Dice (singular die or dice) are small, throwable objects with marked sides that can rest in multiple positions. They are used for generating , commonly as part of

. A die roll is made tabletop game
Tabletop games are games that are normally played on a table or other flat surface, such as board games, card games, dice games, miniature wargames, or tile-based games.
Classification according to equipment used
Tabletop games can be classified ac ...

s, including dice games
Two standard six-sided pipped dice with rounded corners
Dice games are games that use or incorporate one or more dice as their sole or central component, usually as a random device.
The following are games which largely, if not entirely, depend ...

, board games
Board games are tabletop games that typically use moved or placed on a pre-marked board (playing surface) and often include elements of table, card, role-playing, and miniatures games as well.
Most feature a competition between two or more play ...

, role-playing games
A role-playing game (sometimes spelled roleplaying game; abbreviated RPG) is a game in which players assume the roles of characters in a fictional setting. Players take responsibility for acting out these roles within a narrative, either through ...

, and games of chance
A game of chance is a game whose outcome is strongly influenced by some randomizing device. Common devices used include dice, spinning tops, playing cards, roulette wheels, or numbered balls drawn from a container. A game of chance may be played a ...

.
A traditional die is a cube
In geometry, a cube is a three-dimensional solid object bounded by six square faces, facets or sides, with three meeting at each vertex.
The cube is the only regular hexahedron and is one of the five Platonic solids. It has 6 faces, 12 edges, ...

with each of its six faces marked with a different number of dots () from one to six. When thrown or rolled, the die comes to rest showing a random integer
An integer (from the Latin ''integer'' meaning "whole") is colloquially defined as a number that can be written without a fractional component. For example, 21, 4, 0, and −2048 are integers, while 9.75, , and are not.
The set of intege ...

from one to six on its upper surface, with each value being equally likely. Dice may also have or irregular shapes and may have faces marked with numerals or symbols instead of pips. Loaded dice are designed to favor some results over others for cheating
Cheating generally describes various actions designed to subvert rules in order to obtain unfair advantages. This includes acts of bribery, cronyism and nepotism in any situation where individuals are given preference using inappropriate criter ...

or entertainment.
History

Dice have been used since before recorded history, and it is uncertain where they originated. It is theorized that dice developed from the practice of fortune-telling with the of hoofed animals, colloquially known asknucklebones
Knucklebones, also known as snobs, astragalus, tali, dibs, fivestones, jacks, or jackstones, among many other names, is a game of dexterity played with a number of small objects that are thrown up, caught, and manipulated in various manners. It ...

. The game of senet
''Senet'' ( egy|znt|translation=passing; cf. Coptic ⲥⲓⲛⲉ /sinə/ "passing, afternoon") is a board game from ancient Egypt. The earliest representation of senet is dated to from the Mastaba of Hesy-Re, while similar boards and hieroglyphi ...

was played with flat two-sided throwsticks which indicated the number of squares a player could move, and thus functioned as a form of dice. Senet was played before 3000 BC and up to the 2nd century AD. Perhaps the oldest known dice were excavated as part of a backgammon
Backgammon is one of the oldest known board games. Its history can be traced back nearly 5,000 years to archaeological discoveries in Mesopotamia. It is a two-player game where each player has fifteen pieces (''checkers'' or ''men'') that move be ...

-like game set at the Burnt City
Shahr-e Sukhteh ( fa|شهر سوخته, meaning "heBurnt City"), also spelled as ''Shahr-e Sūkhté'' and ''Shahr-i Sōkhta'', is an archaeological site of a sizable Bronze Age urban settlement, associated with the Jiroft culture. It is located i ...

, an archeological site in south-eastern Iran
Iran ( fa|ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa|جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by ...

, estimated to be from between 2800 and 2500 BC. Bone dice from Skara Brae
Skara Brae is a stone-built Neolithic settlement, located on the Bay of Skaill on the west coast of Mainland, the largest island in the Orkney archipelago of Scotland. Consisting of ten clustered houses, made of flagstones, in earthen dams th ...

have been dated to 3100–2400 BC. Excavations from graves at Mohenjo-daro
Mohenjo-daro (; sd|موئن جو دڙو'', ''meaning 'Mound of the Dead Men';

, an Indus Valley civilization
oxen for pulling a cart and the presence of the chicken, a domesticated jungle fowl.
The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilisation in the northwestern regions of South Asia, lasting from 3300 BCE to 1300 BCE, ...

settlement, unearthed terracotta
Terracotta, terra cotta, or terra-cotta (; Italian: "baked earth", from the Latin ''terra cocta''), a type of earthenware, is a clay-based unglazed or glazed ceramic, where the fired body is porous. Terracotta is the term normally used for sculp ...

dice dating to 2500–1900 BC.
Games involving dice are mentioned in the ancient Indian#REDIRECT Outline of ancient India {{R from other capitalisation ...

''Rigveda
) manuscript in Devanagari, early 19th century. After a scribal benediction ('), the first line has the first pada, RV 1.1.1a ('). The pitch-accent is marked by underscores and vertical overscores in red.
The ''Rigveda'' or ''Rig Veda'' (Sans ...

'', ''Atharvaveda
The Atharva Veda (Sanskrit: अथर्ववेदः, ' from ' and ''veda'', meaning "knowledge") is the "knowledge storehouse of ''atharvāṇas'', the procedures for everyday life".Laurie Patton (2004), Veda and Upanishad, in ''The Hindu W ...

,'' ''Mahabharata
The ''Mahābhārata'' (, ; sa|महाभारतम्, ', ) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the ''Rāmāyaṇa''. It narrates the struggle between two groups of cousins in the Kurukshetra War and ...

'' and . There are several biblical
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, ''tà biblía'', "the books") is a collection of religious texts or scriptures sacred to Christians, Jews, Samaritans, Rastafari and others. It appears in the form of an anthology, a compilati ...

references to "casting lots" ( ''yappîlū ḡōrāl''), as in Psalm
The Book of Psalms ( or ; he|תְּהִלִּים, , lit. "praises"), commonly referred to simply as Psalms, the Psalter or "the Psalms", is the first book of the ''Ketuvim'' ("Writings"), the third section of the Tanakh, and a book of the Chr ...

22, indicating that dicing (or a related activity) was commonplace when the psalm was composed. Knucklebones
Knucklebones, also known as snobs, astragalus, tali, dibs, fivestones, jacks, or jackstones, among many other names, is a game of dexterity played with a number of small objects that are thrown up, caught, and manipulated in various manners. It ...

was a game of skill
A game of skill or game of wits is a game where the outcome is determined mainly by mental or physical skill, rather than chance.
Alternatively, a game of chance is one where its outcome is strongly influenced by some randomizing device, such as d ...

played in ancient Greece
Ancient Greece ( el|Ἑλλάς|Hellás) was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity ( AD 600). This era was immediately followed by the Early Middle ...

; a derivative form had the four sides of bones receive different values like modern dice.
Although gambling was illegal, many Romans
Roman or Romans usually refers to:
*Rome, the capital city of Italy
*Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD
*Roman people, the people of ancient Rome
*''Epistle to the Romans'', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter in ...

were passionate gamblers who enjoyed dicing, which was known as ''aleam ludere'' ("to play at dice"). There were two sizes of Roman dice. ''Tali'' were large dice inscribed with one, three, four, and six on four sides. ''Tesserae'' were smaller dice with sides numbered from one to six. Twenty-sided dice date back to the 2nd century AD and from Ptolemaic Egypt as early as the 2nd century BC.
Dominoes
Dominoes is a family of tile-based games played with gaming pieces, commonly known as dominoes. Each domino is a rectangular tile with a line dividing its face into two square ''ends''. Each end is marked with a number of spots (also called ''pi ...

and playing card
A playing card is a piece of specially prepared card stock, heavy paper, thin cardboard, plastic-coated paper, cotton-paper blend, or thin plastic that is marked with distinguishing motifs. Often the front (face) and back of each card has a fini ...

s originated in China as developments from dice. The transition from dice to playing cards occurred in China around the Tang dynasty
The Tang dynasty (, ; ), or Tang Empire, was an imperial dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907, with an interregnum between 690 and 705. It was preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. His ...

, and coincides with the technological transition from rolls of manuscripts to books. In Japan, dice were used to play a popular game called sugoroku
(literally 'double six') refers to two different forms of a Japanese board game: ''ban-sugoroku'' (盤双六, 'board-sugoroku') which is similar to western backgammon, and ''e-sugoroku'' (絵双六, 'picture-sugoroku') which is similar to western ...

. There are two types of sugoroku. ''Ban-sugoroku'' is similar to backgammon
Backgammon is one of the oldest known board games. Its history can be traced back nearly 5,000 years to archaeological discoveries in Mesopotamia. It is a two-player game where each player has fifteen pieces (''checkers'' or ''men'') that move be ...

and dates to the Heian period
The is the last division of classical Japanese history, running from 794 to 1185. It followed the Nara period, beginning when the 50th emperor, Emperor Kanmu, moved the capital of Japan to Heian-kyō (modern Kyoto). It is a period in Japanese h ...

, while ''e-sugoroku'' is a racing game.
Use

Dice are thrown onto a surface either from the hand or from a container designed for this (such as a cup or tray). The face of the die that is uppermost when it comes to rest provides the value of the throw. The result of a die roll is determined by the way it is thrown, according to the laws ofclassical mechanics#REDIRECT Classical mechanics#REDIRECT Classical mechanics {{R from other capitalisation ...

{{R from other capitalisation ...random
In common parlance, randomness is the apparent or actual lack of pattern or predictability in events. A random sequence of events, symbols or steps often has no order and does not follow an intelligible pattern or combination. Individual ran ...

by uncertainty in minor factors such as tiny movements in the thrower's hand; they are thus a crude form of hardware random number generator
In computing, a hardware random number generator (HRNG) or true random number generator (TRNG) is a device that generates random numbers from a physical process, rather than by means of an algorithm. Such devices are often based on microscopic p ...

.
One typical contemporary dice game
Two standard six-sided pipped dice with rounded corners
Dice games are games that use or incorporate one or more dice as their sole or central component, usually as a random device.
The following are games which largely, if not entirely, depend ...

is craps
Craps is a dice game in which the players make wagers on the outcome of the roll, or a series of rolls, of a pair of dice. Players may wager money against each other (playing "street craps") or a bank (playing "casino craps", also known as "tab ...

, where two dice are thrown simultaneously and wagers are made on the total value of the two dice. Dice are frequently used to introduce randomness into board game
Board games are tabletop games that typically use moved or placed on a pre-marked board (playing surface) and often include elements of table, card, role-playing, and miniatures games as well.
Most feature a competition between two or more play ...

s, where they are often used to decide the distance through which a piece will move along the board (as in backgammon
Backgammon is one of the oldest known board games. Its history can be traced back nearly 5,000 years to archaeological discoveries in Mesopotamia. It is a two-player game where each player has fifteen pieces (''checkers'' or ''men'') that move be ...

and ''Monopoly
A monopoly (from Greek el|μόνος|mónos|single, alone|label=none and el|πωλεῖν|pōleîn|to sell|label=none) exists when a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular commodity. This contrasts with a monopsony wh ...

'').
Construction

Arrangement

Common dice are smallcube
In geometry, a cube is a three-dimensional solid object bounded by six square faces, facets or sides, with three meeting at each vertex.
The cube is the only regular hexahedron and is one of the five Platonic solids. It has 6 faces, 12 edges, ...

s, most often across, whose faces are numbered from one to six, usually by patterns of round dots called . (While the use of Arabic numerals
Arabic numerals are the ten digits: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The term often implies a decimal number written using these digits (in particular when contrasted with ''Roman numerals''). However ...

is occasionally seen, such dice are less common.)
Opposite sides of a modern die traditionally add up to seven, requiring the 1, 2, and 3 faces to share a . The faces of a die may be placed about this vertex. If the 1, 2, and 3 faces run counterclockwise, the die is called "right-handed". If those faces run clockwise, the die is called "left-handed". Western dice are normally right-handed, and Chinese dice are normally left-handed.
The pips on standard six-sided dice are arranged in specific patterns as shown. Asian style dice bear similar patterns to Western ones, but the pips are closer to the center of the face; in addition, the pips are differently sized on Asian style dice, and the pips are colored red on the 1 and 4 sides. Red fours may be of Indian origin.
Manufacturing

Non-precision dice are manufactured via the plasticinjection molding
Injection moulding (U.S. spelling: injection molding) is a manufacturing process for producing parts by injecting molten material into a mould, or mold. Injection moulding can be performed with a host of materials mainly including metals (for w ...

process. The pips or numbers on the die are a part of the mold. Different pigments can be added to the dice to make them opaque or transparent, or multiple pigments may be added to make the dice speckled or marbled.
The coloring for numbering is achieved by submerging the die entirely in paint, which is allowed to dry. The die is then polished via a [[tumble finishing process similar to [[rock polishing. The [[Abrasion (mechanical)|abrasive agent scrapes off all of the paint except for the indents of the numbering. A finer abrasive is then used to polish the die. This process also creates the smoother, rounded edges on the dice.How Dice Are Madefrom Awesome Dice Precision casino dice may have a polished or sand finish, making them transparent or translucent respectively. Casino dice have their pips drilled, then filled flush with a paint of the same [[density as the material used for the dice, such that the center of gravity of the dice is as close to the geometric center as possible. This mitigates concerns that the pips will cause a small bias. All such dice are stamped with a [[serial number to prevent potential cheaters from substituting a die. Precision backgammon dice are made the same way; they tend to be slightly smaller and have rounded corners and edges, to allow better movement inside the dice cup and stop forceful rolls from damaging the playing surface.

Etymology and terms

The word die comes from [[Old French ''[[wikt:dé#Old French|dé''; from [[Latin ''[[wikt:datum#Latin|datum'' "something which is given or played". While the terms ''[[ace'', ''deuce'', ''trey'', ''cater'', ''cinque'' and ''sice'' are generally obsolete, with the names of the numbers preferred, they are still used by some professional gamblers to designate different sides of the dice. ''Ace'' is from the Latin ''as'', meaning "a unit"; the others are 2 to 6 in [[Old French. The term "[[snake eyes" is the outcome of rolling the dice and getting only one [[pip (counting)|pip on each die. The ''[[Online Etymology Dictionary'' traces use of the term as far back as 1919.Online Etymology Dictionary/ref> The term "[[boxcars", also known as "midnight", is the outcome of rolling the dice and getting a six on each die. The pair of six pips resembles a pair of boxcars on a freight train.

Unicode representation

Using Unicode characters, the faces ⚀ ⚁ ⚂ ⚃ ⚄ ⚅, can be shown in text using the range U+2680 to U+2685 or using decimal`⚀`

to `⚅`

.
Loaded dice

A loaded, weighted, cheat, or crooked die is one that has been tampered with so that it will land with a specific side facing upwards more or less often than a fair die would. There are several methods for creating loaded dice, including rounded faces, off-square faces, and weights. Casinos and gambling halls frequently use transparent [[cellulose acetate dice as tampering is easier to detect than with opaque dice.Variants

Polyhedral dice

Various shapes like two-sided or four-sided dice are documented in archaeological findings e.g. from Ancient Egypt or the Middle East. While the cubical six-sided die became the most common type in many parts of the world, other shapes were always known, like 20-sided dice in Ptolemaic and Roman times. The modern tradition of using ''sets'' of polyhedral dice started around the end of the 1960s when non-cubical dice became popular among players of [[Wargaming|wargames, and since have been employed extensively in [[role-playing games and [[collectible card game|trading card games. Dice using both the numerals 6 and 9, which are reciprocally symmetric through rotation, typically distinguish them with a dot or underline.Common variations

Dice are often sold in sets, matching in color, of six different shapes. Five of the dice are shaped like the [[Platonic solids, whose faces are [[regular polygons. Aside from the cube, the other four Platonic solids have 4, 8, 12, and 20 faces, allowing for those number ranges to be generated. The only other common non-cubical die is the 10-sided die, a pentagonal [[trapezohedron die, whose faces are ten [[kite (geometry)|kites, each with two different edge lengths, three different angles, and two different kinds of vertices. Such sets frequently include a second 10-sided die either of contrasting color or numbered by tens, allowing the pair of 10-sided dice to be combined to generate numbers between 1 and 100. Using these dice in various ways, games can closely approximate a variety of [[probability distributions. For instance, 10-sided dice can be rolled in pairs to produce a [[Discrete uniform distribution|uniform distribution of random percentages, and summing the values of multiple dice will produce approximations to [[normal distributions. Unlike other common dice, a [[four-sided die|four-sided (tetrahedral) die does not have a side that faces upward when it is at rest on a surface, so it must be read in a different way. On some four-sided dice, each face features multiple numbers, with same number printed near each vertex on all sides. In this case, the number around the vertex pointing up is used. Alternatively, the numbers on a tetrahedral die can be placed at the middles of the edges, in which case the numbers around the base are used. Normally, the faces on a die will be placed so opposite faces will add up to one more than the number of faces. (This is not possible with 4-sided dice and dice with an odd-number of faces.) Some dice, such as those with 10 sides, are usually numbered sequentially beginning with 0, in which case the opposite faces will add to one less than the number of faces. Some twenty-sided dice sport a different arrangement used for the purpose of keeping track of an integer that counts down, such as health points. These ''spindown dice'' are arranged such that adjacent integers appear on adjacent faces, allowing the user to easily find the next lower number. They are commonly used with [[collectible card games.Rarer variations

"Uniform fair dice" are dice where all faces have equal probability of outcome due to the symmetry of the die as it is [[isohedral figure|face-transitive. Theoretically, these include: * [[Platonic solids, the five regular polyhedra: 4, 6, 8, 12, 20 sides * [[Catalan solids, the [[dual polyhedron|duals of the 13 [[Archimedean solids: 12, 24, 30, 48, 60, 120 sides * [[Bipyramids, the duals of the infinite set of [[Prism (geometry)|prisms, with triangle faces: any multiple of 4 (so that a face will face up) above 8 * [[Trapezohedron|Trapezohedra, the duals of the infinite set of [[antiprisms, with kite faces: any even number not divisible by 4 (so that a face will face up) above 6 * [[Disphenoids, an infinite set of tetrahedra made from congruent non-regular triangles: 4 sides. This is a less symmetric tetrahedron than the Platonic tetrahedron, but still sufficiently symmetrical to be face-transitive. Similarly, [[Pyritohedron|pyritohedra and [[tetartoids are less symmetrical but still face-transitive dodecahedra: 12 sides. Two other types of polyhedra are technically not face-transitive, but are still fair dice due to symmetry: * [[prism (geometry)|prisms: the basis of long dice and teetotums * [[antiprisms: the basis of [[barrel dice [[Long dice and [[teetotums can in principle be made with any number of faces, including odd numbers. Long dice are based on the infinite set of [[prism (geometry)|prisms. All the rectangular faces are mutually face-transitive, so they are equally probable. The two ends of the prism may be rounded or capped with a pyramid, designed so that the die cannot rest on those faces. 4-sided long dice are easier to roll than tetrahedra, and are used in the traditional board games [[dayakattai and [[daldøs.Non-numeric dice

The faces of most dice are labelled using sequences of whole numbers, usually starting at one, expressed with either pips or digits. However, there are some applications that require results other than numbers. Examples include letters for [[Boggle, directions for ''[[Warhammer Fantasy Battle'', [[Fudge (role-playing game system)#Fudge dice|Fudge dice, playing card symbols for [[poker dice, and instructions for sexual acts using [[sex dice.Alternatively numbered dice

Dice may have numbers that do not form a counting sequence starting at one. One variation on the standard die is known as the "average" die. These are six-sided dice with sides numbered`2, 3, 3, 4, 4, 5`

, which have the same [[arithmetic mean as a standard die (3.5 for a single die, 7 for a pair of dice), but have a narrower range of possible values (2 through 5 for one, 4 through 10 for a pair). They are used in some table-top [[wargaming|wargames, where a narrower range of numbers is required. Other numbered variations include [[Sicherman dice and [[intransitive dice.
Spherical dice

A die can be constructed in the shape of a sphere, with the addition of an internal cavity in the shape of the [[dual polyhedron of the desired die shape and an internal weight. The weight will settle in one of the points of the internal cavity, causing it to settle with one of the numbers uppermost. For instance, a sphere with an octahedral cavity and a small internal weight will settle with one of the 6 points of the cavity held downwards by the weight.Applications

[[File:Master Jean de Mauléon - Playing Dice - Walters W4492V - Full Page.jpg|Medieval People at Play, The [[Walters Art Museum, Baltimore Polyhedral dice are commonly used in role-playing games. The fantasy role-playing game ''[[Dungeons & Dragons'' (D&D) is largely credited with popularizing dice in such games. Some games use only one type, like ''[[Exalted'' which uses only ten-sided dice. Others use numerous types for different game purposes, such as D&D, which makes use of all common polyhedral dice. Dice are usually used to determine the outcome of events. Games typically determine results either as a total on one or more dice above or below a fixed number, or a certain number of rolls above a certain number on one or more dice. Due to circumstances or character skill, the initial roll may have a number added to or subtracted from the final result, or have the player roll extra or fewer dice. To keep track of rolls easily, [[dice notation is frequently used. Many board games use dice to randomize how far pieces move or to settle conflicts. Typically, this has meant that rolling higher numbers is better. Some games, such as ''[[Axis & Allies'', have inverted this system by making the lower values more potent. In the modern age, a few games and game designers have approached dice in a different way by making each side of the die similarly valuable. In ''[[Castles of Burgundy'', players spend their dice to take actions based on the die's value. In this game, a six is not better than a one, or vice versa. In ''[[Quarriors'' (and its descendant, Dicemasters), different sides of the dice can offer completely different abilities. Several sides often give resources while others grant the player useful actions. Dice can be used for [[divination and using dice for such a purpose is called [[cleromancy. A pair of common dice is usual, though other forms of polyhedra can be used. Tibetan Buddhists sometimes use this [[Mo (divination)|method of divination. It is highly likely that the [[Pythagoreans used the [[Platonic solids as dice. They referred to such dice as "the dice of the gods" and they sought to understand the universe through an understanding of geometry in polyhedra. Astrological dice are a specialized set of three 12-sided dice for divination; the first die represents planets, the Sun, the Moon, and the [[orbital node|nodes of the Moon, the second die represents the 12 zodiac signs, and the third represents the 12 houses. A specialized icosahedron die provides the answers of the [[Magic 8-Ball, conventionally used to provide answers to yes-or-no questions. Dice can be used to generate random numbers for use in [[Password|passwords and [[cryptography applications. The [[Electronic Frontier Foundation describes a method by which dice can be used to generate [[Passphrase|passphrases. [[Diceware is a method recommended for generating secure but memorable passphrases, by repeatedly rolling five dice and picking the corresponding word from a pre-generated list.Notation

In many gaming contexts, especially tabletop role-playing games, shorthand notations representing different dice rolls are used. A "d" or "D" is used to indicate a die with a specific number of sides; for example,`d4`

denotes a four-sided die. If several dice of the same type are to be rolled, this is indicated by a leading number specifying the number of dice. Hence, `6d8`

means the player should roll six eight-sided dice and add the results. Modifiers to a die roll can also be indicated as desired. For example, `3d6+4`

instructs the player to roll three six-sided dice, calculate the total, and add four to it.
See also

* [[Crown and Anchor * [[d20 System * [[Dreidel * [[Fuzzy dice * ''[[Musikalisches Würfelspiel'' * [[Quincunx * [[Senary * [[Teetotum * [[Urim and ThummimReferences

* [[Persi Diaconis|Diaconis, Persi; and Keller, Joseph B."Fair Dice"

''The American Mathematical Monthly'', 96(4):337–339, 1989 (Discussion of dice that are fair "by symmetry" and "by continuity".) * Iverson, G. R.; Longcour, W. H.; et al.; ''Bias and Runs in Dice Throwing and Recording: A Few Million Throws'', Psychometrika, vol. 36, no. 1, March 1971 * [[Reiner Knizia|Knizia, Reiner, ''Dice Games Properly Explained'', Elliot Right Way Books, 1999,

External links

* analysis of dice probabilities, also featuring Uspenski's work on rolling multiple dice {{Authority control [[Category:Dice| [[Category:Gaming devices