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An adverb is a word or an expression that modifies a
verb A verb () is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (''bring'', ''read'', ''walk'', ''run'', ''learn''), an occurrence (''happen'', ''become''), or a state of being (''be'', ''exist'', ''stand''). In the usual description of E ...
,
adjective In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most langu ...
, another adverb,
determiner A determiner, also called determinative ( abbreviated ), is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practic ...
,
clause In language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an apparent answer to the painful divisions between self and other, private a ...
,
preposition Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a used to express spatial or temporal relations (''in'', ''under'', ''towards'', ''before'') or mark various (''of'', ''for''). A pre ...
, or
sentence Sentence(s) or The Sentence may refer to: Common uses * Sentence (law), the punishment a judge gives to a defendant found guilty of a crime * Sentence (linguistics), a grammatical unit of language * Sentence (mathematical logic), a formula not cont ...
. Adverbs typically express manner, place, time, frequency, degree, level of certainty, etc., answering questions such as ''how?'', ''in what way?'', ''when?'', ''where?'', and ''to what extent?''. This is called the
adverbial In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as ...
function, and may be performed by single words (adverbs) or by multi-word
adverbial phrase In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include ph ...
s and
adverbial clauseAn adverbial clause is a dependent clause A subordinate clause, dependent clause or embedded clause is a clause In language, a clause is a part of the sentence that constitutes or comprises a predicate (grammar), predicate. A typical clause consis ...
s. Adverbs are traditionally regarded as one of the
parts of speech In traditional grammar Traditional grammar is a framework for the description of the structure of a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sig ...
. Modern linguists note that the term "adverb" has come to be used as a kind of "catch-all" category, used to classify words with various types of
syntactic In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the ...

syntactic
behavior, not necessarily having much in common except that they do not fit into any of the other available categories (noun, adjective, preposition, etc.)


Functions

The English word ''adverb'' derives (through French) from Latin ''adverbium'', from ''ad-'' ("to"), ''verbum'' ("word", "verb"), and the nominal suffix ''-ium''. The term implies that the principal function of adverbs is to act as modifiers of
verb A verb () is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (''bring'', ''read'', ''walk'', ''run'', ''learn''), an occurrence (''happen'', ''become''), or a state of being (''be'', ''exist'', ''stand''). In the usual description of E ...
s or
verb phrase In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the meth ...
s.Rodney D. Huddleston, Geoffrey K. Pullum, ''A Student's Introduction to English Grammar'', CUP 2005, p. 122ff. An adverb used in this way may provide information about the manner, place, time, frequency, certainty, or other circumstances of the activity denoted by the verb or verb phrase. Some examples: *She sang loudly (''loudly'' modifies the verb ''sang'', indicating the manner of singing) *We left it here (''here'' modifies the verb phrase ''left it'', indicating place) *I worked yesterday (''yesterday'' modifies the verb ''worked'', indicating time) *You often make mistakes (''often'' modifies the verb phrase ''make mistakes'', indicating frequency) *He undoubtedly did it (''undoubtedly'' modifies the verb phrase ''did it'', indicating certainty) Adverbs can also be used as modifiers of
adjective In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most langu ...
s, and of other adverbs, often to indicate degree. Examples: * You are quite right (the adverb ''quite'' modifies the adjective ''right'') * She sang very loudly (the adverb ''very'' modifies another adverb – ''loudly'') They can also modify
determiner A determiner, also called determinative ( abbreviated ), is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practic ...
s,
prepositional phrase An adpositional phrase, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of lang ...
s, or whole
clause In language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an apparent answer to the painful divisions between self and other, private a ...
s or
sentence Sentence(s) or The Sentence may refer to: Common uses * Sentence (law), the punishment a judge gives to a defendant found guilty of a crime * Sentence (linguistics), a grammatical unit of language * Sentence (mathematical logic), a formula not cont ...
s, as in the following examples: * I bought practically the only fruit (''practically'' modifies the determiner ''the '' in the
noun phrase A noun phrase, or nominal (phrase), is a phrase In syntax In linguistics, syntax () is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of Sentence (linguistics), sentences (sentence structure) in a given Natural language ...
, "the only fruit" wherein "only" is an
adjective In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most langu ...
) * She drove us almost to the station (''almost'' modifies the prepositional phrase ''to the station'') * Certainly we need to act (''certainly'' modifies the sentence as a whole) Adverbs thus perform a wide range of modifying functions. The major exception is the function of modifier of
noun A noun () is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning (linguistics), meaning. In many l ...

noun
s, which is performed instead by adjectives (compare ''she sang loudly'' with ''her loud singing disturbed me''; here the verb ''sang'' is modified by the adverb ''loudly'', whereas the noun ''singing'' is modified by the adjective ''loud''). However, because some adverbs and adjectives are
homonym In linguistics, homonyms, broadly defined, are words which are homographs (words that share the same spelling, regardless of pronunciation) or homophones (words that share the same pronunciation, regardless of spelling), or both. For example, acco ...
s, their respective functions are sometimes conflated: *Even numbers are divisible by two *The camel even drank. The word "even" in the first sentence is an adjective, since it is a
prepositiveA postpositive adjective or postnominal adjective is an adjective In linguistics, an adjective (list of glossing abbreviations, abbreviated ) is a word that grammatical modifier, modifies a noun or noun phrase or describes its referent. Its Seman ...
modifier that modifies the noun "numbers". The word "even" in the second sentence is a prepositive adverb that modifies the verb "drank." Although it is possible for an adverb to precede or to follow a noun or a noun phrase, the adverb nonetheless does ''not'' modify either in such cases, as in: *Internationally there is a shortage of protein for animal feeds *There is a shortage internationally of protein for animal feeds *There is an international shortage of protein for animal feeds In the first sentence, "Internationally" is a prepositive adverb that modifies the clause, "there is ..." In the second sentence, "internationally" is a postpositive adverb that modifies the clause, "There is ..." By contrast, the third sentence contains "international" as a prepositive adjective that modifies the noun, "shortage." Adverbs can sometimes be used as
predicative expression A predicative expression (or just predicative) is part of a clause In language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Mos ...
s; in English, this applies especially to adverbs of location: *Your seat is there. *Here is my boarding pass (wherein "boarding pass" is the subject and "here" is the predicate in a syntax that entails a subject-verb inversion). When the function of an adverb is performed by an expression consisting of more than one word, it is called an
adverbial phrase In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include ph ...
or
adverbial clauseAn adverbial clause is a dependent clause A subordinate clause, dependent clause or embedded clause is a clause In language, a clause is a part of the sentence that constitutes or comprises a predicate (grammar), predicate. A typical clause consis ...
, or simply an
adverbial In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as ...
.


Formation and comparison

In
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
, adverbs of manner (answering the question ''how?'') are often formed by adding ''-ly'' to adjectives, but
flat adverb In English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, ...
s (such as in ''drive fast'', ''drive slow'', and ''drive friendly'') have the same form as the corresponding adjective. Other languages often have similar methods for deriving adverbs from adjectives (, for example, uses the suffix ''-ment''), or else use the same form for both adjectives and adverbs, as in German and Dutch, where for example ''schnell'' or ''snel'', respectively, mean either "quick" or "quickly" depending on the context. Many other adverbs, however, are not related to adjectives in this way; they may be derived from other words or phrases, or may be single
morpheme A morpheme is the smallest meaningful lexical itemIn lexicography, a lexical item (or lexical unit / LU, lexical entry) is a single word, a part of a word, or a chain of words ( catena) that forms the basic elements of a language's lexicon A ...
s. Examples of such adverbs in English include ''here, there, together, yesterday, aboard, very, almost'', etc. Where the meaning permits, adverbs may undergo
comparison File:Comparison of dietary fat composition.png, A chart showing a comparison of qualities of a variety of cooking oils, aimed at helping the reader decide which choices would be best for their health. Comparison or comparing is the act of evaluat ...
, taking
comparative In general linguistics, the comparative is a syntactic construction that serves to express a comparison between two (or more) entities or groups of entities in quality or degree - see also comparison (grammar) for an overview of comparison, as well ...

comparative
and
superlative Comparison is a feature in the morphology Morphology, from the Greek and meaning "study of shape", may refer to: Disciplines * Morphology (archaeology), study of the shapes or forms of artifacts * Morphology (astronomy), study of the shape of a ...
forms. In English this is usually done by adding ''more'' and ''most'' before the adverb (''more slowly, most slowly''), although there are a few adverbs that take inflected forms, such as ''well'', for which ''better'' and ''best'' are used. For more information about the formation and use of adverbs in English, see . For other languages, see below, and the articles on individual languages and their grammars.


Adverbs as a "catch-all" category

Adverbs are considered a
part of speech In traditional grammar A tradition is a belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the case, or that some proposition about the world is truth, true. In epistemology, philosophers use the term "belief" to refer t ...
in traditional English grammar, and are still included as a part of speech in grammar taught in schools and used in dictionaries. However, modern grammarians recognize that words traditionally grouped together as adverbs serve a number of different functions. Some describe adverbs as a "catch-all" category that includes all words that do not belong to one of the other parts of speech. A logical approach to dividing words into classes relies on recognizing which words can be used in a certain context. For example, the only type of word that can be inserted in the following template to form a grammatical sentence is a
noun A noun () is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning (linguistics), meaning. In many l ...

noun
: :The _____ is red. (For example, "The hat is red".) When this approach is taken, it is seen that adverbs fall into a number of different categories. For example, some adverbs can be used to modify an entire sentence, whereas others cannot. Even when a sentential adverb has other functions, the meaning is often not the same. For example, in the sentences ''She gave birth naturally'' and ''Naturally, she gave birth'', the word ''naturally'' has different meanings: in the first sentence, as a verb-modifying adverb, it means "in a natural manner", while in the second sentence, as a sentential adverb, it means something like "of course". Words like ''very'' afford another example. We can say ''Perry is very fast'', but not ''Perry very won the race''. These words can modify adjectives but not verbs. On the other hand, there are words like ''here'' and ''there'' that cannot modify adjectives. We can say ''The sock looks good there'' but not ''It is a there beautiful sock''. The fact that many adverbs can be used in more than one of these functions can confuse the issue, and it may seem like splitting hairs to say that a single adverb is really two or more words that serve different functions. However, this distinction can be useful, especially when considering adverbs like ''naturally'' that have different meanings in their different functions.
Rodney Huddleston Rodney D. Huddleston (born 4 April 1937) is a British linguistics, linguist and Linguist, grammarian specializing in the study and description of English. Huddleston is the primary author of ''The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language'' (), ...
distinguishes between a ''word'' and a ''lexicogrammatical-word''. Grammarians find difficulty categorizing negating words, such as the English ''not''. Although traditionally listed as an adverb, this word does not behave grammatically like any other, and it probably should be placed in a class of its own.Haegeman, Liliane. 1995. ''The syntax of negation''. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


In specific languages

* In
Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Dutch Castle Places * ...
adverbs have the basic form of their corresponding
adjective In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most langu ...
s and are not inflected (though they sometimes can be compared). * In
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...

German
the term ''Adverb'' is differently defined than in the English language. German adverbs form a group of noninflectable words (though a few can be compared). An English ''adverb'' which is derived from an adjective is arranged in German under the adjectives with ''adverbial use'' in the sentence. The others are also called adverbs in the German language. * In
Scandinavian languages The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages—a sub-family of the Indo-European languages—along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages. The language group is also r ...
, adverbs are typically derived from adjectives by adding the suffix '-t', which makes it identical to the adjective's neuter form. Scandinavian adjectives, like English ones, are inflected in terms of comparison by adding '-ere'/'-are' (comparative) or '-est'/'-ast' (superlative). In inflected forms of adjectives, the '-t' is absent.
Periphrastic In linguistics, periphrasis () is the usage of multiple separate words to carry the meaning of prefixes, suffixes or verbs, among other things, where either would be possible. It is a device where grammatical meaning is expressed by one or more f ...
comparison is also possible. * In
Romance languages The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular or Colloquial Latin, is non-literary Literature broadly is any collection of w ...

Romance languages
, many adverbs are formed from adjectives (often the feminine form) by adding '-mente' (
Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portuguese language ** Portug ...

Portuguese
,
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
,
GalicianGalician may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Galicia (Spain) ** Galician language ** Galician people ** Gallaeci, a large Celtic tribal federation who inhabited Gallaecia (currently Galicia (Spain) * Something of, from, or related to ...
,
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, regional variants of the ...

Italian
) or '-ment' (,
Catalan Catalan may refer to: Catalonia From, or related to Catalonia: * Catalan language, a Romance language * Catalans, an ethnic group formed by the people from, or with origins in, Catalonia * Països Catalans, territories where Catalan is spoken * C ...
) (from
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
''mens, mentis'': mind, intelligence, or
suffix In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languag ...
''-mentum'', result or way of action). Other adverbs are single forms which are invariable. * In
Romanian Romanian may refer to: *anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Europe, Central, Eastern Europe, Eastern and Southeast Europe, Southeastern Euro ...
, almost all adverbs are simply the masculine singular form of the corresponding adjective, one notable exception being ''bine'' ("well") / ''bun'' ("good"). However, there are some Romanian adverbs built from certain masculine singular nouns using the suffix ''"-ește"'', such as the following ones: ''băieț-ește'' (boyishly), ''tiner-ește'' (youthfully), ''bărbăt-ește'' (manly), ''frăț-ește'' (brotherly), etc. *
Interlingua Interlingua (; ISO 639 ISO 639 is a set of standards by the International Organization for Standardization The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard An international standard is a technica ...
also forms adverbs by adding '-mente' to the adjective. If an adjective ends in ''c'', the adverbial ending is '-amente'. A few short, invariable adverbs, such as ''ben'', "well", and ''mal'', "badly", are available and widely used. * In
Esperanto Esperanto ( or ) is the world's most widely spoken constructed international auxiliary language An international auxiliary language (sometimes abbreviated as IAL or auxlang) is a meant for communication between people from different nations ...
, adverbs are not formed from adjectives but are made by adding '-e' directly to the word root. Thus, from ''bon'' are derived ''bone'', "well", and ''bona'', "good". See also: special Esperanto adverbs. * In
HungarianHungarian may refer to: * Hungary, a country in Central Europe * Kingdom of Hungary, state of Hungary, existing between 1000 and 1946 * Hungarians, ethnic groups in Hungary * Hungarian algorithm, a polynomial time algorithm for solving the assignmen ...
adverbs are formed from adjectives of any degree through the suffixes ''-ul/ül'' and ''-an/en'' depending on the adjective: ''szép'' (beautiful) → ''szépen'' (beautifully) or the comparative ''szebb'' (more beautiful) → ''szebben'' (more beautifully) *
Modern Standard Arabic Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) or Modern Written Arabic (shortened to MWA), terms used mostly by Western linguists, is the variety of standardized Standardization or standardisation is the process of implementing and developing technical stand ...
forms adverbs by adding the indefinite accusative ending '-an' to the root: ''kathiir-'', "many", becomes ''kathiiran'' "much". However, Arabic often avoids adverbs by using a cognate accusative followed by an adjective. *
Austronesian languages The Austronesian languages (, , , ) are a language family A language family is a group of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, based on speech and gesture (spoken language), Signed language, sign ...
generally form
comparative In general linguistics, the comparative is a syntactic construction that serves to express a comparison between two (or more) entities or groups of entities in quality or degree - see also comparison (grammar) for an overview of comparison, as well ...

comparative
adverbs by repeating the root (as in
WikiWiki A wiki (or wiki wiki) is a collaborative website. Wiki or wiki wiki may also refer to the following: Computing and technology * .wiki, a generic top-level domain overseen by ICANN * PBworks (formerly PBwiki), a commercial real-time collaborat ...

WikiWiki
) like the plural noun. *
Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or ...

Japanese
forms adverbs from verbal adjectives by adding /ku/ (く) to the stem (haya- "rapid" hayai "quick/early", hayakatta "was quick", hayaku "quickly") and from nominal adjectives by placing /ni/ (に) after the adjective instead of the copula /na/ (な) or /no/ (の) (rippa "splendid", rippa ni "splendidly"). The derivations are quite productive, but from a few adjectives, adverbs may not be derived. * In the
Celtic languages The Celtic languages ( , ) are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic The Proto-Celtic language, also called Common Celtic, is the ancestral proto-language In the tree model In historical linguistics Historica ...
, an adverbial form is often made by preceding the adjective with a preposition: ''go'' in
Irish Irish most commonly refers to: * Someone or something of, from, or related to: ** Ireland, an island situated off the north-western coast of continental Europe ** Northern Ireland, a constituent unit of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and North ...
or ''gu'' in
Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig ), also known as Scots Gaelic and Gaelic, is a Goidelic language The Goidelic or Gaelic languages ( ga, teangacha Gaelacha; gd, cànanan Goidhealach; gv, çhengaghyn Gaelgagh) form one of the two groups o ...
, meaning 'until'. In
Cornish Cornish is the adjective and demonym associated with Cornwall, the most southwesterly part of the United Kingdom. It may refer to: * Cornish language, a Brittonic Southwestern Celtic language of the Indo-European language family, spoken in Cornwall ...
, ''yn'' is used, meaning 'in'. * In
Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers collectively to the dialect The term dialect (from Latin , , from the Ancient Greek word , 'discourse', from , 'through' ...
, an adverb is most commonly made by adding the endings <-α> or <-ως> to the root of an adjective. Often, the adverbs formed from a common root using each of these endings have slightly different meanings. So, <τέλειος> (, meaning "perfect" and "complete") yields <τέλεια> (, "perfectly") and <τελείως> (, "completely"). Not all adjectives can be transformed into adverbs by using both endings. <Γρήγορος> (, "rapid") becomes <γρήγορα> (, "rapidly"), but not normally *<γρηγόρως> (*). When the <-ως> ending is used to transform an adjective whose tonal accent is on the third syllable from the end, such as <επίσημος> (, "official"), the corresponding adjective is accented on the second syllable from the end; compare <επίσημα> () and <επισήμως> (), which both mean "officially". There are also other endings with particular and restricted use as <-ί>, <-εί>, <-ιστί>, etc. For example, <ατιμωρητί> (, "with impunity") and <ασυζητητί> (, "indisputably"); <αυτολεξεί> ( "word for word") and <αυτοστιγμεί> (, "in no time"); <αγγλιστί> anglistí> "in English (language)"and <παπαγαλιστί> (, "by rote"); etc. * In Latvian, an adverb is formed from an adjective by changing the masculine or feminine adjective endings -s and -a to -i. "Labs", meaning "good", becomes "labi" for "well". Latvian adverbs have a particular use in expressions meaning "to speak" or "to understand" a language. Rather than use the noun meaning "Latvian/English/Russian", the adverb formed form these words is used. "Es runāju latviski/angliski/krieviski" means "I speak Latvian/English/Russian" or, literally, "I speak Latvianly/Englishly/Russianly". If a noun is required, the expression used means literally "language of the Latvians/English/Russians", "latviešu/angļu/krievu valoda". *In
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...
, and analogously in
Ukrainian Ukrainian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Ukraine * Something relating to Ukrainians an East Slavic people from Eastern Europe * Something relating to Demographics of Ukraine, in terms of demography: population of Ukraine * Somethi ...
and some other
Slavic languages The Slavic languages, also known as the Slavonic languages, are Indo-European languages spoken primarily by the Slavs, Slavic peoples or their descendants. They are thought to descend from a proto-language called Proto-Slavic language, Proto- ...

Slavic languages
, most adverbs are formed by removing the adjectival suffices "-ий" "-а" or "-е" from an adjective, and replacing them with the adverbial "-о". For example, in Ukrainian, "швидкий", "гарна", and "смачне" (fast, nice, tasty) become "швидко", "гарно", and "смачно" (quickly, nicely, tastefully), while in Russian, "быстрый", "хороший" and "прекрасный" (quick, good, wonderful) become "быстро", "хорошо", "прекрасно" (quickly, well, wonderfully). Another wide group of adverbs are formed by gluing a
preposition Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a used to express spatial or temporal relations (''in'', ''under'', ''towards'', ''before'') or mark various (''of'', ''for''). A pre ...
to an oblique case form. In Ukrainian, for example, (до ''onto'') + (долу ''bottom'') → (додолу ''downwards''); (з ''off'') + (далеку ''afar'') → (здалеку ''afar-off'') . As well, note that adverbs are mostly placed before the verbs they modify: "Добрий син гарно співає." (A good son sings nicely/well). There is no specific word order in East Slavic languages. * In
Korean Korean may refer to: People and culture * Koreans, ethnic group originating in the Korean Peninsula * Korean cuisine * Korean culture * Korean language **Korean alphabet, known as Hangul or Chosŏn'gŭl **Korean dialects and the Jeju language **S ...
, adverbs are commonly formed by replacing the -다 ending of the dictionary form of a descriptive verb with 게. So, 쉽다 (easy) becomes 쉽게 (easily). They are also formed by replacing the 하다 of some compound verbs with 히, e.g. 안녕하다 (peaceful) > 안녕히 (peacefully). * In
Turkish Turkish may refer to: * of or about Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe and Western Asia. It shares borders with Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), offi ...

Turkish
, the same word usually serves as adjective and adverb: ''iyi bir kız'' ("a good girl"), ''iyi anlamak'' ("to understand well''). * In
Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a populat ...
, adverbs end in the word "地(的)". * In
Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Iranian peoples ** Persian language, an Iranian ...
, many adjectives and adverbs have the same form such as "خوب", "سریع", "تند" so there is no obvious way to recognise them out of context. The only exceptions are Arabic adverbs with a "اً" suffix such as "ظاهراً" and "واقعاً".


See also

*
Flat adverb In English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, ...
(as in ''drive fast'', ''drive slow'', ''drive friendly'') * :Adverbs by type * Prepositional adverb * Pronominal adverb *
Grammatical conjunction In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as ...


References


Bibliography

*Ernst, Thomas. 2002. ''The syntax of adjuncts''. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. *Jackendoff, Ray. 1972. ''Semantic Interpretation in Generative Grammar''. MIT Press,


External links


The Online Dictionary of Language Terminology
{{Authority control Parts of speech