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York is a
cathedral city City status in the United Kingdom is granted by the monarch of the United Kingdom The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its Crown dependencies ...
with Roman origins at the confluence of the rivers
Ouse Ouse may refer to: Places Rivers in England * River Ouse, Yorkshire * River Ouse, Sussex * River Great Ouse, Northamptonshire and East Anglia ** River Little Ouse, a tributary of the River Great Ouse Other places * Ouse, Tasmania, a town in Austr ...
and
Foss Free and open-source software (FOSS) is software Software is a collection of Instruction (computer science), instructions and data (computing), data that tell a computer how to work. This is in contrast to Computer hardware, physical hardwa ...

Foss
in
North Yorkshire North Yorkshire is the largest non-metropolitan county A non-metropolitan county, or colloquially, shire county, is a county-level entity in England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and ...

North Yorkshire
, England. It is the historic county town of
Yorkshire Yorkshire (; abbreviated Yorks), formally known as the County of York, is a Historic counties of England, historic county of Northern England and the largest in the United Kingdom. Because of its great size in comparison with other English cou ...

Yorkshire
. The city has long-standing buildings and structures, such as
York Minster The Cathedral and Metropolitical Church of Saint Peter in York, commonly known as York Minster, is the cathedral of York York is a cathedral city and unitary authority, unitary authority area, at the confluence of the rivers River Ouse, York ...

York Minster
,
York Castle York Castle is a fortified complex in the city of York, England. It consists of a sequence of castles, prisons, court, law courts and other buildings, which were built over the last nine centuries on the south side of the River Foss. The now-r ...

York Castle
and
York city walls York York is a cathedral city with Roman origins at the confluence of the rivers River Ouse, Yorkshire, Ouse and River Foss, Foss in North Yorkshire, England. It is the historic county town of Yorkshire. The city has long-standing building ...
. It was a
county corporate A county corporate or corporate county was a type of subnational division used for local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration within a particular sovereign state. This particular usage of the ...
, outside of the county's council and the ridings. The City of York unitary authority area includes the city, the town of
Haxby Haxby is a town and civil parish In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government. It is a territorial designation which is the lowest tier of local government below districts and counties, or thei ...
, and surrounding villages and rural areas. The
City of York Council City of York Council is the municipal governing body of the City of York, a unitary authority in Yorkshire, England. It is composed of 47 councillors, one, two, or three for each of the 21 electoral wards of York. It is responsible for all local ...
is responsible for providing all local services and facilities throughout the district. The city was founded by the
Romans Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, ...

Romans
as
Eboracum Eboracum () was a and later a in the of . In its prime it was the largest town in northern Britain and a provincial capital. The site remained occupied after the decline of the and ultimately developed into the present-day city , occupying ...
in 71 AD. It became the capital of the Roman province of
Britannia Inferior Britannia Inferior (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Ro ...
, and later of the kingdoms of
Deira Deira ( ; Old Welsh Old Welsh ( cy, Hen Gymraeg) is the stage of the Welsh language Welsh ( or ) is a Brittonic languages, Brittonic language of the Celtic language family that is native to the Welsh people. Welsh is spoken natively in ...

Deira
,
Northumbria Northumbria (; ang, Norþanhymbra Rīċe; la, Regnum Northanhymbrorum) was an early medieval Anglo-Saxons, Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy, kingdom in what is now Northern England and Lothian, south-east Scotland. The name derives from the Old Englis ...

Northumbria
and
Jórvík Scandinavian York (referred to at the time as ) or Danish York is a term used by historians for the south of Northumbria Northumbria (; ang, Norþanhymbra Rīċe; la, Regnum Northanhymbrorum) was an early medieval Anglo-Saxon kingdom in ...
. In the
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
, York grew as a major wool-trading centre and became the capital of the northern ecclesiastical province of the
Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is a Christian church Christian Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Critic ...
, a role it has retained. In the 19th century, York became a major hub of the railway network and a confectionery manufacturing centre, a status it maintained well into the 20th century. During the
Second World War World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, York was bombed as part of the
Baedeker Blitz The Baedeker Blitz or Baedeker raids were a series of attacks by the ''Luftwaffe The ''Luftwaffe'' () was the aerial warfare branch of the '' Wehrmacht'' during World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbrev ...
; although less affected by bombing than other northern cities, several historic buildings were gutted and restoration efforts continued into the 1960s. The city had a population of 153,717 in the
2011 census2011 censuses were conducted in the following countries: * Australia: Census in Australia * Austria: Demographics of Austria * Bangladesh: 2011 Bangladesh Census * Bulgaria: Demographics of Bulgaria * Canada: Canada 2011 Census * Croatia: 2011 Censu ...
and is in the
Yorkshire and the Humber Yorkshire and the Humber is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of ITL (UK), ITL for Office for National Statistics, statistical purposes. The population in 2011 was 5,284,000 with its largest settlements being Leeds, Shef ...
region. The wider City of York had a population of , the most populous district in England.


History


Origin of the name

The word ''York'' ( non,
Jórvík Scandinavian York (referred to at the time as ) or Danish York is a term used by historians for the south of Northumbria Northumbria (; ang, Norþanhymbra Rīċe; la, Regnum Northanhymbrorum) was an early medieval Anglo-Saxon kingdom in ...
) is derived from the
Brittonic Brittonic or Brythonic may refer to: *Common Brittonic, or Brythonic, the Celtic language anciently spoken in Great Britain *Brittonic languages, a branch of the Celtic languages descended from Common Brittonic *Celtic Britons, Britons (Celtic peop ...
name (
Latinised Latinisation or Latinization can refer to: * Latinisation of names, the practice of rendering a non-Latin name in a Latin style * Latinisation in the Soviet Union, the campaign in the USSR during the 1920s and 1930s to replace traditional writing sy ...
variously as , or ), a combination of "
yew tree Foliage of Mexican yew Yew is a common name given to various species of trees. The name is most prominently given to any of various coniferous trees and shrubs in the genus ''Taxus'': * European yew or common yew (''Taxus baccata'') * Paci ...

yew tree
" (compare
Old Irish Old Irish (''Goídelc''; ga, Sean-Ghaeilge; gd, Seann Ghàidhlig; gv, Shenn Yernish or ; Old Irish: ᚌᚑᚔᚇᚓᚂᚉ), sometimes called Old Gaelic, is the oldest form of the Goidelic The Goidelic or Gaelic languages ( ga, teangacha ...
,
Irish Irish most commonly refers to: * Someone or something of, from, or related to: ** Ireland, an island situated off the north-western coast of continental Europe ** Northern Ireland, a constituent unit of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and North ...
, , and , and
Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig ), also known as Scots Gaelic and Gaelic, is a Goidelic language The Goidelic or Gaelic languages ( ga, teangacha Gaelacha; gd, cànanan Goidhealach; gv, çhengaghyn Gaelgagh) form one of the two groups o ...
; compare also
Welsh Welsh may refer to: Related to Wales * Welsh, referring or related to Wales * Welsh language, a Brittonic Celtic language of the Indo-European language family, indigenous to the British Isles, spoken in Wales ** Patagonian Welsh, a dialect of Wels ...
and
Breton Breton most often refers to: *anything associated with Brittany Brittany (; french: link=no, Bretagne ; br, Breizh, or ; Gallo language, Gallo: ''Bertaèyn'' ) is a peninsula and cultural region in the west of France, covering the western part ...
, both meaning "alder buckthorn") and a suffix of
appurtenance An appurtenance is something subordinate to or belonging to another larger, principal entity, that is, an adjunct, satellite or accessory that generally accompanies something else.Xavier Delamarre, ''Dictionnaire de la langue gauloise'', éditions errance 2003, p. 159. Put together, these old words meant "place of the yew trees". (In
Welsh Welsh may refer to: Related to Wales * Welsh, referring or related to Wales * Welsh language, a Brittonic Celtic language of the Indo-European language family, indigenous to the British Isles, spoken in Wales ** Patagonian Welsh, a dialect of Wels ...
, ; in Old Irish, ; in Irish Gaelic, ; and in Scottish Gaelic, ). The city is called in Irish and in Scottish Gaelic—names derived from the Latin word . A proposed alternate meaning is "the settlement of (a man named) ," a
Celtic The words Celt and Celtic (also Keltic) may refer to: Ethno-linguistics *Celts The Celts (, see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) are. "CELTS location: Greater Europe time period: Second millennium B.C.E. to present ancestry: ...
personal name spelled variously in different documents as , and : when combined with the Celtic possessive suffix , the word could be used to denote the property of a man with this name. The name became the
Anglian Anglian may refer to: * Anglian, meaning "of the Angles", a Germanic people who settled in Britain in the post-Roman period * Anglian, a group of dialects of Old English * Anglian automobile, an English tricar manufactured from 1905 to 1907 * Angl ...

Anglian
in the 7th century: a compound of , from the old name, and , meaning “village,” probably by conflation of the element with a
Germanic Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples, an ethno-linguistic group identified by their use of the Germanic languages ** List of ancient Germanic peoples and tribes * Germanic languages :* Proto-Germanic language, a reconstructed proto-language of ...

Germanic
root ('boar'); by the 7th century, the
Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language ...
for 'boar' had become . When the
Danish Danish may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Denmark * A national or citizen of Denmark, also called a "Dane", see Demographics of Denmark * Danish people or Danes, people with a Danish ancestral or ethnic identity * Danis ...
army conquered the city in 866, it was renamed . The
Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French French ( or ) is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular o ...
and
Norman Norman or Normans may refer to: Ethnic and cultural identity * The Normans The Normans (Norman language, Norman: ''Normaunds''; french: Normands; la, Nortmanni/Normanni) were inhabitants of the early medieval Duchy of Normandy, descended from ...
name of the city following the
Norman Conquest The Norman Conquest (or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army made up of thousands of Normans, Duchy of Brittany, Bretons, County of Flanders, Flemish, and men from other Kingdom of France, French ...
was recorded as (modern Norman ) in works such as Wace's ''
Roman de Rou Image:Wace monument in St Helier Jersey.jpg, As quoted on this monument in Saint Helier, Wace informs the reader of the ''Roman de Rou'' that he was born in Jersey ''Roman de Rou'' is a verse chronicle by Wace in Norman language, Norman covering ...
''. , meanwhile, gradually reduced to ''York'' in the centuries after the Conquest, moving from the
Middle English Middle English (abbreviated to ME) was a form of the English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured sys ...
in the 14th century through in the 16th century to ''Yarke'' in the 17th century. The form ''York'' was first recorded in the 13th century. Many company and place names, such as the Ebor race meeting, refer to the Latinised Brittonic, Roman name. The 12th‑century chronicler
Geoffrey of Monmouth Geoffrey of Monmouth ( la, Galfridus Monemutensis, Galfridus Arturus, cy, Gruffudd ap Arthur, Sieffre o Fynwy; c. 1095 – c. 1155) was a British cleric and one of the major figures in the development of British historiography and the populari ...
, in his fictional account of the prehistoric kings of Britain, , suggests the name derives from that of a pre-Roman city founded by the legendary king Ebraucus. The
Archbishop of York The Archbishop of York is a senior bishop in the Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is a List of Christian denominations, Christian church which is the established church of England. The archbishop of Canterbury is the most ...
uses ''Ebor'' as his surname in his signature.


Early history

Archaeological evidence suggests that
Mesolithic The Mesolithic (Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...

Mesolithic
people settled in the region of York between 8000 and 7000 BC, although it is not known whether their settlements were permanent or temporary. By the time of the
Roman conquest of Britain The Roman conquest of Britain was a process that consisted of the conquest of territory located on the island of Great Britain, Britain by occupying Roman Empire, Roman forces. It began in AD 43 under Emperor Claudius, and was largely com ...
, the area was occupied by a
tribe The term tribe is used in many different contexts to refer to a category of human social group. The predominant usage of the term is in the discipline of anthropology. The definition is contested, in part due to conflicting theoretical understa ...

tribe
known to the Romans as the
Brigantes The Brigantes were Ancient Britons who in British Iron Age, pre-Roman times controlled the largest section of what would become Northern England. Their territory, often referred to as Brigantia (ancient region), Brigantia, was centred in what w ...

Brigantes
. The Brigantian tribal area initially became a Roman client state, but later its leaders became more hostile and the Roman Ninth Legion was sent north of the
Humber The Humber is a large tidal estuary An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. Estuaries form a transition zone betw ...
into Brigantian territory. The city was founded in 71 AD, when the Ninth Legion conquered the Brigantes and constructed a wooden military
fortress A fortification is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, gov ...

fortress
on flat ground above the River Ouse close to its
confluence In geography Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is ...

confluence
with the
River Foss The River Foss is in North Yorkshire, England. It is a tributary of the River Ouse, Yorkshire, River Ouse. It rises in the Foss Crooks Woods near Oulston Reservoir close to the village of Yearsley and runs south through the Vale of York to the O ...

River Foss
. The fortress, whose walls were rebuilt in stone by the VI legion based there subsequent to the IX legion, covered an area of and was inhabited by 6,000
legion Legion may refer to: Military * Roman legion The Roman legion ( la, legiō, ) was the largest military unit of the Roman army The Roman army (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic b ...

legion
ary soldiers. The site of the ''principia'' (HQ) of the fortress lies under the foundations of
York Minster The Cathedral and Metropolitical Church of Saint Peter in York, commonly known as York Minster, is the cathedral of York York is a cathedral city and unitary authority, unitary authority area, at the confluence of the rivers River Ouse, York ...

York Minster
, and excavations in the undercroft have revealed part of the Roman structure and columns. The Emperors
Hadrian Hadrian (; la, Caesar Traianus Hadrianus ; 24 January 76 – 10 July 138) was Roman emperor from 117 to 138. He was born into a Roman Italo-Hispanic family, which settled in Spain from the Italian city of Atri, Abruzzo, Atri in Picenum. Hi ...

Hadrian
,
Septimius Severus Lucius Septimius Severus (; 11 April 145 – 4 February 211) was Roman emperor from 193 to 211. He was born in Leptis Magna (present day Al-Khums, Libya) in the Roman province of Africa (Roman province), Africa. As a young man he advanced thro ...
and
Constantius I Constantius I (Flavius Valerius Constantius; 31 March 25 July 306) was a Roman emperor. He ruled as ''Caesar'' from 293 to 305 and as ''Augustus'' from 305 to 306. He was the junior colleague of the ''Augustus'' Maximian under the Tetrarchy an ...
all held court in York during their various campaigns. During his stay 207–211 AD, the Emperor Severus proclaimed York capital of the province of Britannia Inferior, and it is likely that it was he who granted York the privileges of a '
colonia Colonia may refer to: Arts and entertainment *Colonia (music group), a Croatian dance music group *Colonia (Autopsia album), 2002 *Colonia (A Camp album), 2009 *Colonia (film), ''Colonia'' (film), a 2015 historical romantic thriller Places *Col ...
' or city. Constantius I died in 306 AD during his stay in York, and his son
Constantine the Great Constantine I ( la, Flavius Valerius Constantinus; ; 27 February 22 May 337), also known as Constantine the Great, was Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ...

Constantine the Great
was proclaimed Emperor by the troops based in the fortress. In 314 AD a bishop from York attended the Council at Arles to represent Christians from the
province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are g ...
. While the Roman ''colonia'' and
fortress A fortification is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, gov ...

fortress
were on high ground, by 400 AD the town was victim to occasional flooding from the Rivers Ouse and Foss, and the population reduced. York declined in the post-Roman era, and was taken and settled by the
Angles The Angles ( ang, Ængle, ; la, Angli; german: Angeln) were one of the main Germanic peoples The Germanic peoples were a historical group of people living in Central Europe and Scandinavia. Since the 19th century, they have traditional ...

Angles
in the 5th century. Reclamation of parts of the town was initiated in the 7th century under King Edwin of
Northumbria Northumbria (; ang, Norþanhymbra Rīċe; la, Regnum Northanhymbrorum) was an early medieval Anglo-Saxons, Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy, kingdom in what is now Northern England and Lothian, south-east Scotland. The name derives from the Old Englis ...

Northumbria
, and York became his chief city. The first wooden
minster church Minster is an honorific title given to particular churches in England, most notably York Minster, Westminster Abbey in London and Southwell Minster in Nottinghamshire. The term ''minster'' is first found in royal foundation charters of the 7th ...
was built in York for the baptism of Edwin in 627, according to the Venerable Bede. Edwin ordered the small wooden church be rebuilt in stone; however, he was killed in 633, and the task of completing the stone minster fell to his successor
OswaldOswald may refer to: People *Oswald (given name), including a list of people with the name *Oswald (surname), including a list of people with the name Fictional characters *Oswald the Reeve, who tells a tale in Geoffrey Chaucer's ''The Canterbury ...

Oswald
. In the following century,
Alcuin of York Alcuin of York (; la, Flaccus Albinus Alcuinus; 735 – 19 May 804) – also called Ealhwine, Alhwin, or Alchoin – was an English scholar, clergyman, poet, and teacher from York York is a cathedral city and unitary authority, ...
came to the cathedral school of York. He had a long career as a teacher and scholar, first at the school at York now known as St Peter's School, founded in 627 AD, and later as
Charlemagne Charlemagne ( , ) or Charles the Great ( la, Carolus Magnus; 2 April 748 – 28 January 814) was King of the Franks The Franks—Germanic-speaking peoples that invaded the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century—were first led by i ...

Charlemagne
's leading advisor on ecclesiastical and educational affairs. In 866, Northumbria was in the midst of internecine struggles when the
Vikings Vikings—"pirate", non, víkingr is the modern name given to seafaring people primarily from Scandinavia Scandinavia; : ''Skadesi-suolu''/''Skađsuâl''. ( ) is a in , with strong historical, cultural, and linguistic ties. In ...

Vikings
raided and captured York. As a thriving Anglo-Saxon metropolis and prosperous economic hub, York was a clear target for the Vikings. Led by
Ivar the Boneless Ivar the Boneless ( non, Ívarr hinn Beinlausi ; born in 800s–c. 873), also known as Ivar Ragnarsson, was a semi-legendary Viking Vikings—"pirate", non, víkingr is the modern name given to seafaring people primarily from Scandi ...
and
Halfdan Halfdan (, ang, Healfdene, Medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the pe ...
, Scandinavian forces attacked the town on All Saints' Day. Launching the assault on a holy day proved an effective tactical move – most of York's leaders were in the cathedral, leaving the town vulnerable to attack and unprepared for battle. After it was conquered, the city was renamed from the Saxon Eoforwic to
Jorvik Scandinavian York (referred to at the time as ) or Danish York is a term used by historians for the south of Northumbria Northumbria (; ang, Norþanhymbra Rīċe; la, Regnum Northanhymbrorum) was an early medieval Anglo-Saxon The Ang ...
. It became the capital of Viking territory in Britain, and at its peak boasted more than 10,000 inhabitants. This was a population second only to London within Great Britain. Jorvik proved an important economic and trade centre for the Vikings. Norse coinage was created at the Jorvik mint, while archaeologists have found evidence of a variety of craft workshops around the town's central
Coppergate Coppergate is a street in the city centre of York York is a cathedral city and unitary authority, unitary authority area, at the confluence of the rivers River Ouse, Yorkshire, Ouse and River Foss, Foss, in England. At the 2011 census, the boro ...
area. These demonstrate that textile production, metalwork, carving, glasswork and jewellery-making were all practised in Jorvik. Materials from as far afield as the
Persian Gulf The Persian Gulf ( fa, خلیج فارس, translit=xalij-e fârs, lit=Gulf of , ) is a in . The body of water is an extension of the () through the and lies between to the northeast and the to the southwest.United Nations Group of Exper ...
have also been discovered, suggesting that the town was part of an international trading network. Under Viking rule the city became a major river port, part of the extensive Viking trading routes throughout northern Europe. The last ruler of an independent Jórvík,
Eric Bloodaxe (died 954), nicknamed Eric Bloodaxe, * Modern Norwegian Modern Norwegian ( no, moderne norsk) is the Norwegian language Norwegian (Norwegian: ''norsk'') is a North Germanic languages, North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it i ...
, was driven from the city in 954 AD by King
Eadred Eadred (also Edred, 'the Weak-in-the-Feet') (923 – 23 November 955) was King of the English This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England begins with Alfred the Great, who initially ruled Kingdom of Wessex, Wessex, one of th ...

Eadred
in his successful attempt to complete the unification of England.


After the conquest

In 1068, two years after the
Norman conquest of England The Norman Conquest (or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies northwest of England and the to ...
, the people of York rebelled. Initially they succeeded, but upon the arrival of
William the Conqueror William I (c. 1028Bates ''William the Conqueror'' p. 33 – 9 September 1087), usually known as William the Conqueror and sometimes William the Bastard, was the first House of Normandy, Norman List of English monarchs, monarch of Engl ...

William the Conqueror
the rebellion was put down. William at once built a wooden fortress on a motte. In 1069, after another rebellion, the king built another timbered castle across the River Ouse. These were destroyed in 1069 and rebuilt by William about the time of his ravaging Northumbria in what is called the "
Harrying of the North The Harrying of the North refers to a series of campaigns waged by William the Conqueror William I (c. 1028Bates ''William the Conqueror'' p. 33 – 9 September 1087), usually known as William the Conqueror and sometimes William ...
" where he destroyed everything from York to Durham. The remains of the rebuilt castles, now in stone, are visible on either side of the River Ouse. The first stone minster church was badly damaged by fire in the uprising, and the Normans built a minster on a new site. Around the year 1080, Archbishop Thomas started building the cathedral that in time became the current Minster. In the 12th century York started to prosper. In 1190,
York Castle York Castle is a fortified complex in the city of York, England. It consists of a sequence of castles, prisons, court, law courts and other buildings, which were built over the last nine centuries on the south side of the River Foss. The now-r ...
was the site of an infamous
massacre A massacre is the killing of multiple individuals and is usually considered to be morally unacceptable, especially when perpetrated by a group of political actors against defenseless victims. The word is a loan of a French term for "butchery ...
of its
Jew Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ) is an international standard are technical standards developed by international organizations (intergovernmental organizations), suc ...

Jew
ish inhabitants, in which at least 150 Jews died (although some authorities put the figure as high as 500). The city, through its location on the River Ouse and its proximity to the Great North Road, became a major trading centre.
King John of the King of the Romans (variant used in the early modern period) File:Nezahualpiltzintli.jpg, Aztec King Nezahualpiltzintli of Texcoco King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen re ...

King John
granted the city's first
charter A charter is the grant of authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture that surrounds everyday life. It is a social scie ...
in 1212, confirming trading rights in England and Europe. During the later Middle Ages, York merchants imported wine from France, cloth, wax, canvas, and oats from the
Low Countries The term Low Countries, also known as the Low Lands ( nl, de Lage Landen, french: les Pays-Bas) and historically called the Netherlands ( nl, de Nederlanden), Flanders, or Belgica, refers to a coastal lowland region in Northwestern Europe ...
, timber and furs from the
Baltic Baltic may refer to: Geography Northern Europe * Baltic Sea, a sea in Europe * Baltic region, an ambiguous term referring to the general area surrounding the Baltic Sea * Baltic states (also Baltics, Baltic nations, Baltic countries or Baltic rep ...
and exported grain to
Gascony Gascony (; french: Gascogne ; oc, Gasconha ; eu, Gaskoinia) was a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region ...
and grain and wool to the Low Countries. York became a major cloth manufacturing and trading centre.
Edward I Edward I (17/18 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), also known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots ( la, Malleus Scotorum), was King of England This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England ...

Edward I
further stimulated the city's economy by using the city as a base for his war in Scotland. The city was the location of significant unrest during the so-called
Peasants' Revolt The Peasants' Revolt, also named Wat Tyler's Rebellion or the Great Rising, was a major uprising across large parts of England in 1381. The revolt had various causes, including the socio-economic and political tensions generated by the Black ...
in 1381. The city acquired an increasing degree of autonomy from central government including the privileges granted by a charter of
Richard II Richard II (6 January 1367 – c. 14 February 1400), also known as Richard of Bordeaux, was King of England from 1377 until he was List of deposed politicians, deposed in 1399. Richard's father, Edward the Black Prince, Edward, Prince of ...

Richard II
in 1396.


16th to 18th centuries

The city underwent a period of economic decline during
Tudor Tudor most commonly refers to: * House of Tudor, English royal house of Welsh origins ** Tudor period, a historical era in England coinciding with the rule of the Tudor dynasty Tudor may also refer to: Architecture * Tudor architecture, the fi ...
times. Under
King Henry VIII Henry VIII (28 June 149128 January 1547) was King of England This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Ital ...
, the
Dissolution of the Monasteries#REDIRECT Dissolution of the monasteries {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
saw the end of York's many , including several orders of
friars A friar is a brother A brother is a man A man is an adult male Male (♂) is the sex of an organism that produces the gamete known as sperm. A male gamete can fuse with a larger female gamete, or ovum, in the process of fertil ...

friars
, the hospitals of St Nicholas and of St Leonard, the largest such institution in the north of England. This led to the
Pilgrimage of Grace The Pilgrimage of Grace was a popular revolt beginning in Yorkshire in October 1536, before spreading to other parts of Northern England including Cumberland, Northumberland, and north Lancashire, under the leadership of Robert Aske (political l ...
, an uprising of northern Catholics in Yorkshire and Lincolnshire opposed to religious reform. Henry VIII restored his authority by establishing the
Council of the North The Council of the North was an administrative body set up in 1472 by King Edward IV of England Edward IV (28 April 1442 – 9 April 1483) was King of England from 4 March 1461 to 3 October 1470, then again from 11 April 1471 until his de ...
in York in the dissolved St Mary's Abbey. The city became a trading and service centre during this period.
Anne of Denmark Anne of Denmark (; 12 December 1574 – 2 March 1619) was Queen of Scotland, England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotlan ...

Anne of Denmark
came to York with her children Prince Henry and on 11 June 1603. The Mayor gave her a tour and offered her spiced wine, but she preferred beer.
Guy Fawkes Guy Fawkes (; 13 April 1570 – 31 January 1606), also known as Guido Fawkes while fighting for the Spanish, was a member of a group of provincial Catholic Church in England and Wales, English Catholics who was involved in the failed Gu ...

Guy Fawkes
, who was born and educated in York, was a member of a group of
Roman Catholic Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Laz ...

Roman Catholic
restorationists that planned the Gunpowder Plot. Its aim was to displace
Protestant Protestantism is a form of that originated with the 16th-century , a movement against what its followers perceived to be in the . Protestants originating in the Reformation reject the Roman Catholic doctrine of , but disagree among themselves ...
rule by blowing up the
Houses of Parliament The Palace of Westminster serves as the meeting place for both the House of Commons of the United Kingdom, House of Commons and the House of Lords, the two houses of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Informally known as the Houses of Parliame ...

Houses of Parliament
while King
James I James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and King of Ireland, Ireland as James I from the Union of the Crowns, union of the Scottish and En ...

James I
, the entire Protestant, and even most of the Catholic
aristocracy Aristocracy ( grc-gre, ἀριστοκρατία , from 'excellent', and , 'rule') is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: A ...
and
nobility Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately below Royal family, royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy (class), aristocracy. Nobility has often been an Estates of the realm, estate of the realm that p ...
were inside. In 1644, during the
Civil War A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine publis ...
, the Parliamentarians besieged York, and many medieval houses outside the city walls were lost. The
barbican A barbican (from fro, barbacane) is a fortified outpost or fortified gateway, such as at an outer defense perimeter of a city or castle, or any tower situated over a gate or bridge which was used for defensive purposes. In the Middle Ages, ba ...

barbican
at Walmgate Bar was undermined and explosives laid, but the plot was discovered. On the arrival of
Prince Rupert Prince Rupert of the Rhine, Duke of Cumberland, (17 December 1619 (O.S.) / 27 December (N.S) – 29 November 1682) was a German-English army officer, admiral Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navy, navies, and in many navies is t ...

Prince Rupert
, with an army of 15,000 men, the siege was lifted. The Parliamentarians retreated some from York with Rupert in pursuit, before turning on his army and soundly defeating it at the
Battle of Marston Moor The Battle of Marston Moor was fought on 2 July 1644, during the First English Civil War The First English Civil War was fought in England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdo ...
. Of Rupert's 15,000 troops, 4,000 were killed and 1,500 captured. The siege was renewed and the city surrendered to
Sir Thomas Fairfax Thomas Fairfax, 3rd Lord Fairfax of Cameron (17 January 161212 November 1671), also known as Sir Thomas Fairfax, was an English politician, general and Parliamentary commander-in-chief during the English Civil War The English Civil War (1642 ...
on 15 July. Following the
restoration of the monarchy Restoration is the act of restoring something to its original state and may refer to: * Conservation and restoration of cultural heritage * Restoration style Film and television * The Restoration (1909 film), ''The Restoration'' (1909 film), a f ...
in 1660, and the removal of the garrison from York in 1688, the city was dominated by the gentry and merchants, although the clergy were still important. Competition from
Leeds Leeds is the largest city in the county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publis ...

Leeds
and
Hull Hull may refer to: Structures * Chassis, of an armored fighting vehicle * Fuselage, of an aircraft * Hull (botany), the outer covering of seeds * Hull (watercraft), the body or frame of a ship * Submarine hull Mathematics * Affine hull, in affin ...
, together with silting of the River Ouse, resulted in York losing its pre-eminent position as a trading centre, but its role as the social and cultural centre for wealthy northerners was rising. York's many elegant
townhouse A townhouse, townhome, town house, or town home, is a type of terraced housing __NOTOC__ In agriculture, a terrace is a piece of sloped plane that has been cut into a series of successively receding flat surfaces or platforms, which resembl ...

townhouse
s, such as the Lord Mayor's Mansion House and
Fairfax House Fairfax House is a Georgian architecture, Georgian townhouse (Great Britain), townhouse located at No. 27, Castlegate, York, England, near Clifford's Tower and York Castle Museum. It was probably built in the early 1740s for a local merchant and ...

Fairfax House
date from this period, as do the
Assembly Rooms In Great Britain Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of , it is the largest of the British Isles, the List of European islands by area, largest European islan ...
, the Theatre Royal, York, Theatre Royal, and the York Racecourse, racecourse.


Modern history

The railway promoter George Hudson was responsible for bringing the railway to York in 1839. Although Hudson's career as a railway entrepreneur ended in disgrace and bankruptcy, his promotion of York over Leeds, and of his own railway company (the York and North Midland Railway), helped establish York as a major railway centre by the late 19th century. The introduction of the railways established engineering in the city. At the turn of the 20th century, the railway accommodated the headquarters and works of the North Eastern Railway (UK), North Eastern Railway, which employed more than 5,500 people. The railway was instrumental in the expansion of Rowntree's, Rowntree's Cocoa Works. It was founded in 1862 by Henry Isaac Rowntree, who was joined in 1869 by his brother the philanthropist Joseph Rowntree (Philanthropist), Joseph. Another chocolate manufacturer, Terry's, Terry's of York, was a major employer. By 1900, the railways and confectionery had become the city's two major industries. York was a centre of early photography, as described by Hugh Murray in his 1986 book ''Photographs and Photographers of York: The Early Years, 1844–79''. Photographers who had studios in York included William Hayes (photographer), William Hayes, William Pumphrey, and Augustus Mahalski who operated on Davygate and Low Petergate in the 19th century, having come to England as a refugee after serving as a Uhlan, Polish lancer in the Austro-Hungarian war. In 1942, the city was bombed during the
Second World War World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
(part of the
Baedeker Blitz The Baedeker Blitz or Baedeker raids were a series of attacks by the ''Luftwaffe The ''Luftwaffe'' () was the aerial warfare branch of the '' Wehrmacht'' during World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbrev ...
) by the German Luftwaffe and 92 people were killed and hundreds injured. Buildings damaged in the raid included the York railway station, Railway Station, Rowntree's Factory, Poppleton Road Primary School, St Martin-le-Grand Church, the Bar Convent and the Guildhall, York, Guildhall which was left in total disrepair until 1960. With the emergence of tourism, the historic core of York became one of the city's major assets, and in 1968 it was designated a conservation area. The existing tourist attractions were supplemented by the establishment of the National Railway Museum in York in 1975, the Jorvik Viking Centre in 1984 and the York Dungeon in 1986. The opening of the University of York in 1963 added to the prosperity of the city. In March 2012, York's Chocolate Story opened. York was voted European Tourism City of the Year by European Cities Marketing in June 2007, beating 130 other European cities to gain first place, surpassing Gothenburg in Sweden (second) and Valencia, Spain, Valencia in Spain (third). York was also voted safest place to visit in the 2010 ''Condé Nast Traveller'' Readers' Choice Awards. In 2018, ''The Sunday Times'' deemed York to be its overall 'Best Place to Live' in Britain, highlighting the city's "perfect mix of heritage and hi-tech" and as a "mini-metropolis with cool cafes, destination restaurants, innovative companies – plus the fastest internet in Britain". The result was confirmed in a YouGov survey, reported in August 2018, with 92% of respondents saying that they liked the city, more than any of 56 other British cities.


Governance


Local

The City of York is governed by the
City of York Council City of York Council is the municipal governing body of the City of York, a unitary authority in Yorkshire, England. It is composed of 47 councillors, one, two, or three for each of the 21 electoral wards of York. It is responsible for all local ...
. It is a unitary authority that operates on a leader and cabinet style of governance, having the powers of a non-metropolitan county and district council combined. It provides a full range of local government services including Council Tax billing, libraries, social services, processing planning applications, waste collection and disposal, and it is a local education authority. The city council consists of 47 councillors representing 21 Ward (electoral subdivision), wards, with two or three per ward serving four-year terms. Its headquarters are at the York Guildhall, Guildhall and West Offices in the city centre. York is divided into 21 administrative wards: Acomb, North Yorkshire, Acomb, Bishopthorpe, Clifton, York, Clifton, Copmanthorpe, Dringhouses and Woodthorpe, North Yorkshire, Woodthorpe, Fishergate, Fulford, North Yorkshire, Fulford and Heslington, Guildhall,
Haxby Haxby is a town and civil parish In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government. It is a territorial designation which is the lowest tier of local government below districts and counties, or thei ...
and Wigginton, North Yorkshire, Wigginton, Heworth, York, Heworth, Heworth Without, Holgate, North Yorkshire, Holgate, Hull Road, Huntington, City of York, Huntington and New Earswick, Micklegate, Osbaldwick and Derwent (ward), Derwent, Rawcliffe, York, Rawcliffe and Clifton Without, Rural West York, Strensall, Westfield, York, Westfield, and Wheldrake. The members of the cabinet, led by the Leader of the City of York Council, Council Leader, makes decisions on their portfolio areas individually. Following the Local Government Act 2000, the Council Leader commands the Confidence and supply, confidence of the city council; the leader of the largest political group and head of the City of York Council. The Leader of the council and the cabinet (consisting of all the executive councillors) are collectively Accountability, accountable for their policies and actions to the city council. The current Council Leader, Liberal Democrats (UK), Liberal Democrats' Cllr Keith Aspden, was appointed on 22 May 2019, following the 2019 City of York Council election. York's first citizen and civic head is the Lord Mayor of York, Lord Mayor, who is the chairman of the City of York Council. The appointment is made by the city council each year in May, at the same time appointing the Sheriff, the city's other civic head. The offices of Lord Mayor and Sheriff are purely ceremonial. The Lord Mayor carries out civic and ceremonial duties in addition to chairing full council meetings. The incumbent Lord Mayor since 27 May 2021 is Councillor Chris Cullwick, and the Sheriff is Councillor Ashley Mason. York Youth Council consists of several young people who negotiate with the councillors to get better facilities for York's young people, and who also elect York's Member of Youth Parliament. As a result of the 2019 City of York Council election the Conservative Party (UK), Conservative Party was reduced to two seats. The Liberal Democrats (UK), Liberal Democrats had 21 councillors. The Labour Party (UK), Labour Party had 17 councillors and the Green Party of England and Wales, Green Party had four with three Independents. Due to no overall control, the Liberal Democrats and the Green Party agreed to form a coalition on 14 May 2019. York is the traditional county town of
Yorkshire Yorkshire (; abbreviated Yorks), formally known as the County of York, is a Historic counties of England, historic county of Northern England and the largest in the United Kingdom. Because of its great size in comparison with other English cou ...

Yorkshire
, and therefore did not form part of any of its three historic Riding (division), ridings, or divisions. Its Mayor has had the status of Lord Mayor since 1370. York is an ancient borough, and was reformed by the Municipal Corporations Act 1835 to form a municipal borough. It gained the status of a county borough in 1889, under the Local Government Act 1888, and existed so until 1974, when, under the Local Government Act 1972, it became a non-metropolitan district in the county of North Yorkshire, whilst retaining its Lord Mayor, its Sheriff and Aldermen. As a result of 1990s UK local government reform, York regained unitary status and saw a substantial alteration in its borders, taking in parts of Selby (district), Selby and Harrogate (borough), Harrogate districts, and about half the population of the Ryedale district. The new boundary was imposed after central government rejected the former city council's own proposal.


Parliament

From 1997 to 2010, the central part of the district was covered by the City of York (UK Parliament constituency), City of York constituency, while the remainder was split between the constituencies of Ryedale (UK Parliament constituency), Ryedale, Selby (UK Parliament constituency), Selby, and Vale of York (UK Parliament constituency), Vale of York. These constituencies were represented by Hugh Bayley, John Greenway (MP), John Greenway, John Grogan (UK politician), John Grogan, and Anne McIntosh respectively. Following their review in 2003 of parliamentary representation in
North Yorkshire North Yorkshire is the largest non-metropolitan county A non-metropolitan county, or colloquially, shire county, is a county-level entity in England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and ...

North Yorkshire
, the Boundary Commission for England recommended the creation of two new seats for the City of York, in time for the 2010 United Kingdom general election, general election in 2010. These are York Central (UK Parliament constituency), York Central, which covers the inner urban area, and is entirely surrounded by the York Outer (UK Parliament constituency), York Outer constituency.


Ceremonial

York is within the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire and, until 1974, was within the jurisdiction of the Lord Lieutenant of the West Riding of Yorkshire, Lord Lieutenant of the County of York, West Riding and the County of The City of York. The city does retain the right to appoint its own Sheriff. The holder of the Royal Duke, Royal Duke of York, dukedom of York has no responsibilities either ceremonially or administratively as regards to the city.


Geography


Location

The city is north-east of
Leeds Leeds is the largest city in the county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publis ...

Leeds
, and is part of the Leeds City Region. York lies in the Vale of York, a flat area of fertile arable land bordered by the Pennines, the North York Moors and the Yorkshire Wolds. The city was built at the confluence of the Rivers Ouse and Foss on a terminal moraine left by the last Ice Age. During Roman times, the land surrounding the Ouse and Foss was marshy, making the site easy to defend. The city is prone to flooding from the River Ouse, and has an extensive network of flood defences with walls along the river, and a liftable barrier across the Foss where it joins the Ouse at the "Bridges of York#The Blue Bridge, Blue Bridge". In October and November 2000, York experienced the worst flooding in 375 years; more than 300 homes were flooded. In December 2015 the flooding was more extensive and caused major disruption. The extreme impact led to a personal visit by Prime Minister David Cameron. Much land in and around the city is on flood plains too flood-prone for development other than agriculture. The ''ings'' are flood meadows along the Ouse, while the ''Strays of York, strays'' are open common grassland in various locations around the city.


Climate

York has a Oceanic climate, temperate climate (Köppen climate classification, Cfb) with four distinct seasons. As with the rest of the Vale of York, the city's climate is drier and warmer than the rest of the
Yorkshire and the Humber Yorkshire and the Humber is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of ITL (UK), ITL for Office for National Statistics, statistical purposes. The population in 2011 was 5,284,000 with its largest settlements being Leeds, Shef ...
region. Owing to its lowland location, York is prone to frosts, fog, and cold winds during winter, spring and very early summer. Snow can fall in winter from December onwards to as late as April but quickly melts. As with much of the British Isles, the weather is changeable. York experiences most sunshine from May to July, an average of six hours per day. With its inland location, summers are often warmer than the Yorkshire coast with temperatures of 27 °C or more. Extremes recorded at the University of York campus between 1998 and 2010 include a highest temperature of and a lowest temperature of (6 December 2010). The most rainfall in one day was .


Green belt

York is bounded by a green belt area, which more rigorously manages development around the rural area of the district and portions of surrounding districts, primarily to preserve the setting and historic character of York. The belt covers nearly all of the city district including all its outer villages, and extends into the surrounding North Yorkshire districts of Hambleton District, Hambleton, Harrogate district, Harrogate, Ryedale, and Selby District, Selby.


Demography

The York urban area (built-up area) had a population of 153,717 at the time of the United Kingdom Census 2011, 2011 UK census, compared with 137,505 in 2001. The population of the City of York (Local Authority) was 198,051 and its ethnic composition was 94.3% White, 1.2% Mixed, 3.4% Asian and 0.6% Black. York's elderly population (those 65 and over) was %, however only 13.2% were listed as retired. Also at the time of the United Kingdom Census 2001, 2001 UK census, the City of York had a total population of 181,094 of whom 93,957 were female and 87,137 were male. Of the 76,920 households in York, 36.0% were married couples living together, 31.3% were one-person households, 8.7% were cohabitation, co-habiting couples and 8.0% were lone parents. The figures for lone parent households were below the national average of 9.5%, and the percentage of married couples was also close to the national average of 36.5%; the proportion of one person households was slightly higher than the national average of 30.1%. In 2001, the population density was . Of those aged 16–74 in York, 24.6% had no academic qualifications, a little lower than 28.9% in all of England. Of York's residents, 5.1% were born outside the United Kingdom, significantly lower than the national average of 9.2%. White British form 95% of the population; the largest single minority group was recorded as Asian, at 1.9% of the population. The number of theft-from-a-vehicle offences and theft of a vehicle per 1,000 of the population was 8.8 and 2.7, compared to the English national average of 6.9 and 2.7 respectively. The number of sexual offences was 0.9, in line with the national average. The national average of violence against another person was 16.2 compared to the York average of 17.5. The figures for crime statistics were all recorded during the 2006–07 financial year. The city's estimated population in 2019 was 210,620.


Population change


Religion

Percentages in York following non-Christian religion were below England's national average. Classified as having "No Religion" is higher than the national average. Christianity has the largest religious following in York, 59.5% residents reported as Christian in the 2011 census. York has multiple churches, most present churches in York are from the medieval period. St William's College behind the Minster, and Bedern Hall, off Goodramgate, are former dwelling places of the Canon (priest), canons of the York Minster. There are 33 active Anglican churches in York, which is home to the
Archbishop of York The Archbishop of York is a senior bishop in the Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is a List of Christian denominations, Christian church which is the established church of England. The archbishop of Canterbury is the most ...
and
York Minster The Cathedral and Metropolitical Church of Saint Peter in York, commonly known as York Minster, is the cathedral of York York is a cathedral city and unitary authority, unitary authority area, at the confluence of the rivers River Ouse, York ...

York Minster
, the Mother Church and administrative centre of the Province of York, northern province of the Church of England and the Diocese of York. York is in the Roman Catholic Diocese of Middlesbrough, has eight Roman Catholic churches and a number of different Catholic religious orders. Leaders of different Christian denominations work together across the city, forming a network of churches known as One Voice York. Other Christian denominations active in York include the Religious Society of Friends who have three Friends meeting house, meeting houses, Methodists (the York Circuit of The Methodist Church York and Hull District), and Unitarianism, Unitarians. St Columba's United Reformed Church in Priory Street, originally built for the Presbyterians, dates from 1879. York's only Mosque is located in the Layerthorpe area, and the city also has a UK Islamic Mission centre. Various Buddhism, Buddhist traditions are represented in the city and around York. There is also an active Jewish community.


Economy

A July 2020 report by Council stated that York is worth "£5.2 billion to the UK economy ... with 9,000 businesses and 110,000 people employed across the city". According to ''Make It York'', the city benefits from features that include a well-educated workforce, "excellent transport links to both national and international markets, pronounced strengths in a range of high value sectors, a pioneering digital infrastructure, outstanding business support networks ..." York's economy is based on the service industry, which in 2000 was responsible for 88.7% of employment in the city. Statistics based on 2019 data indicated that tourism was worth over £765 million to the city, supported 24,000 jobs and attracted 8.4 million visitors each year. The Employment Rate in 2018 was 78.8%. The private sector accounted for 77,000 jobs in 2019 while 34,500 jobs were in the public sector. The service industries include public sector employment, health, education, finance, information technology (IT) and tourism that accounted for 10.7% of employment as of 2016. Tourism has become an important element of the economy, with the city offering a wealth of historic attractions, of which
York Minster The Cathedral and Metropolitical Church of Saint Peter in York, commonly known as York Minster, is the cathedral of York York is a cathedral city and unitary authority, unitary authority area, at the confluence of the rivers River Ouse, York ...

York Minster
is the most prominent, and a variety of cultural activities. As a holiday destination York was the 6th most visited English city by UK residents (2014–16) and the 13th most visited by overseas visitors (2016). A 2014 report, based on 2012 data, stated that the city receives 6.9 million visitors annually; they contribute £564 million to the economy and support over 19,000 jobs. In the 2017 Condé Nast Traveller survey of readers, York rated 12th among The 15 Best Cities in the UK for visitors. In a 2020 Condé Nast Traveller report, York rated as the sixth best among ten "urban destinations [in the UK] that scored the highest marks when it comes to ... nightlife, restaurants and friendliness". Unemployment in York was low at 4.2% in 2008 compared to the United Kingdom national average of 5.3%. The biggest employer in York is the City of York Council, with over 7,500 employees. Employers with more than 2,000 staff include Aviva (formerly Norwich Union Life), Network Rail, Northern Trains, York Hospitals NHS Trust and the University of York. Other major employers include BT Group, CPP Group, Nestlé, NFU Mutual and a number of railway companies. A 2007 report stated that the economic position at that time very different from the 1950s, when its prosperity was based on chocolate manufacturing and the railways. This position continued until the early 1980s when 30% of the workforce were employed by just five employers and 75% of manufacturing jobs were in four companies. Most industry around the railway has gone, including the York Carriage Works, which at its height in the 1880s employed 5,500 people, but closed in the mid-1990s. York is the headquarters of the confectionery manufacturer Nestlé York (formerly Nestlé Rowntrees) and home to the ''KitKat'' and eponymous Yorkie (chocolate bar), ''Yorkie'' bar chocolate brands. Terry's chocolate factory, makers of the ''Terry's Chocolate Orange, Chocolate Orange'', was located in the city; but it closed on 30 September 2005, when production was moved by its owners, Kraft Foods, to Poland. The historic factory building is situated next to the Knavesmire racecourse. On 20 September 2006, Nestlé announced that it would cut 645 jobs at the Rowntree's chocolate factory in York. This came after a number of other job losses in the city at Aviva, British Sugar and The Chocolate Works, Terry's chocolate factory. Despite this, the employment situation in York remained fairly buoyant until the effects of the late 2000s recession began to be felt. Since the closure of the carriage works, the site has been developed into offices. York's economy has been developing in the areas of science, technology and the creative industries. The city became a founding National Science City with the creation of a science park near the University of York. Between 1998 and 2008 York gained 80 new technology companies and 2,800 new jobs in the sector. Regional gross value added figures for York, at 2005 basic prices in millions of pounds sterling, are:


Effects of the COVID-19 pandemic

The COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 and 2021 caused a slowdown because of restrictions imposed on businesses and on travel in the UK. By January 2021, many cities were in their third lockdown and "Britain’s jobless rate has soared to its highest level for more than four years". The "retail, hospitality and tourism sector" was especially hard hit in York. In August 2020, ''Make It York'' and City of York Council embarked on a six-month tourism marketing plan "to reenergise the city while building resident and visitor confidence". In addition to high unemployment during lockdown periods, one analysis (by the York and North Yorkshire Local Enterprise Partnership) predicted in August 2020 that "as many as 13,835 jobs in York will be lost in the scenario considered most likely, taking the city’s unemployment rate to 14.5%". Some critics claimed that part of the problem was caused by "over-reliance on the booming tourism industry at the expense of a long-term economic plan". A report in mid June 2020 stated that unemployment had risen 114 per cent over the previous year because of restrictions imposed as a result of the pandemic. Other analyses suggested that "York is well-placed for the high street to recover and evolve from the pandemic if new businesses focus on creating an attraction or experience rather than traditional retail" The North Yorkshire Local Enterprise Partnership also "predicted a significant rise in staycation trips to York in 2021".


Public services

Under the requirements of the Municipal Corporations Act 1835, York City Council appointed a watch committee which established a police force and appointed a chief constable. On 1 June 1968 the York City, East Riding of Yorkshire and North Riding of Yorkshire police forces were amalgamated to form the York and North East Yorkshire Police. Since 1974, Home Office policing in York has been provided by the North Yorkshire Police. The force's central headquarters for policing York and nearby Selby (district), Selby are in Fulford. Fire service in the United Kingdom, Statutory emergency fire and rescue service is provided by the North Yorkshire Fire and Rescue Service, whose headquarters is at Northallerton. The city's first hospital, York County Hospital, opened in 1740 in Monkgate funded by public subscription. It closed in 1976 when it was replaced by York Hospital, which opened the same year and gained NHS foundation trust, Foundation status in April 2007. It has 524 adult inpatient beds and 127 special purpose beds providing general healthcare and some specialist inpatient, daycase and outpatient services. It is also known as York District Hospital and YDH. The Yorkshire Ambulance Service NHS Trust was formed on 1 July 2006 bringing together South Yorkshire Ambulance Service, West Yorkshire Metropolitan Ambulance Service and the North and East Yorkshire parts of Tees, East and North Yorkshire Ambulance Service to provide patient transport. Other forms of health care are provided for locally by clinics and surgeries. The city's first subscription library opened in 1794. The first free public library, the York Library, was built on Clifford Street (York), Clifford Street in 1893, to mark Queen Victoria's jubilee. A new building was erected on Museum Street (York), Museum Street in 1927, and this is still the library today; it was extended in 1934 and 1938. Since 1998 waste management has been co-ordinated via the York and North Yorkshire Waste Partnership. York's Distribution Network Operator for electricity is CE Electric UK; there are no power stations in the city. Yorkshire Water, which has a local water extraction plant on the River Derwent, Yorkshire, River Derwent at Elvington, manages York's drinking water, drinking and waste water. The city has a magistrates' court (England and Wales), magistrates' court, and venues for the Crown Court and the County Court (England and Wales), County Court. The Crown Court House was designed by the architect John Carr (architect), John Carr, next to the then prison (including execution area). Between 1773 and 1777, the Grand Jury House was replaced by John Carr's elegant Court House for the Assizes of the whole county. The Female Prison was built opposite and mirrors the court building positioned around a circular lawn which became known as the "Eye of the Ridings", or the "Eye of York". 1776 saw the last recorded instance of a wife hanged and burnt for poisoning her husband. Horse theft was a capital offence. The culprits of lesser crimes were brought to court by the city constables and would face a fine. The corporation employed a "common informer" whose task was to bring criminals to justice. The former prison is now the York Castle Museum, Castle Museum but still contains the cells.


Transport


Water

York's location on the River Ouse, and in the centre of the Vale of York, means that it has always had a significant position in the nation's transport system. The city grew up as a river port at the confluence of the Ouse and the Foss. The Ouse was originally a tidal river, accessible to seagoing ships of the time. Today, both of these rivers remain navigable, although the Foss is only navigable for a short distance above the confluence. A canal lock, lock at Naburn on the Ouse to the south of York means that the river in York is no longer tidal. Until the end of the 20th century, the Ouse was used by barges to carry freight between York and the port of
Hull Hull may refer to: Structures * Chassis, of an armored fighting vehicle * Fuselage, of an aircraft * Hull (botany), the outer covering of seeds * Hull (watercraft), the body or frame of a ship * Submarine hull Mathematics * Affine hull, in affin ...
. The last significant such traffic was the supply of newsprint to the local newspaper's Foss-side print works, which continued until 1997. Today, navigation is almost exclusively leisure-oriented.


Roads

Like most cities founded by the Romans, York is well served by long-distance trunk roads. The city lies at the intersection of the A19 road from Doncaster to Tyneside, the A59 road from Liverpool to York, the A64 road from
Leeds Leeds is the largest city in the county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publis ...

Leeds
to Scarborough, North Yorkshire, Scarborough and the A1079 road from York to
Hull Hull may refer to: Structures * Chassis, of an armored fighting vehicle * Fuselage, of an aircraft * Hull (botany), the outer covering of seeds * Hull (watercraft), the body or frame of a ship * Submarine hull Mathematics * Affine hull, in affin ...
. The A64 road provides the principal link to the motorway network, linking York to both the A1 road (Great Britain), A1(M) and the M1 motorways at a distance of about from the city. The trans-Pennine M62 motorway is less than away providing links to Manchester and Liverpool. The city is surrounded on all sides by an outer ring road, at a distance of some from the centre of the city, which allows through traffic to by-pass the city. The street plan of the historic core of the city dates from medieval times and is not suitable for modern traffic. As a consequence, many of the routes inside the city walls are designated as Car-free zone, car-free during business hours or restrict traffic entirely. To alleviate this situation, six bus-based York Park and Ride, park and ride sites operate in York. The sites are located towards the edge of the urban area, with easy access from the ring road and allow out of town visitors to complete their journey into the city centre by bus.


Railway

York has been a major railway centre since the first line arrived in 1839, at the beginning of the railway age. For many years, the city hosted the headquarters and works of the North Eastern Railway (UK), North Eastern Railway. York railway station is a principal stop on the East Coast Main Line from London King's Cross railway station, London to Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle and Edinburgh. It takes less than two hours to get to York from London by rail, with at least 25 direct trains each weekday. The station is also served by long-distance trains on CrossCountry services, which link Edinburgh and Newcastle to destinations in south and west England via Birmingham. TransPennine Express provide a frequent service of semi-fast trains linking York to Newcastle, Scarborough, Middlesbrough, Leeds, Manchester, Manchester Airport and Liverpool. Local stopping services by Northern (train operating company), Northern connect York to Selby, Harrogate, Hull, Leeds, Sheffield and many intermediate points, as well as many other stations across Greater Manchester and Lancashire.


Air

York has an airfield at the former RAF Elvington, south-east of the city centre, which is the home of the Yorkshire Air Museum. Elvington is used for private aviation. In 2003, plans were drafted to expand the site for business aviation or a full commercial service. York is linked to Manchester Airport by an hourly direct TransPennine Express train, giving access to the principal airport serving the north of England, with connections to many destinations in Europe, North America, Africa and Asia. Leeds Bradford Airport is closer to York but the hourly ''York Air Coach'' service operated by First York was withdrawn as of April 2009. Leeds Bradford Airport provides connections to most major European and North African airports, as well as Pakistan and New York City.


Bus

Public transport within the city is largely bus-based. First York operates the majority of the city's local bus services, as well as the York park and ride services. York was the location of the first implementation of FirstGroup's experimental and controversial FTR (bus), FTR bus concept, which sought to confer the advantages of a modern tramway system at a lower cost. The service was withdrawn following an election manifesto pledge by the Labour Group at the 2011 local government election. Transdev York also operates a large number of local bus services. Open-top tourist and sightseeing buses are operated by Transdev York, on behalf of City Sightseeing. Rural services, linking local towns and villages with York, are provided by a number of companies with Transdev York, EYMS and Reliance operating most of them. Longer-distance bus services are provided by a number of operators, including Arriva Yorkshire services to Selby, East Yorkshire Motor Services routes to Hull, Beverley, Driffield, Market Weighton and Pocklington, and Harrogate Bus Company services to Knaresborough and Harrogate. Yorkshire Coastliner links Leeds via York with Scarborough, Filey, Bridlington and Whitby.


Education

The University of York's main campus is on the southern edge of the city at Heslington. The Department of Archaeology and the graduate Centres for Eighteenth Century Studies and Medieval Studies are located in the historic King's Manor in the city centre. It was York's only institution with university status until 2006, when the more centrally located York St John University, formerly an autonomous college of the University of Leeds, attained full university status. The city formerly hosted a branch of the University of Law before it moved to Leeds. The University of York also has a medical school, Hull York Medical School. The city has two major further education institutions. York College (York), York College is an amalgamation of York Technical College and York Sixth Form College. Students there study a very wide range of academic and vocational courses, and range from School leaving age, school leavers and sixth formers to people training to make career moves. Askham Bryan College offers further education courses, foundation and honours degrees, specialising in more vocational subjects such as horticulture, agriculture, animal management and even golf course management. There are 70 Local Education Authority, local council schools with over 24,000 pupils in the City of York Council area. The City of York Council manages most primary and secondary schools within the city. Primary schools cover education from ages 5–11, with some offering early years education from age 3. From 11 to 16 education is provided by 10 secondary schools, four of which offer additional education up to the age of 18. In 2007 Oaklands Sports College and Lowfield Comprehensive School merged to become one school known as York High School, York, York High School. York also has several private schools. St Peter's School was founded in 627. The scholar Alcuin, who went on to serve
Charlemagne Charlemagne ( , ) or Charles the Great ( la, Carolus Magnus; 2 April 748 – 28 January 814) was King of the Franks The Franks—Germanic-speaking peoples that invaded the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century—were first led by i ...

Charlemagne
, taught there. It was also the school attended by
Guy Fawkes Guy Fawkes (; 13 April 1570 – 31 January 1606), also known as Guido Fawkes while fighting for the Spanish, was a member of a group of provincial Catholic Church in England and Wales, English Catholics who was involved in the failed Gu ...

Guy Fawkes
. Two schools have Quaker origins: Bootham School is co-educational and The Mount School, York, The Mount School is all-girls. Another all-girls school is Queen Margaret's School, York, Queen Margaret's School, which was established under the Woodard Foundation.


Culture


Theatre

The York Theatre Royal, Theatre Royal, which was established in 1744, produces an annual pantomime which attracts loyal audiences from around the country to see its veteran star, Berwick Kaler. The Grand Opera House, York, Grand Opera House and Joseph Rowntree Theatre also offer a variety of productions. The city is home to the Riding Lights Theatre Company, which as well as operating a busy national touring department, also operates a busy youth theatre and educational departments. York is also home to a number of amateur dramatic groups. The Department of Theatre, Film and Television and Student Societies of the University of York put on public drama performances. The York Mystery Plays are performed in public at intervals, using texts based on the original medieval plays of this type that were performed by the guilds – often with specific connections to the subject matter of each play. (For instance the Shipwrights' Play is the ''Building of Noah's Ark'' and the fish-sellers and mariners the ''Landing of Noah's Ark''). The York Cycle of Mystery Plays or Pageants is the most complete in England. Originally performed from wagons at various locations around the city from the 14th century until 1570, they were revived in 1951 during the Festival of Britain, when York was one of the cities with a regional festival. They became part of the York City Festival every three years and later four years. They were mostly produced in a temporary open-air theatre within the ruins of St Mary's Abbey, using some professional but mostly amateur actors. Lead actors have included Christopher Timothy and Robson Green (in the role of Christ) and Dame Judi Dench as a school girl, in 1951, 1954 and 1957. (She remains a Patron of the plays). The cycle was presented in the Theatre Royal in 1992 and 1996, within York Minster in 2000 and in 2002, 2006 and 2010 by Guild groups from wagons in the squares, in the Dean's Park, or at the Eye of York. They go around the streets, recreating the original productions. In 2012, the York Mystery Plays were performed between 2 and 27 August at St Mary's Abbey, York, St Mary's Abbey in the York Museum Gardens.


Music

The Academy of St Olave's, a chamber orchestra which gives concerts in St Olave's Church, York, St Olave's Church, Marygate, is one of the music groups that perform regularly in York. A former church, Medieval churches of York#St Margaret, Walmgate, St Margaret's, Walmgate, is the National Centre for Early Music, which hosts concerts, broadcasts, competitions and events including the York Early Music Festival. Students, staff and visiting artists of York St John University music department regularly perform lunchtime concerts in the university chapel. The staff and students of the University of York also perform in the city.


Food and drink events

Each September since 1997, York has held an annual Festival of Food and Drink. The aim of the festival is to spotlight food culture in York and North Yorkshire by promoting local food production. The Festival attracts up to 150,000 visitors over 10 days from all over the country. The Assize of Ale is an annual event in the city where people in medieval costume take part in a pub crawl to raise money for local charities. It has its origins in the 13th century, when an Assize of Bread and Ale was used to regulate the quality of goods. The current version was resurrected in 1990/91 by the then Sheriff of York, Peter Brown, and is led by the Guild of Scriveners. The Knavesmire, home of York Racecourse, plays host to Yorkshire's largest beer festival every September run by York CAMRA – York Beer & Cider Festival. It is housed in a marquee opposite the grandstand of the racecourse in the enclosure and in 2016 offered over 450 real ales and over 100 ciders.


York ham

One of the notable local products is York ham, a mild-flavoured ham with delicate pink colouring. It is traditionally served with Madeira wine#Uses, Madeira Sauce. As a lightly smoked, dry-cured ham, York ham is saltier but milder in flavour than other European dry-cured hams. Folklore has it that the oak construction for York Minster provided the sawdust for smoking the ham. Robert Burrow Atkinson's butchery shop, in Blossom Street, is claimed to be the birthplace of the original "York Ham", or at least to have made it famous.


UNESCO status bids

In 2010, York's city council and a number of heritage organisations submitted a bid for York's entire city centre to become a UNESCO World Heritage Site. This nomination, to the UK's Department for Culture, Media and Sport would have included York on a List of World Heritage Sites of the United Kingdom#Tentative list, list of tentative sites to be reviewed by UNESCO itself. York's bid failed, leading to 'disappointment' from the team involved. This indirectly led to the city making a successful bid to be part of the UNESCO Creative Cities Network as a city of ''Media Arts''.


Attractions


Architecture

York Minster The Cathedral and Metropolitical Church of Saint Peter in York, commonly known as York Minster, is the cathedral of York York is a cathedral city and unitary authority, unitary authority area, at the confluence of the rivers River Ouse, York ...

York Minster
, a large Gothic architecture, Gothic cathedral, dominates the city.
York Castle York Castle is a fortified complex in the city of York, England. It consists of a sequence of castles, prisons, court, law courts and other buildings, which were built over the last nine centuries on the south side of the River Foss. The now-r ...

York Castle
, a complex of buildings ranging from the medieval Clifford's Tower to the 20th-century entrance to the York Castle Museum (formerly a prison) has had a chequered history. York's centre is enclosed by York city walls, the city's medieval walls, which are a popular walk. These defences are the most complete in England. They have the only walls set on high ramparts and they retain all their principal gateways. They incorporate part of the walls of the Roman fortress and some Norman and medieval work, as well as 19th- and 20th-century renovations. The entire circuit is approximately , and encloses an area of . The north-east section includes a part where walls never existed, because the Norman moat of York Castle, formed by damming the
River Foss The River Foss is in North Yorkshire, England. It is a tributary of the River Ouse, Yorkshire, River Ouse. It rises in the Foss Crooks Woods near Oulston Reservoir close to the village of Yearsley and runs south through the Vale of York to the O ...

River Foss
, also created a lake which acted as a city defence. This lake was later called the King's Fishpond, as the rights to fish belonged to the Crown. A feature of central York is the Snickelways of York, Snickelways, narrow pedestrian routes, many of which led towards the former market-places in Pavement (York), Pavement and St Sampson's Square. The Shambles is a narrow medieval street, lined with shops, boutiques and tea rooms. Its unusual name comes from an old English term for an open-air slaughterhouse or meat market. Most of these premises were once butchers' shops, and the hooks from which carcasses were hung and the shelves on which meat was laid out can still be seen outside some of them. The street also contains the Shrine of Margaret Clitherow, although it is not located in the house where she lived. Goodramgate has many medieval houses including the early-14th‑century Lady Row built to finance a Chantry, at the edge of the churchyard of Holy Trinity Church, Goodramgate, York, Holy Trinity church. File:York Micklegate Bar - panoramio.jpg, The southern entrance to York, Micklegate Bar, is a 12th14th century structure File:Shambles shopper 8686.jpg, The Shambles is a medieval shopping street; most of the buildings date from between 1350 and 1475 File:Castle Museum - York - geograph.org.uk - 917153.jpg, York Castle Museum; a 18th century building File:Odeon Cinema 3.jpg, The Art Deco style Odeon Cinema on Blossom Street File:Stonebow House, York.jpg, The 1960s Brutalist-style Stonebow House As well as the Castle Museum, the city contains numerous other museums and historic buildings such as the Yorkshire Museum and its Museum Gardens, Jorvik Viking Centre, York Art Gallery, the Richard III Experience at Monk Bar, Richard III Experience, Merchant Adventurers' Hall, the reconstructed medieval house Barley Hall (owned by the York Archaeological Trust), the 18th-century
Fairfax House Fairfax House is a Georgian architecture, Georgian townhouse (Great Britain), townhouse located at No. 27, Castlegate, York, England, near Clifford's Tower and York Castle Museum. It was probably built in the early 1740s for a local merchant and ...

Fairfax House
, the Mansion House, York, Mansion House (the historic home of the Lord Mayor) and the so-called Treasurer's House, York, Treasurer's House (owned by the National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, National Trust). The National Railway Museum is situated just beyond the station, and is home to a vast range of transport material and the largest collection of railway locomotives in the world. Included in this collection are the world's fastest steam locomotive LNER Class A4 4468 Mallard, LNER Class A4 4468 ''Mallard'' and the world-famous LNER Class A3 4472 Flying Scotsman, LNER Class A3 4472 ''Flying Scotsman'', which has been overhauled in the Museum. Although noted for its Medieval history, visitors can also gain an understanding of the Cold War through visiting the York Cold War Bunker, former headquarters of No 20 Group of the Royal Observer Corps.


Pubs

In June 2015 York Campaign for Real Ale, CAMRA listed 101 pubs on its map of the city centre, some of which are hundreds of years old. These include the Golden Fleece Inn, York, Golden Fleece, Ye Olde Starre Inne, noted for its sign which has spanned the street since 1733, and Kings Arms, York, The Kings Arms, often photographed during floods. On 18 June 2016, York CAMRA undertook a "Beer Census" and found 328 unique real ales being served in over 200 pubs in York, reinforcing the city's reputation as a top UK beer destination.


Tea Rooms

In the centre of York, in St Helen's Square, there is the York branch of Bettys and Taylors of Harrogate, Bettys Café Tea Rooms. Bettys' founder, Frederick Belmont, travelled on the maiden voyage of the ''RMS Queen Mary, Queen Mary'' in 1936. He was so impressed by the splendour of the ship that he employed the Queen Mary's designers and craftsmen to turn a dilapidated furniture store in York into an elegant café in St Helen's Square. A few years after Bettys opened in York war broke out, and the basement 'Bettys Bar' became a favourite haunt of the thousands of airmen stationed around York. 'Bettys Mirror', on which many of them engraved their signatures with a diamond pen, remains on display today as a tribute to them.


Media

The York area is served by a local newspaper, ''The Press (York), The Press'' (known as the ''Evening Press'' until April 2006), ''The York Advertiser'' newspaper (based at ''The Press'' on Walmgate), and four local radio stations: BBC Radio York, YorkMix Radio, YO1 Radio and Jorvik Radio. A local commercial radio station, Minster FM, broadcast until 2020. Another digital news website is YorkMix run by former print journalists, that incorporates Local News; What's On; Food & Drink; Things To Do and Business sections with articles written by residents and local journalists. In August 2016 YorkMix was nominated in two categories in the O2 Media Awards for Yorkshire and The Humber. On 27 November 2013, Ofcom awarded the 12-year local TV licence for the York area to a consortium entitled The York Channel, with the channel due to be on air in spring 2015. This service is now on air as That's TV North Yorkshire. York St John University has a Film and Television Production department with links to many major industrial partners. The department hosts an annual festival of student work and a showcase of other regional films. The University of York has its own television station York Student Television (YSTV) and two campus newspapers ''Nouse'' and ''York Vision''. Its radio station University Radio York, URY is the longest running legal independent radio station in the UK, and was voted Student Radio Station of the Year 2020 at the Student Radio Awards.


Sport

The city's association football, football team is York City F.C., York City who are competing in National League North as of the 2019–20 National League, 2019–20 season. York have played as high as the Football League Second Division, old Second Division but are best known for their 'giant killing' status in cup competitions, having reached the FA Cup semi-final in 1954–55 FA Cup, 1955 and beaten Manchester United F.C., Manchester United 3–0 during the 1995–96 Football League Cup, League Cup. Their matches are played at the York Community Stadium. York also has a strong rugby league history. York FC, later known as York Wasps, formed in 1868, were one of the oldest rugby league clubs in the country but the effects of a move to the out of town Huntington Stadium, poor results and falling attendances led to their bankruptcy in 2002. The supporters formed a new club, York City Knights, who played at the same stadium until 2015 when they moved to Bootham Crescent. In 2020, they played in The Championship (rugby league), Championship. There are three amateur rugby league teams in York; New Earswick All Blacks (in New Earswick), York Acorn and Heworth A.R.L.F.C., Heworth. York International 9s was an annual rugby league nines tournament which took place in York between 2002 and 2009. Amateur side York Lokomotive compete in the Rugby League Conference. Rugby Union has been played in York since the 1860s, with multiple teams currently playing within the city. York Rugby Union Football Club (RUFC) was formed in 1928, and amalgamated with the York Cricket Club in 1966. The teams' home ground is at York sports ground at Clifton Park. The men's 1st team play in North 1 East, with the women's team in RFUW Women's NC1 North East championship. York Railway Institute (RI) RUFC home ground is at the York RI sports club on newlane, York. The men's team currently compete in Yorkshire Division 4 South East (Yorkshire 4), and the ladies team play in the RFUW Women's NC1 North East championship. Based at the York site of chocolate and confectionery maker Nestle Rowntree's, Nestle Rowntree RUFC was founded originally in 1894 and re-founded in 1954. They currently play their home games at York St. John University Sports Field and they compete in Yorkshire Division 4 South East (Yorkshire 4). An open rowing club York City Rowing Club is located underneath Lendal Bridge. The rowing clubs of The University of York, York St John University Rowing Club and Leeds University Boat Club as well as York City RC use the Ouse for training. There are two sailing clubs close to York, both of which sail dinghies on the River Ouse. The York RI (Railway Institute) Sailing Club has a club house and boat park on the outskirts of Bishopthorpe, a village to the south of York. The Yorkshire Ouse Sailing Club has a club house in the village of Naburn, south of York. York Racecourse was established in 1731 and from 1990 has been awarded Northern Racecourse of the Year for 17 years running. This major horseracing venue is located on the Knavesmire and sees thousands flocking to the city every year for the 15 race meetings. The Knavesmire Racecourse also hosted Royal Ascot in 2005. In August racing takes place over the four-day Ebor Festival that includes the Ebor Handicap dating from 1843. Motorbike speedway once took place at York. The track in the Burnholme Estate was completed in 1930 and a demonstration event staged. In 1931 the track staged team and open events and the York team took part in the National Trophy. York hosts the UK Championship, UK Snooker Championship, which is the second biggest ranking tournament in the sport, at the York Barbican Centre. On 6 July 2014, York hosted the start of Stage 2 of the 2014 Tour de France. Starting the Départ Fictif from York Racecourse, the riders travelled through the city centre to the Départ Actuel on the A59 just beyond the junction with the Outer Ring Road heading towards Knaresborough. In 2015, the inaugural Tour de Yorkshire was held as a legacy event to build on the popularity of the previous year, with the Day 2 stage finishing in York. The most notable sportsmen to come from York in recent years are footballers Lucy Staniforth, 2017 FIFA U-20 World Cup, Under-20 World Cup winning captain Lewis Cook (footballer, born 1997), Lewis Cook and former England national football team, England manager Steve McClaren.


Garrison

York Garrison is a List of British Army Garrisons, garrison of the British army, which administers a number of units based in and around the city of York. The garrison's current units are: *York Station **Imphal Barracks ***Headquarters, 1st (United Kingdom) Division ***2 Signal Regiment (United Kingdom), 2 Signal Regiment, Royal Corps of Signals ***12 Military Intelligence Company, 1 Military Intelligence Battalion ***1 Investigation Company, Special Investigation Branch Regiment ***Kohima Troop, 50 (Northern) Signal Squadron, 37 (Wessex and Welsh) Signal Regiment, 37 Signal Regiment ***3 Army Education Centre, Educational and Training Services Branch **Worsley Barracks ***Helmand Company, 4th Battalion, Yorkshire Regiment, 4th Battalion, Yorkshire Regiment ***York Detachment, Officers' Training Corps#Leeds, Leeds University Officers' Training Corps **Yeomanry Barracks ***A (Queen's Own Yorkshire Yeomanry, Yorkshire Yeomanry) Squadron, Queen's Own Yeomanry *Strensall Station **Queen Elizabeth Barracks, Strensall, Queen Elizabeth Barracks ***Headquarters, 2nd Medical Brigade (United Kingdom), 2nd Medical Brigade ***34 Field Hospital, Royal Army Medical Corps ***Headquarters, Army Training Unit (North) ***4th Infantry Brigade and Headquarters North East, 4th Infantry Brigade Cadet Training Team ***1st (United Kingdom) Division Operational Shooting Training Team **Towthorpe Lines ***Army Medical Services Training Centre


International relations


Twin towns – sister cities

York is Twin towns and sister cities, twinned with: *Dijon, France, since 1953 *Münster, Germany, since 1957 *Nanjing, China, since 2016 In 2016 York became sister city, sister cities with the Chinese city of Nanjing, in line with an agreement signed by the Lord Mayor of York, focusing on building links in tourism, education, science, technology and culture. On 22 October 2014 it announced the first 'temporal twinning' with Jórvík, the Viking city on the site of York from 866 to 1066. In 2017 York became UK's first human rights city, which formalised the city's aim to use human rights in decision making.


Freedom of the City

The following people and military units have received the Freedom of the City of York.


Individuals

* John Kendal: 1482. * John Moore: 29 September 1687. * Cosmo Gordon Lang: 1928. * Mary, Princess Royal and Countess of Harewood, HRH Princess Royal: 1952. * Edna Annie Crichton: 1955. * Katharine, Duchess of Kent, HRH Duchess of Kent: April 1989. * John Barry (composer), John Barry: 2002. * Judi Dench, Dame Judi Dench: 13 July 2002. * Berwick Kaler: 2003. * Professor Ron Cooke, Sir Ronald Cooke: 2006. * Neal Guppy: 2010.


Military units

* The Royal Dragoon Guards: 24 April 1999. * 2 Signal Regiment (United Kingdom), 2 Signals Regiment: January 2001. * A Squadron The Queen's Own Yeomanry: 3 December 2009. * RAF Linton-on-Ouse, RAF Linton on Ouse: 19 September 2010. * The Queen's Gurkha Signals: 8 September 2015.


See also

* CityConnect WIFI * The Evelyn collection of pictures of York from the early 20th century * List of people from York * Southlands Methodist Church * White Rose Theatre * York Festival of Ideas * York Shakespeare Project


Explanatory notes

: There was no census in 1941: figures are from National Register. United Kingdom and Isle of Man. Statistics of Population on 29 September 1939 by Sex, Age and Marital Condition. : There is a discrepancy of 37 between Office for National Statistics figures (quoted before) and those on the ''Vision of Britain'' website (quoted here).


References


External links


Photos and images


Imagine York: Historic Photographs
– online council library archive of historic photographs of York, searchable by keyword


Historical and genealogical sources

*
History of York
– comprehensive site dedicated to the history of the city
Life in a Mediæval City Illustrated by York in the XVth Century
– Gutenberg {{Authority control York, 1st-century establishments in Roman Britain 70s establishments in the Roman Empire 71 establishments Capitals of former nations Cities in Yorkshire and the Humber Coloniae (Roman) County towns in England Fortified settlements Leeds City Region Populated places established in the 1st century Towns in North Yorkshire Trading posts of the Hanseatic League Unparished areas in North Yorkshire