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The Yellow Sea is a
marginal sea This is a list of seas of the World Ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of Saline water, salt water that covers approximately 70.8% of the surface of Earth and contains 97% of Water distribution on Earth, Earth's w ...
of the
Western Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. T ...
located between
mainland China The term "mainland China" refers to the area directly governed by the People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies ...

mainland China
and the
Korean Peninsula Korea is a region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment (environmental ...

Korean Peninsula
, and can be considered the northwestern part of the
East China Sea The East China Sea is an arm of the Western Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% o ...

East China Sea
. It is one of four seas named after common
colour term A color term (or color name) is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning (linguistics), meani ...
s (the others being the
Black Sea , with the skyline of Batumi Batumi (; ka, ბათუმი ) is the second largest city of Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a country locat ...

Black Sea
, the
Red Sea The Red Sea ( ar, البحر الأحمر, translit=al-Baḥr al-ʾAḥmar; or ; Coptic Coptic may refer to: Afro-Asia * Copts, an ethnoreligious group mainly in the area of modern Egypt but also in Sudan and Libya * Coptic language, a North ...

Red Sea
and the
White Sea The White Sea (russian: Белое море, ''Béloye móre''; Karelian language, Karelian and fi, Vienanmeri, lit. Dvina Sea; yrk, Сэрако ямʼ, ''Serako yam'') is a southern inlet of the Barents Sea located on the northwest coast o ...
), and its name is descriptive of the golden-yellow colour of the
silt Silt is granular material A granular material is a conglomeration of discrete solid, macroscopic scale, macroscopic particles characterized by a loss of energy whenever the particles interact (the most common example would be friction when gra ...
-laden water discharged from major rivers. The innermost bay of northwestern Yellow Sea is called the
Bohai Sea The Bohai Sea or Bo Sea, also known as Bohai Gulf, Bo Gulf or Pohai Bay (), is a marginal sea This is a list of seas of the World Ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of Saline water, salt water that covers app ...

Bohai Sea
(previously Pechihli Bay or Chihli Bay), into which flow some of the most important rivers of
northern China Northern China () and Southern China () are two approximate regions within China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is ...

northern China
, such as the
Yellow River The Yellow River (Chinese: , Jin: uə xɔ Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucrat is ...
(through
Shandong Shandong (; alternately romanized as Shantung) is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subn ...

Shandong
province and its capital
Jinan Jinan (), Postal Map Romanization, alternately romanization of Chinese, romanized as Tsinan, is the Capital (political), capital of Shandong province in East China, Eastern China. With a population of 9.2 million (including Laiwu), it is the ...

Jinan
), the
Hai River The Hai River (海河, lit. "Sea River"), also Also or ALSO may refer to: *Advanced Life Support in Obstetrics Advanced Life Support in Obstetrics (ALSO) is a program that was developed by the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP). This ...
(through
Beijing Beijing ( ), as Peking ( ), is the of the . It is the world's , with over 21 million residents within an of 16,410.5 km2 (6336 sq. mi.). It is located in , and is governed as a under the direct administration of the with .Figures ...

Beijing
and
Tianjin Tianjin (; ; Mandarin: ), Postal Map Romanization, alternately romanized as Tientsin, is a Direct-administered municipalities of China, municipality and a coastal metropolis in North China, Northern China on the shore of the Bohai Sea. It is ...

Tianjin
) and the
Liao River The Liao River () is the principal river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its c ...
(through
Liaoning Liaoning (), is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivisi ...
province). The northern extension of the Yellow Sea is called the
Korea Bay The Korea Bay, sometimes the West Korea Bay (; or ), is a bight and the northern extension of the Yellow Sea The Yellow Sea is a marginal sea This is a list of seas of the World Ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocea ...
, into which flow the
Yalu River The Yalu River, known by Koreans Koreans (: , , : , , ; see ) are an native to and southern . Koreans mainly live in the two Korean : and (collectively and simply referred to as just ). Koreans are considered the in the world. Th ...
, the
Chongchon River The Ch'ŏngch'ŏn is a river of North Korea North Korea (Korean language, Korean: /, McCune–Reischauer, MR: ''Chosŏn''; literally /, McCune–Reischauer, MR: ''Pukchosŏn'', or /, Revised Romanization of Korean, RR: ''Bukhan'' in ...
and the
Taedong River The Taedong River (Chosŏn'gŭl The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul (Hangeul), .Hangul may also be written as following South Korea's Revised Romanization of Korean, standard Romanization. in South Korea and Chosŏn'gŭl in North Kore ...
. Since 1 November 2018, the Yellow Sea has also served as the location of "peace zones" between
North North is one of the four compass points The points of the compass are the vectors by which planet A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or Stellar evolution#Stellar remnants, stellar remnant that is massive enough to be Hydro ...

North
and
South Korea South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (ROK), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korea, Korean Peninsula and sharing a Korean Demilitarized Zone, land border with North Korea. Its western border is for ...

South Korea
.


Geography


Extent

The
International Hydrographic Organization The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) is an intergovernmental organisation representing hydrography. As of December 2021 the IHO comprised 96 Member States. A principal aim of the IHO is to ensure that the world's seas, oceans and ...
defines the limits of the Yellow Sea (which it also names as "Hwang Hai") as follows:
The Yellow Sea is separated from the
Sea of Japan The Sea of Japan is the marginal sea This is a list of seas of the World Ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of Saline water, salt water that covers approximately 70.8% of the surface of Earth and contains 97% ...

Sea of Japan
by the boundary from the southern end of
Haenam Haenam (''Haenam-gun'') is a county A county is a geographical region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the intera ...
Peninsula in
Jeollanamdo South Jeolla Province (; ''Jeollanam-do''; ), also known as Jeonnam, is a Administrative divisions of South Korea, province of South Korea. South Jeolla has a population of 1,902,324 (2014) and has a geographic area of 12,247 Square kilometre, km ...
to
Jeju Island Jeju Island (; ) is the largest island in South Korea South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (ROK), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korea, Korean Peninsula and sharing a Korean Demilitarized Z ...

Jeju Island
and divided into the
East China Sea The East China Sea is an arm of the Western Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% o ...

East China Sea
by the boundary from the west end of
Jeju Island Jeju Island (; ) is the largest island in South Korea South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (ROK), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korea, Korean Peninsula and sharing a Korean Demilitarized Z ...

Jeju Island
to the
Yangtze River The Yangtze or Yangzi ( or ) is the longest river in Asia, the third-longest in the world and the longest in the world to flow entirely within one country. It rises at Jari Hill in the Tanggula Mountains The Tanggula ( Chinese:  ...
estuary.


Physiography

The Yellow Sea, excluding the Bohai, extends by about from north to south and about from east to west; it has an area of approximately and a volume of about .Yellow Sea
Great Soviet Encyclopedia The ''Great Soviet Encyclopedia'' (GSE; ) is one of the largest Russian-language encyclopedias, published in the Soviet Union from 1926 to 1990. After 2002, the encyclopedia's data was partially included into the later ''Bolshaya Rossiyskaya en ...
(in Russian)
Its depth is only on average, with a maximum of . The sea is a flooded section of continental shelf that formed after the last ice age (some 10,000 years ago) as sea levels rose to their current levels. The depth gradually increases from north to south. The sea bottom and shores are dominated by sand and silt brought by the rivers through the Bohai Sea (
Liao River The Liao River () is the principal river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its c ...
,
Yellow River The Yellow River (Chinese: , Jin: uə xɔ Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucrat is ...
,
Hai He The Hai River (海河, lit. "Sea River"), also Also or ALSO may refer to: *Advanced Life Support in Obstetrics Advanced Life Support in Obstetrics (ALSO) is a program that was developed by the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP). This ...
) and the Korea Bay (
Yalu River The Yalu River, known by Koreans Koreans (: , , : , , ; see ) are an native to and southern . Koreans mainly live in the two Korean : and (collectively and simply referred to as just ). Koreans are considered the in the world. Th ...
). These deposits, together with sand storms are responsible for the yellowish colour of the water referenced in the sea's name.Yellow Sea
Encyclopædia Britannica on-line
The sea annually receives so much sand and silt from rivers such as the
Yellow River The Yellow River (Chinese: , Jin: uə xɔ Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucrat is ...
, that it actually turns into a golden-yellow colour. The seas surrounding Korea, which occupy a corner of Northeast Asia, border the “island nation” from the east, south, and west. Korea has named these the East Sea, South Sea, and West Sea (officially known as the Yellow Sea), respectively. Major islands of the sea include
Anmado Anmado or Anma Island ( ko, 안마도) is an island off the coast of South Jeolla Province (Jeollanam-do), South Korea. Anmado covers an area of 6.09 km² and is home to approximately 200 residents. The landscape features several peaks: Mount ...
, Baengnyeongdo, Daebudo, Deokjeokdo, Gageodo,
Ganghwado Ganghwa Island (Hangul The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul (Hangeul), .Hangul may also be written as following South Korea's Revised Romanization of Korean, standard Romanization. in South Korea and Chosŏn'gŭl in North Korea, is a wr ...

Ganghwado
,
Hauido Haui-do is an island off the South Korean coast in the Yellow Sea The Yellow Sea is a marginal sea of the Western Pacific Ocean located between mainland China Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, China mainland, or the M ...
,
Heuksando Heuksando is an island in the Yellow Sea located off 97.2 km from the southwest coast of Mokpo, Jeollanam-do, South Korea. It covers an area of 19.7㎢ and consists of several peaks: Munamsan (문암산/ 400m), Gitdaebong (깃대봉/ 378m), Se ...
,
Hongdo Hongdo is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atoll An atoll (), sometimes kno ...
,
Jejudo Jeju Island (; ) is the largest island in South Korea South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (ROK), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korea, Korean Peninsula and sharing a Korean Demilitarized Z ...
, Jindo, Muuido, Sido, Silmido, Sindo, Wando,
Yeongjongdo Yeongjong Island is an island off the west coast of the city of Incheon, South Korea, which contains Incheon International Airport as well as small villages, farms, and beaches. The previously separate Yongyu, Sammok, and Sinbul Islands have be ...

Yeongjongdo
and Yeonpyeongdo (all in South Korea).


Climate and hydrology

The area has cold, dry winters with strong northerly
monsoon A monsoon () is traditionally a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation In meteorology Meteorology is a branch of the (which include and ), with a major focus on . The study of meteorology ...

monsoon
s blowing from late November to March. Average January temperatures are in the north and in the south. Summers are wet and warm with frequent typhoons between June and October. Air temperatures range between . The average annual precipitation increases from about in the north to in the south. Fog is frequent along the coasts, especially in the upwelling cold-water areas. The sea has a warm cyclone current, forming part of the Kuroshio Current, which diverges near the western part of Japan and flows northward into the Yellow Sea at a speed of less than . Southward currents prevail near the sea coast, especially in the winter monsoon period. The water temperature is close to freezing in the northern part in winter, so drift ice patches and continuous ice fields form and hinder navigation between November and March. The water temperature and salinity are homogeneous across the depth. The southern waters are warmer at . In spring and summer, the upper layer is warmed up by the sun and diluted by the fresh water from rivers, while the deeper water remains cold and saline. This deep water stagnates and slowly moves south. Commercial bottom-dwelling fishes are found around this mass of water, especially at its southern part. Summer temperatures range between . The average salinity is relatively low, at 30parts per thousand, ‰ in the north to 33–34‰ in the south, dropping to 26‰ or lower near the river deltas. In the southwest monsoon season (June to August) the increased rainfall and runoff further reduce the salinity of the upper sea layer. Water transparency increases from about in the north up to in the south. Tides are semidiurnal, i.e. rise twice a day. Their amplitude varies between about at the coast of China. Tides are higher at the Korean Peninsula, typically ranging between and reaching the maximum in spring. The tidal system rotates in a counterclockwise direction. The speed of the tidal current is generally less than in the middle of the sea, but may increase to more than near the coasts. The fastest tides reaching occur in the Myeongnyang Strait between the Jindo Island and the Korean Peninsula.M. J. King, et al
Twinning of Jindo Grand Bridge, Republic of Korea
in Current and future trends in bridge design, construction and maintenance 2: safety, economy, sustainability and aesthetics; proceedings of the international conference organized by the Institution of Civil Engineers and held in Hong Kong on 25–26 April 2001 pp. 175, 177
The tide-related sea level variations result in a land pass long and wide opening for approximately an hour between Jindo Island, Jindo and Modo, Jindo, Modo islands. The event occurs about twice a year, at the beginning of May and in the middle of June. It had long been celebrated in a local festival called "Jindo Sea Parting Festival", but was largely unknown to the world until 1975, when the French ambassador Pierre Randi described the phenomenon in a French newspaper.


Flora and fauna

The sea is rich in seaweed (predominantly kelp, ''Laminaria japonica''), cephalopods, crustaceans, shellfish, clams, and especially in Cyanobacteria, blue-green algae which bloom in summer and contribute to the water color (see image above). For example, the seaweed production in the area was as high as 1.5 million tonnes in 1979 for China alone. The abundance of all these plant and animal species increases toward the south and indicates a high sea productivity, accounting for the diversity of fish species and high fish yield from the sea. Several species of Gobiidae, goby new to science have been discovered recently in the Yellow Sea. The southern part of the Yellow Sea, including the entire west coast of Korea, contains a belt of Intertidal zone, intertidal mudflats, which has the total area of and is maintained by . Those flats consist of highly productive sediments with a rich benthic fauna and are of great importance for bird migration, migratory waders and shorebirds. Surveys show that the area is the single most important site for migratory birds on northward migration in the entire East Asian – Australasian Flyway, with more than 35 species occurring in internationally significant numbers. Two million birds, at minimum, pass through at the time, and about half that number use it on southward migration.Barter, M.A. (2002). ''Shorebirds of the Yellow Sea – importance, threats and conservation status''. Wetlands International Global Series Vol. 9. International Wader Studies Vol. 12. Canberra Barter, M.A. (2005). ''Yellow Sea – driven priorities for Australian shorebird researchers''. pp. 158–160 in: "Status and Conservation of Shorebirds in the East Asian – Australasian Flyway". Proceedings of the Australasian Shorebird Conference, 13–15 December 2003, Canberra, Australia. International Wader Studies 17. Sydney. About 300,000 migrating birds were transiting annually only through the Saemangeum tidal flat area. This estuary was however dammed by South Korea in 1991–2006 that resulted in drying off the land. Land reclamation also took 65% of the intertidal area in China between the 1950s and 2002, and there are plans to reclaim a further 45%. Oceanic megafaunas'bio-diversities, such as of marine mammals, sea turtles, and larger fish drastically decreased in modern time not only by pollution but also mainly by direct hunting, most extensively Japanese industrial whaling, illegal mass operations by Soviet with supports from Japan. and fewer species survived to today although being still in serious perils. Those include spotted seals, and cetaceans such as minke whales, killer whales, false killer whales, and finless porpoises, but nonetheless all the remnants of species listed could be in very small numbers. Historically, large whales were very abundant either for summering and wintering in the Yellow and Bohai Seas. For example, a unique population of resident fin whales and gray whales were historically presented, or possibly hosted some North Pacific right whales and Humpback whales (3 whales including a cow calf pair was observed at Changhai County in 2015) year-round other than migrating individuals, and many other migratory species such as Baird's beaked whales. Even blue whales, Japanese sea lions, dugongs (in southern regions only), and leatherback turtles used to breed or migrate into Yellow and Bohai seas. Spotted seals are only species thriving in today's Yellow Sea and being the only resident species as well. A sanctuary for these seals is situated at Baengnyeongdo which is also known for local finless porpoises. Great white sharks have been spotted to prey on seals in these areas as well.


Economy

The coasts of the Yellow Sea are very densely populated, at approximately . The sea waters had been used for fishing by the Chinese, Korean and Japanese ships for centuries. Especially rich in fish are the bottom layers. About 200 fish species are exploited commercially, especially Sparidae, sea bream, Sciaenidae, croakers, Synodontidae, lizard fishes, prawns, cutlassfish, Japanese horse mackerel, horse mackerel, squid, eel, filefish, Pacific herring, chub mackerel, flounder and jellyfish. The intensity of fishing has been gradually increasing for China and Korea and decreasing for Japan. For example, the production volumes for China rose from 619,000 tonnes in 1985 to 1,984,400 tonnes in 1996. All species are overfished, however, and while the total catchments are rising, the fish population is continuously declining for most species. Navigation is another traditional activity in the Yellow Sea. The main Chinese ports are Dalian,
Tianjin Tianjin (; ; Mandarin: ), Postal Map Romanization, alternately romanized as Tientsin, is a Direct-administered municipalities of China, municipality and a coastal metropolis in North China, Northern China on the shore of the Bohai Sea. It is ...

Tianjin
, Qingdao and Qinhuangdao. The major South Korean ports on the Yellow Sea are Incheon, Gunsan and Mokpo, and that for North Korea is Nampho, the outport of Pyongyang. The Bohai Train Ferry provides a shortcut between the Liaodong Peninsula and
Shandong Shandong (; alternately romanized as Shantung) is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subn ...

Shandong
. A major naval accident occurred on 24 November 1999 at Yantai,
Shandong Shandong (; alternately romanized as Shantung) is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subn ...

Shandong
, China when the 9,000-ton Chinese ferry ''Dashun'' caught fire and capsized in rough seas. About 300 people were killed making it the worst maritime incident in China. Oil exploration has been successful in the Chinese and North Korean portions of the sea, with the proven and estimated reserves of about 9 and 20 billion tonnes, respectively. However, the study and exploration of the sea is somewhat hindered by insufficient sharing of information between the involved countries. China initiated collaborations with foreign oil companies in 1979, but this initiative declined later. A major oil spill occurred on 16 July 2010 when a pipeline exploded at the north-east port of Dalian, causing a wide-scale fire and spreading about 1,500 tonnes of oil over the sea area of . The port had been closed and fishing suspended until the end of August. Eight hundred fishing boats and 40 specialized vessels were mobilized to relieve the environmental damage.


State of the environment

The Yellow Sea is considered among the most degraded marine areas on earth.UNDP/GEF. (2007) The Yellow Sea: Analysis of Environmental Status and Trends. p. 408, Ansan, Republic of Korea. Loss of natural coastal habitats due to land reclamation has resulted in the destruction of more than 60% of tidal wetlands around the Yellow Sea coastline in approximately 50 years. Rapid coastal development for agriculture, aquaculture and industrial development are considered the primary drivers of coastal destruction in the region. This degree of loss of area, widespread pollution, algal blooms and declines of invertebrate and vertebrate fauna have resulted in the classification of this ecosystem as Endangered species, endangered. In addition to land reclamation, the Yellow Sea ecosystem is facing several other serious environmental problems. Pollution is widespread and deterioration of pelagic and benthic habitat quality has occurred, and harmful algal blooms frequently occur. Invasion of introduced species are having a detrimental effect on the Yellow Sea environment. There are 25 intentionally introduced species and 9 unintentionally introduced species in the Yellow Sea Large Marine Ecosystem. Declines of biodiversity, fisheries and ecosystem services in the Yellow Sea are widespread. The tidal flats of the Yellow Sea are considered endangered.


Location of Korean Peace Zones

On 1 November 2018, officials from South Korea's Ministry of National Defense confirmed that "peace zones" had been established by the North and South Korean militaries in the Yellow Sea area that touches the North and South Korean demarcation line. A buffer zone was also created in the Yellow Sea's Northern Limit Line (NLL).


See also

* Battle of Chemulpo Bay * Battle of the Yellow Sea * Geography of China * Geography of North Korea * Geography of South Korea * Ganghwa Island incident * Korea strait


References


Bibliography

*Chikuni, S. (1985
The fish resources of the northwest Pacific
Food and Agriculture Organization, {{Authority control Yellow Sea, Marine ecoregions Seas of China Seas of North Korea Seas of South Korea Marginal seas of the Pacific Ocean North Korea–South Korea border China–North Korea border Geography of East Asia Geography of Northeast Asia Temperate Northern Pacific China Seas