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A college (
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an appa ...

Latin
: ''collegium'') is an
educational institution An educational institution is a place where people of different ages gain an education, including preschools, childcare, primary-elementary schools, secondary-high schools, and universities. They provide a large variety of learning environments an ...
or a
constituent Constituent or constituency may refer to: In politics * Electoral district An electoral district, also known as an election district, legislative district, voting district, constituency, riding, ward, division, (election) precinct, electoral ar ...
part of one. A college may be a
degree Degree may refer to: As a unit of measurement * Degree symbol (°), a notation used in science, engineering, and mathematics * Degree (angle), a unit of angle measurement * Degree (temperature), any of various units of temperature measurement ...
-awarding
tertiary Tertiary ( ) is a widely used but obsolete term for the Period (geology), geologic period from 66 million to 2.6 million years ago. The period began with the demise of the non-bird, avian dinosaurs in the Cretaceous–Paleogene extincti ...
educational institution, a part of a collegiate or federal university, an institution offering
vocational education Vocational education is education that prepares people to work as a technician or to take up employment in a skilled craft or trade as a tradesman, tradesperson or artisan. Vocational education is sometimes referred to as ''career and technica ...
, or a
secondary school A secondary school describes an institution that provides and also usually includes the building where this takes place. Some secondary schools provide both lower secondary education (ages 11 to 14) and upper secondary education (ages 14 to 18) ...
. In most of the world, a college may be a
high school A secondary school describes an institution that provides secondary education Secondary education covers two phases on the International Standard Classification of Education The International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) is a ...

high school
or secondary school, a college of
further education Further education (often abbreviated FE) in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a s ...
, a training institution that awards trade qualifications, a higher-education provider that does not have university status (often without its own degree-awarding powers), or a constituent part of a
university A university () is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in several Discipline (academia), academic disciplines. Universities typ ...

university
. In the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
, a college may offer undergraduate programs – either as an independent institution or as the undergraduate program of a university – or it may be a
residential collegeA residential college is a division of a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic d ...
of a university or a
community college A community college is a type of educational institution An educational institution is a place where people of different ages gain an education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, ...
, referring to (primarily public) higher education institutions that aim to provide affordable and accessible education, usually limited to two-year
associate degree An associate degree is an undergraduate degree awarded after a course of post-secondary study lasting two to three years. It is a level of qualification between a high school diploma, GED, and a Bachelor's degree. The first associate degrees we ...
s. The word is generally also used as a synonym for a university in the US. A —
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a List of transcontinental countries, transcontinental country spanning Western Europe and Overseas France, overseas regions and territories in the Ame ...

France
(see
secondary education in France In France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its extends from the to the and from the to the and the ; overseas territories include ...
),
Belgium Belgium ( nl, België ; french: Belgique ; german: Belgien ), officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe. The region's countries and territories vary depending on cont ...

Belgium
, and
Switzerland , french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = Federalism, Federal semi-direct democracy under an assembly-independent Directorial system, directorial republic , leader_title1 = Fe ...

Switzerland
—provides
secondary education Secondary education covers two phases on the International Standard Classification of Education The International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) is a statistical framework for organizing information on education Educatio ...
. However, the
Collège de France The Collège de France (), formerly known as the ''Collège Royal'' or as the ''Collège impérial'' founded in 1530 by François I, is a higher education and research establishment (''grand établissement'') in France. It is located in Paris, ...
is a prestigious advanced research institute in Paris.


Etymology

The word "college" is from the
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an appa ...

Latin
verb ''lego, legere, legi, lectum'', "to collect, gather together, pick", plus the preposition ''cum'', "with", thus meaning "selected together". Thus "colleagues" are literally "persons who have been selected to work together". In
ancient Rome In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the earliest historians whose work survives. A historian is a person who stud ...
a ''
collegium A (plural ), or college, was any association in ancient Rome with a legal personality. Such associations could be civil or religious. The word literally means "society", from (‘colleague’). They functioned as social clubs or religious ...
'' was a "body, guild, corporation united in colleagueship; of magistrates, praetors, tribunes, priests, augurs; a political club or trade guild". Thus a college was a form of
corporation A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company—authorized by the State (polity), state to act as a single entity (a legal entity recognized by private and public law "born out of statute"; a legal person in legal ...

corporation
or corporate body, an artificial legal person (body/corpus) with its own legal personality, with the capacity to enter into legal contracts, to sue and be sued. In mediaeval England there were colleges of priests, for example in
chantry chapel A chantry is an ecclesiastical term that may have either of two related meanings: # a chantry service Service may refer to: Activities :''(See the Religion section for religious activities)'' * Administrative service, a required part of the workl ...
s; modern survivals include the
Royal College of Surgeons The Royal College of Surgeons is an ancient college A college (Latin: ''collegium'') is an educational institution or a University system, constituent part of one. A college may be a academic degree, degree-awarding Tertiary education, tertiar ...
in England (originally the Guild of Surgeons Within the City of London), the
College of Arms The College of Arms, or Heralds' College, is a royal corporation A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company—authorized by the state to act as a single entity (a legal entity recognized by private and publi ...
in London (a body of
herald (around 1380) , around 1510. File:Pursuivant tabard.jpg, upTabard worn by an English herald in the College of Arms A herald, or a herald of arms, is an officer of arms, ranking between pursuivant and king of arms. The title is commonly ...

herald
s enforcing heraldic law), an
electoral college An electoral college is a set of electors who are selected to elect a candidate A candidate, or nominee, is the prospective recipient of an award or honor, or a person seeking or being considered for some kind of position; for example: * to be ...
(to elect representatives), etc., all groups of persons "selected in common" to perform a specified function and appointed by a monarch, founder or other person in authority. As for the modern "college of education", it was a body created for that purpose, for example
Eton College Eton College () is a public school (private sector) for boys in Eton, Berkshire Eton ( ) is a town in Berkshire, England, on the opposite bank of the River Thames to Windsor, connected to it by Windsor Bridge. The civil parish In ...

Eton College
was founded in 1440 by
letters patent upLetters patent transferring a predecessor of the Nancy Nancy may refer to: Places France * Nancy, France, a city in the northeastern French department of Meurthe-et-Moselle and formerly the capital of the duchy of Lorraine ** Arrondiss ...
of King Henry VI for the constitution of a college ''of Fellows, priests, clerks, choristers, poor scholars, and old poor men, with one master or governor'', whose duty it shall be to instruct these scholars and any others who may resort thither from any part of England in the knowledge of letters, and especially of grammar, without payment".


Overview


Higher education

Within higher education, the term can be used to refer to: * A constituent art of a
collegiate university A collegiate university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in ...
, for example
King's College, Cambridge King's College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in Cambridge Cambridge ( ) is a College town, university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of London. At the Un ...

King's College, Cambridge
, or of a federal university, for example
King's College London King's College London (informally King's or KCL) is a public university, public research university located in London, United Kingdom, and a founding college and Member institutions of the University of London, member institution of the f ...
. * A
liberal arts college A liberal arts college or liberal arts institution of higher education is a college A college (Latin: ''collegium'') is an educational institution or a University system, constituent part of one. A college may be a academic degree, degree-aw ...
, an independent institution of higher education focusing on undergraduate education, such as
Williams College Williams College is a Private college, private liberal arts colleges in the United States, liberal arts college in Williamstown, Massachusetts. It was established as a men's college in 1793 with funds from the estate of Ephraim Williams, a co ...
or
Amherst College Amherst College ( ) is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two ...
. * A liberal arts division of a university whose undergraduate program does not otherwise follow a liberal arts model, such as the Yuanpei College at
Peking University Peking University (abbreviation: PKU; ; Literal translation, lit. "Beijing University"), informally known as Beida (), is a major research university in Beijing, China, and a member of the elite C9 League of Chinese universities. Peking Univer ...

Peking University
. * An
institute An institute is an organisation An organization, or organisation (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth English; American and British English spelling differences#-ise, -ize (-isation, -ization), see spelling differences), ...

institute
providing specialised training, such as a college of
further education Further education (often abbreviated FE) in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a s ...
, for example
Belfast Metropolitan College Belfast Metropolitan College, also known as ''Belfast Met'', is a further education, further and higher education institution in Belfast, Northern Ireland. The college offers both vocational education and Academia, academic qualifications. With ...

Belfast Metropolitan College
, a teacher training college, or an art college. * In the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
, college is sometimes but rarely a synonym for a research university, such as
Dartmouth College Dartmouth College ( ) is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly tw ...
, one of the eight universities in the
Ivy League The Ivy League (also known as The Ancient Eight) is an American collegiate athletic conference An athletic conference is a collection of sports teams, playing competitively against each other at the professional, collegiate, or high school l ...
.


Further education

A
sixth form college Shrewsbury Sixth Form College in Shropshire A sixth form college is an educational institution, where students aged 16 to 19 typically study for advanced school-level qualifications, such as A Levels#REDIRECT A-Level The A Level (Advanced Level ...
or college of further education is an educational institution in
England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies northwest of England and the to the southwest. England is separated from by the to the east and the to the south. The country cover ...

England
,
Wales Wales ( cy, Cymru ) is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or citizenship. A country may be an independent sovereign ...

Wales
,
Northern Ireland Northern Ireland ( ga, Tuaisceart Éireann ; sco, label=Ulster-ScotsUlster Scots, also known as Scotch-Irish, may refer to: * Ulster Scots people The Ulster Scots (Ulster-Scots The Ulster Scots (Ulster Scots dialects, Ulster- ...

Northern Ireland
,
Belize Belize () is a Caribbean The Caribbean (, ; es, Caribe; french: Caraïbes; ht, Karayib; also gcf, label=Antillean Creole, Kawayib; nl, Caraïben; Papiamento: ) is a region of the Americas that comprises the Caribbean Sea, its surroundi ...

Belize
, the
Caribbean The Caribbean (, ; es, Caribe; french: Caraïbes; ht, Karayib; also gcf, label=Antillean Creole Antillean Creole (Antillean French Creole, Kreyol, Kwéyòl, Patois) is a French-based creole, which is primarily spoken in the Lesser Antilles ...
,
Malta Malta ( , , ), officially known as the Republic of Malta ( mt, Repubblika ta' Malta ) and formerly Melita, is a Southern Europe Southern Europe is the southern subregion of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of ...

Malta
,
Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway,Names in the official and recognised languages: Bokmål Bokmål (, ; literally "book tongue") is an official written standard for the Norwegian language Norwegian (Norwegian: ''norsk'') is a Nort ...

Norway
,
Brunei Brunei ( ; ), officially the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace ( ms, Negara Brunei Darussalam, Jawi alphabet, Jawi: ), is a sovereign state, country located on the north coast of the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia. Apart from its coa ...

Brunei
, or
Southern Africa Southern Africa is the south South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north and is perpendicular to the east and west. Etymology The word ''south'' comes from Old English ''sūþ'', from earlier Pr ...
, among others, where students aged 16 to 19 typically study for advanced school-level qualifications, such as
A-levels#REDIRECT A-Level The A Level (Advanced Level) is a subject-based qualification conferred as part of the General Certificate of Education, as well as a school leaving qualification offered by the educational bodies in the United Kingdom and the ...
, BTEC, HND or its equivalent and the
International Baccalaureate Diploma The International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme (IBDP) is a two-year educational programme primarily aimed at 16-to-19-year-olds in 140 countries around the world. The programme provides an internationally accepted qualification for entry int ...
, or school-level qualifications such as
GCSEs The General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) is an academic qualification in a particular subject, taken in , , and . State schools in use the instead. Private schools in Scotland may choose to use an alternative qualification. Each ...
. In
Singapore Singapore (), officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign state, sovereign island city-state in maritime Southeast Asia. It lies about one degree of latitude () north of the equator, off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, bor ...

Singapore
and
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest country by area, the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous ...

India
, this is known as a
junior college A junior college (sometimes referred to colloquially as a juco or JuCo) is a post-secondary Tertiary education, also referred to as third-level, third-stage or post-secondary education, is the education Education is the process of f ...
. The municipal government of the city of
Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents , in an area of more than . Since the 17th century, Paris ha ...

Paris
uses the phrase "sixth form college" as the English name for a
lycée In France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of metropolitan France and Overseas France, several overseas regions and territori ...

lycée
.


Secondary education

In some national education systems,
secondary school A secondary school describes an institution that provides and also usually includes the building where this takes place. Some secondary schools provide both lower secondary education (ages 11 to 14) and upper secondary education (ages 14 to 18) ...
s may be called "colleges" or have "college" as part of their title. In Australia the term "college" is applied to any private or independent (non-government) primary and, especially, secondary school as distinct from a
state school State schools (in England, Wales, and New Zealand) or public schools (Scottish English and North American English) are generally primary or secondary educational institution, schools that educate all children without charge. They are funded in ...
.
Melbourne Grammar School (Pray and Work) , established = 1849 (on present site since 1858 - the celebrated date of foundation) , type = Independent, co-educational primary, single-sex boys secondary, day A day is approximately the p ...

Melbourne Grammar School
,
Cranbrook School, Sydney , motto_translation = To be, rather than to seem to be , location = Bellevue Hill and Rose Bay, New South Wales, Rose Bay, New South Wales , country = Australia , coordinates = , pushpin_map = Australia Sydney , pushpin ...
and
The King's School, Parramatta , motto_translation = "Bravely and Faithfully" , streetaddress = 87–129 Pennant Hills Road , city = North Parramatta, Sydney , state = New South Wales , country = Australia , coordinate ...
are considered colleges. There has also been a recent trend to rename or create government
secondary schools A secondary school describes an institution that provides secondary education and also usually includes the building where this takes place. Some secondary schools provide both lower secondary education (age 12 to 15) and upper secondary educatio ...
as "colleges". In the state of
Victoria Victoria most commonly refers to: * Victoria (Australia), a state of the Commonwealth of Australia * Victoria, British Columbia, provincial capital of British Columbia, Canada * Victoria (mythology), Roman goddess of Victory * Victoria, Seychelles ...
, some state high schools are referred to as ''secondary colleges'', although the pre-eminent government secondary school for boys in
Melbourne Melbourne ( ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller ...

Melbourne
is still named
Melbourne High School Melbourne High School is a government-funded single-sex academically selective secondary day school for boys, located in the Melbourne Melbourne ( ; wyi, Naarm) is the List of Australian capital cities, capital and List of cities in ...
. In Western Australia, South Australia and the
Northern Territory The Northern Territory (NT; formally the Northern Territory of Australia) is an Australian territory in the central and central northern regions of Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, ...
, "college" is used in the name of all state high schools built since the late 1990s, and also some older ones. In
New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...
, some high schools, especially multi-campus schools resulting from mergers, are known as "secondary colleges". In
Queensland Queensland ( ) is a state situated in northeastern Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the ...

Queensland
some newer schools which accept primary and high school students are styled ''state college'', but state schools offering only secondary education are called "State High School". In
Tasmania Tasmania (), abbreviated as TAS, is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atol ...
and the
Australian Capital Territory The Australian Capital Territory (ACT), known as the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) until 1938, is a federal territory A federal territory is an area under the direct and usually exclusive jurisdiction of a federation's central or national ...
, "college" refers to the final two years of high school (years 11 and 12), and the institutions which provide this. In this context, "college" is a system independent of the other years of high school. Here, the expression is a shorter version of ''matriculation college''. In a number of Canadian cities, many government-run secondary schools are called "collegiates" or " collegiate institutes" (C.I.), a complicated form of the word "college" which avoids the usual "post-secondary" connotation. This is because these secondary schools have traditionally focused on academic, rather than vocational, subjects and ability levels (for example, collegiates offered Latin while vocational schools offered technical courses). Some private secondary schools (such as
Upper Canada College Upper Canada College (UCC) is an independent school for boys between Senior Kindergarten Kindergarten (, ) is a preschool educational approach based on playing, singing, practical activities such as drawing, and social interaction as part o ...

Upper Canada College
,
Vancouver College Vancouver College (referred to informally as VC) is an independent university-preparatory Catholic school for boys located in the Shaughnessy, Vancouver, Shaughnessy neighbourhood of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Founded in 1922, it is the o ...
) choose to use the word "college" in their names nevertheless. Some secondary schools elsewhere in the country, particularly ones within the
separate school In Canada, a separate school is a type of school that has constitutional status in three provinces (Ontario , Label_map = yes , image_map = Ontario in Canada 2.svg , map_alt = Map showing Ontario' ...
system, may also use the word "college" or "collegiate" in their names. In New Zealand the word "college" normally refers to a secondary school for ages 13 to 17 and "college" appears as part of the name especially of private or integrated schools. "Colleges" most frequently appear in the North Island, whereas "high schools" are more common in the South Island. In the Netherlands, "college" is equivalent to
HBO Home Box Office (HBO) is an American pay television Pay television also known as subscription television, premium television or, when referring to an individual service, a premium channel, refers to subscription-based television Tel ...
(Higher professional education). It is oriented towards professional training with clear occupational outlook, unlike universities which are scientifically oriented. In South Africa, some secondary schools, especially private schools on the English public school model, have "college" in their title. Thus no less than six of South Africa's Elite Seven high schools call themselves "college" and fit this description. A typical example of this category would be St John's College. Private schools that specialize in improving children's marks through intensive focus on examination needs are informally called "cram-colleges". In
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka (, ; si, ශ්‍රී ලංකාව, Śrī Laṅkā, translit-std=ISO (); ta, இலங்கை, Ilaṅkai, translit-std=ISO ()), formerly known as Ceylon, and officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is ...

Sri Lanka
the word "college" (known as ''Vidyalaya'' in ''
Sinhala Sinhala may refer to: * Something of or related to the Sinhalese people of Sri Lanka * Sinhalese people * Sinhala language, one of the three official languages used in Sri Lanka * Sinhala script, a writing system for the Sinhala language ** Sinhala ...
'') normally refers to a secondary school, which usually signifies above the 5th standard. During the British colonial period a limited number of exclusive secondary schools were established based on English public school model (
Royal College Colombo Royal College ( Sinhala: රාජකීය විද්‍යාලය ''Rājakīya Vidyālaya''; Tamil: றோயல் கல்லூரி ''Royal Kalloori'') is a selective entry boys' school located in Colombo Colombo ( si, කො ...
, S. Thomas' College, Mount Lavinia,
Trinity College, Kandy Trinity College, Kandy, is an independent private school for boys in Sri Lanka Sri Lanka (, ; si, ශ්‍රී ලංකා, Śrī Laṅkā, translit-std=ISO; ta, இலங்கை, Ilaṅkai, translit-std=ISO), formerly known as Ce ...
) these along with several Catholic schools ( St. Joseph's College, Colombo, St Anthony's College) traditionally carry their name as colleges. Following the start of free education in 1931 large group of central colleges were established to educate the rural masses. Since Sri Lanka gained Independence in 1948, many schools that have been established have been named as "college".


Other

As well as an educational institution, the term can also refer, following its etymology, to any formal group of colleagues set up under statute or regulation; often under a Royal Charter. Examples are an
electoral college An electoral college is a set of electors who are selected to elect a candidate A candidate, or nominee, is the prospective recipient of an award or honor, or a person seeking or being considered for some kind of position; for example: * to be ...
, the
College of Arms The College of Arms, or Heralds' College, is a royal corporation A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company—authorized by the state to act as a single entity (a legal entity recognized by private and publi ...
, a college of canons, and the
College of Cardinals The College of Cardinals, or more formally the Sacred College of Cardinals, is the body of all cardinals Cardinal or The Cardinal may refer to: Christianity * Cardinal (Catholic Church), a senior official of the Catholic Church * Cardina ...
. Other collegiate bodies include professional associations, particularly in medicine and allied professions. In the UK these include the
Royal College of Nursing The Royal College of Nursing (RCN) is a registered trade union A trade union (or a labor union in American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set o ...
and the
Royal College of Physicians The Royal College of Physicians (RCP) is a British professional membership body dedicated to improving the practice of medicine, chiefly through the accreditation of physicians by examination. Founded by royal charter from King Henry VIII in 15 ...
. Examples in the United States include the
American College of Physicians The American College of Physicians (ACP) is a national organization of internists, who specialize in the diagnosis, treatment, and care of adults.Sokanu "What is an Internist?" Retrieved 20 October 2014 With 154,000 members, ACP is the largest medi ...
, the
American College of Surgeons The American College of Surgeons (ACS) is an educational association of surgeons founded in 1912.American College of Surgeons Online "What is the American College of Surgeons?"/ref> Headquartered in Chicago, Illinois, it was founded by Frederic At ...
, and the American College of Dentists. An example in Australia is the
Royal Australian College of General Practitioners The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners (RACGP) is the professional body for general practitioners (GPs) in Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising t ...
.


College by country


Australia

In Australia a college may be an institution of tertiary education that is smaller than a university, run independently or as part of a university. Following a reform in the 1980s many of the formerly independent colleges now belong to a larger universities. Referring to parts of a university, there are ''residential colleges'' which provide residence for students, both undergraduate and postgraduate, called
university colleges
university colleges
. These colleges often provide additional tutorial assistance, and some host
theological Theology is the systematic study of the nature of the divine and, more broadly, of religious belief. It is taught as an academic discipline An academic discipline or academic field is a subdivision of knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity ...
study. Many colleges have strong traditions and rituals, so are a combination of dormitory style accommodation and fraternity or sorority culture. Most technical and further education institutions (
TAFE In Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of ...
s), which offer certificate and diploma vocational courses, are styled "TAFE colleges" or "Colleges of TAFE". Some senior high schools, e.g. Don College in Tasmania, are also referred to as colleges.


Bangladesh

In
Bangladesh Bangladesh (, bn, বাংলাদেশ, ), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-c ...

Bangladesh
, educational institutions offering higher secondary ( 11th12th grade) education are known as colleges.


Canada

In Canadian English, the term "college" usually refers to a trades school, applied arts/science/technology/business/health school or
community college A community college is a type of educational institution An educational institution is a place where people of different ages gain an education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, ...

community college
. These are
post-secondary Tertiary education, also referred to as third-level, third-stage or post-secondary education, is the education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), values, moral ...
institutions granting certificates, diplomas,
associate degree An associate degree is an undergraduate degree awarded after a course of post-secondary study lasting two to three years. It is a level of qualification between a high school diploma, GED, and a Bachelor's degree. The first associate degrees we ...
s and (in some cases)
bachelor's degree A bachelor's degree (from Middle Latin Medieval Latin was the form of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area ...
s. The French acronym specific to public institutions within
Quebec ) , image_shield=Armoiries du Québec.svg , image_flag=Flag of Quebec.svg , coordinates= , AdmittanceDate=July 1, 1867 , AdmittanceOrder=1st, with New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , ...

Quebec
’s particular system of pre-university and technical education,
CEGEP A CEGEP ( or ; ), also written cégep, CÉGEP and cegep, is a Public school (government funded), publicly funded College education in Quebec, college providing technical, academic, vocational or a mix of programs; they are exclusive to the provi ...
(''Collège d'enseignement général et professionnel'', "college of general and professional education") is . CEGEP is a collegiate level institutions in Quebec, that a student typically enrols in if they wish to continue onto university in the Quebec education system., or to learn a trade. In
Ontario ("Loyal she began, loyal she remains") , Label_map = yes , image_map = Ontario in Canada 2.svg , map_alt = Map showing Ontario's location east/central of Canada. , coordinates = , cap ...

Ontario
and
Alberta ("Strong and free") , image_map = Alberta in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English , capital = Edmonton , largest_city = Calg ...

Alberta
, there are also institutions which are designated
university college In a number of countries, a university college is a college institution that provides tertiary education but does not have full or independent university status. A university college is often part of a larger university. The precise usage varies ...
s, as they only grant undergraduate degrees. This is to differentiate between universities, which have both undergraduate and graduate programs and those that do not. In Canada, there is a strong distinction between "college" and "university". In conversation, one specifically would say either "they are going to university" (i.e., studying for a three- or four-year degree at a university) or "they are going to college" (i.e., studying at a technical/career training).


Usage in a university setting

The term ''college'' also applies to distinct entities that formally act as an affiliated institution of the university, formally referred to as
federated collegeAn affiliated school (also affiliated college, federated school or federated college) is an educational institution that operates independently, but also has a formal collaborative agreement with another, usually larger institution that may have some ...
, or affiliated colleges. A university may also formally include several constituent colleges, forming a
collegiate university A collegiate university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in ...
. Examples of collegiate universities in Canada include
Trent University Trent University is a public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is the totality of such groupings. This is a different concept to the sociolo ...
, and the
University of Toronto The University of Toronto (U of T or UToronto) is a public university, public research university in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, located on the grounds that surround Queen's Park (Toronto), Queen's Park. It was founded by royal charter in 1827 ...

University of Toronto
. These types of institutions act independently, maintaining their own endowments, and properties. However, they remain either affiliated, or federated with the overarching university, with the overarching university being the institution that formally grants the degrees. For example,
Trinity CollegeTrinity College may refer to: Australia * Trinity Anglican College, an Anglican Church of Australia, Anglican coeducational primary and secondary school in , New South Wales * Trinity Catholic College, Auburn, a coeducational school in the inner-we ...

Trinity College
was once an independent institution, but later became federated with the
University of Toronto The University of Toronto (U of T or UToronto) is a public university, public research university in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, located on the grounds that surround Queen's Park (Toronto), Queen's Park. It was founded by royal charter in 1827 ...

University of Toronto
. Several centralized universities in Canada have mimicked the collegiate university model; although constituent colleges in a centralized university remains under the authority of the central administration. Centralized universities that have adopted the collegiate model to a degree includes the University of British Columbia, with Green College and St. John's College; and the
Memorial University of Newfoundland Memorial University of Newfoundland, also known as Memorial University or MUN (), is a public university in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador Newfoundland and Labrador (; sometimes abbreviated as NL) is the easternmost provinces and ...
, with
Sir Wilfred Grenfell College Grenfell Campus, formerly Sir Wilfred Grenfell College, is a campus of the Memorial University of Newfoundland (MUN). It is located in the city of Corner Brook, Newfoundland and Labrador Newfoundland and Labrador (, ) is the easternmost prov ...
. Occasionally, "college" refers to a subject specific faculty within a university that, while distinct, are neither ''federated'' nor ''affiliated''—College of Education, College of Medicine, College of Dentistry, College of Biological Science among others. The
Royal Military College of Canada The Royal Military College of Canada (french: Collège militaire royal du Canada), commonly abbreviated in English as RMC, is the military college A military academy or service academy (United States service academies, in the United State ...
is a
military college A military academy or service academy is an educational institution which prepares candidates for service in the officer corps. It normally provides education in a military environment, the exact definition depending on the country concerned. ...
which trains officers for the
Canadian Armed Forces The Canadian Armed Forces (CAF; french: Forces armées canadiennes; ''FAC'') is the unified military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typ ...
. The institution is a full-fledged university, with the authority to issue graduate degrees, although it continues to word the term ''college'' in its name. The institution's sister schools,
Royal Military College Saint-Jean , mottoeng = Truth, Duty, Valour , established = 1952 , type = Military college A military academy or service academy (United States service academies, in the United States) is an educational institution which prepares candidates for se ...
also uses the term college in its name, although it academic offering is akin to a CEGEP institution in Quebec. A number of post-secondary
art schools Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities involving creative imagination to express technical proficiency, beauty, emotional power, or concept Concepts are defined as abstract ideas or general notions that occur in the mind ...
in Canada formerly used the word ''college'' in their names, despite formally being universities. However, most of these institutions were renamed, or re-branded in the early 21st century, omitting the word ''college'' from its name.


Usage in secondary education

The word ''college'' continues to be used in the names public separate secondary schools in Ontario. A number of
independent school An independent school is independent in its finances and governance. Also known as private schools, non-governmental, privately funded, or non-state schools, they are not administered by local, state or national governments. In British Engli ...
s across Canada also use the word ''college'' in its name. Public
secular Secularity, also the secular or secularness (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through t ...
school boards in Ontario also refer to their secondary schools as '' collegiate institutes''. However, usage of the word ''collegiate institute'' varies between school boards. ''Collegiate institute'' is the predominant name for secondary schools in
Lakehead District School Board The Lakehead District School Board (known as English-language Public District School Board No. 6A prior to 1999) oversees all secular English-language Public school (government funded), public schools in the Thunder Bay, Thunder Bay CMA and the to ...
, and
Toronto District School Board The Toronto District School Board (TDSB), formerly known as English-language Public District School Board No. 12 prior to 1999, is the -language school board for , , Canada. The minority public-secular francophone (), anglophone (), and public ...
, although most school boards in Ontario use ''collegiate institute'' alongside ''high school'', and ''secondary school'' in the names of their institutions. Similarly, secondary schools in Regina, and Saskatoon are referred to as ''Collegiate''.


Chile

In Chile, the term "college" is usually used in the name of some bilingual schools, like
Santiago College Fundación Educacional Santiago College is a private educational (PK-12) institution in Santiago, Chile, founded in 1880. It was founded by American Methodist Ira H. La Fetra and his wife as a girls boarding school. In March 1972 the school became ...
, Saint George's College etc. Since 2009 the
Pontifical Catholic University of Chile The Pontifical Catholic University of Chile (UC) ( es, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile) is one of the six Catholic Universities existing in the Chilean university system and one of the two pontifical universities in the country, ...
incorporated college as a bachelor's degree, it has a Bachelor of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, a Bachelor of Social Science and a Bachelor of Arts and Humanities. It has the same system as the American universities, it combines majors and minors. And it let the students continue a higher degree in the same university once finished.


Greece

''Kollegio'' (in
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
Κολλέγιο) refers to the Centers of Post-Lyceum Education (in Greek Κέντρο Μεταλυκειακής Εκπαίδευσης, abbreviated as KEME), which are principally private and belong to the Greek post-secondary education system. Some of them have links to EU or US higher education institutions or accreditation organizations, such as the
NEASC The New England Association of Schools and Colleges, Inc. (NEASC) is a United States' regional accreditation association providing educational accreditation. NEASC serves over 1500 public, independent schools, and technical/career institutions ...
. ''Kollegio'' (or ''Kollegia'' in plural) may also refer to private non-tertiary schools, such as the
Athens College Athens College ( el, Κολλέγιο(ν) Αθηνών; formally Hellenic-American Educational Foundation (HAEF)) is a co-educational private preparatory school in Psychiko, Greece, a suburb of Athens, Greece, Athens, part of the Hellenic-Ameri ...
.


Hong Kong

In Hong Kong, the term 'college' is used by tertiary institutions as either part of their names or to refer to a constituent part of the university, such as the colleges in the collegiate
The Chinese University of Hong Kong The Chinese University of Hong Kong (abbreviated CUHK) is a public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is the totality of such groupings. This ...
; or to a residence hall of a university, such as St. John's College, University of Hong Kong. Many older secondary schools have the term 'college' as part of their names.


India

The modern system of education was heavily influenced by the British starting in 1835. In India, the term "college" is commonly reserved for institutions that offer high school diplomas at year 12 ("''Junior College''", similar to American ''high schools''), and those that offer the
bachelor's degree A bachelor's degree (from Middle Latin Medieval Latin was the form of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area ...
; some colleges, however, offer programmes up to
PhD A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD, Ph.D., or DPhil; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as La ...
level. Generally, colleges are located in different parts of a state and all of them are affiliated to a regional university. The colleges offer programmes leading to degrees of that university. Colleges may be either Autonomous or non-autonomous. Autonomous Colleges are empowered to establish their own syllabus, and conduct and assess their own examinations; in non-autonomous colleges, examinations are conducted by the university, at the same time for all colleges under its affiliation. There are several hundred universities and each university has affiliated colleges, often a large number. The first liberal arts and sciences college in India was "Cottayam College" or the "Syrian College", Kerala in 1815. The First inter linguistic residential education institution in Asia was started at this college. At present it is a Theological seminary which is popularly known as Orthodox Theological Seminary or Old Seminary. After that, CMS College, Kottayam,established in 1817, and the
Presidency College, Kolkata Presidency University, Kolkata, formerly known as Hindu College and Presidency College, is a public State university (India), state university located in College Street (Kolkata), College Street, Kolkata. Established in 1817, it is probably ...
, also 1817, initially known as Hindu College. The first college for the study of Christian theology and ecumenical enquiry was
Serampore College , founders = William Ward, William Carey, & Joshua Marshman Joshua Marshman (20 April 1768 – 6 December 1837) was a British Christian missionary in Bengal Bengal (; bn, বাংলা/বঙ্গ, translit=Bānglā/Bôngô, ) ...

Serampore College
(1818). The first Missionary institution to impart Western style education in India was the
Scottish Church College, Calcutta Scottish Church College is a college affiliated by Calcutta University, India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-m ...
(1830). The first commerce and economics college in India was
Sydenham College Sydenham College of Commerce and Economics is a prestigious college located in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India which is also the oldest college of commerce in Asia, affiliated to the Dr. Homi Bhabha State University. The college offers undergraduate ...
,
Mumbai Mumbai (, ; also known as Bombay — List of renamed Indian cities and states#Maharashtra, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian States and union territories of India, state of Maharashtra. According to the United ...

Mumbai
(1913). In India a new term has been introduced that is Autonomous Institutes & Colleges. An autonomous Colleges are colleges which  need to be affiliated to a certain university. These colleges can conduct their own admission procedure, examination syllabus, fees structure etc. However, at the end of course completion, they cannot issue their own degree or diploma. The final degree or diploma is issued by the affiliated university. You can have a look at other colleges in India. Also, some significant changes can pave way under the NEP (New Education Policy 2020) which may affect the present guidelines for universities and colleges.


Ireland

In
Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel (Great Britain and Ireland), North Channel, the Irish Sea ...

Ireland
the term "college" is normally used to describe an institution of tertiary education. University students often say they attend "college" rather than "university". Until 1989, no university provided teaching or research directly; they were formally offered by a constituent college of the university. There are number of secondary education institutions that traditionally used the word "college" in their names: these are either older, private schools (such as
Belvedere College Belvedere College S.J. (sometimes St Francis Xavier's College) is a voluntary secondary school for boys in Dublin Dublin (, ; ) is the capital and largest city of Republic of Ireland, Ireland. Situated on a bay on the east coast, at the m ...
,
Gonzaga College Gonzaga College is a voluntary Catholic The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, largest Christian church, with approximately 1.3 billion bapti ...
,
Castleknock College Castleknock College ( Irish: ''Coláiste Caisleán Cnucha'') is a voluntary Vincentian secondary school for boys, situated in the residential suburb of Castleknock Castleknock ( is an affluent suburb located west of the centre of Dublin cit ...

Castleknock College
, and St. Michael's College) or what were formerly a particular kind of secondary school. These secondary schools, formerly known as "technical colleges," were renamed "community colleges," but remain secondary schools. The country's only
ancient university The ancient universities are British and Irish medieval universities and early modern universities founded before the year 1600. Four of these are located in Scotland, two in England, and one in Ireland. The ancient universities in Britain and ...
is the
University of Dublin The University of Dublin ( ga, Ollscoil Átha Cliath), corporately designated the Chancellor, Doctors and Masters of the University of Dublin, is a university located in Dublin Dublin (; , or ) is the capital and largest city of Irela ...
. Created during the reign of
Elizabeth I Elizabeth I (7 September 153324 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster-Scots: ) is an island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title="Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain">Ireland_(left)_an ...

Elizabeth I
, it is modelled on the collegiate universities of Cambridge and Oxford. However, only one constituent college was ever founded, hence the curious position of
Trinity College Dublin , name_Latin = Collegium Sanctae et Individuae Trinitatis Reginae Elizabethae juxta Dublin , motto = ''Perpetuis futuris temporibus duraturam'' (Latin) , motto_lang = la , motto_English = It will last in ...

Trinity College Dublin
today; although both are usually considered one and the same, the university and college are completely distinct corporate entities with separate and parallel governing structures. Among more modern foundations, the
National University of Ireland The National University of Ireland (NUI) ( ga, Ollscoil na hÉireann) is a federal university system of ''constituent universities'' (previously called ''university college, constituent colleges'') and ''recognised colleges'' set up under t ...
, founded in 1908, consisted of constituent colleges and recognised colleges until 1997. The former are now referred to as constituent universities – institutions that are essentially universities in their own right. The National University can trace its existence back to 1850 and the creation of the
Queen's University of Ireland The Queen's University of Ireland was established formally by Royal Charter on 3 September 1850, as the degree-awarding university of the ''Queen's Colleges'' of Belfast Belfast ( ; , ) is the capital and largest city of Northern Ireland ...
and the creation of the
Catholic University of Ireland Despite the international reputation of the founding Rector, John Henry Newman, the university failed to attract sufficient funding and students before 1880. The Catholic University of Ireland (CUI; ga, Ollscoil Chaitliceach na hÉireann) was ...

Catholic University of Ireland
in 1854. From 1880, the degree awarding roles of these two universities was taken over by the
Royal University of Ireland The Royal University of Ireland was founded in accordance with the ''University Education (Ireland) Act 1879'' as an examining and degree-awarding university based on the model of the University of London. A Royal Charter was issued on 27 April ...
, which remained until the creation of the National University in 1908 and
Queen's University Belfast , native_name_lang = Irish , image_upright = , image_size = 150px , image_alt = Seal of Queen's University Belfast , caption = Coat of arms of Queen's University Belfast , latin_name = Universitas Reginae Belfastiae , motto = la, Pro t ...

Queen's University Belfast
. The state's two new universities,
Dublin City University Dublin City University (abbreviated as DCU) ( ga, Ollscoil Chathair Bhaile Átha Cliath) is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary educat ...
and
University of Limerick The University of Limerick (UL) ( ga, Ollscoil Luimnigh) is a institution in , . Founded in 1972 as the , , it became a in 1989 in accordance with the . It was the first university established since Irish independence in 1922, followed by the ...
, were initially
National Institute for Higher Education A National Institute for Higher Education (NIHE) ( ga, Foras Náisiúnta um Ard-Oideachas) was a category of higher education Higher education is tertiary education leading to award of an academic degree. Higher education, also called post-second ...
institutions. These institutions offered university level academic degrees and research from the start of their existence and were awarded university status in 1989 in recognition of this. Third level technical education in the state has been carried out in the
Institutes of Technology An institute of technology (also referred to as: technological university, technical university, university of technology, technological educational institute, technical college, polytechnic university or just polytechnic) is an institution of te ...
, which were established from the 1970s as Regional Technical Colleges. These institutions have ''delegated authority'' which entitles them to give degrees and diplomas from
Quality and Qualifications Ireland Quality and Qualifications Ireland (''Irish: Dearbhú Cáilíochta agus Cáilíochtaí Éireann'') (QQI) is the national agency responsible for qualifications Qualification is either the process of qualifying for an achievement, or a credential ...
(QQI) in their own names. A number of private colleges exist such as
Dublin Business School Dublin Business School (DBS), incorporating Portobello College, is one of the two largest independent colleges in Republic of Ireland, Ireland. With over 9,000 students, DBS provides a range of full-time and part-time undergraduate and postgrad ...
, providing undergraduate and postgraduate courses validated by QQI and in some cases by other universities. Other types of college include colleges of education, such as the
Church of Ireland College of Education The Church of Ireland College of Education or C.I.C.E. as it was more commonly known ( ga, Coláiste Oideachais Eaglais na hÉireann) was one of five Irish Colleges of Education which provided a Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.) degree, the qualifica ...
. These are specialist institutions, often linked to a university, which provide both undergraduate and postgraduate academic degrees for people who want to train as teachers. A number of state-funded further education colleges exist – which offer vocational education and training in a range of areas from business studies and
information and communications technology Information and communications technology (ICT) is an extensional term for information technology (IT) that stresses the role of unified communicationsUnified communications (UC) is a business and marketing Marketing refers to activities a co ...
to sports injury therapy. These courses are usually one, two or less often three years in duration and are validated by QQI at Levels 5 or 6, or for the BTEC
Higher National Diploma Higher National Diploma (HND), part of the Higher Nationals suite of qualifications, is an academic higher education Higher education is tertiary education leading to award of an academic degree. Higher education, also called post-secondary ed ...
award, which is a Level 6/7 qualification, validated by
Edexcel Edexcel (also known since 2013 as Pearson Edexcel) is a British multinational education and examination body formed in 1996 and wholly owned by Pearson plc since 2005. It is the only privately owned examination board in the United Kingdom. Its ...
. There are numerous private colleges (particularly in Dublin and Limerick) which offer both further and higher education qualifications. These degrees and diplomas are often certified by foreign universities/international awarding bodies and are aligned to the National Framework of Qualifications at Levels 6, 7 and 8.


Israel

In Israel, any non-university higher-learning facility is called a college. Institutions accredited by the
Council for Higher Education in Israel The Council for Higher Education in Israel ( he, המועצה להשכלה גבוהה, ''HaMo'atza LeHaskala Gevoha'') is a supervisory body for universities and colleges in Israel. It is the only organization with the authority to award academic e ...
(CHE) to confer a bachelor's degree are called "Academic Colleges". These colleges (at least 4 for 2012) may also offer master's degrees and act as Research facilities. There are also over twenty teacher training colleges or seminaries, most of which may award only a
Bachelor of Education A Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.) is an undergraduate Undergraduate education ieducationconducted after secondary education Secondary education covers two phases on the International Standard Classification of Education The International Stand ...
(BEd) degree. * Academic colleges: Any educational facility that had been approved to offer at least bachelor's degree is entitled by CHE to use the term academic college in its name. * Engineering academic college: Any academic facility that offer at least bachelor's degree and most of it faculties are providing an Engineering degree and Engineering license. * Educational academic college: After an educational facility that had been approved for "Teachers seminar" status is then approved to provide a
Bachelor of Education A Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.) is an undergraduate Undergraduate education ieducationconducted after secondary education Secondary education covers two phases on the International Standard Classification of Education The International Stand ...
, its name is changed to include "Educational Academic college." * Technical college: A "Technical college" is an educational facility that is approved to allow to provide P.E degree (14'th class) or technician (טכנאי) (13'th class) diploma and licenses. * Training College: A "Training College" is an educational facility that provides basic training allowing a person to receive a working permit in a field such as alternative medicine, cooking, Art, Mechanical, Electrical and other professions. A trainee could receive the right to work in certain professions as apprentice (j. mechanic, j. Electrician etc.). After working in the training field for enough time an apprentice could have a license to operate (Mechanic, Electrician). This educational facility is mostly used to provide basic training for low tech jobs and for job seekers without any training that are provided by the nation's Employment Service ( שירות התעסוקה).


Macau

Following the Portuguese usage, the term "college" (''colégio'') in
Macau Macau or Macao (; ; ; ), officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (MSAR), (RAEM) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. Lond ...

Macau
has traditionally been used in the names for private (and non-governmental) pre-university educational institutions, which correspond to form one to form six level tiers. Such schools are usually run by the Roman Catholic church or missionaries in Macau. Examples include Chan Sui Ki Perpetual Help College, Yuet Wah College, and Sacred Heart Canossian College.


Netherlands

In the Netherlands there are 3 main educational routes after high school. * MBO (middle-level applied education), which is the equivalent of
junior college A junior college (sometimes referred to colloquially as a juco or JuCo) is a post-secondary Tertiary education, also referred to as third-level, third-stage or post-secondary education, is the education Education is the process of f ...
. Designed to prepare students for either skilled trades and technical occupations and workers in support roles in professions such as engineering, accountancy, business administration, nursing, medicine, architecture, and criminology or for additional education at another college with more advanced academic material. * HBO (higher professional education), which is the equivalent of college and has a professional orientation. After HBO (typically 4–6 years), pupils can enroll in a (professional) master's program (1–2 years) or enter the job market. The HBO is taught in vocational universities (hogescholen), of which there are over 40 in the Netherlands, each of which offers a broad variety of programs, with the exception of some that specialize in arts or agriculture. Note that the hogescholen are not allowed to name themselves university in Dutch. This also stretches to English and therefore HBO institutions are known as
universities of applied sciences A university () is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in several Discipline (academia), academic disciplines. Universities typi ...
. * WO (Scientific education), which is the equivalent to university level education and has an academic orientation. HBO graduates can be awarded two titles, which are Baccalaureus (bc.) and Ingenieur (ing.). At a WO institution, many more bachelor's and master's titles can be awarded. Bachelor's degrees: Bachelor of Arts (BA), Bachelor of Science (BSc) and Bachelor of Laws (LLB). Master's degrees: Master of Arts (MA), Master of Laws (LLM) and Master of Science (MSc). The PhD title is a research degree awarded upon completion and defense of a doctoral thesis.


New Zealand

The constituent colleges of the former
University of New Zealand The University of New Zealand was New Zealand's sole degree-granting university from 1874 to 1961. It was a collegiate university embracing several constituent institutions at various locations around New Zealand. After it was dissolved in 1961 ...
(such as Canterbury University College) have become independent universities. Some halls of residence associated with New Zealand universities retain the name of "college", particularly at the
University of Otago , image_name = University of Otago Registry Building2.jpg , image_size = , caption = University clock tower , motto = la, Sapere aude , mottoeng = Dare to be wise , established = 1869 , type = Public In public relations and commun ...

University of Otago
(which although brought under the umbrella of the University of New Zealand, already possessed university status and degree awarding powers). The institutions formerly known as "Teacher-training colleges" now style themselves "College of education". Some universities, such as the
University of Canterbury The University of Canterbury ( mi, Te Whare Wānanga o Waitaha; postnominal abbreviation ''Cantuar.'' or ''Cant.'' for ''Cantuariensis'', the Latin name for Canterbury) is a Public university, public research university based in Christchurch, New ...
, have divided their university into constituent administrative "Colleges" – the College of Arts containing departments that teach Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences, College of Science containing Science departments, and so on. This is largely modelled on the Cambridge model, discussed above. Like the United Kingdom some professional bodies in New Zealand style themselves as "colleges", for example, the
Royal Australasian College of Surgeons The Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (RACS) is the leading advocate for surgical standards, professionalism and surgical education in Australia and New Zealand. Known by its common acronym RACS, it is a not-for-profit organisation, suppo ...
, the
Royal Australasian College of Physicians The Royal Australasian College of Physicians (RACP) is a not-for-profit professional organisation responsible for training and educating physicians A physician (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometime ...
. In some parts of the country, secondary school is often referred to as college and the term is used interchangeably with high school. This sometimes confuses people from other parts of New Zealand. But in all parts of the country many secondary schools have "College" in their name, such as Rangitoto College, New Zealand's largest secondary.


Philippines

In the Philippines, colleges usually refer to institutions of learning that grant degrees but whose scholastic fields are not as diverse as that of a university (
University of Santo Tomas The University of Santo Tomas (also known as UST, and officially as Pontifical and Royal University of Santo Tomas, Manila) is a Private university, private, Catholic research university in Manila, Philippines. Founded on April 28, 1611, by Span ...

University of Santo Tomas
,
University of the Philippines The University of the Philippines (UP; Filipino language, Filipino: ''Pamantasan ng Pilipinas'' or ''Unibersidad'' ''ng Pilipinas'') is a Higher education in the Philippines#State universities and colleges, state university system in the Philippi ...
,
Ateneo de Manila University The Ateneo de Manila University (Filipino Filipino may refer to: * Something from or related to the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipi ...
,
De La Salle University De La Salle University ( fil, Pamantasang De La Salle or Unibersidad ng De La Salle), also referred to as DLSU, De La Salle or La Salle, is a private university, private, Catholic Church, Catholic coeducational research university run by the I ...
,
Far Eastern University Far Eastern University ( Filipino: ''Pamantasan ng Malayong Silangan''), also known simply as FEU, is a private university Private universities (and private colleges) are usually not operated by governments, although many receive tax breaks, p ...
, and AMA University), such as the
San Beda College San Beda University ( fil, Pamantasang San Beda, es, Universidad de San Beda) is a private Roman Catholic Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century ...

San Beda College
which specializes in law, AMA Computer College whose campuses are spread all over the Philippines which specializes in information and computing technologies, and the Mapúa Institute of Technology which specializes in engineering, or to component units within universities that do not grant degrees but rather facilitate the instruction of a particular field, such as a College of Science and College of Engineering, among many other colleges of the
University of the Philippines The University of the Philippines (UP; Filipino language, Filipino: ''Pamantasan ng Pilipinas'' or ''Unibersidad'' ''ng Pilipinas'') is a Higher education in the Philippines#State universities and colleges, state university system in the Philippi ...
. A state college may not have the word "college" on its name, but may have several component colleges, or departments. Thus, the Eulogio Amang Rodriguez Institute of Science and Technology is a state college by classification. Usually, the term "college" is also thought of as a hierarchical demarcation between the term "university", and quite a number of colleges seek to be recognized as universities as a sign of improvement in academic standards (
Colegio de San Juan de Letran The Colegio de San Juan de Letran, (transl: College of San Juan de Letran) also referred to by its acronym CSJL, is a private Catholic coeducational basic and higher education institution owned and run by the friars of the Order of Preachers ...
,
San Beda College San Beda University ( fil, Pamantasang San Beda, es, Universidad de San Beda) is a private Roman Catholic Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century ...

San Beda College
), and increase in the diversity of the offered degree programs (called "courses"). For private colleges, this may be done through a survey and evaluation by the Commission on Higher Education and accrediting organizations, as was the case of Urios College which is now the
Fr. Saturnino Urios University The Father Saturnino Urios University (FSUU) ( lat, Pater Saturnino Urios Universitas; fil, Pamantasang Padre Saturnino Urios) is a Roman Catholic Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilizat ...
. For state colleges, it is usually done by a legislation by the Congress or Senate. In common usage, "going to college" simply means attending school for an undergraduate degree, whether it's from an institution recognized as a college or a university. When it comes to referring to the level of education, ''college'' is the term more used to be synonymous to tertiary or higher education. A student who is or has studied his/her undergraduate degree at either an institution with ''college'' or ''university'' in its name is considered to be going to or have gone to ''college''.


Portugal

Presently in
Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who ...

Portugal
, the term ''colégio'' (college) is normally used as a generic reference to a private (non-government) school that provides from
basic BASIC (Beginners' All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) is a family of general-purpose, high-level programming language In computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the ar ...
to
secondary education Secondary education covers two phases on the International Standard Classification of Education The International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) is a statistical framework for organizing information on education Educatio ...
. Many of the private schools include the term ''colégio'' in their name. Some special public schools – usually of the boarding school type – also include the term in their name, with a notable example being the ''
Colégio Militar ''Colégio Militar'' ( Portuguese for "Military College") is a military secondary Secondary is an adjective meaning "second" or "second hand". It may refer to: * Secondary (chemistry), term used in organic chemistry to classify various types of c ...

Colégio Militar
'' (Military College). The term ''colégio interno'' (literally "internal college") is used specifically as a generic reference to a boarding school. Until the 19th century, a ''colégio'' was usually a secondary or pre-university school, of public or religious nature, where the students usually lived together. A model for these colleges was the Royal College of Arts and Humanities, founded in
Coimbra Coimbra (, also , , or ) is a city and a concelho, municipality in Portugal. The population of the municipality at the 2011 census was 143,397, in an area of . The fourth-largest urban centre in Portugal (after Lisbon, Porto and Braga), it is the ...

Coimbra
by King
John III of Portugal John III ( pt, João III ; 7 June 1502 – 11 June 1557), nicknamed The Pious (Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal Portugal (), officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, R ...

John III of Portugal
in 1542.


Singapore

The term "college" in
Singapore Singapore (), officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign state, sovereign island city-state in maritime Southeast Asia. It lies about one degree of latitude () north of the equator, off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, bor ...

Singapore
is generally only used for pre-university educational institutions called "Junior Colleges", which provide the final two years of secondary education (equivalent to sixth form in British terms or grades 11–12 in the American system). Since 1 January 2005, the term also refers to the three campuses of the
Institute of Technical Education The Institute of Technical Education (Abbreviation An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full version o ...
with the introduction of the "collegiate system", in which the three institutions are called
ITE College East ITE College East (Abbreviation: ITE CE-SM) is an educational institution under the Institute of Technical Education. The campus is the 1st ITE campus and under ITE's "One ITE System, 3 Colleges" plan in Singapore. It is located in the eastern par ...
,
ITE College Central ITE College Central (ITE CC) is one of the Institute of Technical Education's three colleges under the "One ITE System, Three Colleges" Governance and Education Model. Campus This third comprehensive college covers a land area of 10.61 hectares w ...

ITE College Central
, and
ITE College West ITE College West (Abbreviation An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full version of the word or phrase; f ...
respectively. The term "university" is used to describe higher-education institutions offering locally conferred degrees. Institutions offering diplomas are called " polytechnics", while other institutions are often referred to as "institutes" and so forth.


South Africa

Although the term "college" is hardly used in any context at any university in South Africa, some non-university tertiary institutions call themselves colleges. These include teacher training colleges, business colleges and wildlife management colleges. See: List of universities in South Africa#Private colleges and universities;
List of post secondary institutions in South Africa This is a list of post secondary educational institutions in South Africa. These institutions are not accredited degree-granting institutions. For a list of universities and other degree-granting institutions see List of universities in South Afric ...
.


Sri Lanka

There are several professional and vocational institutions that offer post-secondary education without granting degrees that are referred to as "colleges". This includes the
Sri Lanka Law College , mottoeng = Let justice be done , established = 1874 , type = Public , endowment = , staff = , faculty = , principal = Indira Samarasinghe PC , students = , undergrad = , postgrad = , doctoral = , address = 244 Hulftsdorp Street , city = C ...
, the many Technical Colleges and Teaching Colleges.


Turkey

In Turkey, the term "kolej" (college) refers to a private high school, typically preceded by one year of preparatory language education. Notable Turkish colleges include
Robert College The American Robert College of Istanbul ( tr, İstanbul Özel Amerikan Robert Lisesi or ), often shortened to Robert, RC, or RK, is a highly selective, independent Independent or Independents may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Arti ...
, Uskudar American Academy, American Collegiate Institute and Tarsus American College.


United Kingdom


Secondary education and further education

Further education (FE) colleges and
sixth form college Shrewsbury Sixth Form College in Shropshire A sixth form college is an educational institution, where students aged 16 to 19 typically study for advanced school-level qualifications, such as A Levels#REDIRECT A-Level The A Level (Advanced Level ...
s are institutions providing further education to students over 16. Some of these also provide higher education courses (see below). In the context of secondary education, 'college' is used in the names of some private schools, e.g.
Eton College Eton College () is a public school (private sector) for boys in Eton, Berkshire Eton ( ) is a town in Berkshire, England, on the opposite bank of the River Thames to Windsor, connected to it by Windsor Bridge. The civil parish In ...

Eton College
and
Winchester College Winchester College is a public school (a fee-charging independent school File:Share enrolled in private institutions at the tertiary education level, OWID.svg, Share enrolled in private institutions at the tertiary education level (2015) ...

Winchester College
.


Higher education

In higher education, a college is normally a provider that does not hold university status, although it can also refer to a constituent part of a collegiate or federal university or a grouping of academic faculties or departments within a university. Traditionally the distinction between colleges and universities was that colleges did not award degrees while universities did, but this is no longer the case with NCG having gained taught degree awarding powers (the same as some universities) on behalf of its colleges, and many of the colleges of the University of London holding full degree awarding powers and being effectively universities. Most colleges, however, do not hold their own degree awarding powers and continue to offer higher education courses that are validated by universities or other institutions that can award degrees. In England, , over 60% of the higher education providers directly funded by
HEFCE The Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) was a non-departmental public body in the United Kingdom, which was responsible for the distribution of funding for higher education to universities and further education colleges in Englan ...
(208/340) are sixth-form or further education colleges, often termed colleges of further and higher education, along with 17 colleges of the University of London, one
university college In a number of countries, a university college is a college institution that provides tertiary education but does not have full or independent university status. A university college is often part of a larger university. The precise usage varies ...
, 100 universities, and 14 other providers (six of which use 'college' in their name). Overall, this means over two-thirds of state-supported higher education providers in England are colleges of one form or another. Many private providers are also called colleges, e.g. the
New College of the Humanities New College of the Humanities (NCH) is a college of higher education in London, England. It was founded as a private college by the philosopher A. C. Grayling, who became its first Master (college), Master. The college, which grants undergraduat ...
and
St Patrick's College, London St Patrick's College (also known as St Patrick's International College) is a for-profit private higher education Higher education is tertiary education leading to award of an academic degree. Higher education, also called post-secondary educati ...
. Colleges within universities vary immensely in their responsibilities. The large constituent colleges of the
University of London The University of London (UoL; abbreviated as Lond or more rarely Londin in post-nominals Post-nominal letters, also called post-nominal initials, post-nominal titles or designatory letters, are letters placed after a person's name to indicate ...
are effectively universities in their own right; colleges in some universities, including those of the
University of the Arts London University of the Arts London is a collegiate university A collegiate university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, ter ...
and smaller colleges of the
University of London The University of London (UoL; abbreviated as Lond or more rarely Londin in post-nominals Post-nominal letters, also called post-nominal initials, post-nominal titles or designatory letters, are letters placed after a person's name to indicate ...
, run their own degree courses but do not award degrees; those at the
University of Roehampton The University of Roehampton, formerly Roehampton Institute of Higher Education, is a public university #REDIRECT Public university#REDIRECT Public university A public university or public college is a university or college that is in state ow ...
provide accommodation and pastoral care as well as delivering the teaching on university courses; those at
Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town and only city of Oxfordshire. In 2017, its population was estimated at 152,450. It is northwest of London, southeast of Birmingham, and northeast of Bristol. The city is home to the Unive ...
and
Cambridge Cambridge ( ) is a College town, university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of London. At the United Kingdom Census 2011, the population of the Cambridge built-up area (which is larger ...
deliver some teaching on university courses as well as providing accommodation and pastoral care; and those in ,
Kent Kent is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Robert ...
,
LancasterLancaster may refer to: Lands and titles *The County Palatine of Lancaster, a synonym for Lancashire *Duchy of Lancaster, one of only two British royal duchies *Duke of Lancaster *Earl of Lancaster *House of Lancaster, a British royal dynasty ...

Lancaster
and
York York is a cathedral city City status in the United Kingdom is granted by the monarch of the United Kingdom The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United ...
provide accommodation and pastoral care but do not normally participate in formal teaching. The legal status of these colleges also varies widely, with University of London colleges being independent corporations and recognised bodies, Oxbridge colleges, colleges of the
University of the Highlands and Islands A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various Discipline (academia), academic d ...
(UHI) and some Durham colleges being independent corporations and listed bodies, most Durham colleges being owned by the university but still listed bodies, and those of other collegiate universities not having formal recognition. When applying for undergraduate courses through
UCAS The Universities and Colleges Admissions Service (UCAS ) is a UK-based organisation whose main role is to operate the application process for British universities. It operates as an independent charity, funded by fees charged to applicants and u ...
, University of London colleges are treated as independent providers, colleges of Oxford, Cambridge, Durham and UHI are treated as locations within the universities that can be selected by specifying a 'campus code' in addition to selecting the university, and colleges of other universities are not recognised. The UHI and the
University of Wales Trinity Saint David , image_name = Crest of TSD.png , image_size = 200px , caption = Coat of arms of the University of Wales Trinity Saint David , established = 2010 (Saint David's College, Lampeter founded 1822 and opened 1827; royal cha ...
(UWTSD) both include further education colleges. However, while the UHI colleges integrate FE and HE provision, UWTSD maintains a separation between the university campuses (Lampeter, Carmarthen and Swansea) and the two colleges (''Coleg Sir Gâr'' and ''Coleg Ceredigion''; n.b. ''coleg'' is
Welsh Welsh may refer to: Related to Wales * Welsh, referring or related to Wales * Welsh language, a Brittonic Celtic language of the Indo-European language family, indigenous to the British Isles, spoken in Wales ** Patagonian Welsh, a dialect of Wels ...
for college), which although part of the same group are treated as separate institutions rather than colleges within the university. A
university college In a number of countries, a university college is a college institution that provides tertiary education but does not have full or independent university status. A university college is often part of a larger university. The precise usage varies ...

university college
is an independent institution with the power to award taught degrees, but which has not been granted university status. University College is a protected title that can only be used with permission, although note that
University College London University College London, which Trade name, operates as UCL, is a major public university , public research university located in London, United Kingdom. UCL is a Member institutions of the University of London, member institution of the Federa ...
,
University College, Oxford University College (in full The College of the Great Hall of the University of Oxford, colloquially referred to as "Univ") is a Colleges of the University of Oxford, constituent college of the University of Oxford in England. It has a claim to ...
and
University College, Durham , motto_English = Not for ourselves alone , scarf = , established = , principal = Wendy Powers , vice_principal = Ellen Crabtree , undergraduates = 698 , postgraduates = 153 , coordinates = , location_map = Durham , map_size ...

University College, Durham
are colleges within their respective universities and not university colleges (in the case of UCL holding full degree awarding powers that set it above a university college), while
University College Birmingham University College Birmingham is a university in Birmingham, England. It was awarded full University status in 2012 along with Newman University, Birmingham, Newman University. It is not a member of Universities UK. The university is located in c ...
is a university in its own right and also not a university college.


United States

In the United States, there are over 7021 colleges and universities. A "college" in the US formally denotes a constituent part of a university, but in popular usage, the word "college" is the generic term for any post-secondary undergraduate education. Americans "go to college" after
high school A secondary school describes an institution that provides secondary education Secondary education covers two phases on the International Standard Classification of Education The International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) is a ...
, regardless of whether the specific institution is formally a college or a university. Some students choose to dual-enroll, by taking college classes while still in high school. The word and its derivatives are the standard terms used to describe the institutions and experiences associated with American post-secondary undergraduate education. Students must pay for college before taking classes. Some borrow the money via loans, and some students fund their educations with cash, scholarships, grants, or some combination of these payment methods. In 2011, the state or federal government subsidized $8,000 to $100,000 for each undergraduate degree. For state-owned schools (called "public" universities), the subsidy was given to the college, with the student benefiting from lower tuition. The state subsidized on average 50% of public university tuition. Colleges vary in terms of size, degree, and length of stay. Two-year colleges, also known as
junior Junior or Juniors may refer to: Sport * Junior athletics, age-based athletic training and completion category * Instances of junior athletic competition: ** Junior football (disambiguation) ** Atlético Junior, Colombian football team ** Argentin ...
or
community college A community college is a type of educational institution An educational institution is a place where people of different ages gain an education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, ...
s, usually offer an
associate degree An associate degree is an undergraduate degree awarded after a course of post-secondary study lasting two to three years. It is a level of qualification between a high school diploma, GED, and a Bachelor's degree. The first associate degrees we ...
, and four-year colleges usually offer a
bachelor's degree A bachelor's degree (from Middle Latin Medieval Latin was the form of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area ...
. Often, these are entirely
undergraduate Undergraduate education ieducationconducted after secondary education and prior to postgraduate education. It typically includes all postsecondary programs up to the level of a bachelor's degree. For example, in the United States, an entry-level ...
institutions, although some have
graduate school File:CCMDonation49.JPG, Student receives degree from the Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education, Mexico City, 2013 A graduate school (sometimes shortened to grad school) is a school that awards advanced academic degrees (e.g., ma ...
programs. Four-year institutions in the U.S. that emphasize a
liberal arts Liberal arts education (from Latin "free" and "art or principled practice") is the traditional academic program in Western higher education. ''Liberal arts'' takes the term ''Art (skill), art'' in the sense of a learned skill rather than spec ...
curriculum are known as
liberal arts colleges A liberal arts college or liberal arts institution of higher education is a college A college (Latin: ''collegium'') is an educational institution or a University system, constituent part of one. A college may be a academic degree, degree-aw ...
. Until the 20th century, liberal arts, law, medicine, theology, and divinity were about the only form of higher education available in the United States. These schools have traditionally emphasized instruction at the undergraduate level, although advanced research may still occur at these institutions. While there is no national standard in the United States, the term "university" primarily designates institutions that provide undergraduate and
graduate education Postgraduate education (graduate education in North America) involves learning and studying for Academic degree, academic or professional degrees, academic or professional certificates, academic or professional diplomas, or other qualifications ...
. A university typically has as its core and its largest internal division an undergraduate college teaching a
liberal arts Liberal arts education (from Latin "free" and "art or principled practice") is the traditional academic program in Western higher education. ''Liberal arts'' takes the term ''Art (skill), art'' in the sense of a learned skill rather than spec ...
curriculum, also culminating in a
bachelor's degree A bachelor's degree (from Middle Latin Medieval Latin was the form of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area ...
. What often distinguishes a university is having, in addition, one or more graduate schools engaged in both teaching graduate classes and in research. Often these would be called a School of Law or School of Medicine, (but may also be called a college of law, or a faculty of law). An exception is
Vincennes University Vincennes University (VU) is a public university A public university or public college is a university or college that is in state ownership or receives significant Government spending, public funds through a national or subnational governmen ...
,
Indiana Indiana () is a U.S. state in the Midwestern United States, Midwestern United States. It is the List of U.S. states and territories by area, 38th-largest by area and the List of U.S. states and territories by population, 17th-most populous o ...

Indiana
, which is styled and chartered as a "university" even though almost all of its academic programs lead only to two-year associate degrees. Some institutions, such as
Dartmouth College Dartmouth College ( ) is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly tw ...
and
The College of William & Mary The College of William & Mary (also known as William & Mary, W&M, and officially The College of William and Mary in Virginia) is a public university, public research university in Williamsburg, Virginia. Founded in 1693 by letters patent issued ...
, have retained the term "college" in their names for historical reasons. In one unique case,
Boston College Boston College (BC) is a private university, private research university in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts. Founded in 1863 as a Society of Jesus, Jesuit school, the university has more than 9,300 full-time undergraduates and nearly 5,000 gradua ...
and
Boston University Boston University (BU) is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearl ...
, the former located in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts and the latter located in Boston, Massachusetts, are completely separate institutions. Usage of the terms varies among the states. In 1996, for example,
Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country), a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia * Georgia (U.S. state), one of the states of the United States of America Georgia may also refer to: Historical states and entities * Democratic Republ ...
changed all of its four-year institutions previously designated as colleges to universities, and all of its
vocation A vocation () is an occupation Occupation commonly refers to: *Occupation or job, one's role in society, often a regular activity performed for payment *Occupation (protest) As an act of protest, occupation is a strategy often used by social mo ...

vocation
al technology schools to technical colleges. The terms "university" and "college" do not exhaust all possible titles for an American institution of higher education. Other options include "institute" (
Worcester Polytechnic Institute , mottoeng = "Learning and Skilled Art" , established = , type = Private research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, ...
and
Massachusetts Institute of Technology Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a Private university, private Land-grant university, land-grant research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Established in 1861, MIT has since played a key role in the development of modern ...
), "academy" (
United States Military Academy The United States Military Academy (USMA), also known as West Point or simply Army is a four-year United States service academies, United States service academy in West Point, New York. It was originally established as a fort, as it si ...
), "union" (
Cooper Union The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art, commonly known as Cooper Union and informally referred to, especially during the 19th century, as the Cooper Institute, is a private college at Cooper Square in New York City. Inspired i ...

Cooper Union
), "conservatory" (
New England Conservatory The New England Conservatory of Music (NEC) is a private music school A music school is an educational institution Institutions, according to Samuel P. Huntington, are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior". Institutions can refe ...
), and "school" (
Juilliard School The Juilliard School () is a Private university, private performing arts music school, conservatory in New York City. Established in 1905, the school trains about 850 undergraduate and graduate students in dance, drama, and music. It is widely ...
). In colloquial use, they are still referred to as "college" when referring to their undergraduate studies. The term ''college'' is also, as in the United Kingdom, used for a constituent semi-autonomous part of a larger university but generally organized on academic rather than residential lines. For example, at many institutions, the undergraduate portion of the university can be briefly referred to as the college (such as The
College of the University of Chicago The College of the University of Chicago is the university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards ...

College of the University of Chicago
,
Harvard College Harvard College is the undergraduate Undergraduate education is education conducted after secondary education and prior to postgraduate education. It typically includes all postsecondary programs up to the level of a bachelor's degree A b ...
at
Harvard Harvard University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly tw ...

Harvard
, or Columbia College at
Columbia Columbia may refer to: * Columbia (personification), the historical female national personification of the United States, and a poetic name for the Americas Places North America Natural features * Columbia Plateau, a geologic and geographic regio ...

Columbia
) while at others, such as the
University of California, Berkeley The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public university, public land-grant university, land-grant research university in Berkeley, California. Established in 1868 as the University of California ...

University of California, Berkeley
, each of the faculties may be called a "college" (the "college of engineering", the "college of nursing", and so forth). There exist other variants for historical reasons; for example,
Duke University Duke University is a Private university, private research university in Durham, North Carolina. Founded by Methodists and Quakers in the present-day town of Trinity, North Carolina, Trinity in 1838, the school moved to Durham in 1892. In 1924, t ...
, which was called Trinity College until the 1920s, still calls its main undergraduate subdivision Trinity College of Arts and Sciences.


Residential colleges

Some American universities, such as
Princeton Princeton University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two ...

Princeton
,
Rice Rice is the seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The band's first double album, it was relea ...

Rice
, and
Yale Yale University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two ...
have established
residential collegeA residential college is a division of a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic d ...
s (sometimes, as at
Harvard Harvard University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly tw ...

Harvard
, the first to establish such a system in the 1930s, known as houses) along the lines of Oxford or Cambridge. Unlike the Oxbridge colleges, but similarly to , these residential colleges are not autonomous legal entities nor are they typically much involved in education itself, being primarily concerned with room, board, and social life. At the
University of Michigan The University of Michigan (Michigan, or UMich) is a public university, public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Founded in 1817 by an act of the old Michigan Territory, as the History of the University of Michigan#The Catholepistemiad ( ...

University of Michigan
,
University of California, San Diego The University of California, San Diego (UC San Diego or, colloquially, UCSD) is a public university, public Land-grant university, land-grant research university in San Diego, California. Established in 1960 near the pre-existing Scripps Inst ...
and the
University of California, Santa Cruz The University of California, Santa Cruz (UC Santa Cruz or UCSC) is a public university, public Land-grant university, land-grant research university in Santa Cruz, California. It is one of the ten campuses in the University of California syste ...
, each residential college teaches its own core writing courses and has its own distinctive set of graduation requirements. Many U.S. universities have placed increased emphasis on their residential colleges in recent years. This is exemplified by the creation of new colleges at
Ivy League The Ivy League (also known as The Ancient Eight) is an American collegiate athletic conference An athletic conference is a collection of sports teams, playing competitively against each other at the professional, collegiate, or high school l ...
schools such as
Yale University Yale University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two ...
and
Princeton University Princeton University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly tw ...

Princeton University
, and efforts to strengthen the contribution of the residential colleges to student education, including through a 2016 taskforce at Princeton on residential colleges.


Origin of the U.S. usage

The founders of the first institutions of higher education in the United States were graduates of the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge. The small institutions they founded would not have seemed to them like universities – they were tiny and did not offer the higher degrees in medicine and theology. Furthermore, they were not composed of several small colleges. Instead, the new institutions felt like the Oxford and Cambridge colleges they were used to – small communities, housing and feeding their students, with instruction from residential tutors (as in the United Kingdom, described above). When the first students graduated, these "colleges" assumed the right to confer degrees upon them, usually with authority—for example,
The College of William & Mary The College of William & Mary (also known as William & Mary, W&M, and officially The College of William and Mary in Virginia) is a public university, public research university in Williamsburg, Virginia. Founded in 1693 by letters patent issued ...
has a
Royal Charter A royal charter is a formal grant issued by a monarch under royal prerogative The royal prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege, and immunity, recognized in common law and, sometimes, in civil law jurisdictions possessing ...

Royal Charter
from the British monarchy allowing it to confer degrees while
Dartmouth College Dartmouth College ( ) is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly tw ...
has a charter permitting it to award degrees "as are usually granted in either of the universities, or any other college in our realm of Great Britain." The leaders of
Harvard College Harvard College is the undergraduate Undergraduate education is education conducted after secondary education and prior to postgraduate education. It typically includes all postsecondary programs up to the level of a bachelor's degree A b ...
(which granted America's first degrees in 1642) might have thought of their college as the first of many residential colleges that would grow up into a New Cambridge university. However, over time, few new colleges were founded there, and Harvard grew and added higher faculties. Eventually, it changed its title to university, but the term "college" had stuck and "colleges" have arisen across the United States. In U.S. usage, the word "college" not only embodies a particular type of school, but has historically been used to refer to the general concept of higher education when it is not necessary to specify a school, as in "going to college" or "college savings accounts" offered by banks. In a survey of more than 2,000 college students in 33 states and 156 different campuses, the U.S. Public Interest Research Group found the average student spends as much as $1,200 each year on textbooks and supplies alone. By comparison, the group says that's the equivalent of 39 percent of tuition and fees at a community college, and 14 percent of tuition and fees at a four-year public university.


Morrill Land-Grant Act

In addition to private colleges and universities, the U.S. also has a system of government funded,
public universities A public university or public college is a university or college that is in state ownership or receives significant Government spending, public funds through a national or subnational government, as opposed to a private university. Whether a natio ...
. Many were founded under the
Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act The Morrill Land-Grant Acts are United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S ...
of 1862. A movement had arisen to bring a form of more practical higher education to the masses, as "...many politicians and educators wanted to make it possible for all young Americans to receive some sort of advanced education." The Morrill Act "...made it possible for the new western states to establish colleges for the citizens." Its goal was to make higher education more easily accessible to the citizenry of the country, specifically to improve agricultural systems by providing training and scholarship in the production and sales of agricultural products, and to provide formal education in "...agriculture, home economics, mechanical arts, and other professions that seemed practical at the time." The act was eventually extended to allow all states that had remained with the Union during the
American Civil War The American Civil War (also known by Names of the American Civil War, other names) was a civil war in the United States from 1861 to 1865, fought between northern U.S. state, states loyal to the Union (American Civil War), Union and sout ...
, and eventually all states, to establish such institutions. Most of the colleges established under the Morrill Act have since become full universities, and some are among the elite of the world.


Benefits of college

Selection of a four-year college as compared to a two-year junior college, even by marginal students such as those with a C+ grade average in high school and SAT scores in the mid 800s, increases the probability of graduation and confers substantial economic and social benefits.


Zimbabwe

The term college is mainly used by private or independent secondary schools with Advanced Level (Upper 6th formers) and also Polytechnic Colleges which confer diplomas only. A student can complete secondary education (International General Certificate of Secondary Education,
IGCSE The International General Certificate of Secondary Education (IGCSE) is an English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has even ...

IGCSE
) at 16 years and proceed straight to a poly-technical college or they can proceed to Advanced level (16 to 19 years) and obtain a General Certificate of Education ( GCE) certificate which enables them to enroll at a university, provided they have good grades. Alternatively, with lower grades, the GCE certificate holders will have an added advantage over their
GCSE The General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) is an academic qualification in a particular subject, taken in England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies north ...
counterparts if they choose to enroll at a polytechnical college. Some schools in Zimbabwe choose to offer the
International Baccalaureate The International Baccalaureate (IB), formerly known as the International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO), is a nonprofit A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit insti ...
studies as an alternative to the
IGCSE The International General Certificate of Secondary Education (IGCSE) is an English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has even ...

IGCSE
and GCE.


See also

*
Madrasa Madrasa (, also , ; Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental cou ...

Madrasa
* Ashramas


Notes


References

{{Authority control Educational stages Higher education Types of university or college * Youth