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Lubricant
A lubricant is a substance that helps to reduce friction Friction is the force In physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and time, and the related en ... between surfaces in mutual contact, which ultimately reduces the heat generated when the surfaces move. It may also have the function of transmitting forces, transporting foreign particles, or heating or cooling the surfaces. The property of reducing friction is known as lubricityLubricity is the measure of the reduction in friction and or wear by a lubricant. The study of lubrication and wear mechanisms is called tribology. Measurement of lubricity The lubricity of a substance is not a material property, and cannot be measu .... In addition to industrial applications, lubricants are used for many other purposes. Other uses include cooking (oil An oil is any nonpolar ...
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Dry Lubricant
Dry lubricants or solid lubricants are materials that, despite being in the solid phase, are able to reduce friction Friction is the force In physics, a force is an influence that can change the motion (physics), motion of an Physical object, object. A force can cause an object with mass to change its velocity (e.g. moving from a Newton's first law, st ... between two surfaces sliding against each other without the need for a liquid oil medium. The two main dry lubricants are graphite Graphite (), archaically referred to as plumbago, is a Crystallinity, crystalline form of the element carbon with its atoms arranged in a Hexagonal crystal system, hexagonal structure. It occurs naturally in this form and is the most stable for ... and molybdenum disulfide Molybdenum disulfide (or moly) is an inorganic compound composed of molybdenum and sulfur Sulfur (in traditional laity, lay Commonwealth English: sulphur) is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), s ...
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Graphite
Graphite (), archaically referred to as plumbago, is a Crystallinity, crystalline form of the element carbon with its atoms arranged in a Hexagonal crystal system, hexagonal structure. It occurs naturally in this form and is the most stable form of carbon under standard conditions. Under high pressures and temperatures it converts to diamond. Graphite is used in pencils and lubricants. It is a good conductor of heat and electricity. Its high conductivity makes it useful in electronic products such as electrodes, Electric battery, batteries, and solar panels. Types and varieties The principal types of natural graphite, each occurring in different types of ore deposits, are * Crystalline small flakes of graphite (or flake graphite) occurs as isolated, flat, plate-like particles with hexagonal edges if unbroken. When broken the edges can be irregular or angular; * Amorphous graphite: very fine flake graphite is sometimes called amorphous; * Lump graphite (or vein graphite) oc ...
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Oil Additive
Oil additives are chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entity, molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one chemical element, element held together by chemical bonds. A homonuclear molecule, m ...s that improve the lubricant A lubricant is a substance that helps to reduce friction Friction is the force In physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and b ... performance of base oil An oil is any nonpolar chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can b ... (or oil "base stock"). The manufacturer of many different oils can utilize the same base stock for each formulation and can choose different additiv ...
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Molybdenum Disulphide
Molybdenum disulfide (or moly) is an inorganic chemistry, inorganic compound composed of molybdenum and sulfur. Its chemical formula is . The compound is classified as a transition metal dichalcogenide. It is a silvery black solid that occurs as the mineral molybdenite, the principal ore for molybdenum.Sebenik, Roger F. ''et al''. (2005) "Molybdenum and Molybdenum Compounds", ''Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology''. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. is relatively unreactive. It is unaffected by dilute acids and oxygen. In appearance and feel, molybdenum disulfide is similar to graphite. It is widely used as a dry lubricant because of its low friction and robustness. Bulk is a Diamagnetism, diamagnetic, indirect bandgap semiconductor similar to silicon, with a bandgap of 1.23 eV. Production MoS2 is naturally found as either molybdenite, a crystalline mineral, or jordisite, a rare low temperature form of molybdenite. Molybdenite ore is processed by Froth flotation, flotation to gi ...
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Viscosity Index
The viscosity index (VI) is an arbitrary, unit-less measure of a fluid's change in viscosity The viscosity of a is a measure of its to deformation at a given rate. For liquids, it corresponds to the informal concept of "thickness": for example, has a higher viscosity than . Viscosity can be conceptualized as quantifying the inter ... relative to temperature change. It is mostly used to characterize the viscosity-temperature behavior of lubricating oils. The lower the VI, the more the viscosity is affected by changes in temperature. The higher the VI, the more stable the viscosity remains over temperature fluctuations. The VI was originally measured on a scale from 0 to 100; however, advancements in lubrication science have led to the development of oils with much higher VIs. The viscosity of a lubricant A lubricant is a substance that helps to reduce friction Friction is the force In physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its El ...
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Silicone
A silicone or polysiloxane is a polymer A polymer (; Greek ''poly- Poly, from the Greek :wikt:πολύς, πολύς meaning "many" or "much", may refer to: Businesses * China Poly Group Corporation, a Chinese business group, and its subsidiaries: ** Poly Property, a Hong Kong inc ... made up of siloxane A siloxane is a functional group in organosilicon Organosilicon compounds are organometallic compound Organometallic chemistry is the study of organometallic compounds, chemical compounds containing at least one chemical bond A chemical bo ... (−R2Si−O−SiR2−, where R = organic group). They are typically colorless oils or rubber Rubber, also called India rubber, latex, Amazonian rubber, ''caucho'', or ''caoutchouc'', as initially produced, consists of polymer A polymer (; Greek ''poly- Poly, from the Greek :wikt:πολύς, πολύς meaning "many" or "much" ...-like substances. Silicones are used in sealants, adhesives, lubricants, medic ...
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Polytetrafluoroethylene
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a synthetic fluoropolymer of tetrafluoroethylene that has numerous applications. The commonly known brand name of PTFE-based compositions is Teflon by Chemours, a corporate spin-off, spin-off from DuPont (1802–2017), DuPont, which originally discovered the compound in 1938. Polytetrafluoroethylene is a fluorocarbon solid (at room temperature), as it is a high-molecular-weight polymer consisting wholly of carbon and fluorine. PTFE is hydrophobic: neither water nor water-containing substances Wetting, wet PTFE, as fluorocarbons demonstrate mitigated London dispersion forces due to the high electronegativity of fluorine. PTFE has one of the lowest coefficients of friction of any solid. Polytetrafluoroethylene is used as a non-stick coating for pans and other cookware. It is non-reactive, partly because of the strength of carbon–fluorine bonds, and so it is often used in containers and pipework for reactive and corrosive chemicals. Where used a ...
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Friction
Friction is the force In physics, a force is an influence that can change the motion (physics), motion of an Physical object, object. A force can cause an object with mass to change its velocity (e.g. moving from a Newton's first law, state of rest), i.e., to acce ... resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements sliding against each other. There are several types of friction: *Dry friction is a force that opposes the relative lateral motion of two solid surfaces in contact. Dry friction is subdivided into ''static friction'' ("stictionStiction is the static friction that needs to be overcome to enable relative motion of stationary objects in contact. The term is a portmanteau of the words ''static'' and ''friction'', perhaps also influenced by the verb ''adhesion, stick''. Any so ...") between non-moving surfaces, and ''kinetic friction'' between moving surfaces. With the exception of atomic or molecular friction, dry friction gene ...
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Rapeseed Oil
Rapeseed (''Brassica napus ''subsp.'' napus''), also known as rape, or oilseed rape, is a bright-yellow flowering member of the family Brassicaceae (mustard or cabbage family), cultivated mainly for its oil-rich seed, which naturally contains appreciable amounts of erucic acid. Canola are a group of rapeseed cultivars which were bred to have very low levels of erucic acid and are especially prized for use for human and animal food. Rapeseed is the third-largest source of vegetable oil and the second-largest source of protein meal in the world. Description ''Brassica napus'' grows to in height with hairless, fleshy, pinnatifid and glaucous lower leaves which are stalked whereas the upper leaves have no Petiole (botany), petioles. ''Brassica napus'' can be distinguished from ''Brassica nigra'' by the upper leaves which do not clasp the stem, and from ''Brassica rapa'' by its smaller petals which are less than across. Rapeseed flowers are bright yellow and about across. ...
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Mineral Oil
Mineral oil is any of various colorless, odorless, light mixtures of higher alkanes Higher alkanes are alkanes having nine or more carbon atoms. Nonane is the lightest alkane to have a flash point above 25 °C, and is not classified as dangerously Flammable liquid, flammable. The term ''higher alkanes'' is sometimes used lite ... from a mineral source, particularly a distillate of petroleum, as distinct from usually edible vegetable oils. The name 'mineral oil' by itself is imprecise, having been used for many specific oils over the past few centuries. Other names, similarly imprecise, include 'white oil', 'paraffin oil', 'Liquid paraffin (medicinal), liquid paraffin' (a highly refined medical grade), (Latin), and 'liquid petroleum'. Baby oil is a perfumed mineral oil. Most often, mineral oil is a liquid by-product of Oil refinery, refining crude oil to make gasoline and other petroleum products. This type of mineral oil is a Transparency and translucency, transparent, ...
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Tungsten Disulphide
Tungsten disulfide is an inorganic chemical compound composed of tungsten and sulfur with the chemical formula WS2. This compound is part of the group of materials called the Chalcogenide#Dichalcogenides, transition metal dichalcogenides. It occurs naturally as the rare mineral tungstenite. This material is a component of certain catalysts used for hydrodesulfurization and hydrodenitrification. WS2 adopts a layered structure similar, or Isostructural, isotypic with molybdenum disulfide, MoS2, instead with W atoms situated in trigonal prismatic coordination sphere (in place of Mo atoms). Owing to this layered structure, WS2 forms inorganic nanotubes, which were discovered after heating a thin sample of WS2 in 1992. Structure and physical properties Bulk WS2 forms dark gray hexagonal crystals with a layered structure. Like the closely related MoS2, it exhibits properties of a dry lubricant. Although it has long been thought that WS2 is relatively stable in ambient air, recent rep ...
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Vegetable Oil
Vegetable oils, or vegetable fats, are oil An oil is any nonpolar In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the Chemical element, elements that make up matter to the chemical compound ...s extracted from seeds or from other parts of fruits. Like animal fat Animal fats and oils are lipid In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Phy ...s, vegetable fats are ''mixtures'' of triglyceride A triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride) is an ester An ester is a derived from an (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH group is replaced by an –O– () group, as in the substitution reaction of a an ...s. Soybean oil Soybean oil is a vegetable oil Vegetable oils, or vege ...
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