TheInfoList

Differential may refer to:

# Mathematics

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Differential (mathematics) In mathematics, differential refers to infinitesimal differences or to the derivatives of functions. The term is used in various branches of mathematics such as calculus, differential geometry, algebraic geometry and algebraic topology. Basic noti ...
comprises multiple related meanings of the word, both in calculus and differential geometry, such as an infinitesimal change in the value of a function *
Differential algebra In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and ...
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Differential calculus In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and ...
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Differential of a function In calculus Calculus, originally called infinitesimal calculus or "the calculus of infinitesimals", is the mathematics, mathematical study of continuous change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the study of ...
, represents a change in the linearization of a function ***
Total differential In calculus Calculus, originally called infinitesimal calculus or "the calculus of infinitesimals", is the mathematics, mathematical study of continuous change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the study of ...
is its generalization for functions of multiple variables **
Differential (infinitesimal) The term differential is used in calculus Calculus, originally called infinitesimal calculus or "the calculus of infinitesimals", is the mathematics, mathematical study of continuous change, in the same way that geometry is the study of sh ...
(e.g. ''dx'', ''dy'', ''dt'' etc.) are interpreted as infinitesimals **
Differential topology In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and t ...
* Differential (pushforward) The total derivative of a map between manifolds. *
Differential exponentIn algebraic number theory, the different ideal (sometimes simply the different) is defined to measure the (possible) lack of duality in the ring of integers of an algebraic number field ''K'', with respect to the field trace. It then encodes the Ra ...
, an exponent in the factorisation of the
different ideal In algebraic number theory, the different ideal (sometimes simply the different) is defined to measure the (possible) lack of duality in the ring of integers of an algebraic number field ''K'', with respect to the field trace. It then encodes the R ...
*
Differential geometry Differential geometry is a Mathematics, mathematical discipline that studies the geometry of smooth shapes and smooth spaces, otherwise known as smooth manifolds, using the techniques of differential calculus, integral calculus, linear algebra a ...
, exterior differential, or
exterior derivative On a differentiable manifold In mathematics, a differentiable manifold (also differential manifold) is a type of manifold The real projective plane is a two-dimensional manifold that cannot be realized in three dimensions without self-interse ...
, is a generalization to
differential form In the mathematical Mathematics (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population ...
s of the notion of differential of a function on a differentiable manifold * Differential (coboundary), in homological algebra and algebraic topology, one of the maps of a cochain complex *
Differential cryptanalysis Differential cryptanalysis is a general form of cryptanalysis applicable primarily to block ciphers, but also to stream ciphers and cryptographic hash functions. In the broadest sense, it is the study of how differences in information input can aff ...
, a pair consisting of the difference, usually computed by XOR, between two plaintexts, and the difference of the corresponding ciphertexts

# Science and technology

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Differential (mechanical device) A differential is a gear train with three drive shaft, shafts that has the property that the rotational speed of one shaft is the average of the speeds of the others, or a fixed multiple of that average. Functional description The following ...
, as part of a powertrain and car, the device that allows each of the driving wheels to rotate at different speeds **
Limited-slip differential A limited-slip differential (LSD) is a type of differential that allows its two output shafts to rotate at different speeds but limits the maximum difference between the two shafts. Limited-slip differentials are often known by the generic trad ...
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Differential steering Differential steering is the means of steering a land vehicle by applying more drive torque to one side of the vehicle than the other. Differential steering is the primary means of steering tracked vehicles, such as tanks and bulldozers, is also ...
, the steering method used by tanks and similar tracked vehicles *
Electronic differential In automotive engineering Automotive engineering, along with aerospace engineering Aerospace engineering is the primary field of engineering Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and ...
, an electric motor controller which substitutes its mechanical counterpart with significant advantages in electric vehicle application *
Differential signaling Differential signalling is a method for electrically transmitting information Information is processed, organised and structured data Data (; ) are individual facts A fact is something that is truth, true. The usual test for ...
, in electronics, applies to a method of transmitting electronic signals over a pair of wires to reduce interference *
Differential amplifier A differential amplifier is a type of electronic amplifier An amplifier, electronic amplifier or (informally) amp is an electronic device that can increase the power Power typically refers to: * Power (physics) In physics, power is th ... an
Electronic amplifier An amplifier, electronic amplifier or (informally) amp is an electronic device that can increase the power Power typically refers to: * Power (physics) In physics, power is the amount of energy transferred or converted per unit time. In ... that amplifies signals.

# Social sciences

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Semantic Semantics (from grc, σημαντικός ''sēmantikós'', "significant") is the study of reference Reference is a relationship between objects in which one object designates, or acts as a means by which to connect to or link to, another ...
and
structural differential The structural differential is a physical chart or three-dimensional model illustrating the abstracting processes of the human nervous system. In one form, it appears as a pegboard with tags. Created by Alfred Korzybski, and awarded a U.S. Patent, ...
s in psychology *
Quality spread differential Quality Spread Differential (QSD) arises during an interest rate swap in which two parties of different levels of creditworthiness experience different levels of interest rates of debt obligations. A positive QSD means that a swap (finance), swap is ...
, in finance *
Compensating differential Compensation may refer to: *Financial compensation Financial compensation refers to the act of providing a person with money or other things of economic value in exchange for their goods, Work (human activity), labor, or to provide for the costs o ...
, in labor economics

# Medicine

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Differential diagnosis In healthcare, a differential diagnosis (abbreviated DDx) is a method of analysis of a patient's history and physical examination to arrive at the correct diagnosis. It involves distinguishing a particular disease A disease is a parti ...
, the characterization of the underlying cause of pathological states based on specific tests *
White blood cell differential A white blood cell differential is a medical laboratory test that provides information about the types and amounts of white blood cells in a person's blood. The test, which is usually ordered as part of a complete blood count (CBC), measures t ...
, the enumeration of each type of white blood cell either manually or using automated analyzers

# Other

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Differential hardening Differential heat treatment (also called selective heat treatment or local heat treatment) is a technique used during heat treating to harden or soften certain areas of a steel object, creating a difference in hardness between these areas. There are ...
, in metallurgy *
Differential rotation Differential rotation is seen when different parts of a rotating object move with different angular velocities (rates of rotation A rotation is a circular movement of an object around a center (or point) of rotation. The plane (geometry), ge ...
, in astronomy *
Differential centrifugation Differential centrifugation (also known as differential velocity centrifugation) is a very common procedure in biochemistry and cell biology, which is used to separate organelles and other sub-cellular particles based on their Svedberg, sediment ...
, in cell biology *
Differential scanning calorimetry Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a thermoanalytical technique in which the difference in the amount of heat In thermodynamics Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, Work (thermodynamics), work, and temper ... , in materials science *
Differential signalling Differential signalling is a method for electrically transmitting information Information is processed, organised and structured data Data (; ) are individual facts A fact is something that is truth, true. The usual test for ...
, in communications *
Differential GPS A Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) is an enhancement to the Global Positioning System The Global Positioning System (GPS), originally Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States gove ...
, in technology * Differential interferometry in radar * ''Differential'', an extended play by
The Sixth Lie The Sixth Lie (stylized as THE SIXTH LIE) is a Japanese Electronic music, electronic rock band formed in May 2015 in Tokyo, Japan. Their music is known for its hybrid style inspired by the latest western music, and their overall science fiction-i ...
* ''Handicap differential'', part of the calculation used in producing
golf handicap A golf handicap is a numerical measure of a golfer's potential that is used to enable players of varying abilities to compete against one another. Better players are those with the lowest handicaps. Historically, rules relating to handicaps have v ...
s