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Beeswax (''cera alba'') is a natural
wax Waxes are a diverse class of organic compound In , organic compounds are generally any s that contain - . Due to carbon's ability to (form chains with other carbon s), millions of organic compounds are known. The study of the properties, ...
produced by
honey bee A honey bee (also spelled honeybee) is a eusocial flying insect within the genus ''Apis'' of the bee clade, all native to Eurasia. They are known for their construction of wiktionary:perennial, perennial Colony (biology), colonial nests from B ...

honey bee
s of the genus ''Apis''. The wax is formed into scales by eight wax-producing glands in the abdominal segments of
worker bee A worker bee is any female (eusocial Eusociality (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. ...
s, which discard it in or at the hive. The hive workers collect and use it to form cells for honey storage and larval and pupal protection within the
beehive A beehive is an enclosed structure in which some honey bee species of the subgenus In biology, a subgenus (plural: subgenera) is a taxonomic rank directly below genus. In the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, a subgeneric name can b ...

beehive
. Chemically, beeswax consists mainly of
ester An ester is a chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entity, molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one chemical element, element held together by chemic ...

ester
s of
fatty acids In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in ...
and various long-chain alcohols. Beeswax has been used since prehistory as the first plastic, as a lubricant and waterproofing agent, in
lost wax casting On the left is an example of a rubber mould, often used in the lost-wax process, and on the right is the finished bronze sculpture. Lost-wax casting (also called "investment casting", "precision casting", or ''cire perdue'' which has been ado ...

lost wax casting
of metals and glass, as a
polish Polish may refer to: * Anything from or related to Poland Poland ( pl, Polska ), officially the Republic of Poland ( pl, Rzeczpospolita Polska, links=no ), is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Pol ...
for wood and leather, for making
candles A candle is an ignitable candle wick, wick embedded in wax, or another flammable solid substance such as tallow, that provides light, and in some cases, a Aroma compound, fragrance. A candle can also provide heat or a method of keeping time. ...

candles
, as an ingredient in cosmetics and as an artistic medium in encaustic painting. Beeswax is edible, having similarly negligible
toxicity Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism. Toxicity can refer to the effect on a whole organism, such as an animal, bacteria, bacterium, or plant, as well as the effect on ...

toxicity
to plant waxes, and is approved for food use in most countries and in the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
under the
E number E numbers ("E" stands for "Europe") are codes for substances used as food additive Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμ ...
E901.


Production

The wax is formed by
worker bee A worker bee is any female (eusocial Eusociality (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. ...
s, which secrete it from eight wax-producing mirror glands on the inner sides of the
sternites The sternum (pl. "sterna") is the Anatomical_terms_of_location#Dorsal_and_ventral, ventral portion of a segment of an arthropod thorax or abdomen. In insects, the sterna are usually single, large sclerites, and external. However, they can sometim ...
(the
ventral Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the of s, including s. Terms used generally derive from or roots and used to describe something in its . This position provides a definition of what is at the front ("anterior"), be ...
shield or plate of each segment of the body) on abdominal segments 4 to 7. The sizes of these wax glands depend on the age of the worker, and after many daily flights, these glands gradually begin to
atrophy Atrophy is the partial or complete wasting away of a part of the body. Causes of atrophy include mutations (which can destroy the gene to build up the organ), poor nourishment, poor circulatory system, circulation, loss of hormone, hormonal supp ...
. The new wax is initially glass-clear and colorless, becoming
opaque Opacity or opaque may refer to: * Impediments to (especially, visible) light: ** Opacities, absorption coefficients ** Opacity (optics), property or degree of blocking the transmission of light * Metaphors derived from literal optics: ** Opaque con ...
after
chewing Chewing or mastication is the process by which food Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional Nutrition is the biochemical Biochemistry or biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to liv ...
and being contaminated with pollen by the hive worker bees, becoming progressively yellower or browner by incorporation of
pollen Pollen is a powdery substance consisting of pollen grains which are Sporophyte, microsporophytes of spermatophyta, seed plants, which produce male gametes (sperm cells). Pollen grains have a hard coat made of sporopollenin that protects the ga ...

pollen
oils and
propolis Propolis or bee glue is a resin In polymer chemistry and materials science, resin is a solid or highly Viscosity, viscous substance of plant or synthetic origin that is typically convertible into polymers. Resins are usually mixtures of ...

propolis
. The wax scales are about across and thick, and about 1100 are needed to make a gram of wax. Worker bees use the beeswax to build
honeycomb A honeycomb is a mass of hexagonal prismatic wax , a typical wax ester. Image:Beeswax foundation.jpg, Commercial honeycomb foundation, made by pressing beeswax between patterned metal rollers. Waxes are a diverse class of organic compounds that ...

honeycomb
cells. For the wax-making bees to secrete wax, the ambient temperature in the hive must be . The book, ''Beeswax Production, Harvesting, Processing and Products'', suggests of beeswax is sufficient to store of honey. Another study estimated that of wax can store of honey. Honey in fat cells associated with wax glands is metabolized by bees into beeswax. The amount of
honey Honey is a sweet, viscous food substance made by honey bees Honey is a sweet, viscous food substance made by honey bees and some other Bee, bees. Bees produce honey from the sugary secretions of plants (floral nectar) or from secretion ...

honey
used by bees to produce wax has not been accurately determined, but according to Whitcomb's 1946 experiment, of honey yields of wax.


Processing

When beekeepers extract the honey, they cut off the wax caps from each honeycomb cell with an uncapping knife or machine. Beeswax may arise from such cappings, or from an old comb that is scrapped, or from the beekeeper removing unwanted
burr combIn beekeeping Beekeeping (or apiculture) is the maintenance of bee colonies, commonly in man-made beehive, hives, by humans. Most such bees are honey bees in the genus ''Apis (insect), Apis'', but other honey-producing bees such as ''Melipona'' sti ...

burr comb
and
brace combIn beekeeping Beekeeping (or apiculture) is the maintenance of bee colonies, commonly in man-made beehive, hives, by humans. Most such bees are honey bees in the genus ''Apis (insect), Apis'', but other honey-producing bees such as ''Melipona'' sti ...
and suchlike. Its color varies from nearly white to brownish, but most often is a shade of yellow, depending on purity, the region, and the type of flowers gathered by the bees. The wax from the
brood comb The brood comb is the beeswax foundation, made by pressing beeswax between patterned metal rollers Beeswax (''cera alba'') is a natural wax , a typical wax ester. Image:Beeswax foundation.jpg, Commercial honeycomb foundation, made by pres ...
of the honey bee hive tends to be darker than wax from the honeycomb because impurities accumulate more quickly in the brood comb. Due to the impurities, the wax must be rendered before further use. The leftovers are called
slumgum Slumgum in beekeeping Beekeeping (or apiculture) is the maintenance of colonies, commonly in man-made , by humans. Most such bees are s in the genus ', but other honey-producing bees such as ' stingless bees are also kept. A (or apiarist) ke ...

slumgum
, and is derived from old breeding rubbish (pupa casings, cocoons, shed larva skins, etc), bee droppings, propolis, and general rubbish. The wax may be clarified further by heating in water. As with petroleum waxes, it may be softened by dilution with mineral oil or vegetable oil to make it more workable at room temperature.


Bees reworking old wax

When bees, needing food, uncap honey, they drop the removed cappings and let them fall to the bottom of the hive. It is known for bees to rework such an accumulation of fallen old cappings into strange formations.


Physical characteristics

Beeswax is a fragrant solid at room temperature. The colors are light yellow, medium yellow, or dark brown and white. Beeswax is a tough
wax Waxes are a diverse class of organic compound In , organic compounds are generally any s that contain - . Due to carbon's ability to (form chains with other carbon s), millions of organic compounds are known. The study of the properties, ...
formed from a mixture of several
chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entity, molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one chemical element, element held together by chemical bonds. A homonuclear molecule, m ...
s. An approximate
chemical formula A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes ...
for beeswax is C15H31COOC30H61. Its main constituents are
palmitate Palmitic acid, or hexadecanoic acid in IUPAC nomenclature, is the most common saturated fatty acid A saturated fat is a type of fat in which the fatty acid chains have all or predominantly single bond In chemistry Chemistry is the sci ...

palmitate
, , and
oleate Oleic acid is a fatty acid In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and t ...

oleate
ester An ester is a chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entity, molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one chemical element, element held together by chemic ...

ester
s of long-chain (30–32 carbons)
aliphatic In organic chemistry, hydrocarbon In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry, organic compounds are generally any chemical compounds that contain carbon-hydrogen che ...
alcohol In chemistry, alcohol is an organic compound that carries at least one hydroxyl functional group (−OH) bound to a Saturated and unsaturated compounds, saturated carbon atom. The term alcohol originally referred to the primary alcohol ethan ...

alcohol
s, with the ratio of CH3(CH2)29O-CO-(CH2)14CH3 to
cerotic acid Cerotic acid, or hexacosanoic acid, is a 26-carbon Carbon (from la, carbo "coal") is a chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an ...

cerotic acid
CH3(CH2)24COOH, the two principal constituents, being 6:1. Beeswax can be classified generally into European and Oriental types. The
saponification value Saponification value or saponification number (SV or SN) represents the number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide (KOH) or sodium hydroxide (NaOH) required to saponification, saponify one gram of fat under the conditions specified. It is a measu ...
is lower (3–5) for European beeswax, and higher (8–9) for Oriental types.The analytical characterization can be done by high-temperature
Gas Chromatography Gas chromatography (GC) is a common type of chromatography In chemical analysis, chromatography is a laboratory technique for the Separation process, separation of a mixture into its components. The mixture is dissolved in a fluid solvent (g ...
. Beeswax has a relatively low
melting point The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature Temperature ( ) is a physical quantity that expresses hot and cold. It is the manifestation of thermal energy Thermal radiation in visible light can b ...

melting point
range of 62 to 64 °C (144 to 147 °F). If beeswax is heated above 85 °C (185 °F) discoloration occurs. The flash point of beeswax is 204.4 °C (400 °F). When natural beeswax is cold, it is brittle, and its fracture is dry and granular. At
room temperature Colloquially, room temperature is the range of air temperature Temperature is a physical quantity that expresses hot and cold. It is the manifestation of thermal energy, present in all matter, which is the source of the occurrence of heat ...
(conventionally taken as about 20 °C (68 °F)), it is tenacious and it softens further at human
body temperature Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contiguous system that embodies the Life#Biology, properties of life. It is a sy ...
(37 °C (99 °F)). The
specific gravity Relative density, or specific gravity, is the ratio In mathematics, a ratio indicates how many times one number contains another. For example, if there are eight oranges and six lemons in a bowl of fruit, then the ratio of oranges to lemon ...
of beeswax at is from 0.958 to 0.975; that of melted beeswax at (compared with water at ) is 0.9822.


Uses

Candle-making has long involved the use of beeswax, which burns readily and cleanly, and this material was traditionally prescribed for the making of the
Paschal candle :''This article describes the Paschal candle of the Western Churches. For the Paschal triple-candle used in Eastern Orthodox Church, Eastern Orthodox and Byzantine Rite, Byzantine Eastern Catholic Churches, Catholic churches see Paschal trikirion''. ...
or "Easter candle". Beeswax candles are purported to be superior to other wax candles, because they burn brighter and longer, do not bend, and burn "cleaner". It is further recommended for the making of other candles used in the
liturgy Liturgy is the customary public worship performed by a religious group. As a religious phenomenon, liturgy represents a community, communal response to and participation in the sacred through activities reflecting praise, thanksgiving, remembrance ...
of the
Roman Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Roman Catholic Church
. Beeswax is also the candle constituent of choice in the
Eastern Orthodox Church The Eastern Orthodox Church, also called the Orthodox Church, is the second-largest Christian church, with approximately 220 million baptised members. It operates as a communion Communion may refer to: Religion * The Eucharist (also cal ...
.Uwe Wolfmeier, Hans Schmidt, Franz-Leo Heinrichs, Georg Michalczyk, Wolfgang Payer, Wolfram Dietsche, Klaus Boehlke, Gerd Hohner, Josef Wildgruber "Waxes" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2002. . Refined beeswax plays a prominent role in art materials both as a binder in encaustic paint and as a stabilizer in
oil paint Oil paint is a type of slow-drying paint Paint is any pigmented liquid, liquefiable, or solid mastic composition that, after application to a substrate in a thin layer, converts to a solid film. It is most commonly used to protect, color, ...

oil paint
to add body. Beeswax is an ingredient in surgical
bone waxBone wax is a waxy substance used to help mechanically control bleeding from bone surfaces during surgery, surgical procedures. It is generally made of beeswax with a softening agent such as paraffin wax, paraffin or petroleum jelly and is smeared ...
, which is used during surgery to control bleeding from bone surfaces;
shoe polish Shoe polish (or boot polish) is a waxy , , or that is used to polish, , and s or s to extend the 's life and restore its appearance. Shoe polishes are distinguished by their textures, which range from liquids to hard waxes. Solvent, waxes, a ...

shoe polish
and furniture polish can both use beeswax as a component, dissolved in turpentine or sometimes blended with
linseed oil Linseed oil, also known as flaxseed oil or flax oil (in its edible form), is a colourless to yellowish oil obtained from the dried, ripened seeds of the flax Flax, also known as common flax or linseed, is a flowering plant, ''Linum usitatissimu ...
or tung oil; modeling waxes can also use beeswax as a component; pure beeswax can also be used as an organic surfboard wax. Beeswax blended with pine
rosin Rosin (), also called colophony or Greek pitch ( la, links=no, pix graeca), is a solid form of resin In polymer chemistry and materials science, resin is a solid or highly Viscosity, viscous substance of plant or synthetic origin that is t ...

rosin
is used for
waxing Waxing is the process of hair removal Hair removal, also known as epilation or depilation, is the deliberate removal of body hair or head hair. Hair typically grows all over the human body and can vary in thickness and length across human ...

waxing
, and can serve as an adhesive to attach reed plates to the structure inside a
squeezebox The term squeezebox (also squeeze box, squeeze-box) is a colloquial expression referring to any musical instrument of the general class of hand-held bellows-driven free reed aerophones such as the accordion and the concertina. The term is so appl ...
. It can also be used to make
Cutler's resinCutler's Resin, also known as Cutler's Pitch, is a waterproofing adhesive made by including wax when making a Pine Pitch Glue. Cutler's Resin commonly consists of pine A pine is any Pinophyta, conifer in the genus ''Pinus'' () of the family (biol ...
, an adhesive used to glue handles onto cutlery knives. It is used in Eastern Europe in egg decoration; it is used for writing, via
resist dyeing Resist dyeing (resist-dyeing) is a traditional method of dyeing Dyeing is the application of dyes 300px, Yarn drying after being dyed in the early American tradition, at living_history_museum.html"_;"title="Conner_Prairie_living_history ...
, on
batik Batik is an Indonesian Indonesian is anything of, from, or related to Indonesia, an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. It may refer to: * Indonesians, citizens of Indonesia ** Native Indonesians, diverse groups of local inhabitants of ...

batik
eggs (as in '''') and for making beaded eggs. Beeswax is used by
percussionist A percussion instrument is a musical instrument A musical instrument is a device created or adapted to make musical sounds. In principle, any object that produces sound can be considered a musical instrument—it is through purpose that ...
s to make a surface on
tambourine The tambourine is a musical instrument A musical instrument is a device created or adapted to make musical sounds. In principle, any object that produces sound can be considered a musical instrument—it is through purpose that the object bec ...
s for thumb rolls. It can also be used as a metal injection moulding binder component along with other polymeric binder materials. Beeswax was formerly used in the manufacture of phonograph cylinders. It may still be used to seal formal legal or
royal decree A decree is a rule of law usually issued by a head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foakes, pp. 110–11 " he head of statebeing an embodiment of the ...
and academic parchments such as placing an awarding stamp
imprimatur An ''imprimatur'' (sometimes abbreviated as ''impr.'', from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as La ...

imprimatur
of the university upon completion of postgraduate degrees. Purified and bleached beeswax is used in the production of food, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. The three main types of beeswax products are yellow, white, and beeswax absolute. Yellow beeswax is the crude product obtained from the honeycomb, white beeswax is bleached or filtered yellow beeswax, and beeswax
absoluteAbsolute may refer to: Companies * Absolute Entertainment, a video game publisher * Absolute Radio, (formerly Virgin Radio), independent national radio station in the UK * Absolute Software Corporation, specializes in security and data risk managem ...
is yellow beeswax treated with alcohol. In food preparation, it is used as a coating for
cheese Cheese is a dairy product Dairy products or milk products are a type of food Food is any substance consumed to provide Nutrient, nutritional support for an organism. Food is usually of plant, animal or Fungus, fungal origin, and conta ...

cheese
; by sealing out the air, protection is given against spoilage (mold growth). Beeswax may also be used as a food additive E901, in small quantities acting as a
glazing agent A glazing agent is a natural or synthetic substance that provides a waxy, homogeneous Homogeneity and heterogeneity are concepts often used in the sciences Science () is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and organiz ...
, which serves to prevent water loss, or used to provide surface protection for some fruits. Soft gelatin capsules and tablet coatings may also use E901. Beeswax is also a common ingredient of natural chewing gum. The wax monoesters in beeswax are poorly hydrolysed in the guts of humans and other
mammals Mammals (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the R ...
, so they have insignificant nutritional value. Some birds, such as
honeyguide Honeyguides (family In human society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same spatial or social territory, typically subj ...
s, can digest beeswax. Beeswax is the main diet of wax moth larvae. The use of beeswax in skin care and cosmetics has been increasing. A German study found beeswax to be superior to similar barrier creams (usually mineral oil-based creams such as
petroleum jelly Petroleum jelly, petrolatum, white petrolatum, soft paraffin, or multi-hydrocarbon, CAS number A CAS Registry Number, also referred to as CASRN or CAS Number, is a unique numerical identifier An identifier is a name that identifies (that is, ...
), when used according to its protocol. Beeswax is used in
lip balm Homemade lip balms Lip balm or lip salve is a wax , a typical wax ester. Image:Beeswax foundation.jpg, Commercial honeycomb foundation, made by pressing beeswax between patterned metal rollers. Waxes are a diverse class of organic compounds that ...

lip balm
,
lip gloss Lip gloss is a cosmetic used primarily to give lips a glossy lustre, and sometimes to add a subtle color. It is distributed as a liquid or a soft solid (not to be confused with lip balm, which generally has medical or soothing purposes or lipsti ...
, hand creams, salves, and moisturizers; and in cosmetics such as
eye shadow Eye shadow (or eyeshadow) is a cosmetic Cosmetic may refer to: *Cosmetics, or make-up, substances to enhance the beauty of the human body, apart from simple cleaning *Cosmetic, an adjective describing beauty, aesthetics, or appearance, especial ...
, blush, and
eye liner Eye liner or eyeliner is a cosmetic Cosmetic may refer to: *Cosmetics, or make-up, substances to enhance the beauty of the human body, apart from simple cleaning *Cosmetic, an adjective describing beauty, aesthetics, or appearance, especially co ...

eye liner
. Beeswax is also an important ingredient in moustache wax and hair pomades, which make hair look sleek and shiny. In oil spill control, beeswax is processed to create Petroleum Remediation Product (PRP). It is used to absorb oil or petroleum-based pollutants from water.


Historical uses

Beeswax was among the first plastics to be used, alongside other natural polymers such as
gutta-percha Gutta-percha is a tree of the genus '' Palaquium'' in the family Sapotaceae The Sapotaceae are a family In , family (from la, familia) is a of people related either by (by recognized birth) or (by marriage or other relationship). ...
,
horn Horn usually refers to: *Horn (acoustic), a conical or bell shaped aperture used to guide sound ** Horn (instrument), collective name for tube-shaped wind musical instruments *Horn (anatomy), a pointed, bony projection on the head of various anima ...
,
tortoiseshell Tortoiseshell or tortoise shell is a material produced from the shells of the larger species of tortoise Tortoises () are reptiles of the family Testudinidae of the order Testudines (Latin: tortoise). They are particularly distinguished from ...
, and
shellac Shellac () is a resin In polymer chemistry and materials science, resin is a solid or highly Viscosity, viscous substance of plant or synthetic origin that is typically convertible into polymers. Resins are usually mixtures of organic co ...
. For thousands of years, beeswax has had a wide variety of applications; it has been found in the tombs of Egypt, in wrecked Viking ships, and in Roman ruins. Beeswax never goes bad and can be heated and reused. Historically, it has been used: * As candles - the oldest intact beeswax candles north of the Alps were found in the Alamannic graveyard of Oberflacht, Germany, dating to 6th/7th century AD * In the manufacture of cosmetics * As a modelling material in the
lost-wax casting Lost-wax casting (also called "investment casting Investment casting is an industrial process based on '' lost-wax casting'', one of the oldest known metal-forming techniques. The term "lost-wax casting" can also refer to modern investmen ...
process, or ''cire perdue'' * For
wax tablet A wax tablet is a tablet made of wood and covered with a layer of wax Waxes are a diverse class of organic compound In , organic compounds are generally any s that contain - . Due to carbon's ability to (form chains with other carbon ...
s used for a variety of writing purposes * In encaustic paintings such as the
Fayum mummy portraits Mummy portraits or Fayum mummy portraits are a type of naturalistic painted portrait on wooden boards attached to upper class mummy, mummies from Roman Egypt. They belong to the tradition of panel painting, one of the most highly regarded forms o ...
* In bow making * To strengthen and preserve
sewing Sewing is the craft of fastening or attaching objects using stitches made with a sewing needle A sewing needle, used for hand-sewing Sewing is the craft of fastening or attaching objects using stitches made with a sewing needle A sew ...

sewing
thread, cordage, shoe laces, etc. * As a component of
sealing wax Sealing wax is a wax Waxes are a diverse class of organic compound In , organic compounds are generally any s that contain - . Due to carbon's ability to (form chains with other carbon s), millions of organic compounds are known. The st ...
* To strengthen and to forestall splitting and cracking of wind instrument reeds * To form the mouthpieces of a
didgeridoo The didgeridoo (; also spelt didjeridu, among other variants) is a wind instrument A wind instrument is a musical instrument A musical instrument is a device created or adapted to make musical sounds. In principle, any object that prod ...

didgeridoo
, and the frets on the
Philippine The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republ ...
''
kutiyapi The kutiyapi, or kudyapi, is a Philippine two-stringed, fretted boat-lute A lute ( or ) is any plucked string instrument with a neck and a deep round back enclosing a hollow cavity, usually with a sound hole or opening in the body. It may b ...

kutiyapi
'' – a type of boat
lute A lute ( or ) is any plucked string instrument String instruments, stringed instruments, or chordophones are musical instruments that produce sound from vibrating strings when a performer plays or sounds the strings in some manner. Musicia ...

lute
* As a sealant or
lubricant A lubricant is a substance that helps to reduce friction Friction is the force In physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and b ...
for
bullet A bullet is a kinetic projectile A projectile is any object thrown by the exertion of a force. It can also be defined as an object launched into the space and allowed to move free under the influence of gravity and air resistance. Although an ...

bullet
s in cap and ball
firearms A firearm is any type of gun A gun is a designed to use a shooting tube () to launch typically solid s, but can also project pressurized (e.g. s/s, s for or , , and technically also s), (e.g. ) or even s (e.g. ). Solid projectiles ...

firearms
* To stabilize the military explosive
Torpex Torpex is a secondary explosive, 50% more powerful than TNT Trinitrotoluene (; TNT), or more specifically 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, is a chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or ...
– before being replaced by a petroleum-based product * In producing Javanese ''
batik Batik is an Indonesian Indonesian is anything of, from, or related to Indonesia, an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. It may refer to: * Indonesians, citizens of Indonesia ** Native Indonesians, diverse groups of local inhabitants of ...

batik
'' * As an ancient form of dental tooth filling * As the joint filler in the slate bed of pool and billiard tables.


See also

*
Carnauba wax Carnauba (; pt, carnaúba ), also called Brazil wax and palm wax, is a wax Waxes are a diverse class of organic compound In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that mak ...

Carnauba wax
*
Candelilla wax Candelilla wax is a wax derived from the leaves of the small Candelilla shrub native to northern Mexico and the southwestern United States, ''Euphorbia cerifera'' and ''Euphorbia antisyphilitica'', from the family ''Euphorbiaceae''. It is yellowish ...
*
Paraffin wax Paraffin wax (or petroleum wax) is a soft colorless solid derived from petroleum Petroleum, also known as crude oil and oil, is a naturally occurring, yellowish-black liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid In physics, ...

Paraffin wax
*
Ozokerite Ozokerite or ozocerite, archaically referred to as earthwax or earth wax, is a naturally occurring odoriferous mineral wax or paraffinParaffin may refer to: Substances * Paraffin wax, a white or colorless soft solid that is used as a lubricant an ...
(
ceresin Ceresin (also cerin, cerasin, cerosin, ceresin wax or ceresine) is a wax Waxes are a diverse class of organic compound In , organic compounds are generally any s that contain - . Due to carbon's ability to (form chains with other carb ...
) *
Spermaceti Spermaceti (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxima ...

Spermaceti


References


External links


The chemistry of bees
Joel Loveridge, School of Chemistry,
University of Bristol , mottoeng = earning Earning can refer to: *Labour (economics) *Earnings of a company *Merit (disambiguation), Merit {{disambig