the substrates in ...

enzyme
that splits
ester An ester is a chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entity, molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one chemical element, element held together by chemic ...

ester
s into an
acid An acid is a or capable of donating a (hydrogen ion H+) (a ), or, alternatively, capable of forming a with an (a ). The first category of acids are the proton donors, or s. In the special case of , proton donors form the H3O+ and are ...
and an
alcohol In chemistry, alcohol is an organic compound that carries at least one hydroxyl functional group (−OH) bound to a Saturated and unsaturated compounds, saturated carbon atom. The term alcohol originally referred to the primary alcohol ethan ...

alcohol
in a
chemical reaction A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the chemical transformation of one set of chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and t ...

chemical reaction
with
water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and Color of water, nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the fluids of all known li ...
called
hydrolysis Hydrolysis (; ) is any chemical reaction in which a molecule of water breaks one or more chemical bonds. The term is used broadly for substitution Substitution may refer to: Arts and media *Chord substitution, in music, swapping one chord fo ...

hydrolysis
. A wide range of different esterases exist that differ in their
substrate Substrate may refer to: Physical layers *Substrate (biology), the natural environment in which an organism lives, or the surface or medium on which an organism grows or is attached **Substrate (locomotion), the surface over which an organism loco ...
specificity, their
protein structure Protein structure is the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms in an amino acid Amino acids are organic compound In , organic compounds are generally any s that contain - . Due to carbon's ability to (form chains with other carbon ...

protein structure
, and their biological function.


EC classification/list of enzymes

**
Acetylesterase In enzymology, an acetylesterase () is an enzyme that catalysis, catalyzes the chemical reaction :an acetic ester + H2O \rightleftharpoons an alcohol + acetate Thus, the two substrate (biochemistry), substrates of this enzyme are acetic ester and ...
(EC 3.1.1.6), splits off
acetyl In organic chemistry Organic chemistry is a branch of that studies the structure, properties and reactions of s, which contain in .Clayden, J.; Greeves, N. and Warren, S. (2012) ''Organic Chemistry''. Oxford University Press. pp. 1–15. . ...

acetyl
groups A group is a number of people or things that are located, gathered, or classed together. Groups of people * Cultural group, a group whose members share the same cultural identity * Ethnic group, a group whose members share the same ethnic identi ...
***
Cholinesterase In biochemistry Biochemistry or biological chemistry, is the study of es within and relating to living s. A sub-discipline of both and , biochemistry may be divided into three fields: , and . Over the last decades of the 20th century, b ...
****
Acetylcholinesterase Acetylcholinesterase ( HGNC symbol ACHE; EC 3.1.1.7), also known as AChE or acetylhydrolase, is the primary cholinesterase In biochemistry Biochemistry or biological chemistry, is the study of es within and relating to living s. A su ...

Acetylcholinesterase
, inactivates the
neurotransmitter A neurotransmitter is a signaling molecule In biology, cell signaling (cell signalling in British English), or cell-cell communication, governs the basic activities of cells and coordinates multiple-cell actions. A signal is an entity that ...
acetylcholine Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals (including humans) as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells, such as neurons, musc ...

acetylcholine
**** Pseudocholinesterase, broad substrate specificity, found in the
blood plasma Blood plasma is a yellowish liquid component of blood Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the Cell (biology), cells and transports metabolic waste products ...
and in the
liver The liver is an organ Organ may refer to: Biology * Organ (anatomy) An organ is a group of Tissue (biology), tissues with similar functions. Plant life and animal life rely on many organs that co-exist in organ systems. A given organ's t ...

liver
**
Pectinesterase Pectinesterase (PE) () is a ubiquitous cell-wall-associated enzyme Enzymes () are proteins that act as biological catalysts (biocatalysts). Catalysts accelerate chemical reactions. The molecules upon which enzymes may act are called substr ...
(EC 3.1.1.11), clarifies fruit juices * ''EC 3.1.2'': Thiolester hydrolases **
ThioesteraseThioesterases are enzymes which belong to the esterase An esterase is a hydrolase enzyme Enzymes () are proteins that act as biological catalysts (biocatalysts). Catalysts accelerate chemical reactions. The molecules upon which enzymes may ac ...
***
Ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 Ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 (, ''ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase'', ''UCH-L1'') is a deubiquitinating enzyme. Function UCH-L1 is a member of a gene family whose products hydrolyze small C-terminal adducts of ubiquitin to generate th ...
* ''EC 3.1.3'':
Phosphoric monoester hydrolasesPhosphoric monoester hydrolases (or phosphomonoesterases) are enzymes that catalyse the hydrolysis of O-P bonds by Nucleophilic substitution, nucleophilic attack of phosphorus by cysteine residues or coordinated metal ions. They are categorized with ...
**
Phosphatase In biochemistry Biochemistry or biological chemistry, is the study of chemical process In a scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable ...
(EC 3.1.3.x), hydrolyses phosphoric acid monoesters into a phosphate ion and an alcohol *** Alkaline phosphatase, removes phosphate groups from many types of molecules, including nucleotides, proteins, and alkaloids. *** Phosphodiesterase (PDE), inactivates the second messenger Cyclic adenosine monophosphate, cAMP **** cGMP specific phosphodiesterase type 5, is inhibited by Sildenafil (Viagra) ** Fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, Fructose bisphosphatase (3.1.3.11), converts fructose-1,6-bisphosphate to fructose-6-phosphate in gluconeogenesis * ''EC 3.1.4'': Phosphoric diester hydrolases * ''EC 3.1.5'': Triphosphoric monoester hydrolases * ''EC 3.1.6'': Sulfuric ester hydrolases (sulfatases) * ''EC 3.1.7'': Diphosphoric monoester hydrolases * ''EC 3.1.8'': Phosphoric triester hydrolases * Exonucleases (deoxyribonucleases and ribonucleases) ** ''EC 3.1.11'': Exodeoxyribonucleases producing 5'-phosphomonoesters ** ''EC 3.1.13'': Exoribonucleases producing 5'-phosphomonoesters ** ''EC 3.1.14'': Exoribonucleases producing 3'-phosphomonoesters ** ''EC 3.1.15'': Exonucleases active with either ribo- or deoxy- * Endonucleases (deoxyribonucleases and ribonucleases) ** Endodeoxyribonuclease ** Endoribonuclease ** either deoxy- or ribo-


See also

* Enzyme * List of enzymes * Carboxylic acid * Ester * Leukocyte esterase * Hemagglutinin esterase * Nuclease * Lipase * Asymmetric ester hydrolysis with pig-liver esterase


External links


Enzyme nomenclature
{{Portal bar, Biology, border=no Enzymes Esters EC 3.1, Neurophysiology