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is hand-drawn and
computer animation " technique Computer animation is the process used for digitally generating animated images. The more general term computer-generated imagery Computer-generated imagery (CGI) is the application of computer graphics to create or contribute to i ...
originating from
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
. In Japan and in Japanese, (a term derived from the
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
word ''animation'') describes all animated works, regardless of style or origin. However, outside of Japan and in English, ''anime'' is
colloquial Colloquialism or colloquial language is the style (sociolinguistics), linguistic style used for casual (informal) communication. It is the most common functional style of speech, the idiom normally employed in conversation and other informal conte ...
for ''Japanese animation'' and refers specifically to animation produced in Japan. Animation produced outside of Japan with similar style to Japanese animation is referred to as ''
anime-influenced animation Anime-influenced animation refers to non-Japanese works of that are similar to or inspired by . Generally, the term ''anime'' refers to a style of animation originating from Japan. As Japanese anime became increasingly popular, animation studios ...
''. The earliest commercial Japanese animations date to 1917. A characteristic art style emerged in the 1960s with the works of cartoonist
Osamu Tezuka Osamu Tezuka (, b. , ''Tezuka Osamu''; – 9 February 1989) was a Japanese manga artist, cartoonist, and animator. Born in Osaka Prefecture, his prolific output, pioneering techniques, and innovative redefinitions of genres earned him such ti ...
and spread in following decades, developing a large domestic audience. Anime is distributed theatrically, through television broadcasts, directly to home media, and over the Internet. In addition to original works, anime are often adaptations of Japanese comics (
manga Manga (Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat ...

manga
),
light novels A is a style of Japanese young adult A young adult is generally a person in the years following adolescence. Definitions and opinions on what qualifies as a young adult vary, with works such as 's significantly influencing the definitio ...
, or
video games#REDIRECT Video game#REDIRECT Video game A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface or input device such as a joystick, game controller, controller, computer keyboard, keyboard, or motion sensing device ...
. It is classified into numerous genres targeting various broad and niche audiences. Anime is a diverse medium with distinctive production methods that have adapted in response to emergent technologies. It combines graphic art, characterization, cinematography, and other forms of imaginative and individualistic techniques. Compared to Western animation, anime production generally focuses less on movement, and more on the detail of settings and use of "camera effects", such as panning, zooming, and angle shots. Diverse art styles are used, and character proportions and features can be quite varied, with a common characteristic feature being large and emotive eyes. The anime industry consists of over 430 production companies, including major studios like
Studio Ghibli is a Japanese animation film studio headquartered in , Tokyo Tokyo (Japanese language, Japanese: , ''Tōkyō'' ), historically known in the west as Tokio and officially the Tokyo Metropolis (, ''Tōkyō-to''), is capital of Japan, the ...

Studio Ghibli
,
Sunrise Sunrise (or sunup) is the moment when the upper rim of the Sun appears on the horizon in the morning. The term can also refer to the entire process of the solar disk crossing the horizon and its accompanying atmospheric optics, atmospheric eff ...

Sunrise
, and
Toei Animation () is a Japanese animation studio An animation studio is a company producing animated media. The broadest such companies conceive of products to produce, own the physical equipment for production, employ operators for that equipment, and hold ...
. Since the 1980s, the medium has also seen international success with the rise of foreign dubbed and
subtitled Subtitles are text Text may refer to: Written word * Text (literary theory) Text may refer to: Written word * Text (literary theory), any object that can be read, including: **Religious text, a writing that a religious tradition considers ...
programming. As of 2016, Japanese anime accounted for 60% of the world's animated television shows.


Etymology

As a type of
animation Animation is a method in which figures Figure may refer to: General *A shape, drawing, depiction, or geometric configuration *Figure (wood), wood appearance *Figure (music), distinguished from musical motif *Noise figure, in telecommunication ...

animation
, anime is an art form that comprises many
genre Genre () is any form or type of communication in any mode (written, spoken, digital, artistic, etc.) with socially-agreed-upon conventions developed over time. In popular usage, it normally describes a Category of being, category of literature, ...

genre
s found in other mediums; it is sometimes mistakenly classified as a genre itself. In Japanese, the term ''anime'' is used to refer to all animated works, regardless of style or origin. English-language dictionaries typically define ''anime'' (, ) as "a style of Japanese animation" or as "a style of animation originating in Japan". Other definitions are based on origin, making production in Japan a requisite for a work to be considered "anime". The etymology of the term ''anime'' is disputed. The English word "animation" is written in Japanese ''
katakana is a Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system along with hiragana, kanji and in some cases the Latin script (known as rōmaji). The word ''katakana'' means "fragmentary kana", as the katakana characters are derived fro ...
'' as () and as (, ) in its shortened form. Some sources claim that the term is derived from the French term for animation ''dessin animé'' ("cartoon", literally 'animated design'), but others believe this to be a myth derived from the popularity of anime in France in the late 1970s and 1980s. In English, ''anime''—when used as a common
noun A noun () is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning (linguistics), meaning. In many l ...

noun
—normally functions as a
mass noun In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic ...
. (For example: "Do you watch anime?" or "How much anime have you collected?") As with a few other Japanese words, such as '' saké'' and ''
Pokémon (an abbreviation for in Japan) is a Japanese media franchise managed by The Pokémon Company, a company founded by Nintendo, Game Freak, and Creatures (company), Creatures. The franchise was created by Satoshi Tajiri in 1996, and is cente ...

Pokémon
'', English texts sometimes spell ''anime'' as ''animé'' (as in French), with an
acute accent The acute accent, , is a diacritic A diacritic (also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or accent) is a glyph The term glyph is used in typography File:metal movable type.jpg, 225px, Movable type being assembl ...

acute accent
over the final ''e'', to cue the reader to pronounce the letter, not to leave it silent as English orthography may suggest. Prior to the widespread use of ''anime'', the term ''Japanimation'' was prevalent throughout the 1970s and 1980s. In the mid-1980s, the term ''anime'' began to supplant ''Japanimation''; in general, the latter term now only appears in period works where it is used to distinguish and identify Japanese animation.


History


Precursors

''
Emakimono or is an illustrated horizontal narration system of painted handscrolls that dates back to the Nara period The of the history of Japan The first human inhabitants of the Japanese archipelago The Japanese archipelago (Japanese: ...
'' and ''kagee'' are considered precursors of Japanese animation. ''Emakimono'' was common in the eleventh century. Traveling storytellers narrated legends and anecdotes while the ''emakimono'' was unrolled from the right to left with chronological order, as a moving panorama. ''Kagee'' was popular during the Edo period and originated from the shadows play of China. Magic lanterns from the Netherlands were also popular in the eighteenth century. The paper play called ''
Kamishibai is a form of Japanese and that was popular during the of the 1930s and the in until the advent of television during the mid-20th century. were performed by a (" narrator") who travelled to street corners with sets of illustrated boards t ...

Kamishibai
'' surged in the twelfth century and remained popular in the street theater until the 1930s. Puppets of the ''bunraku'' theater and ''
ukiyo-e Ukiyo-e is a genre of Japanese art Japanese art covers a wide range of art styles and media, including ancient pottery Ancient history is the aggregate of past eventsRembrandt, ''Self-portrait'', etching, c.1630 Printma ...'s ''Th ...

ukiyo-e
'' prints are considered ancestors of characters of most Japanese animations. Finally, mangas were a heavy inspiration for Japanese anime. Cartoonists Kitzawa Rakuten and
Okamoto Ippei (June 11, 1886 – October 1948) was a Japanese illustrator, cartoonist, and writer. Biography Okamoto Ippei was the second son of the Confucian scholar Katei Okamoto. He studied Western-style painting at Tokyo School of the Arts under the in ...
used film elements in their strips.


Pioneers

Animation in Japan began in the early 20th century, when
filmmakers Filmmaking (or, in any context, film production) is the process by which a film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art used to simulate experiences that communicate ideas, stories, percepti ...
started to experiment with techniques pioneered in France, Germany, the United States, and Russia. A claim for the earliest Japanese animation is '''' (), a private work by an unknown creator. In 1917, the first professional and publicly displayed works began to appear; animators such as Ōten Shimokawa, Seitarō Kitayama, and Jun'ichi Kōuchi (considered the "fathers of anime") produced numerous films, the oldest surviving of which is Kōuchi's ''
Namakura Gatana or is a short Japanese animated film produced by Jun'ichi Kōuchi in 1917. It was found in an antique shop . An antique shop (or antiques shop) is a retail store specializing in the selling of antique A true antique ( la, antiquus; ...
''. Many early works were lost with the destruction of Shimokawa's warehouse in the
1923 Great Kantō earthquake The struck the Kantō Plain on the main Japanese island of Honshū at 11:58:44 JST (02:58:44 UTC) on Saturday, September 1, 1923. Varied accounts indicate the duration of the earthquake was between four and ten minutes. Extensive firestorms and ...
. By the mid-1930s animation was well-established in Japan as an alternative format to the live-action industry. It suffered competition from foreign producers, such as
Disney The Walt Disney Company, commonly just Disney (), is an American multinational entertainment and media conglomerate headquartered at the Walt Disney Studios (Burbank), Walt Disney Studios complex in Burbank, California. Disney was originall ...
, and many animators, including Noburō Ōfuji and
Yasuji Murata was a pioneering animator An animator is an artist An artist is a person engaged in an activity related to creating art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities involving creative imagination to express technical pro ...
, continued to work with cheaper
cutout animation Cutout animation is a form of using flat characters, s and backgrounds cut from materials such as , card, stiff or s. The props would be cut out and used as puppets for stop motion. The world's earliest known animated feature films were cutou ...
rather than
cel animation Traditional animation (or classical animation, animation, hand-drawn animation, 2D animation or just 2D) is an technique in which each frame is by hand. The technique was the dominant form of animation in cinema until the advent of . Proce ...
. Other creators, including
Kenzō Masaoka was an early anime creator. Masaoka was born in Osaka, Japan and died in Tokyo, Japan. Masaoka was the first to use cel animation and recorded sound in anime.Kōdansha (1993). ''Japan: an illustrated encyclopedia.'' Kōdansha, He worked at a n ...
and
Mitsuyo Seo was a Japanese animator An animator is an artist An artist is a person engaged in an activity related to creating art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities involving creative imagination to express technical profic ...
, nevertheless made great strides in technique, benefiting from the patronage of the government, which employed animators to produce educational shorts and
propaganda Propaganda is communication that is primarily used to Social influence, influence an audience and further an Political agenda, agenda, which may not be Objectivity (journalism), objective and may be selectively presenting facts to encourage a pa ...
. In 1940, the government dissolved several artists' organizations to form the The first
talkie A sound film is a motion picture with synchronized sound, or sound technologically coupled to image, as opposed to a silent film A silent film is a film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of v ...
anime was ''
Chikara to Onna no Yo no Naka is a 1933 anime is hand-drawn and computer animation " technique Computer animation is the process used for digitally generating animated images. The more general term computer-generated imagery Computer-generated imagery (CGI) ...
'' (1933), a short film produced by Masaoka. The first feature-length anime film was '' Momotaro: Sacred Sailors'' (1945), produced by Seo with a sponsorship from the
Imperial Japanese Navy The Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN; Kyūjitai are the traditional forms of kanji, Chinese characters, Chinese written characters used in Japanese language, Japanese. Their simplified counterparts are shinjitai (), "new character forms". Some of ...
. The 1950s saw a proliferation of short, animated advertisements made in Japan for television broadcasting. In the 1960s,
manga Manga (Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat ...

manga
artist and animator
Osamu Tezuka Osamu Tezuka (, b. , ''Tezuka Osamu''; – 9 February 1989) was a Japanese manga artist, cartoonist, and animator. Born in Osaka Prefecture, his prolific output, pioneering techniques, and innovative redefinitions of genres earned him such ti ...
adapted and simplified many Disney animation techniques to reduce costs and limit frame counts in his productions. He originally intended these as temporary measures to allow him to produce material on a tight schedule with an inexperienced staff, though many of his
limited animation Limited animation is a process in the overall technique of traditional animation on the reverse side of an already inked cel, here placed on the original animation drawing Traditional animation (or classical animation, cel animation, hand-drawn ...
practices would later come to define the medium's style. '' Three Tales'' (1960) was the first anime film broadcast on television; the first anime television series was ''
Instant History , also known as was a black and white Japanese anime is hand-drawn and computer animation " technique Computer animation is the process used for digitally generating animated images. The more general term computer-generated imagery ...
'' (1961–64). An early and influential success was ''Astro Boy'' (1963–66), a television series directed by Tezuka based on his manga of the same name. Many animators at Tezuka's
Mushi Production or Mushi Pro for short, is a Japanese animation studio headquartered in Fujimidai, , Japan. It previously had a headquarters elsewhere in Nerima. The studio was headed by manga artist . Tezuka started it as a rivalry with , his former employer, ...
would later establish major studios (such as Madhouse,
Sunrise Sunrise (or sunup) is the moment when the upper rim of the Sun appears on the horizon in the morning. The term can also refer to the entire process of the solar disk crossing the horizon and its accompanying atmospheric optics, atmospheric eff ...

Sunrise
, and
Pierrot Pierrot ( , , ) is a stock character of pantomime and ''commedia dell'arte'' whose origins are in the late seventeenth-century Italian troupe of players performing in Paris and known as the Comédie-Italienne; the name is a hypocorism, diminutiv ...
). The 1970s saw growth in the popularity of manga, many of which were later animated. Tezuka's work—and that of other pioneers in the field—inspired characteristics and genres that remain fundamental elements of anime today. The giant robot genre (also known as "
mecha The term may refer to both scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictions about the universe."... modern sci ...

mecha
"), for instance, took shape under Tezuka, developed into the
super robot Mecha anime and manga, known in Japan as and , are anime is hand-drawn and computer animation " technique Computer animation is the process used for digitally generating animated images. The more general term computer-generated imagery ...
genre under
Go Nagai , better known by the pen name , is a Japanese manga artist Manga (Japanese: 漫画 ) are comics a Media (communication), medium used to express ideas with images, often combined with text or other visual information. It typically ...
and others, and was revolutionized at the end of the decade by
Yoshiyuki Tomino is a Japanese mecha anime The term may refer to both Science, scientific ideas and science fiction genres that center on giant robots or machines (mechs) controlled by people. Mechas are typically depicted as humanoid mobile robots. The te ...
, who developed the
real robot Mecha anime and manga, known in Japan as and , are anime is hand-drawn and computer animation " technique Computer animation is the process used for digitally generating animated images. The more general term computer-generated imagery ...
genre. Robot anime series such as ''
Gundam is a Japanese military fictionMilitary fiction is a genre of fiction, focusing on military activities, such as war, battle A battle is an occurrence of combat in warfare between opposing military units of any number or size. A war usua ...
'' and ''
Super Dimension Fortress Macross is an anime is hand-drawn and computer animation " technique Computer animation is the process used for digitally generating animated images. The more general term computer-generated imagery Computer-generated imagery (CGI) ...
'' became instant classics in the 1980s, and the genre remained one of the most popular in the following decades. The
bubble economy An economic bubble or asset bubble (sometimes also referred to as a speculative bubble, a market bubble, a price bubble, a financial bubble, a speculative mania, or a balloon) is a situation in which asset prices appear to be based on implausible ...
of the 1980s spurred a new era of high-budget and experimental anime films, including '' Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind'' (1984), '' Royal Space Force: The Wings of Honnêamise'' (1987), and '' Akira'' (1988). ''
Neon Genesis Evangelion is a Japanese mecha anime The term may refer to both Science, scientific ideas and science fiction genres that center on giant robots or machines (mechs) controlled by people. Mechas are typically depicted as humanoid mobile robots. ...
'' (1995), a television series produced by
Gainax is a Japanese anime is hand-drawn and computer animation " technique Computer animation is the process used for digitally generating animated images. The more general term computer-generated imagery Computer-generated imagery (CGI ...
and directed by
Hideaki Anno is a Japanese animator, filmmaker and actor. He is best known for creating the series ' (1995)''.'' His style is defined by his approach and the extensive portrayal of characters' thoughts and emotions, often through unconventional scenes pre ...

Hideaki Anno
, began another era of experimental anime titles, such as ''
Ghost in the Shell ''Ghost in the Shell'' is a Japanese cyberpunk Cyberpunk is a subgenre of science fiction in a dystopian Futurism, futuristic setting that tends to focus on a "combination of lowlife and high tech" featuring advanced technological and scienti ...
'' (1995) and ''
Cowboy Bebop is a Japanese neo-noir Neo-noir is a revival of the genre of film noir. The term ''film noir'' was popularized in 1955 by French critics Raymond Borde and Étienne Chaumeton. It was applied to crime films of the 1940s and 1950s, mostly pr ...

Cowboy Bebop
'' (1998). In the 1990s, anime also began attracting greater interest in Western countries; major international successes include ''
Sailor Moon is a Japanese Shōjo manga, ''shōjo'' manga series written and illustrated by Naoko Takeuchi. It was originally serialized in ''Nakayoshi'' from 1991 to 1997; the 60 individual chapters were published in 18 Tankōbon, volumes. The series ...
'' and ''
Dragon Ball Z is a Japanese anime is hand-drawn and computer animation " technique Computer animation is the process used for digitally generating animated images. The more general term computer-generated imagery Computer-generated imagery ...
'', both of which were dubbed into more than a dozen languages worldwide. In 2003, ''
Spirited Away is a 2001 Japanese written and directed by , animated by for , , , , , and .
". http://www.bcdb. ...
'', a
Studio Ghibli is a Japanese animation film studio headquartered in , Tokyo Tokyo (Japanese language, Japanese: , ''Tōkyō'' ), historically known in the west as Tokio and officially the Tokyo Metropolis (, ''Tōkyō-to''), is capital of Japan, the ...

Studio Ghibli
feature film directed by
Hayao Miyazaki is a Japanese animator, director, producer, screenwriter, author, and manga artist. A co-founder of Studio Ghibli, he has attained international acclaim as a masterful storyteller and creator of Anime, Japanese animated feature films, and is ...

Hayao Miyazaki
, won the
Academy Award for Best Animated Feature The Academy Award for Best Animated Feature is given each year for animated films. An animated feature is defined by the Academy as a film with a running time of more than 40 minutes in which characters' performances are created using a frame-by-f ...
at the
75th Academy Awards The 75th Academy Awards ceremony, presented by the (AMPAS) took place on March 23, 2003, at the in , beginning at 5:30 p.m. / 8:30 p.m. . During the ceremony, AMPAS presented Academy Awards (commonly referred to as Oscars) in 24 ...
. It later became the highest-grossing anime film, earning more than $355 million. Since the 2000s, an increased number of anime works have been adaptations of
light novel A is a style of Japanese young adult A young adult is generally a person in the years following adolescence. Definitions and opinions on what qualifies as a young adult vary, with works such as Erik Erikson Erik Homburger Erikson (b ...
s and
visual novel A , often abbreviated as VN, is an interactive fiction video game genre, featuring text-based story with narrative style of literature and interactivity aided by static or sprite-based visuals, most often using anime-style art or occasionally ...
s; successful examples include ''
The Melancholy of Haruhi Suzumiya is a Japanese light novel A is a style of Japanese young adult novel primarily targeting high school and middle school students. The term "light novel" is a '' wasei-eigo'', or a Japanese term formed from words in the Engli ...
'' and ''
Fate/stay night ''Fate/stay night'' is a Japanese adult Biologically, an adult is an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contiguous system that embodies the Li ...
'' (both 2006).


Attributes

Anime differs greatly from other forms of animation by its diverse art styles, methods of animation, its production, and its process. Visually, anime works exhibit a wide variety of art styles, differing between creators, artists, and studios. While no single art style predominates anime as a whole, they do share some similar attributes in terms of animation technique and character design.


Technique

Modern anime follows a typical animation production process, involving
storyboard A storyboard is a graphic organizer that consists of illustration An illustration is a decoration, interpretation or visual explanation of a text, concept or process, designed for integration in print and digital published media, such as pos ...

storyboard
ing,
voice acting Voice acting is the art of performing s to present a character or provide information to an audience. Performers are called voice actors/actresses, voice artists, voice talent, voice-over artists, or voice-over talent. Voice acting is recognise ...
, , and cel production. Since the 1990s, animators have increasingly used
computer animation " technique Computer animation is the process used for digitally generating animated images. The more general term computer-generated imagery Computer-generated imagery (CGI) is the application of computer graphics to create or contribute to i ...
to improve the efficiency of the production process. Early anime works were experimental, and consisted of images drawn on blackboards,
stop motion Stop motion is an animation, animated filmmaking technique in which objects are physically manipulated in small increments between individually photographed frames so that they will appear to exhibit independent motion or change when the series ...

stop motion
animation of paper cutouts, and
silhouette animation Silhouette animation is in which the characters are only visible as black s. This is usually accomplished by articulated , though other methods exist. It is partially inspired by, but for a number of reasons technically distinct from, . Hist ...
. Cel animation grew in popularity until it came to dominate the medium. In the 21st century, the use of other animation techniques is mostly limited to independent
short films A short film is any motion picture A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color ...
, including the stop motion puppet animation work produced by
Tadahito Mochinaga was a pioneer animator. Having done many stop motion films/shorts in Japan, he is best known as the animator for ' "" productions at his in throughout the 1960s. He did this work in association with American director who wrote and designed ...
, Kihachirō Kawamoto and Tomoyasu Murata. Computers were integrated into the animation process in the 1990s, with works such as ''
Ghost in the Shell ''Ghost in the Shell'' is a Japanese cyberpunk Cyberpunk is a subgenre of science fiction in a dystopian Futurism, futuristic setting that tends to focus on a "combination of lowlife and high tech" featuring advanced technological and scienti ...
'' and ''
Princess Mononoke is a 1997 Japanese animated Animation is a method in which Image, figures are manipulated to appear as moving images. In traditional animation, images are drawn or painted by hand on transparent cel, celluloid sheets to be photographed and ...
'' mixing cel animation with computer-generated images. Fuji Film, a major cel production company, announced it would stop cel production, producing an industry panic to procure cel imports and hastening the switch to digital processes. Prior to the digital era, anime was produced with
traditional animation Traditional animation (or classical animation, cel animation, hand-drawn animation, 2D animation or just 2D) is an animation technique in which each frame is drawing, drawn by hand. The technique was the dominant form of animation in cinema unt ...
methods using a pose to pose approach. The majority of mainstream anime uses fewer expressive
key frame A key frame (or keyframe) in animation Animation is a method in which figures Figure may refer to: General *A shape, drawing, depiction, or geometric configuration *Figure (wood), wood appearance *Figure (music), distinguished from musical ...
s and more in-between animation. Japanese animation studios were pioneers of many
limited animation Limited animation is a process in the overall technique of traditional animation on the reverse side of an already inked cel, here placed on the original animation drawing Traditional animation (or classical animation, cel animation, hand-drawn ...
techniques, and have given anime a distinct set of conventions. Unlike
Disney The Walt Disney Company, commonly just Disney (), is an American multinational entertainment and media conglomerate headquartered at the Walt Disney Studios (Burbank), Walt Disney Studios complex in Burbank, California. Disney was originall ...

Disney
animation, where the emphasis is on the movement, anime emphasizes the art quality and let limited animation techniques make up for the lack of time spent on movement. Such techniques are often used not only to meet deadlines but also as artistic devices. Anime scenes place emphasis on achieving three-dimensional views, and backgrounds are instrumental in creating the atmosphere of the work. The backgrounds are not always invented and are occasionally based on real locations, as exemplified in ''
Howl's Moving Castle ''Howl's Moving Castle'' is a fantasy novel by British author Diana Wynne Jones, first published in 1986 by Greenwillow Books of New York. It was a runner-up for the annual Boston Globe–Horn Book Award and it won the Phoenix Award twenty years ...
'' and ''
The Melancholy of Haruhi Suzumiya is a Japanese light novel A is a style of Japanese young adult novel primarily targeting high school and middle school students. The term "light novel" is a '' wasei-eigo'', or a Japanese term formed from words in the Engli ...
''. Oppliger stated that anime is one of the rare mediums where putting together an all-star cast usually comes out looking "tremendously impressive". The cinematic effects of anime differentiates itself from the stage plays found in American animation. Anime is cinematically shot as if by camera, including panning, zooming, distance and angle shots to more complex dynamic shots that would be difficult to produce in reality. In anime, the animation is produced before the voice acting, contrary to American animation which does the voice acting first; this can cause
lip sync Lip sync or lip synch (short for lip synchronization) is a technical term for matching a speaking Speech is human vocal communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is the act of developing Semantics, mea ...
errors in the Japanese version.


Characters

Body proportions of human anime characters tend to accurately reflect the proportions of the human body in reality. The height of the head is considered by the artist as the base unit of proportion. Head heights can vary, but most anime characters are about seven to eight heads tall. Anime artists occasionally make deliberate modifications to body proportions to produce
super deformed ''Chibi'' ( or ) is a Japanese language, Japanese slang word describing something short (an inanimate object, a human or other animal). The term is widely used to describe a specific style of caricature where characters are drawn in an exaggera ...
characters that feature a disproportionately small body compared to the head; many super deformed characters are two to four heads tall. Some anime works like ''
Crayon Shin-chan , is a Japanese manga Manga (Japanese: 漫画 ) are comics a Media (communication), medium used to express ideas with images, often combined with text or other visual information. It typically the form of a sequence of Panel (c ...
'' completely disregard these proportions, in such a way that they resemble
caricature A caricature is a rendered image showing the features of its subject in a simplified or exaggerated way through sketching, pencil strokes, or through other artistic drawings (compare to: cartoon A cartoon is a type of illustration that is ty ...

caricature
d Western
cartoon A cartoon is a type of illustration that is typically drawn, sometimes animated, in an unrealistic or semi-realistic style. The specific meaning has evolved over time, but the modern usage usually refers to either: an image or series of images ...

cartoon
s. A common anime character design convention is exaggerated eye size. The animation of characters with large eyes in anime can be traced back to Osamu Tezuka, who was deeply influenced by such early animation characters as
Betty Boop Betty Boop is an created by , with help from animators including .Pointer (2017) She originally appeared in the ' and ''Betty Boop'' film series, which were produced by and released by . She was featured in between 1930 and 1939. She has a ...

Betty Boop
, who was drawn with disproportionately large eyes. Tezuka is a central figure in anime and manga history, whose iconic art style and character designs allowed for the entire range of human emotions to be depicted solely through the eyes. The artist adds variable color shading to the eyes and particularly to the cornea to give them greater depth. Generally, a mixture of a light shade, the tone color, and a dark shade is used. Cultural anthropologist
Matt Thorn Rachel Thorn (formerly Matt Thorn; born May 12, 1965) is a Cultural anthropology, cultural anthropologist and an Professor, associate professor in the Department of Manga Production at Kyoto Seika University's Faculty of Manga in Japan. She is b ...
argues that Japanese animators and audiences do not perceive such stylized eyes as inherently more or less foreign. However, not all anime characters have large eyes. For example, the works of
Hayao Miyazaki is a Japanese animator, director, producer, screenwriter, author, and manga artist. A co-founder of Studio Ghibli, he has attained international acclaim as a masterful storyteller and creator of Anime, Japanese animated feature films, and is ...

Hayao Miyazaki
are known for having realistically proportioned eyes, as well as realistic hair colors on their characters. Hair in anime is often unnaturally lively and colorful or uniquely styled. The movement of hair in anime is exaggerated and "hair action" is used to emphasize the action and emotions of characters for added visual effect. Poitras traces hairstyle color to cover illustrations on manga, where eye-catching artwork and colorful tones are attractive for children's manga. Despite being produced for a domestic market, anime features characters whose race or nationality is not always defined, and this is often a deliberate decision, such as in the ''
Pokémon (an abbreviation for in Japan) is a Japanese media franchise managed by The Pokémon Company, a company founded by Nintendo, Game Freak, and Creatures (company), Creatures. The franchise was created by Satoshi Tajiri in 1996, and is cente ...
'' animated series. Anime and manga artists often draw from a common canon of iconic facial expression illustrations to denote particular moods and thoughts. These techniques are often different in form than their counterparts in Western animation, and they include a fixed
iconography Iconography, as a branch of art history, studies the identification, description and interpretation of the content of images: the subjects depicted, the particular compositions and details used to do so, and other elements that are distinct fro ...
that is used as shorthand for certain emotions and moods. For example, a male character may develop a
nosebleed A nosebleed, also known as epistaxis, is bleeding from the nose A nose is a protuberance in vertebrate Vertebrates () comprise all species of animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form t ...
when aroused. A variety of visual symbols are employed, including sweat drops to depict nervousness, visible blushing for embarrassment, or glowing eyes for an intense glare. Another recurring sight gag is the use of chibi (deformed, simplified character designs) figures to comedically punctuate emotions like confusion or embarrassment.


Music

The opening and credits sequences of most anime television series are accompanied by
J-pop J-pop ( ja, ジェイポップ, ''jeipoppu''; often stylized as J-POP; an abbreviated form of "Japanese popular music"), natively also known simply as , is a musical genre that entered the musical mainstream of Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, ...
or
rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its Chemical compound, chemical composition and the way in w ...
songs, often by reputed bands—as written with the series in mind—but are also aimed at the general music market, therefore it is often alluded once vaguely or not all to the thematic settings or plot of the series. Also, they are often used as incidental music ("insert songs") for each episode to highlight particularly important scenes.


Genres

Anime are often classified by target demographic, including , , and a diverse range of genres targeting an adult audience. Shoujo and shounen anime sometimes contain elements popular with children of both sexes in an attempt to gain crossover appeal. Adult anime may feature a slower pace or greater plot complexity that younger audiences may typically find unappealing, as well as adult themes and situations. A subset of adult anime works featuring pornographic elements are labeled "R18" in Japan, and are internationally known as ''
hentai Hentai is anime is hand-drawn and computer animation " technique Computer animation is the process used for digitally generating animated images. The more general term computer-generated imagery Computer-generated imagery (CGI) ...
'' (originating from ). By contrast, some anime subgenres incorporate ''
ecchi is an often used slang term in the Japanese language for playfully sexual actions. As an adjective, it is used with the meaning of "sexy", "dirty" or "naughty"; as a verb, means “to have sex” or, as a noun, to describe someone of lascivi ...
'', sexual themes or undertones without depictions of
sexual intercourse Sexual intercourse (or coitus or copulation) is a sexual activity Human sexual activity, human sexual practice or human sexual behaviour is the manner in which humans experience and express their sexuality Human sexuality is the w ...

sexual intercourse
, as typified in the comedic or
harem Harem ( ar, حريم ''ḥarīm'', "a sacred inviolable place; harem; female members of the family") properly refers to domestic spaces that are reserved for the women of the house in a Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practic ...

harem
genres; due to its popularity among adolescent and adult anime enthusiasts, the inclusion of such elements is considered a form of
fan service , fanservice or ,Example: A frame (numbered "25") from the English opening sequence of '' New Cutie Honey'', in which character Danbei Hayami fires a Rocket Punch Rocket Punch () is a six-member South Korean girl group under Woollim Entertai ...
.Ask John
Why Do Americans Hate Harem Anime?
. animenation.net. May 20. 2005. ''Note: fan service and ecchi are often considered the same in wording.''
Some genres explore homosexual romances, such as ''
yaoi ''Yaoi'' (; ja, やおい ), also known by the ''wasei-eigo are Japanese-language expressions based on English words, or parts of word combinations, that do not exist in standard English or whose meanings differ from the words from which ...

yaoi
'' (male homosexuality) and '' yuri'' (female homosexuality). While often used in a pornographic context, the terms ''yaoi'' and ''yuri'' can also be used broadly in a wider context to describe or focus on the themes or the development of the relationships themselves. Anime's genre classification differs from other types of animation and does not lend itself to simple classification.
Gilles Poitras Gilles Poitras is a Canadian author of books relating to anime is hand-drawn and computer animation " technique Computer animation is the process used for digitally generating animated images. The more general term computer-generated i ...
compared the labeling ''
Gundam 0080 is a six episode 1989 Japanese science fiction original video animation series. It is the first OVA series in the Gundam franchise. It was directed by , written by Hiroyuki Yamaga with character designs by Haruhiko Mikimoto. As suggested by it ...
'' and its complex depiction of war as a "giant robot" anime akin to simply labeling ''
War and Peace ''War and Peace'' (russian: Война и мир, translit=Voyna i mir; Reforms of Russian orthography, pre-reform Russian: ; ) is a literary work mixed with chapters on history and philosophy by the Russian author Leo Tolstoy, first published se ...

War and Peace
'' a "war novel".
Science fiction Science fiction (sometimes shortened to sci-fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction which typically deals with imagination, imaginative and futuristic concepts such as advanced science and technology, space exploration, time travel, Parall ...
is a major anime genre and includes important historical works like Tezuka's ''
Astro Boy ''Astro Boy'', known in Japan by its original name , is a Japanese manga Manga (Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag ...
'' and Yokoyama's ''
Tetsujin 28-go is a 1956 manga written and illustrated by Mitsuteru Yokoyama, who also created ''Giant Robo''. The series centers on the adventures of a young boy named Shotaro Kaneda, who controls a giant robot named Tetsujin 28, built by his late f ...
''. A major subgenre of science fiction is
mecha The term may refer to both scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictions about the universe."... modern sci ...

mecha
, with the ''Gundam''
metaseries A media franchise, also known as multimedia franchise, is a collection of related media in which several derivative works have been produced from an original creative work of fiction, such as a film, a work of literature, a television program or a ...
being iconic. The diverse
fantasy genre Fantasy is a genre of speculative fiction set in a fictional universe, often inspired by real world myth Myth is a folklore genre consisting of narratives that play a fundamental role in a society, such as foundational tales or origin ...
includes works based on Asian and Western traditions and folklore; examples include the Japanese feudal fairytale '' InuYasha'', and the depiction of Scandinavian goddesses who move to Japan to maintain a computer called
Yggdrasil Yggdrasil (from Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of North Germanic languages, North Germanic dialects before their final divergence into separate Nordic languages. Old Norse was spoken by i ...

Yggdrasil
in ''
Ah! My Goddess , or ''Ah! My Goddess!'' in some releases, is a Japanese manga series written and illustrated by Kōsuke Fujishima. It was serialized in Kodansha's Seinen manga, ''seinen'' manga magazine ''Monthly Afternoon'' from September 1988 to Apr ...
''. Genre crossing in anime is also prevalent, such as the blend of fantasy and comedy in '' Dragon Half'', and the incorporation of slapstick humor in the crime anime film '' Castle of Cagliostro''. Other subgenres found in anime include
magical girl is a Genre#Subgenre, subgenre of Japanese fantasy media (including anime, manga, light novels, and live-action media) centered around young girls who possess magical abilities, which they typically use through an ideal alter ego into which th ...
, harem, sports, martial arts, literary adaptations,
medievalism Medievalism is a system of belief and practice inspired by the Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpreta ...
, and war.


Formats

Early anime works were made for theatrical viewing, and required played musical components before sound and vocal components were added to the production. In 1958,
Nippon Television JOAX-DTV, virtual channel In most telecommunications organizations, a virtual channel is a method of remapping the ''program number'' as used in H.222 Program Association Tables and Program Mapping Tables to a channel number that can be en ...
aired ''Mogura no Abanchūru'' (" Mole's Adventure"), both the first televised and first color anime to debut. It was not until the 1960s when the first televised series were broadcast and it has remained a popular medium since. Works released in a direct to video format are called "
original video animation , abbreviated as OVA and sometimes as OAV (original animation video), are Anime, Japanese animated films and series made specially for release in home video formats without prior showings on television or in theaters, though the first part of an ...
" (OVA) or "original animation video" (OAV); and are typically not released theatrically or televised prior to home media release. The emergence of the Internet has led some animators to distribute works online in a format called " original net anime" (ONA). The home distribution of anime releases were popularized in the 1980s with the VHS and formats. The VHS
NTSC The National Television System Committee (NTSC)National Television System Committee (1951–1953), Report and Reports of Panel No. 11, 11-A, 12-19, with Some supplementary references cited in the Reports, and the Petition for adoption of transm ...
video format used in both Japan and the United States is credited as aiding the rising popularity of anime in the 1990s. The LaserDisc and VHS formats were transcended by the DVD format which offered the unique advantages; including multiple subtitling and dubbing tracks on the same disc. The DVD format also has its drawbacks in its usage of region coding; adopted by the industry to solve licensing, piracy and export problems and restricted region indicated on the DVD player. The
Video CD Video CD (abbreviated as VCD, and also known as Compact Disc Digital Video) is a home video Home video is prerecorded media sold or rented for home viewing. The term originates from the VHS VHS (Video Home System) is a standard Sta ...
(VCD) format was popular in Hong Kong and Taiwan, but became only a minor format in the United States that was closely associated with bootleg copies.


Industry

The animation industry consists of more than 430 production companies with some of the major studios including
Toei Animation () is a Japanese animation studio An animation studio is a company producing animated media. The broadest such companies conceive of products to produce, own the physical equipment for production, employ operators for that equipment, and hold ...
,
Gainax is a Japanese anime is hand-drawn and computer animation " technique Computer animation is the process used for digitally generating animated images. The more general term computer-generated imagery Computer-generated imagery (CGI ...
, Madhouse,
Gonzo Gonzo may refer to: People * Gonzo (nickname), a list of people with the nickname * Radislav Jovanov Gonzo (born 1964), Croatian music video director Radislav Jovanov, also known as Gonzo * Matthias Röhr (born 1962), German musician whose stage ...
,
Sunrise Sunrise (or sunup) is the moment when the upper rim of the Sun appears on the horizon in the morning. The term can also refer to the entire process of the solar disk crossing the horizon and its accompanying atmospheric optics, atmospheric eff ...

Sunrise
, Bones,
TMS Entertainment , formerly known as the , also known as or , is a Japanese animation studio An animation studio is a company producing animated media. The broadest such companies conceive of products to produce, own the physical equipment for production, emplo ...
,
Nippon Animation is a Japanese animation studio. The company is headquartered in Tokyo, with chief offices in the Ginza Ginza ( ; ja, 銀座 ) is a district of Chūō, Tokyo, Chūō, Tokyo, located south of Yaesu and Kyōbashi, Tokyo, Kyōbashi, west of Tsu ...
, P.A.Works,
Studio Pierrot is a Japanese animation studio An animation studio is a company producing animated media. The broadest such companies conceive of products to produce, own the physical equipment for production, employ operators for that equipment, and hold a maj ...
and
Studio Ghibli is a Japanese animation film studio headquartered in , Tokyo Tokyo (Japanese language, Japanese: , ''Tōkyō'' ), historically known in the west as Tokio and officially the Tokyo Metropolis (, ''Tōkyō-to''), is capital of Japan, the ...

Studio Ghibli
. Many of the studios are organized into a
trade association A trade association, also known as an industry trade group, business association, sector association or industry body, is an organization founded and funded by businesses that operate in a specific industry Industry may refer to: Economics * ...
,
The Association of Japanese Animations The Association of Japanese Animations (AJA; , ) is an industry group consisting of 52 affiliate animation production companies. AJA's duties AJA's scope of duties are to work on various issues concerning the Japanese animation industry, w ...
. There is also a labor union for workers in the industry, the
Japanese Animation Creators Association The or JAniCA, is a non-profit organization dedicated to improving working conditions for workers in the anime is hand-drawn and computer animation " technique Computer animation is the process used for digitally generating animated i ...
. Studios will often work together to produce more complex and costly projects, as done with Studio Ghibli's ''
Spirited Away is a 2001 Japanese written and directed by , animated by for , , , , , and .
". http://www.bcdb. ...
''. An anime episode can cost between US$100,000 and US$300,000 to produce. In 2001, animation accounted for 7% of the Japanese film market, above the 4.6% market share for live-action works. The popularity and success of anime is seen through the profitability of the DVD market, contributing nearly 70% of total sales. According to a 2016 article on Nikkei Asian Review, Japanese television stations have bought over worth of anime from production companies "over the past few years", compared with under from overseas. There has been a rise in sales of shows to television stations in Japan, caused by
late night anime In Japan, refers to anime is Traditional animation, hand-drawn and computer animation originating from Japan. In Japan and in Japanese, (a term derived from the English language, English word ''animation'') describes all animated works, r ...
with adults as the target demographic. This type of anime is less popular outside Japan, being considered "more of a
niche product Niche may refer to: Science *Developmental niche, a concept for understanding the cultural context of child development *Ecological niche, a term describing the relational position of an organism's species *Niche differentiation, in ecology, the p ...
". ''
Spirited Away is a 2001 Japanese written and directed by , animated by for , , , , , and .
". http://www.bcdb. ...
'' (2001) is the all-time highest-grossing film in Japan.''Gross'' * ::North American gross: $10,055,859 ::Japanese gross: $229,607,878 (March 31, 2002) ::Other territories: $


Japanese gross

* ::End of 2001: $227 million * ::Across 2001 and 2002: $270 million * ::As of 2008: $290 million
It was also the highest-grossing anime film worldwide until it was overtaken by
Makoto Shinkai ; born February 9, 1973), known as , is a Japanese animator, filmmaker, author, and . Shinkai began his career as a animator with in 1996, and gained recognition as a filmmaker with the release of the (OVA) ' (1999). Beginning his longstanding ...
's 2016 film ''
Your Name is a 2016 Japanese animated Animation is a method in which Image, figures are manipulated to appear as moving images. In traditional animation, images are drawn or painted by hand on transparent cel, celluloid sheets to be photographed and e ...

Your Name
''. Anime films represent a large part of the highest-grossing Japanese films yearly in Japan, with 6 out of the top 10 in 2014, in 2015 and also in
2016 2016 was designated as: * International Year of Pulses 2016 was declared as the International Year of Pulses by the sixty eighth session of the United Nations General Assembly on December 20, 2013. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) ...
. Anime has to be licensed by companies in other countries in order to be legally released. While anime has been licensed by its Japanese owners for use outside Japan since at least the 1960s, the practice became well-established in the United States in the late 1970s to early 1980s, when such TV series as ''
Gatchaman is a animated franchise about a five-member team created by and produced by . The original series, which debuted in 1972, was eponymously entitled ''Kagaku Ninja Tai Gatchaman'' and is best known in the English-speaking world as the adapt ...
'' and ''
Captain Harlock is a character (arts), fictional character and protagonist of the ''Space Pirate Captain Harlock'' manga series created by Leiji Matsumoto. Harlock is the archetypical Romantic hero, a space pirate with an individualist philosophy of life. He i ...
'' were licensed from their Japanese parent companies for distribution in the US market. The trend towards American distribution of anime continued into the 1980s with the licensing of titles such as ''
Voltron ''Voltron'' is an animated Animation is a method in which Image, figures are manipulated to appear as moving images. In traditional animation, images are drawn or painted by hand on transparent cel, celluloid sheets to be photographed and exhi ...
'' and the 'creation' of new series such as ''
Robotech ''Robotech'' is a science fiction Science fiction (sometimes shortened to sci-fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction which typically deals with imagination, imaginative and futuristic concepts such as advanced science and technology, ...
'' through use of source material from several original series. In the early 1990s, several companies began to experiment with the licensing of less children-oriented material. Some, such as A.D. Vision, and
Central Park Media Central Park Media, often abbreviated as CPM, was an American multimedia entertainment company based in New York City, New York (state), New York and was headquartered in the 250 West 57th Street building in Midtown Manhattan. They were one of the ...
and its imprints, achieved fairly substantial commercial success and went on to become major players in the now very lucrative American anime market. Others, such as
AnimEigo AnimEigo is an American entertainment company that licenses and distributes anime is hand-drawn and computer animation " technique Computer animation is the process used for digitally generating animated images. The more general term ...
, achieved limited success. Many companies created directly by Japanese parent companies did not do as well, most releasing only one or two titles before completing their American operations. Licenses are expensive, often hundreds of thousands of dollars for one series and tens of thousands for one movie.
ADV Court Documents Reveal Amounts Paid for 29 Anime Titles
''
The prices vary widely; for example, '' Jinki: Extend'' cost only $91,000 to license while ''Kurau Phantom Memory'' cost $960,000. Simulcast Internet streaming rights can be cheaper, with prices around $1,000-$2,000 an episode, but can also be more expensive, with some series costing more than per episode. The anime market for the United States was worth approximately $2.74 billion in 2009. Dubbed animation began airing in the United States in 2000 on networks like The WB Television Network, The WB and Cartoon Network's Adult Swim. In 2005, this resulted in five of the top ten anime titles having previously aired on Cartoon Network. As a part of localization, some Editing of anime in American distribution, editing of cultural references may occur to better follow the references of the non-Japanese culture. The cost of English localization averages US$10,000 per episode. The industry has been subject to both praise and condemnation for fansubs, the addition of unlicensed and unauthorized subtitled translations of anime series or films. Fansubs, which were originally distributed on VHS bootlegged cassettes in the 1980s, have been freely available and disseminated online since the 1990s. Since this practice raises concerns for copyright and piracy issues, fansubbers tend to adhere to an unwritten moral code to destroy or no longer distribute an anime once an official translated or subtitled version becomes licensed. They also try to encourage viewers to buy an official copy of the release once it comes out in English, although fansubs typically continue to circulate through file-sharing networks. Even so, the laid back regulations of the Japanese animation industry tend to overlook these issues, allowing it to grow underground and thus increasing the popularity until there is a demand for official high-quality releases for animation companies. This has led to an increase in global popularity with Japanese animations, reaching $40 million in sales in 2004. Legal international availability of anime on the Internet has changed in recent years, with simulcasts of series available on websites like Crunchyroll. However, such services are still mostly limited to the Western, English-speaking countries, resulting in many fans in the developing world turning to online piracy.


Markets

Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO) valued the domestic anime market in Japan at (), including from licensed products, in 2005. JETRO reported sales of overseas anime exports in 2004 to be (). JETRO valued the anime market in the United States at (), including in home video sales and over from licensed products, in 2005. JETRO projected in 2005 that the worldwide anime market, including sales of licensed products, would grow to (). The anime market in China was valued at in 2017, and is projected to reach by 2020. Netflix reported that, between October 2019 and September 2020, more than member households worldwide had watched at least one anime title on the platform.


Awards

The anime industry has several annual awards that honor the year's best works. Major annual awards in Japan include the Ōfuji Noburō Award, the Mainichi Film Award for Best Animation Film, the Animation Kobe Awards, the Japan Media Arts Festival animation awards, the Tokyo Anime Award and the Japan Academy Prize for Animation of the Year. In the United States, anime films compete in the Crunchyroll Anime Awards. There were also the American Anime Awards, which were designed to recognize excellence in anime titles nominated by the industry, and were held only once in 2006. Anime productions have also been nominated and won awards not exclusively for anime, like the
Academy Award for Best Animated Feature The Academy Award for Best Animated Feature is given each year for animated films. An animated feature is defined by the Academy as a film with a running time of more than 40 minutes in which characters' performances are created using a frame-by-f ...
or the Golden Bear.


Globalization

Anime has become commercially profitable in Western world, Western countries, as demonstrated by early commercially successful Western adaptations of anime, such as ''Astro Boy (1963 TV series), Astro Boy'' and ''Speed Racer''. Early American adaptions in the 1960s made Japan expand into the continental European market, first with productions aimed at European and Japanese children, such as Heidi, Girl of the Alps, ''Heidi'', ''Vicky the Viking'' and ''Barbapapa'', which aired in various countries. Particularly Italy, Spain and France grew an interest into Japan's output, due to its cheap selling price and productive output. In fact, Italy imported the most anime outside of Japan. These mass imports influenced anime popularity in South American, Arabic and German markets. The beginning of 1980 saw the introduction of Japanese anime series into the American culture. In the 1990s, Japanese animation slowly gained popularity in America. Media companies such as Viz and Mixx began publishing and releasing animation into the American market. The 1988 film '' Akira'' is largely credited with popularizing anime in the Western world during the early 1990s, before anime was further popularized by television shows such as ''
Pokémon (an abbreviation for in Japan) is a Japanese media franchise managed by The Pokémon Company, a company founded by Nintendo, Game Freak, and Creatures (company), Creatures. The franchise was created by Satoshi Tajiri in 1996, and is cente ...
'' and ''
Dragon Ball Z is a Japanese anime is hand-drawn and computer animation " technique Computer animation is the process used for digitally generating animated images. The more general term computer-generated imagery Computer-generated imagery ...
'' in the late 1990s. The growth of the Internet later provided international audiences an easy way to access Japanese content. Early on, online piracy played a major role in this, through over time legal alternatives appeared. This is especially the case with net services such as Netflix and Crunchyroll which have large catalogs in Western countries, although as of 2020 anime fans in many non-Western countries, such as India or Southeast Asia, have difficulty obtaining access to legal content, and therefore still turn to online piracy.


Fan response

Anime clubs gave rise to anime conventions in the 1990s with the "anime boom", a period marked by increased popularity of anime. These conventions are dedicated to anime and manga and include elements like cosplay contests and industry talk panels. Cosplay, a portmanteau for "costume play", is not unique to anime and has become popular in contests and masquerades at anime conventions. Japanese culture and words have entered English usage through the popularity of the medium, including ''otaku'', an unflattering Japanese term commonly used in English to denote an obsessive fan of anime and manga. Another word that has arisen describing obsessive fans in the United States is ''wapanese'' meaning 'white individuals who want to be Japanese', or later known as Japanophile, ''weeaboo'', individuals who demonstrate an obsession in Japanese anime subculture, a term that originated from abusive content posted on the popular bulletin board website 4chan.org. Anime enthusiasts have produced fan fiction and fan art, including computer wallpapers and anime music videos (AMVs). As of the 2010s, many anime fans use online communities and databases such as MyAnimeList to discuss anime and track their progress watching respective series.


Anime style

One of the key points that made anime different from a handful of Western cartoons is the potential for visceral content. Once the expectation that the aspects of visual intrigue or animation being just for children is put aside, the audience can realize that themes involving violence, suffering, sexuality, pain, and death can all be storytelling elements utilized in anime as much as other types of media. However, as anime itself became increasingly popular, its styling has been inevitably the subject of both satire and serious creative productions. ''South Park''s "Chinpokomon" and "Good Times with Weapons" episodes, Adult Swim's ''Perfect Hair Forever'', and Nickelodeon's ''Kappa Mikey'' are Western examples of satirical depictions of Japanese culture and anime, but anime tropes have also been satirized by some anime, such as ''KonoSuba''. Traditionally only Japanese works have been considered anime, but some works have sparked debate for blurring the lines between anime and cartoons, such as the American anime style production ''Avatar: The Last Airbender''. These anime styled works have become defined as anime-influenced animation, in an attempt to classify all anime styled works of non-Japanese origin. Some creators of these works cite anime as a source of inspiration, for example the French production team for ''Ōban Star-Racers'' that moved to Tokyo to collaborate with a Japanese production team. When anime is defined as a "style" rather than as a national product it leaves open the possibility of anime being produced in other countries, but this has been contentious amongst fans, with John Oppliger stating, "The insistence on referring to original American art as Japanese "anime" or "manga" robs the work of its cultural identity." A United Arab Emirates, U.A.E.-Philippines, Filipino produced TV series called ''Torkaizer'' is dubbed as the "Middle East's First Anime Show", and is currently in production and looking for funding. Netflix has produced multiple anime series in collaboration with Japanese animation studios, and in doing so, has offered a more accessible channel for distribution to Western markets. The web-based series ''RWBY'', produced by Texas-based company Rooster Teeth, is produced using an anime art style, and the series has been described as "anime" by multiple sources. For example, ''Adweek'', in the headline to one of its articles, described the series as "American-made anime", and in another headline, ''HuffPost, The Huffington Post'' described it as simply "anime", without referencing its country of origin. In 2013, Monty Oum, the creator of ''RWBY'', said "Some believe just like Scotch needs to be made in Scotland, an American company can't make anime. I think that's a narrow way of seeing it. Anime is an art form, and to say only one country can make this art is wrong." ''RWBY'' has been released in Japan with a Japanese language dub; the CEO of Rooster Teeth, Matt Hullum, commented "This is the first time any American-made anime has been marketed to Japan. It definitely usually works the other way around, and we're really pleased about that."


Media franchises

In Japanese culture and entertainment, media mix is a strategy to disperse content across multiple representations: different broadcast media, gaming technologies, cell phones, toys, amusement parks, and other methods.Henry Jenkins, ''Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide''
p. 110
/ref> It is the Japanese term for a Media franchise#Transmedia franchise, transmedia franchise.Marc Steinberg, ''Anime's Media Mix: Franchising Toys and Characters in Japan'' The term gained its circulation in late 1980s, but the origins of the strategy can be traced back to the 1960s with the proliferation of anime, with its interconnection of media and commodity goods.Steinberg
p. vi
/ref> A number of anime media franchises have gained considerable global popularity, and are among the world's List of highest-grossing media franchises, highest-grossing media franchises. ''
Pokémon (an abbreviation for in Japan) is a Japanese media franchise managed by The Pokémon Company, a company founded by Nintendo, Game Freak, and Creatures (company), Creatures. The franchise was created by Satoshi Tajiri in 1996, and is cente ...

Pokémon
'' in particular is the highest-grossing media franchise of all time, bigger than ''Star Wars'' and ''Marvel Cinematic Universe''.


See also

* Animation director * Chinese animation * Fandom culture in South Korea * Japanophilia * Korean animation * ''Mechademia'' * Voice acting in Japan


Notes


References


Sources

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


External links

* * {{Authority control Anime, 1917 introductions Anime and manga terminology Japanese inventions