HOME

TheInfoList




A design is a plan or specification for the construction of an object or system or for the implementation of an activity or process, or the result of that plan or specification in the form of a
prototype A prototype is an early sample, model, or release of a product built to test a concept or process. It is a term used in a variety of contexts, including semantics Semantics (from grc, σημαντικός ''sēmantikós'', "significant") ...

prototype
, product or
process A process is a series or set of activities that interact to produce a result; it may occur once-only or be recurrent or periodic. Things called a process include: Business and management *Business process A business process, business method or ...

process
. The verb ''to design'' expresses the process of developing a design. In some cases, the direct construction of an object without an explicit prior plan (such as in craftwork, some engineering, coding, and graphic design) may also be considered to be a design activity. The design usually has to satisfy certain
goal A goal is an idea In common usage and in philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existence, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of ...

goal
s and constraints, may take into account aesthetic, functional, economic, or socio-political considerations, and is expected to interact with a certain
environment Environment most often refers to: __NOTOC__ * Natural environment, all living and non-living things occurring naturally * Biophysical environment, the physical and biological factors along with their chemical interactions that affect an organism or ...
. Major examples of designs include
architectural blueprints
architectural blueprints
,
engineering drawing An engineering drawing is a type of technical drawing Technical drawing, drafting or drawing, is the act and discipline Discipline is action ACTION is a bus operator in Canberra Canberra ( ) is the capital city of Austra ...
s,
business process A business process, business method or business function is a collection of related, structured activities or Task (project management), tasks by people or equipment in which a specific sequence produces a service or product (serves a particular ...
es,
circuit diagram A circuit diagram (wiring diagram, electrical diagram, elementary diagram, electronic schematic) is a graphical representation of an electrical circuit An electrical network is an interconnection of electrical component An electroni ...

circuit diagram
s, and sewing patterns. The person who produces a design is called a ''designer'', which is a term generally used for people who work professionally in one of the various design areas—usually specifying which area is being dealt with (such as a
fashion design Fashion design is the art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and int ...
er,
product design Product design as a verb is to create a new product to be sold by a business to its customers. A very broad coefficient and effective generation and development of ideas through a process that leads to new products. Thus, it is a major aspect of n ...
er,
web design Web design encompasses many different skills and disciplines in the production and maintenance of website A website (also written as web site) is a collection of web page A web page (or webpage) is a hypertext File:Douglas Engelbar ...
er or
interior design Interior design is the and of enhancing the interior of a to achieve a healthier and more aesthetically pleasing environment for the people using the space. An interior designer is someone who plans, researches, coordinates, and manages s ...

interior design
er), but also others such as architects and engineers. A designer's sequence of activities is called a design process, possibly using
design methods Design methods are procedures, techniques, aids, or tools for designing. They offer a number of different kinds of activities that a designer might use within an overall design process. Conventional procedures of design, such as drawing, can be reg ...
. The process of creating a design can be brief (a quick sketch) or lengthy and complicated, involving considerable research, negotiation, reflection,
modeling In general, a model is an informative representation of an object, person or system. The term originally denoted the plans of a building in late 16th-century English, and derived via French and Italian ultimately from Latin ''modulus'', a measure. ...

modeling
, interactive adjustment and re-design.


Design as a process

Substantial disagreement exists concerning how designers in many fields, whether amateur or professional, alone or in teams, produce designs. Kees Dorst and Judith Dijkhuis, both designers themselves, argued that "there are many ways of describing design processes" and discussed "two basic and fundamentally different ways", both of which have several names. The prevailing view has been called "the rational model", "technical problem solving" and "the reason-centric perspective". The alternative view has been called "reflection-in-action", "co-evolution", and "the action-centric perspective".


The rational model

The rational model was independently developed by Herbert A. Simon,Simon, H.A. (1996
The sciences of the artificial
MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, USA. p. 111. .
an American scientist, and two German engineering design theorists, Gerhard Pahl and Wolfgang Beitz. It posits that: # Designers attempt to optimize a design candidate for known constraints and . # The design process is plan-driven. # The design process is understood in terms of a discrete sequence of stages. The rational model is based on a rationalist philosophy and underlies the
waterfall model The waterfall model is a breakdown of project activities into linear sequential In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (alg ...

waterfall model
,
systems development life cycle In systems engineering Systems engineering is an field of and that focuses on how to design, integrate, and manage s over their s. At its core, systems engineering utilizes principles to organize this body of knowledge. The individual ou ...

systems development life cycle
, and much of the
engineering design The engineering design process is a common series of steps that engineer Engineers, as practitioners of engineering, are Professional, professionals who Invention, invent, design, analyze, build and test Machine, machines, complex systems, a ...
literature. According to the rationalist philosophy, design is informed by research and knowledge in a predictable and controlled manner.


Example sequence of stages

Typical stages consistent with the rational model include the following: * Pre-production design **
Design briefA design brief is a document for a design project developed by a person or team (the ''designer'' or ''design team'') in consultation with the ''client/customer''. They outline the deliverables and scope of the project including any products or works ...
or ''
Parti pris In architecture, a ''parti pris'' is an organizing thought or decision behind an architect's design, presented in the form of a basic diagram or a simple statement. It may be shortened to "parti". The term comes from 15th century French, in whic ...
'' – an early (often the beginning) statement of design goals **
Analysis Analysis is the process of breaking a complexity, complex topic or Substance theory, substance into smaller parts in order to gain a better understanding of it. The technique has been applied in the study of mathematics and logic since before Ari ...

Analysis
 – analysis of current design goals **
Research Research is "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge". It involves the collection, organization and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expa ...

Research
 – investigating similar design solutions in the field or related topics **
Specification A specification often refers to a set of documented requirements to be satisfied by a material, design, product, or service. A specification is often a type of technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or require ...
 – specifying requirements of a design solution for a product (
product design specification A design specification is a detailed document providing a list of points regarding a product or process. For example, the design specification could include required dimensions, environmental factors, ergonomic factors, aesthetic Aesthetics, o ...
) or service. **
Problem solving Problem solving consists of using generic or ad hoc Ad hoc is a Latin phrase __NOTOC__ This is a list of Wikipedia articles of Latin phrases and their translation into English. To view all phrases on a single, lengthy document, see: * L ...

Problem solving
 – conceptualizing and
document A document is a written Writing is a medium of human communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is the act of developing Semantics, meaning among Subject (philosophy), entities or Organization, groups t ...

document
ing design solutions **
Presentation A presentation conveys information from a speaker to an audience An audience is a group of people who participate in a show or encounter a work of art A work of art, artwork, art piece, piece of art or art object is an a ...

Presentation
 – presenting design solutions * Design during production **
Development Development or developing may refer to: Arts *Development hell, when a project is stuck in development *Filmmaking#Development, Filmmaking, development phase, including finance and budgeting *Development (music), the process thematic material i ...
 – continuation and improvement of a designed solution ** Testing – ''
in situ ''In situ'' (; often not italicized in English) is a Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as ...

in situ
'' testing of a designed solution * Post-production design feedback for future designs **
Implementation Implementation is the realization of an application, or execution of a plan A plan is typically any diagram or list of steps with details of timing and resources, used to achieve an Goal, objective to do something. It is commonly understood as ...

Implementation
 – introducing the designed solution into the environment **
Evaluation Evaluation is a system A system is a group of interacting Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. The idea of a two-way effect is essential in the concept of interaction, as oppos ...

Evaluation
and conclusion – summary of process and results, including constructive criticism and suggestions for future improvements * Redesign – any or all stages in the design process repeated (with corrections made) at any time before, during, or after production. Each stage has many associated
best practicesA best practice is a method or technique that has been generally accepted as superior to any alternatives because it produces results that are superior to those achieved by other means or because it has become a standard way of doing things, e.g., a ...
.


Criticism of the rational model

The rational model has been widely criticized on two primary grounds: # Designers do not work this way – extensive empirical evidence has demonstrated that designers do not act as the rational model suggests. # Unrealistic assumptions – goals are often unknown when a design project begins, and the requirements and constraints continue to change.


The action-centric model

The action-centric perspective is a label given to a collection of interrelated concepts, which are antithetical to the rational model. It posits that: # Designers use
creativity Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something new and valuable is formed. The created item may be intangible (such as an idea In common usage and in philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, suc ...

creativity
and
emotion Emotions are mental state, psychological states brought on by neurophysiology, neurophysiological changes, variously associated with thoughts, feelings, behavioural responses, and a degree of pleasure or suffering, displeasure. There is currentl ...

emotion
to generate design candidates. # The design process is
improvised Improvisation is the activity of making or doing something not planned beforehand, using whatever can be found. Improvisation in the performing arts is a very spontaneous performance without specific or scripted preparation. The skills of impro ...
. # No universal sequence of stages is apparent – analysis, design and implementation are contemporary and inextricably linked. The action-centric perspective is based on an empiricist philosophy and broadly consistent with the agile approach and a methodical development. Substantial empirical evidence supports the veracity of this perspective in describing the actions of real designers. Like the rational model, the action-centric model sees design as informed by research and knowledge. However, research and knowledge are brought into the design process through the judgment and common sense of designers – by designers "thinking on their feet" – more than through the predictable and controlled process stipulated by the rational model.


Descriptions of design activities

At least two views of design activity are consistent with the action-centric perspective. Both involve three basic activities. In the reflection-in-action paradigm, designers alternate between " framing", "making moves", and "evaluating moves". "Framing" refers to conceptualizing the problem, i.e., defining goals and objectives. A "move" is a tentative design decision. The evaluation process may lead to further moves in the design. In the sensemaking–coevolution–implementation framework, designers alternate between its three titular activities.
Sensemaking Sensemaking or sense-making is the process by which people give meaning to their collective experiences. It has been defined as "the ongoing retrospective development of plausible images that rationalize what people are doing" ( Weick, Sutcliffe, ...
includes both framing and evaluating moves. Implementation is the process of constructing the design object. Coevolution is "the process where the design agent simultaneously refines its mental picture of the design object based on its mental picture of the context, and vice versa". The concept of the
design cycle A decision cycle is a sequence of steps used by an entity on a repeated basis to Decision making, reach and implement decisions and to learn from the results. The "decision cycle" phrase has a history of use to broadly categorize various methods of ...
is understood as a circular time structure, which may start with the thinking of an idea, then expressing it by the use of visual or verbal means of communication (design tools), the sharing and perceiving of the expressed idea, and finally starting a new cycle with the critical rethinking of the perceived idea. Anderson points out that this concept emphasizes the importance of the means of expression, which at the same time are means of perception of any design ideas.


Philosophies of design

Philosophy of designPhilosophy of design is the study of definitions of design, and the assumptions, foundations, and implications of design. The field, which is mostly a sub-discipline of aesthetics, is defined by an interest in a set of problems, or an interest in ce ...
is the study of definitions of design, and the assumptions, foundations, and implications of design. There are also countless informal or personal philosophies for guiding design as design values and its accompanying aspects within modern design vary, both between different schools of thought and among practicing designers. Design philosophies are usually for determining design goals. In this sense, design philosophies are fundamental guiding principles that dictate how a designer approaches his/her practice. For example, reflections on
material culture Material culture is the aspect of social reality Social reality is distinct from biological reality Reality is the sum or aggregate of all that is real or existent within a system, as opposed to that which is only Object of the mind, imaginar ...

material culture
and environmental concerns (
sustainable design Environmentally sustainable design (also called environmentally conscious design, eco design, etc.) is the philosophy of designing physical objects, the built environment, and services to comply with the principles of ecology, ecological sustaina ...
) can guide a design philosophy.


Approaches to design

A design approach is a general philosophy that may or may not include a guide for specific methods. Some are to guide the overall goal of the design. Other approaches are to guide the tendencies of the designer. Some of these approaches include: *
Critical design Critical design takes a critical theory based approach to design. This kind of design uses design fiction and speculative design proposals to challenge assumptions and conceptions about the role objects play in everyday life. Critical design plays ...
uses designed artifacts as an embodied critique or commentary on existing values, morals, and practices in a culture. *
Participatory Design Participatory design (originally co-operative design, now often co-design) is an approach to design attempting to actively involve all stakeholders (e.g. employees, partners, customers, citizens, end users) in the design process to help ensure th ...
(originally co-operative design, now often co-design) is the practice of collective creativity to design, attempting to actively involve all stakeholders (e.g. employees, partners, customers, citizens, end users) in the design process to help ensure the result meets their needs and is usable. * Scientific design refers to industrialised design based on scientific knowledge. Science can be used to study the effects and need for a potential or existing product in general and to design products that are based on scientific knowledge. For instance, a scientific design of may be based on investigations of filtration performance, mitigation performance, thermal comfort,
biodegradability Biodegradation is the breakdown of organic matter Organic matter, organic material, or natural organic matter refers to the large source of Carbon compounds, carbon-based compounds found within natural and engineered, terrestrial, and aquatic ...
and flow resistance. *
Service design Service design is the activity of planning and arranging people, infrastructure, communication and material components of a service in order to improve its quality, and the interaction between the service providerA service provider (SP) provides or ...
designing or organizing the experience around a product and the service associated with a product's use. *
Sociotechnical system Sociotechnical systems (STS) in organizational development is an approach to complex organizational work design that recognizes the interaction between people A people is a plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a bei ...
design, a philosophy and tools for participative designing of work arrangements and supporting processes – for organizational purpose, quality, safety, economics and customer requirements in core work processes, the quality of peoples experience at work and the needs of society *
Transgenerational designTransgenerational design is the practice of making products and environments compatible with those physical and sensory Disability, impairments associated with human aging and which limit major activities of daily living. The term ''transgeneration ...
, the practice of making products and environments compatible with those physical and sensory impairments associated with human aging and which limit major activities of daily living. *
User-centered design User-centered design (UCD) or user-driven development (UDD) is a framework of process (not restricted to interfaces or technologies) in which usability goals, user characteristics, Environment (systems), environment, tasks and workflow of a pro ...
, which focuses on the needs, wants, and limitations of the end user of the designed artifact.


Types

Design can broadly be applied to various fields such as art, engineering and production.


Design and art

Today, the term design is generally used for what was formerly called the
applied arts The applied arts are all the arts that apply design A design is a plan or specification for the construction of an object or system or for the implementation of an activity or process, or the result of that plan or specification in the ...
. The new term, for a very old thing, was perhaps initiated by
Raymond Loewy Raymond Loewy ( , ; November 5, 1893 – July 14, 1986) was a French Americans, French-born American industrial designer who achieved fame for the magnitude of his design efforts across a variety of industries. He was recognized for this b ...
and teachings at the
Bauhaus The Staatliches Bauhaus (), commonly known as the Bauhaus (German: "building house"), was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German an ...

Bauhaus
and
Ulm School of Design Ulm () is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It c ...
in Germany during the 20th century. The boundaries between art and design are blurred, largely due to a range of applications both for the term 'art' and the term 'design'.
Applied arts The applied arts are all the arts that apply design A design is a plan or specification for the construction of an object or system or for the implementation of an activity or process, or the result of that plan or specification in the ...
can include
industrial design Industrial design is a process of design A design is a plan or specification for the construction of an object or system or for the implementation of an activity or process, or the result of that plan or specification in the form of a prototyp ...

industrial design
,
graphic design Graphic design is the profession A Profession is a disciplined group of individuals who adhere to ethical standards and who hold themselves out as, and are accepted by the public as possessing special knowledge and skills in a widely recogni ...
,
fashion design Fashion design is the art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and int ...
, and the
decorative arts ] The decorative arts are arts or crafts whose object is the design A design is a plan or specification for the construction of an object or system or for the implementation of an activity or process, or the result of that plan or specificati ...

decorative arts
which traditionally includes craft objects. In graphic arts (2D image making that ranges from photography to illustration), the distinction is often made between
fine art In European academic traditions, fine art is developed primarily for aesthetics Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about M ...

fine art
and
commercial art Commercial art is the art of creative services Creative services are a subsector of the creative industries, a part of the economy that creates wealth by offering creativity for hire to other businesses. Creative Services also means a department ...
, based on the context within which the work is produced and how it is traded. Some methods for creating work, such as employing intuition, are shared across the disciplines within the
applied arts The applied arts are all the arts that apply design A design is a plan or specification for the construction of an object or system or for the implementation of an activity or process, or the result of that plan or specification in the ...
and
fine art In European academic traditions, fine art is developed primarily for aesthetics Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about M ...

fine art
. Mark Getlein, writer, suggests the principles of design are "almost instinctive", "built-in", "natural", and part of "our sense of 'rightness'." However, the intended application and context of the resulting works will vary greatly.


Design and engineering

In
engineering Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipline of engineering encompasses a broad range of more speciali ...

engineering
, design is a component of the process. Many overlapping methods and processes can be seen when comparing
Product design Product design as a verb is to create a new product to be sold by a business to its customers. A very broad coefficient and effective generation and development of ideas through a process that leads to new products. Thus, it is a major aspect of n ...
,
Industrial design Industrial design is a process of design A design is a plan or specification for the construction of an object or system or for the implementation of an activity or process, or the result of that plan or specification in the form of a prototyp ...

Industrial design
and
Engineering Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipline of engineering encompasses a broad range of more speciali ...

Engineering
. The
American Heritage Dictionary American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or A ...
defines design as: ''"To conceive or fashion in the mind; invent,"'' and ''"To formulate a plan"'', and defines engineering as: ''"The application of scientific and mathematical principles to practical ends such as the design, manufacture, and operation of efficient and economical structures, machines, processes, and systems."''. Both are forms of problem-solving with a defined distinction being the application of "scientific and mathematical principles". The increasingly scientific focus of engineering in practice, however, has raised the importance of more new "human-centered" fields of design. How much science is applied in a design is a question of what is considered "
science Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is something that is truth, true. The usual test for a statement of ...

science
". Along with the question of what is considered science, there is
social science Social science is the branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist o ...

social science
versus
natural science Natural science is a branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or ph ...

natural science
. Scientists at
Xerox PARC PARC (Palo Alto Research Center; formerly Xerox PARC) is a research and development company in Palo Alto, California. Founded in 1969 by Jack Goldman, Jacob E. "Jack" Goldman, Xerox Corporation's chief scientist, the company was originally a divis ...
made the distinction of design versus engineering at "moving minds" versus "moving atoms" (probably in contradiction to the origin of term "engineering – engineer" from Latin "in genio" in meaning of a "genius" what assumes existence of a "mind" not of an "atom").


Design and production

The relationship between design and
production Production may be: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, the act of manufacturing goods * Production, in the outline of industrial organization, the act of making products (goods and services) * Production as a statistic, g ...
is one of planning and executing. In theory, the plan should anticipate and compensate for potential problems in the execution process. Design involves problem-solving and
creativity Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something new and valuable is formed. The created item may be intangible (such as an idea In common usage and in philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, suc ...

creativity
. In contrast, production involves a routine or pre-planned process. A design may also be a mere plan that does not include a production or engineering processes although a working knowledge of such processes is usually expected of designers. In some cases, it may be unnecessary or impractical to expect a designer with a broad
multidisciplinary Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combination of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project). It draws knowledge from several other fields like sociology, anthropology, psychology, ...
knowledge required for such designs to also have a detailed specialized knowledge of how to produce the product. Design and production are intertwined in many
creative professional A creative professional who is also known as a creative specialist is a person who is employed for the extraction of skills in creative endeavors. Creative professions include writing, art, design, theater, television, radio, motion pictures, relat ...
careers, meaning problem-solving is part of execution and the reverse. As the cost of rearrangement increases, the need for separating design from production increases as well. For example, a high-budget project, such as a
skyscraper A skyscraper is a tall continuously habitable building having multiple floors. Modern sources currently define skyscrapers as being at least 100 metres or 150 metres in height, though there is no universally accepted definition. Skyscrapers ar ...

skyscraper
, requires separating (design)
architect An architect is a person who plans, designs and oversees the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with the design of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the buildings that h ...

architect
ure from (production)
construction Construction is a general term meaning the and to form , , or ,"Construction" def. 1.a. 1.b. and 1.c. ''Oxford English Dictionary'' Second Edition on CD-ROM (v. 4.0) Oxford University Press 2009 and comes from ''constructio'' (from ''com-' ...

construction
. A Low-budget project, such as a locally printed office party invitation flyer, can be rearranged and printed dozens of times at the low cost of a few sheets of paper, few drops of ink, and less than one hour's pay of a desktop publisher. This is not to say that production never involves problem-solving or creativity, nor that design always involves creativity. Designs are rarely perfect and are sometimes repetitive. The imperfection of a design may task a production position (e.g.
production artistA production artist is a technical and creative position in a creative profession. The job title The International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO) is an International Labour Organization The International Labour Organization ( ...
,
construction worker A construction worker is a worker employed in manual labour Manual labour (in British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language fi ...
) with utilizing creativity or problem-solving skills to compensate for what was overlooked in the design process. Likewise, a design may be a simple repetition (copy) of a known preexisting solution, requiring minimal, if any, creativity or problem-solving skills from the designer.


Process design

"Process design" (in contrast to "design process" mentioned above) is to the planning of routine steps of a process aside from the expected result. Processes (in general) are treated as a product of design, not the method of design. The term originated with the industrial designing of
chemical process In a scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. The usual test for ...
es. With the increasing complexities of the
information age#REDIRECT Information Age The Information Age (also known as the Computer Age, Digital Age, or New Media Age) is a historical periodHuman history is commonly divided into three main Era, eras — Ancient history, Ancient, Post-classical history, ...
, consultants and executives have found the term useful to describe the design of business processes as well as manufacturing processes.


Design disciplines


See also

* Design-based learning *
Design methods Design methods are procedures, techniques, aids, or tools for designing. They offer a number of different kinds of activities that a designer might use within an overall design process. Conventional procedures of design, such as drawing, can be reg ...
*
Design research Design research was originally constituted as primarily research into the process of design, developing from work in design methodsDesign methods are procedures, techniques, aids, or tools for designing. They offer a number of different kinds of ac ...
*
Design scienceA concept of design science was introduced in 1957 by R. Buckminster Fuller who defined it as a systematic form of designing. He expanded on this concept in his ''World Design Science Decade'' proposal to the International Union of Architects in 1961 ...
*
Design theory Design theory is a subfield of design research concerned with various theoretical approaches towards understanding and delineating design principles, design knowledge, and design practice. History Design theory has been approached and interpr ...
*
Design thinking Design thinking is the set of cognitive, strategic and practical processes by which design concepts (proposals for products, buildings, machines, communications, etc.) are developed. Many of the key concepts and aspects of design thinking have been ...

Design thinking
* Design prototyping *
Evidence-based design Evidence-based design (EBD) is the process of constructing a building or physical environment based on scientific research to achieve the best possible outcomes. Evidence-based design is especially important in evidence-based medicine Evidence-b ...
* Visual design elements and principles * List of design awards


References


Bibliography

{{Authority control Product development