ConfidenceIn most parliamentary democracies, members of a parliament can propose a motion of confidence or of no confidence in the government or executive. The results of such motions show how much support the government currently has in parliament. Should a motion of confidence fail, or a motion of no confidence pass, the government will usually either resign and allow other politicians to form a new government, or call an election.
SupplyMost parliamentary democracies require an annual state budget, an appropriation bill, or occasional financial measures to be passed by parliament in order for a government to pay its way and enact its policies. The failure of a supply bill is in effect the same as the failure of a confidence motion. In early modern England, the withholding of funds was one of 's few ways of controlling the .
Examples of confidence-and-supply deals
AustraliaThe Australian Labor Party Gillard Government formed a minority government in the hung parliament elected at the 2010 Australian federal election, 2010 federal election resulting from a confidence-and-supply agreement with three Independent politicians in Australia, independent MPs and one Australian Greens, Green MP.
British ColumbiaAfter the 2017 British Columbia general election, 2017 British Columbia provincial election, the Green Party of British Columbia agreed to a confidence-and-supply agreement in support of the British Columbia New Democratic Party. The incumbent British Columbia Liberal Party briefly tried to form a government, but was immediately defeated in a confidence vote by the NDP and Greens.
New BrunswickOn 2 November 2018 (less than two months after the 2018 New Brunswick general election) the Legislative Assembly of New Brunswick, legislative assembly voted 25-23 for a motion, introduced by the Progressive Conservative Party of New Brunswick, Progressive Conservatives, to amend the throne speech to declare no confidence in the government. Subsequently, Premier Brian Gallant indicated his intention to resign the premiership and recommend to the lieutenant governor that PC leader Blaine Higgs be given the mandate to form a minority government: "I will go see the lieutenant governor at her earliest convenience to inform her that I will be resigning as premier, and I will humbly suggest to her honour to allow the leader of the Conservative Party to attempt to form a government and attempt to gain the confidence of the house." People's Alliance of New Brunswick, People's Alliance leader Kris Austin said he would work with the new government "in the areas we agree on," and reiterated his promise to support the Progressive Conservatives on confidence votes for a period of 18 months. Green Party of New Brunswick, Green Party leader David Coon said he would start working with the Tories in an attempt to ensure his party's issues were on the government's agenda.
OntarioTwenty-two days after the 1985 Ontario general election, 1985 Ontario provincial election, the Progressive Conservative Party of Ontario government resigned after a vote of no confidence, and the Ontario Liberal Party formed a government with the support of the Ontario New Democratic Party. The agreement between the two parties was referred to as "The Accord".
IndiaThird Front (India), Third Front national governments were formed in 1989 Indian general election, 1989 and 1996 Indian general election, 1996 with outside support of one of the two major parties, Bharatiya Janata Party, BJP or Indian National Congress, Congress. The Communist Party of India (Marxist), CPI-M gave outside support to the Congress Party from 2004–2008, but later withdrew support after the India–United States Civil Nuclear Agreement.
IrelandAfter the 2016 Irish general election, 2016 general election, Government of the 32nd Dáil, a minority government was formed by Fine Gael and some independents, with confidence-and-supply ( ga, muinín agus soláthar) support from Fianna Fáil in return for a published set of policy commitments from the government. Fianna Fáil abstains on confidence and supply votes, but reserves the right to vote for or against any bill proposed in the Dáil or Seanad. The deal was to last until the end of 2018, with the possibility of renewal before then to extend it to the five-year maximum term of a Dáil. On 12 December 2018, Fianna Fáil Leader Micheál Martin said his party will guarantee the Government can continue throughout 2019 and an election may be held early in 2020. The 2020 Irish general election was held on Saturday 8 February 2020. The election was called following the dissolution of the Members of the 32nd Dáil, 32nd Dáil by the President of Ireland, President, at the request of Taoiseach Leo Varadkar on 14 January 2020.
New ZealandIn New Zealand, confidence and supply arrangements are common due to the mixed-member proportional, MMP system used in the country. The parties providing confidence and supply have a more prominent role than in other countries, with MPs from the support parties often being appointed to Ministers of the New Zealand Government, ministerial portfolios outside of Cabinet. New Zealand codified the procedures it used to form these Governments in its Cabinet Manual. John Key's New Zealand National Party, National Party administration formed a minority government in 2008 New Zealand general election, 2008 thanks to a confidence-and-supply agreement with the ACT New Zealand, ACT, United Future and the Māori Party. A similar arrangement in 2005 New Zealand general election, 2005 had led to Helen Clark's New Zealand Labour Party, Labour Party forming a coalition government with the Jim Anderton's Progressive Party, Progressive Party, with support on confidence and supply from New Zealand First and United Future. After the 2014 New Zealand general election, 2014 election, National re-entered confidence-and-supply agreements with United Future, the ACT Party, and the Māori Party. In 2017, despite National winning more votes than Labour in the election, New Zealand First chose to enter coalition with Labour to help them change the government, with support on confidence and supply from the left-wing Green Party of Aotearoa New Zealand, Green Party.
United KingdomBetween 1977 and 1978, Jim Callaghan, Jim Callaghan's British Labour Party, Labour Party stayed in power thanks to a confidence-and-supply agreement with the Liberal Party (UK), Liberal Party, in a deal which became known as the Lib-Lab Pact. In return, the Labour Party agreed to modest policy concessions for the Liberal Party. In the aftermath of the 2017 United Kingdom general election, 2017 general election which left Theresa May's Conservative Party (UK), Conservative Party without a majority, a Conservative–DUP agreement, confidence-and-supply agreement was agreed with the Democratic Unionist Party.
Devolved governmentConfidence and supply deals are more frequent in the devolved legislatures of Scotland and Wales due to the use of proportional representation. The Scottish National Party and Scottish Green Party have a confidence and supply deal in the Scottish Parliament. The Welsh Labour Party and Plaid Cymru had a similar co-operation deal in the Welsh Assembly until October 2017.