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Xinjiang (),, SASM/GNC: ''Xinjang''; zh, c=, p=Xīnjiāng; alternately romanized as Sinkiang officially the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR) and formerly romanized as Sinkiang, is a landlocked
autonomous region An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subnational administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country sub ...
of the
People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, most populous country, with a Population of China, population of more than 1.4 billion ...
(PRC), located in the
northwest of the country
northwest of the country
close to
Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia which stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China and Mongolia in the east, and from Afghanistan and Iran in the south to Russia in the north, including the former Soviet Union, Soviet republics of the Sovi ...

Central Asia
. Being the largest province-level division of China and the 8th-largest country subdivision in the world, Xinjiang spans over and has about 25 million inhabitants. Xinjiang borders the countries of
Mongolia Mongolia (, mn, Монгол Улс, Mongol Uls, Traditional Mongolian: '; lit. "Mongol Nation" or "State of Mongolia") is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body ...

Mongolia
,
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, largest country in the world, covering over , and encom ...

Russia
,
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan ( kk, Қазақстан, Qazaqstan; russian: Казахстан, Kazakhstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan,; russian: Республика Казахстан, Respublika Kazakhstan, link=no) is a country located mainly in ...

Kazakhstan
,
Kyrgyzstan russian: Киргизская Республика, Kirgizskaya Respublika , image_flag = Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg , image_coat = Emblem of Kyrgyzstan.svg , symbol_type = Emblem , motto = "" ...

Kyrgyzstan
,
Tajikistan ) , image_map = Tajikistan (orthographic projection).svg , map_caption = , capital = Dushanbe Dushanbe ( tg, Душанбе, ; Persian language, Persian: ; meaning ''Monday''; russian: Душанб ...

Tajikistan
,
Afghanistan Afghanistan (; Pashto/Dari language, Dari: , Pashto: , Dari: ), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country at the crossroads of Central Asia, Central and South Asia. Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan to the eas ...
,
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, e ...

Pakistan
and
India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous country, the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest ...

India
. The rugged
Karakoram The Karakoram is a mountain range spanning the borders of China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous countr ...

Karakoram
,
Kunlun The Kunlun Mountains ( zh, s=昆仑山, t=崑崙山, p=Kūnlún Shān, ; mn, Хөндлөн Уулс, ''Khöndlön Uuls''; ug, كۇئېنلۇن تاغ تىزمىسى) constitute one of the longest mountain chains in Asia, extending for more tha ...

Kunlun
and
Tian Shan The Tian Shan,, dng, Тянсан, ; otk, 𐰴𐰣 𐱅𐰭𐰼𐰃, ; tr, Tanrı Dağı; mn, Тэнгэр уул, ; ug, تەڭرىتاغ, , ; kk, Тәңіртауы / Алатау, , ; ky, Теңир-Тоо / Ала-Тоо, , ; uz, Tyan-S ...

Tian Shan
mountain ranges occupy much of Xinjiang's borders, as well as its western and southern regions. The
Aksai Chin Aksai Chin is a region administered by China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a population ...
and
Trans-Karakoram Tract The Trans-Karakoram Tract (, ur, شکسگام, translit=Shaksgām), also known as Shaksgam or the Shaksgam Tract, is an area of more than north of the Karakoram, including the Shaksgam valley and Raskam ( Yarkand river valley). The tract is ad ...
regions, both administered by China, are claimed by India. Xinjiang also borders the
Tibet Autonomous Region The Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) or Xizang Autonomous Region, called Tibet or Xizang for short, is a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' pr ...
and the provinces of
Gansu Gansu (, ; Chinese postal romanization, alternately romanized as Kansu) is a landlocked provinces of China, province in Northwest China. Its capital and largest city is Lanzhou, in the southeast part of the province. The seventh-largest administ ...

Gansu
and
Qinghai Qinghai (; alternately romanized as Tsinghai, Ch'inghai), also known Kokonor, is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provinci ...

Qinghai
. The most well-known route of the historic
Silk Road The Silk Road () was and is a network of trade route A trade route is a logistical network identified as a series of pathways and stoppages used for the commercial transport of cargo. The term can also be used to refer to trade over bodies of ...

Silk Road
ran through the territory from the east to its northwestern border. It is home to a number of ethnic groups, including the
Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages ** Turkic alphabets (disambiguation) ** Turkish language, the most widely spoken Turkic language * T ...
UyghurUyghur may refer to: * Uyghurs, a Turkic ethnic group living in Eastern and Central Asia * Uyghur language, a Turkic language spoken primarily by the Uyghurs ** Uyghur alphabets, any of four systems used to write the language * Uyghur Khaganate, a T ...
,
Kazakhs The Kazakhs (also spelled Qazaqs; Kazakh: , , , , , ; the English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medi ...

Kazakhs
and
KyrgyzKyrgyz, Kirghiz or Kyrgyzstani may refer to: *Things related to Kyrgyzstan *Kyrgyz people *Kyrgyz language *Kyrgyz culture *Kyrgyz cuisine *Yenisei Kirghiz *The Fuyu Kyrgyz language, Fuyü Gïrgïs language in Northeastern China {{Disambig Languag ...

Kyrgyz
, the
Han Han may refer to: Ethnic groups * Han Chinese The Han Chinese,
. Huayuqiao.org. Retrieved on ...
, Tibetans,
Hui The Hui people ( zh, c=, p=Huízú, w=Hui2-tsu2, Xiao'erjing Xiao'erjing or Xiao'erjin or Xiaor jin or in its shortened form, Xiaojing, literally meaning "children's script" or "minor script" (cf. "original script" referring to the original ...
, Chinese Tajiks (
Pamiris The Pamiris ( fa, پامیری; tg, помирӣ; russian: Пами́рцы; zh, c=帕米尔人, p=Pàmǐ'ěrrén) are an Iranian ethnic group who are native to the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region of Eastern Tajikistan, the Badakhshan Pr ...
),
Mongols The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an East Asian East Asia is the east East is one of the four cardinal direction The four cardinal directions, or cardinal points, are the di ...
,
Russians , native_name_lang = ru , image = , caption = Wedding ceremony in the national Russian tradition. , population = 134 million , popplace = 117,319,000 , region1 = , pop1 = 7,170,000 ...
and Sibe. There are more than a dozen autonomous prefectures and counties for minorities in Xinjiang. Older English-language reference works often refer to the area as Chinese Turkestan, East Turkestan and East Turkistan. Xinjiang is divided into the
Dzungarian Basin Junggar Basin is one of the largest sedimentary basins in Northwest China. It is located in Xinjiang, and enclosed by the Tarbagatai Mountains of Kazakhstan in the northwest, the Altai Mountains of Mongolia in the northeast, and the Tian Shan, Heav ...
in the north and the
Tarim Basin The Tarim Basin is an endorheic basin in Northwest China occupying an area of about and one of the largest basins in Northwest China.Chen, Yaning, et al. "Regional climate change and its effects on river runoff in the Tarim Basin, China." Hydr ...
in the south by a mountain range. Only about 9.7% of Xinjiang's land area is fit for human habitation. With a documented history of at least 2,500 years, a succession of people and empires have vied for control over all or parts of this territory. The territory came under the rule of the
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last Dynasties in Chinese history, dynasty in the History of China#Imperial China, imperial history of China. It was established in 1636, and ruled China proper from 1644 to 1912, wi ...
in the 18th century, later replaced by the
Republic of China Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and No ...
government. Since 1949 and the
Chinese Civil War The Chinese Civil War was a civil war in China fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led Nationalist government, government of the Republic of China (1912–1949), Republic of China (ROC) and forces of the Communist Party of China (CPC) lastin ...
, it has been part of the People's Republic of China. In 1954, the Xinjiang Bingtuan (XPCC) was set up to strengthen border defense against the Soviet Union and also promote the local economy by settling soldiers into the region. In 1955, Xinjiang was administratively changed from a
province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are gen ...
into an
autonomous region An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subnational administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country sub ...
. In recent decades, abundant oil and mineral reserves have been found in Xinjiang and it is currently China's largest natural gas-producing region. From the 1990s to the 2010s, the
East Turkestan independence movement The East Turkestan independence movement ( zh, s=东突厥斯坦独立运动) is a political movement that seeks the independence of East Turkestan, a large and sparsely-populated region in northwest China Northwest China () is a statist ...
, separatist conflict and the influence of
radical Islam Islamic extremism, Islamist extremism or radical Islam is extremism associated with the religion of Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, wheth ...
have resulted in unrest in the region with and clashes between separatist and government forces. These conflicts have prompted the Chinese government to set up
internment camps Internment is the imprisonment of people, commonly in large groups, without charges or intent to file charges. The term is especially used for the confinement "of enemy citizens in war War is an intense armed conflict between states ...
in the region, attempting to force its Muslim population to abandon the faith through thought reform. These measures have been collectively categorized as the
Uyghur genocide The Uyghur genocide is the ongoing series of human rights abuses perpetrated by the Chinese government against the Uyghur people and other ethnic and religious minorities in and around the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region Xinjiang, S ...
by some observers.


Names

{{Infobox Chinese , pic = Xinjiang (Chinese characters).svg , piccap = "Xīnjiāng" in Chinese characters , picupright = 0.5 , c = {{linktext, lang=zh, 新疆 , l = "New Frontier" , p = Xīnjiāng , w = Hsin1-chiang1 , mi = {{IPAc-cmn, x, in, 1, ., j, iang, 1 , bpmf = ㄒㄧㄣ   ㄐㄧㄤ , gr = Shinjiang , mps = Shinjihang , tp = Sinjiang , myr = Syīnjyāng , showflag = p , xej = سٍكِيْا , zh-dungan = Щинҗён , psp = Sinkiang , j = San1goeng1 , y = Sān'gēung , ci = {{IPAc-yue, s, an, 1, ., g, oeng, 1 , poj = Sin-kiong , buc = Sĭng-giŏng , teo = Sing-kiang , h = Sîn-kiông , altname = Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region , psp2 = Sinkiang Uyghur Autonomous Region , s2 = {{nowrap, {{linktext, 新疆维吾尔自治区 , t2 = {{nowrap, {{linktext, 新疆維吾爾自治區 , p2 = {{nowrap, Xīnjiāng Wéiwú'ěr Zìzhìqū , bpmf2 = ㄒㄧㄣ   ㄐㄧㄤ
ㄨㄟˊ   ㄨˊ   ㄦˇ
ㄗˋ   ㄓˋ   ㄑㄩ , w2 = Hsin1-chiang1 Wei2-wu2-êrh3 Tzŭ4-chih4-chʻü1 , mi2 = {{IPAc-cmn, x, in, 1, ., j, iang, 1, -, wei, 2, ., wu, 2, ., er, 3, -, zi, 4, ., zhi, 4, ., qu, 1 , gr2 = Shinjiang Weiwueel Tzyhjyhchiu , mps2 = Shinjiang Wheihuel Tzyhgukhickhu , myr2 = Syīnjyāng Wéiwúěr Dz̀jr̀chyū , tp2 = Sinjiang Wéiwú'ěr Zìhjhìhcyu , wuu2 = {{nowrap, sin cian vi ng el zy zy chiu , poj2 = Sin-kiong Ûi-ngô͘-ní Chū-tī-khu , teo2 = Sing-kiang Jûi-û-jéu Tsĕu-tī-khu , buc2 = Sĭng-giŏng Mì-ngù-ī Cê̤ṳ-dê-kṳ̆ , h2 = Sîn-kiông Vì-ngâ-ngì Tshṳ-tshṳ-khî , xej2 = سٍكِيْا وِءُعَر ذِجِٿُوُ , zh-dungan2 = Щинҗён Уйгур Зыҗычү , mon = Шиньжян Уйгурын өөртөө засах орон , mong = {{MongolUnicode, ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠶᠠᠩ
ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ
 ᠤᠨ
ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ
ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ
ᠣᠷᠤᠨ , monr = Sinjiyaŋ Uyiɣur-un öbertegen jasaqu orun
(Classical)
{{longitem, Shin'jyan Uiguryn öörtöö zasakh oron (Khalkha) , uig = {{big, شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى , uly = {{nowrap, Shinjang Uyghur Aptonom Rayoni , uyy = {{nowrap, Xinjang Uyƣur Aptonom Rayoni , sgs = {{nowrap, Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni , usy = Шинҗаң Уйғур Аптоном Райони , rus = Синьцзян , rusr = Sin'tsjan , lang1 = Kazakh , lang1_content = {{nowrap, {{lang, kk-Arab, شينجياڭ ۇيعۇر اۆتونوميالى رايونى
{{longitem, {{lang, kk-Latn, Shyńjań Uıǵyr aýtonomııalyq aýdany , lang2 = Kyrgyz , lang2_content = {{nowrap, {{lang, ky-Arab, شئنجاڭ ۇيعۇر اپتونوم رايونۇ
{{longitem, {{lang, ky, Шинжаң-Уйгур автоном району {{longitem, {{lang, ky-Latn, Şincañ-Uyğur avtonom rayonu , lang3 = Oirat , lang3_content = {{MongolUnicode, ᠱᡅᠨᡓᡅᡕᠠᡊ
ᡇᡕᡅᡎᡇᠷ
ᡅᠨ
ᡄᡋᡄᠷᡄᡃᠨ
ᠴᠠᠰᠠᡍᡇ
ᡆᠷᡇᠨ, style=max-height:5em; word-wrap:normal
Šinǰiyang Uyiγur-in ebereen zasaqu orun , order = st , s = , t = , mnc = {{ManchuSibeUnicode, ᡳᠴᡝ
ᠵᡝᠴᡝᠨ
ᡠᡳᡤᡠᡵ
ᠪᡝᠶᡝ
ᡩᠠᠰᠠᠩᡤᠠ
ᡤᠣᠯᠣ , mnc_v = Ice Jecen Uigur beye dasangga golo , lang4 = Xibe , lang4_content = {{MongolUnicode, ᠰᡞᠨᡪᠶᠠᡢ
ᡠᡞᡤᡠᠷ
ᠪᡝᠶᡝ
ᡩᠠᠰᠠᡢᡤᠠ
ᡤᠣᠯᠣ, style=max-height:4em; word-wrap:normal
Sinjyang Uigur beye dasangga golo , tib = ཞིན་ཅང་ཡུ་གུར་རང་སྐྱོང་ལྗོངས། , wylie = zhin cang yu gur rang skyong ljongs The general region of Xinjiang has been known by many different names in earlier times, in indigenous languages as well as other languages. These names include
AltishahrAltishahr (, , ; romanized: ''Altä-şähär'' or ''Alti-şähär''), also known as Kashgaria, is a historical name for the Tarim Basin The Tarim Basin is an endorheic basin in Northwest China occupying an area of about and one of the largest ...
, the historical
UyghurUyghur may refer to: * Uyghurs, a Turkic ethnic group living in Eastern and Central Asia * Uyghur language, a Turkic language spoken primarily by the Uyghurs ** Uyghur alphabets, any of four systems used to write the language * Uyghur Khaganate, a T ...

Uyghur
name for the southern half of the region referring to "the six cities" of the
Tarim Basin The Tarim Basin is an endorheic basin in Northwest China occupying an area of about and one of the largest basins in Northwest China.Chen, Yaning, et al. "Regional climate change and its effects on river runoff in the Tarim Basin, China." Hydr ...
, as well as Khotan, Khotay,
Chinese Tartary Chinese Tartary (see also Tartary) is an archaic geographical term used especially during the time of the Qing Dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last History of China#Imperial China, imperial Dynasties in Chine ...
, High Tartary, East Chagatay (it was the eastern part of the
Chagatai Khanate The Chagatai Khanate, or Chagatai Ulus ( mn, Цагаадайн улс; uz, Chigʻatoy ulusi; ; fa, خانات جغتای), was a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate that comprised the lands ruled by Chagatai Khan, second son of Genghis Khan ...
),
Moghulistan Moghulistan (Mughalistan, Moghul Khanate) (from fa, , ''Moqulestân/Moġūlistān''), also called the Eastern Chagatai Khanate (), was a Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; ) are an East Asian ethnic grou ...

Moghulistan
("land of the Mongols"), Kashgaria, Little Bokhara,
SerindiaThe term Serindia combines ''Seres Serica () was one of the easternmost countries of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and Northern Hemisphere, Northern Hem ...
(due to Indian cultural influence){{sfnp, Tyler, 2004,
3
} and, in Chinese, "
Western Regions The Western Regions or Xiyu (Hsi-yu; ) was a historical name specified in the Chinese chronicles between the 3rd century BC to the 8th century AD that referred to the regions west of Yumen Pass, most often Central Asia Central Asia is a r ...
".{{sfnp, Hill, 2009, pp=xviii, 60 In Chinese, under the
Han dynasty#REDIRECT Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the House of Liu. Preceded by the short-lived Qin dynas ...

Han dynasty
, Xinjiang was known as ''Xiyu'' ({{lang, zh, 西域), meaning "Western Regions". Between the 2nd century BCE and 2nd century CE the Han Empire established the
Protectorate of the Western Regions The Protectorate of the Western Regions () was an imperial administration imposed by Han China The Han dynasty () was the second imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the Ho ...
or Xiyu Protectorate ({{lang, zh-hant, 西域都護府) in an effort to secure the profitable routes of the
Silk Road The Silk Road () was and is a network of trade route A trade route is a logistical network identified as a series of pathways and stoppages used for the commercial transport of cargo. The term can also be used to refer to trade over bodies of ...

Silk Road
. The Western Regions during the Tang era were known as ''Qixi'' ({{lang, zh-hant, 磧西). Qi refers to the while Xi refers to the west. The Tang Empire had established the ''
Protectorate General to Pacify the West A protectorate is a state that is controlled and protected by another sovereign state. It is a dependent territory A dependent territory, dependent area, or dependency is a territory that does not possess full political independence upri ...
'' or ''Anxi Protectorate'' ({{lang, zh-hant, 安西都護府) in 640 to control the region. During the
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last Dynasties in Chinese history, dynasty in the History of China#Imperial China, imperial history of China. It was established in 1636, and ruled China proper from 1644 to 1912, wi ...
, the northern part of Xinjiang,
Dzungaria Dzungaria (; also transliterated as Zungaria; Dzungharia or Zungharia; Dzhungaria or Zhungaria; Djungaria or Jungaria; or Songaria) is a geographical subregion in Northwest China that corresponds to the northern half of Xinjiang—hence it ...
was known as Zhunbu ({{lang, zh-hant, 準部, " Dzungar region") and the southern Tarim Basin was known as ''Huijiang'' ({{lang, zh, 回疆, "Muslim Frontier"). Both regions merged after
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last Dynasties in Chinese history, dynasty in the History of China#Imperial China, imperial history of China. It was established in 1636, and ruled China proper from 1644 to 1912, wi ...
suppressed the
Revolt of the Altishahr Khojas The Revolt of the Altishahr Khojas () was an uprising against the Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last History of China#Imperial China, imperial Dynasties in Chinese history, dynasty of China. It was e ...
in 1759 and became the region of "Xiyu Xinjiang"({{zh, t = 西域新疆, l =
Western Regions The Western Regions or Xiyu (Hsi-yu; ) was a historical name specified in the Chinese chronicles between the 3rd century BC to the 8th century AD that referred to the regions west of Yumen Pass, most often Central Asia Central Asia is a r ...
' New Frontier), later simplified as "Xinjiang" / "Sinkiang" ({{zh, t = 新疆, : ᡳᠴᡝ ᠵᡝᠴᡝᠨ, Romanization: ''ice jecen''). The official name was given during the reign of the
Guangxu Emperor The Guangxu Emperor (14 August 1871 – 14 November 1908), personal name Zaitian, was the tenth Emperor of the Qing dynasty, and the ninth Qing emperor to rule over China proper. His reign lasted from 1875 to 1908, but in practice he ruled, wi ...

Guangxu Emperor
in 1878. According to Chinese statesman
Zuo Zongtang Zuo Zongtang, Marquis Kejing (also romanised as Tso Tsung-t'ang; ; 10 November 1812 – 5 September 1885), sometimes referred to as General Tso, was a Chinese statesman and military leader of the late Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, off ...

Zuo Zongtang
's report to the Guangxu Emperor, Xinjiang means an "old land newly returned" ({{lang, zh-Hant, 故土新歸) or the "new old land".{{NoteTag, The imperial-era Chinese word gui {{linktext, lang=zh-Hant, 歸 is not descriptive, but normative: It is a term which seeks to justify new conquests by presenting them as a naturally appropriate "return." It does not indicate that the territory already had been conquered earlier.{{sfnp, Weinstein, 2013, p=4, ps={{full citation needed, date=May 2020 In fact, the term "Xinjiang" was used in many other places conquered, but never were ruled by Chinese empires directly until the gradual '' Gaitu Guiliu'' administrative reform, including regions in Southern China. For instance, present-day
Jinchuan County Jinchuan County ( Chuchen; ) is a county in the northwest of Sichuan Province, China. It is under the administration of the Ngawa Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture. The seat of county is Jinchuan Town (Rabden). Prior to the 18th century, t ...
in Sichuan was then known as "Jinchuan Xinjiang",
Zhaotong Zhaotong () is a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.jpg, A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply "Huangshi" (). This is a useful distinction, because the sign is located ''already'' wit ...

Zhaotong
in Yunnan was named directly as "Xinjiang",
Qiandongnan Qiandongnan Miao and Dong Autonomous Prefecture (; Hmu language: ''Qeef Dongb Naif Dol Hmub Dol Gud Zid Zid Zeb''; Kam language: ''Qeens Donc Nanc Nyenc Miiul Nyenc Gaeml Zil Zl Zous''), also known as Southeast Qian Autonomous Prefecture of Miao an ...

Qiandongnan
region,
Anshun Anshun () is a prefecture-level city A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply " Yangxin County from the neighboring Xianning), but still from the Huangshi main urban area. A prefectural-level municipal ...
and
Zhenning Zhenning Buyei people, Buyei and Miao people, Miao Autonomous County (; usually referred to as "Zhenning County", commonly abbreviated as Zhenning (); Buyei language, Buyei: Xianqgahguanc Buxqyaix Buxyeeuz Zenqninf) is an autonomous county under the ...
were named as "Liangyou Xinjiang" etc. In 1955, Xinjiang Province was renamed "Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region". The name that was originally proposed was simply "Xinjiang Autonomous Region".
Saifuddin Azizi Saifuddin Azizi ( ug, سەيپىدىن ئەزىزى; March 12, 1915 – November 24, 2003), also known as Seypidin Azizi, Saif al-Dīn ʿAzīz, Saifuding Aizezi and Saifuding, was the first chairman of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region X ...

Saifuddin Azizi
, the first chairman of Xinjiang, registered his strong objections to the proposed name with
Mao Zedong Mao Zedong pronounced ; also Romanization of Chinese, romanised traditionally as Mao Tse-tung. (December 26, 1893 – September 9, 1976), also known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who was the Proclamation of the P ...

Mao Zedong
, arguing that "autonomy is not given to mountains and rivers. It is given to particular nationalities." As a result, the administrative region would be named "Xinjiang ''Uygur'' Autonomous Region".{{sfnp, Bovingdon, 2010, p=199


Description

upright=1.0, left, Physical map showing the separation of Dzungaria and the Tarim Basin (Altishahr) by the Tien Shan Mountains Xinjiang consists of two main geographically, historically and ethnically distinct regions with different historical names,
Dzungaria Dzungaria (; also transliterated as Zungaria; Dzungharia or Zungharia; Dzhungaria or Zhungaria; Djungaria or Jungaria; or Songaria) is a geographical subregion in Northwest China that corresponds to the northern half of Xinjiang—hence it ...
north of the Tianshan Mountains and the
Tarim Basin The Tarim Basin is an endorheic basin in Northwest China occupying an area of about and one of the largest basins in Northwest China.Chen, Yaning, et al. "Regional climate change and its effects on river runoff in the Tarim Basin, China." Hydr ...
south of the Tianshan Mountains, before
Qing China The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last imperial dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n.''" Oxford University Press Oxford Univers ...
unified them into one political entity called Xinjiang Province in 1884. At the time of the Qing conquest in 1759, Dzungaria was inhabited by steppe dwelling, nomadic
Tibetan Buddhist Tibetan Buddhism (also Indo-Tibetan Buddhism and Sino-Indian Buddhism) is the form of Buddhism Buddhism (, ) is the Major religious groups#Largest religions, world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of t ...
Dzungar people The name Dzungar people, also written as Zunghar (literally ''züüngar'', from the Mongolian for "left hand"), referred to the several Oirat tribes who formed and maintained the Dzungar Khanate The Dzungar Khanate, also written as the Z ...
, while the Tarim Basin was inhabited by sedentary, oasis dwelling, Turkic-speaking Muslim farmers, now known as the
Uyghur people The Uyghurs ( or ; ug, ئۇيغۇرلار, , ; zh, s=, t=, p=Wéiwú'ěr, ), alternatively spelled Uighurs, Uygurs or Uigurs, are a Turkic ethnic group originating from and culturally affiliated with the general region of Central and East Asia ...
. They were governed separately until 1884. The native Uyghur name for the Tarim Basin is
AltishahrAltishahr (, , ; romanized: ''Altä-şähär'' or ''Alti-şähär''), also known as Kashgaria, is a historical name for the Tarim Basin The Tarim Basin is an endorheic basin in Northwest China occupying an area of about and one of the largest ...
. The Qing dynasty was well aware of the differences between the former Buddhist Mongol area to the north of the Tian Shan and the Turkic Muslim area south of the Tian Shan and ruled them in separate administrative units at first.{{sfnp, Liu, Faure , 1996 ,
69
} However, Qing people began to think of both areas as part of one distinct region called Xinjiang.{{sfnp, Liu, Faure , 1996 ,
70
} The very concept of Xinjiang as one distinct geographic identity was created by the Qing. It was originally not the native inhabitants who viewed it that way, but rather the Chinese who held that point of view.{{sfnp, Liu, Faure , 1996 ,
67
} During the Qing rule, no sense of "regional identity" was held by ordinary Xinjiang people; rather, Xinjiang's distinct identity was given to the region by the Qing, since it had distinct geography, history and culture, while at the same time it was created by the Chinese, multicultural, settled by Han and Hui and separated from Central Asia for over a century and a half.{{sfnp, Liu, Faure , 1996 ,
77
} In the late 19th century, it was still being proposed by some people that two separate regions be created out of Xinjiang, the area north of the Tianshan and the area south of the Tianshan, while it was being argued over whether to turn Xinjiang into a province.{{sfnp, Liu, Faure , 1996 ,
78
} Xinjiang is a large, sparsely populated area, spanning over 1.6 million km2 (comparable in size to
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa, جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north ...

Iran
), which takes up about one sixth of the country's territory. Xinjiang borders the
Tibet Autonomous Region The Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) or Xizang Autonomous Region, called Tibet or Xizang for short, is a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' pr ...
and
India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous country, the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest ...

India
's
Leh district Leh district is a district in the union territory of Ladakh, a territory administered as part of India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies ...
in
Ladakh Ladakh () is a region administered by India as a union territory, and constitutes a part of the larger Kashmir region, which has been the subject of dispute between India, Pakistan, and China since 1947. (subscription required) Quote: "Jammu a ...

Ladakh
to the south,
Qinghai Qinghai (; alternately romanized as Tsinghai, Ch'inghai), also known Kokonor, is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provinci ...

Qinghai
and
Gansu Gansu (, ; Chinese postal romanization, alternately romanized as Kansu) is a landlocked provinces of China, province in Northwest China. Its capital and largest city is Lanzhou, in the southeast part of the province. The seventh-largest administ ...

Gansu
provinces to the east,
Mongolia Mongolia (, mn, Монгол Улс, Mongol Uls, Traditional Mongolian: '; lit. "Mongol Nation" or "State of Mongolia") is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body ...

Mongolia
( Bayan-Ölgii, Govi-Altai and
Khovd Province Khovd ( mn, Ховд, Howd) is one of the 21 Aimags of Mongolia, aimags (provinces) of Mongolia, located in the west of the country. Its capital is also named Khovd (city), Khovd. The Khovd province is approximately 1,580 km from Ulaanbaatar ...
s) to the east,
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, largest country in the world, covering over , and encom ...

Russia
's
Altai Republic The Altai Republic (; russian: Респу́блика Алта́й, Respúblika Altáy, ; Altai language, Altai: , ''Altay Respublika'', also known as Gorno-Altai Republic) is a republics of Russia, republic of Russia located in southern Siberia. ...
to the north and
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan ( kk, Қазақстан, Qazaqstan; russian: Казахстан, Kazakhstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan,; russian: Республика Казахстан, Respublika Kazakhstan, link=no) is a country located mainly in ...

Kazakhstan
(
Almaty Almaty (; ; cyrl, Алматы), formerly known as Alma-Ata and Verny (russian: Верный), is the largest city in Kazakhstan, with a population of about 2,000,000 people, about 11% of the country's total population, and more than 2.7 milli ...
and
East Kazakhstan Region East Kazakhstan Region ( kk, Шығыс Қазақстан облысы, translit=Shyǵys Qazaqstan oblysy; russian: Восточно-Казахстанская область, Vostochno-Kazakhstanskaya oblast) is a Regions of Kazakhstan, region of ...
s),
Kyrgyzstan russian: Киргизская Республика, Kirgizskaya Respublika , image_flag = Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg , image_coat = Emblem of Kyrgyzstan.svg , symbol_type = Emblem , motto = "" ...

Kyrgyzstan
(
Issyk-Kul Issyk-Kul (also Ysyk Köl, Issyk-Kol, ky, Ысык-Көл, , , ; russian: Иссык-Куль, ) is an endorheic An endorheic basin (; also spelled endoreic basin or endorreic basin) is a drainage basin that normally retains water and allows ...
,
Naryn Naryn ( ky, Нарын, ''Narın'', نارىن, Mongolian : Нарийн, Nariin, Traditional Mongolian ᠨᠠᠷᠢᠨ is the regional administrative center of Naryn Region in central Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan, officially the Kyrgyz Republ ...
and
Osh Region Osh Region ( ky, Ош облусу, ''Oş oblusu/Osh oblusu'', وش وبلاستى) is a region ('' oblast'') of Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan, officially the Kyrgyz Republic, also known as Kirghizia (in Russian), is a landlocked country in Central A ...
s),
Tajikistan ) , image_map = Tajikistan (orthographic projection).svg , map_caption = , capital = Dushanbe Dushanbe ( tg, Душанбе, ; Persian language, Persian: ; meaning ''Monday''; russian: Душанб ...

Tajikistan
's
Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region , native_name_lang = , settlement_type = Regions of Tajikistan, Autonomous Region , image_skyline = Lac Karakul (754379539).jpg , image_alt = , image_caption = Lake Zorkul , flag_alt ...
,
Afghanistan Afghanistan (; Pashto/Dari language, Dari: , Pashto: , Dari: ), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country at the crossroads of Central Asia, Central and South Asia. Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan to the eas ...
's
Badakhshan Province Badakhshan Province ( fa, بدخشان ولایت, ''Badaxšān wilāyat'') is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , countr ...
and
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, e ...

Pakistan
's
Gilgit-Baltistan Gilgit-Baltistan (; , Balti: རྒྱལ་སྐྱིད་ སྦལྟི་ཡུལ།), formerly known as the Northern Areas, is a region administered by Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . offi ...

Gilgit-Baltistan
to the west. The east-west chain of the
Tian Shan The Tian Shan,, dng, Тянсан, ; otk, 𐰴𐰣 𐱅𐰭𐰼𐰃, ; tr, Tanrı Dağı; mn, Тэнгэр уул, ; ug, تەڭرىتاغ, , ; kk, Тәңіртауы / Алатау, , ; ky, Теңир-Тоо / Ала-Тоо, , ; uz, Tyan-S ...

Tian Shan
separate
Dzungaria Dzungaria (; also transliterated as Zungaria; Dzungharia or Zungharia; Dzhungaria or Zhungaria; Djungaria or Jungaria; or Songaria) is a geographical subregion in Northwest China that corresponds to the northern half of Xinjiang—hence it ...
in the north from the
Tarim Basin The Tarim Basin is an endorheic basin in Northwest China occupying an area of about and one of the largest basins in Northwest China.Chen, Yaning, et al. "Regional climate change and its effects on river runoff in the Tarim Basin, China." Hydr ...
in the south. Dzungaria is a dry steppe and the Tarim Basin contains the massive
Taklamakan Desert The Taklamakan Desert (; zh, s=, p=Tǎkèlāmǎgān Shāmò, Xiao'erjing: , dng, Такәламаган Шамә; ug, تەكلىماكان قۇملۇقى; also spelled Taklimakan and Teklimakan) is a desert upright=1.5, alt=see captio ...

Taklamakan Desert
, surrounded by oases. In the east is the
Turpan Depression The Turpan Depression or Turfan Depression, is a fault (geology), fault-bounded trough located around and south of the city-oasis of Turpan, in the Xinjiang, Xinjiang Autonomous Region in far Western China, about southeast of the regional capita ...
. In the west, the Tian Shan split, forming the
Ili River 300px, Map of the Lake Balkhash drainage basin showing the Ili River and its tributaries The Ili ( ug, ئىلى دەرياسى, Ili deryasi, Ili dəryasi, 6=Или Дәряси; kk, Ile, ; russian: Или; zh, c=伊犁河, p=Yīlí Hé, dng, ...
valley. {{clear left


History


Early history

{{History of Xinjiang {{Main, History of Xinjiang {{Further, Western Regions, Kingdom of Khotan, Shule Kingdom, Shanshan, Saka, Tocharians, Sogdia The
Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, three-age division of the prehistory and protohistory of Homo sapiens, humanity. It was preceded by the Stone Age (Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, and Chalcolithic) and the Bronze Age ...
in Central Asia began when iron objects appear among the
Indo-European The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages have a writing ...
Saka The Saka, Śaka, Shaka, Śāka or Sacae ( ''Sakā''; Kharosthi: 𐨯𐨐 ''Saka''; Brahmi: , ''Śaka''; sa, शक, शाक, ''Śaka'', ''Śāka''; grc, Σάκαι, ''Sákai''; la, Sacae; , old ''*Sək'', mod. ''Sāi''; egy ...

Saka
in present-day Xinjiang between the 10th century BC and the 7th century BC, such as those found at the cemetery site of Chawuhukou.{{cite journal , first=Mark E. , last=Hall , title=Towards an absolute chronology for the Iron Age of Inner Asia , journal=Antiquity , volume=71 , issue=274 , date=1997 , pages=863–874, doi=10.1017/S0003598X00085781 According to
J. P. Mallory James Patrick Mallory (born October 25, 1945) is an American archaeologist and Indo-Europeanist. Mallory is an emeritus professor at Queen's University, Belfast; a member of the Royal Irish Academy The Royal Irish Academy (RIA; ga, Acad ...
and Victor H. Mair, the Chinese described "white people with long hair" (the
Bai people The Bai, Pai or Baip ( Bai: Baipho, (白和); ; endonym An endonym (from Greek: , 'inner' + , 'name'; also known as autonym) is a common, internal name A name is a term used for identification by an external observer. They can identify a c ...
) in the ''
Shan Hai Jing The ''Classic of Mountains and Seas'' (), also known as ''Shan Hai Jing'', formerly Wade-Giles, romanized as the ''Shan-hai Ching'', is a Chinese classic text and a compilation of mythic geography and beasts. Versions of the text may have exist ...
'' who lived beyond their northwestern border. The well-preserved
Tarim mummies The Tarim mummies are a series of mummies discovered in the Tarim Basin The Tarim Basin is an endorheic basin in Northwest China occupying an area of about and one of the largest basins in Northwest China.Chen, Yaning, et al. "Regional cli ...
, with partial
Caucasian Caucasian may refer to: Anthropology *Anything from the Caucasus region **Peoples of the Caucasus, humans from the Caucasus region **Languages of the Caucasus, languages spoken in the Caucasus region ** ''Caucasian Exarchate'' (1917–1920), an ...
features, displayed in the Ürümqi Museum and dated to the 2nd millennium BC (4,000 years ago), have been found in the same area of the
Tarim Basin The Tarim Basin is an endorheic basin in Northwest China occupying an area of about and one of the largest basins in Northwest China.Chen, Yaning, et al. "Regional climate change and its effects on river runoff in the Tarim Basin, China." Hydr ...
. Between 2009 and 2015, the remains of 92 individuals in the Xiaohe Cemetery were analyzed for
Y chromosome The Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes (allosomes) in theria, therian mammals, including humans, and many other animals. The other is the X chromosome. Y is normally the Sex chromosome#Sex determination, sex-determining chromosome in many sp ...
and
mitochondrial DNA File:Electron microscopy reveals mitochondrial DNA in discrete foci.jpg, Electron microscopy reveals mitochondrial DNA in discrete foci. Bars: 200 nm. (A) Cytoplasmic section after immunogold labelling with anti-DNA; gold particles marking mtD ...

mitochondrial DNA
markers. Genetic analyses of the mummies showed that the maternal lineages of the Xiaohe people originated from both
East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and Northern Hemisphere, Northern Hemisphere of the Earth, Hemispheres. It shares the ...
and West Eurasia; the paternal lineages all originated in
Siberia Siberia (; rus, Сибирь, r=Sibir', p=sʲɪˈbʲirʲ, a=Ru-Сибирь.ogg) is an extensive geographical region spanning much of Northern Asia. Siberia has been Russian conquest of Siberia, part of modern Russia since the latter half of th ...

Siberia
.{{cite journal , author1=Chunxiang Li , author2=Hongjie Li , author3=Yinqiu Cui , author4=Chengzhi Xie , author5=Dawei Cai , author6=Wenying Li , author7=Victor H Mair , author8=Zhi Xu , author9=Quanchao Zhang , author10=Idelis Abuduresule , author11=Li Jin , author12=Hong Zhu , author13=Hui Zhou , title=Evidence that a West-East admixed population lived in the Tarim Basin as early as the early Bronze Age , journal=BMC Biology , volume=8 , issue=15 , pages=15, year=2010, pmid=20163704 , pmc=2838831 , doi=10.1186/1741-7007-8-15 The earliest Tarim people appear to have arisen from admixture between locals of
Ancient North Eurasian In archaeogenetics Archaeogenetics is the study of ancient DNA using various molecular genetic methods and DNA resources. This form of genetic analysis can be applied to human, animal, and plant specimens. Ancient DNA can be extracted from various ...
and Northeast Asians descent. The
Tarim mummies The Tarim mummies are a series of mummies discovered in the Tarim Basin The Tarim Basin is an endorheic basin in Northwest China occupying an area of about and one of the largest basins in Northwest China.Chen, Yaning, et al. "Regional cli ...
have been found in various locations in the western Tarim Basin such as
Loulan Loulan, also called Krorän or Kroraina ( zh, s=, t=, p=Lóulán; ug, كروران, Kroran, Uyghur Cyrillic alphabet, USY: Кроран), was an ancient kingdom based around an important oasis city along the Silk Road already known in the 2nd cent ...

Loulan
, the Xiaohe Tomb complex, and Qäwrighul. These mummies have been previously suggested to have been Tocharian or Indo-European-speakers, but recent evidence suggest that the mummies belonged to a distinct population unrelated to Indo-European pastoralists, such as Afanasievo, and spoke a unknown language, probably a
language isolate A language isolate is a language that is unrelated to any others. In the absolute sense, it is a natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or "genetic") relationship—one that has not been demonstrated to descend from an ancestor comm ...
. Nomadic tribes such as the
Yuezhi The Yuezhi (, ) were an ancient people first described in Chinese histories as nomadic pastoralists living in an arid grassland Grasslands are areas where the vegetation is dominated by grasses (Poaceae). However, sedge (Cyperaceae) and rush ...
,
Saka The Saka, Śaka, Shaka, Śāka or Sacae ( ''Sakā''; Kharosthi: 𐨯𐨐 ''Saka''; Brahmi: , ''Śaka''; sa, शक, शाक, ''Śaka'', ''Śāka''; grc, Σάκαι, ''Sákai''; la, Sacae; , old ''*Sək'', mod. ''Sāi''; egy ...

Saka
, and
WusunImage:30. Rider burial mound Tenlik (III.-II. B.C.) Kazakhstan.JPG, 350px, Rider burial mound Tenlik (III.-II. B.C.) The Tenlik kurgan is associated with the Wusun. The Wusun (; Eastern Han Chinese *''ʔɑ-suən'') were an Proto-Indo-Europeans, In ...
were probably part of the migration of
Indo-European The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages have a writing ...
speakers who had settled in western Central Asia. By the time the Han dynasty under Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) wrested the western Tarim Basin away from its previous overlords (the
Xiongnu The Xiongnu (, ) were a tribal confederation A confederation (also known as a confederacy or league) is a union of sovereign groups or states united for purposes of common action. Usually created by a treaty A treaty is a formal ...

Xiongnu
), it was inhabited by various peoples who included the Indo-European speaking
Tocharians The Tocharians, or Tokharians ( US: or ; UK: ), were speakers of Tocharian languages The Tocharian (sometimes Tokharian) languages ( or ), also known as ''Arśi-Kuči'', Agnean-Kuchean or Kuchean-Agnean, are an extinct branch of the Indo-Eur ...
in
Turfan Turpan (also known as Turfan or Tulufan, ug, تۇرپان) is a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.jpg, A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply "Huangshi" (). This is a useful distinc ...
and
Kucha 250px, Location of Kucha within Aksu in yellow Kucha or Kuche (also: ''Kuçar'', ''Kuchar''; ug, كۇچار, Кучар; zh, t=wikt:龜茲, 龜茲, p=Qiūcí also zh, t=wikt:库车, 库车, p=Kùchē; sa, Kucina), was an ancient Buddhist ki ...
, as well as the
Saka The Saka, Śaka, Shaka, Śāka or Sacae ( ''Sakā''; Kharosthi: 𐨯𐨐 ''Saka''; Brahmi: , ''Śaka''; sa, शक, शाक, ''Śaka'', ''Śāka''; grc, Σάκαι, ''Sákai''; la, Sacae; , old ''*Sək'', mod. ''Sāi''; egy ...

Saka
peoples centered in the Shule Kingdom and the
Kingdom of Khotan Kingdom may refer to: Monarchy * A type of monarchy * A realm ruled by: **A king, during the reign of a male monarch **A queen regnant, during the reign of a female monarch Taxonomy * Kingdom (biology), a category in biological taxonomy Arts an ...

Kingdom of Khotan
, Tibeto-Burmese groups, especially people related to the Qiang, as well as
Han Chinese The Han Chinese,
. Huayuqiao.org. Retrieved on 2013-04-26.
Hanzu, or Han peopleGuan Zhong Guan Zhong (; c. 720–645 BC) was a Chinese philosopher and politician. He served as Grand chancellor (China), chancellor and was a reformer of the Qi (state), State of Qi during the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history. His given name wa ...

Guan Zhong
in his work, '' Guanzi'' ({{lang, zh-hant, 管子, Guanzi Essays: 73: 78: 80: 81). He described the ''Yúshì'', {{lang, zh-hant, 禺氏 (or ''Niúshì'', {{lang, zh, 牛氏), as a people from the north-west who supplied
jade Jade is a mineral, much used in some cultures as jewellery and for ornaments, mostly known for its green varieties, though it appears naturally in other colors as well, notably yellow and white. Jade can refer to either of two different silicat ...

jade
to the Chinese from the nearby mountains (also known as Yushi) in
Gansu Gansu (, ; Chinese postal romanization, alternately romanized as Kansu) is a landlocked provinces of China, province in Northwest China. Its capital and largest city is Lanzhou, in the southeast part of the province. The seventh-largest administ ...

Gansu
. The longtime jade supply from the Tarim Basin is well-documented archaeologically: "It is well known that ancient Chinese rulers had a strong attachment to jade. All of the jade items excavated from the tomb of Fuhao of the
Shang dynasty The Shang dynasty (), also historically known as the Yin dynasty (), was a Chinese dynasty Dynasties in Chinese history, or Chinese dynasties, were hereditary monarchical regimes that ruled over China during much of its history. From ...

Shang dynasty
, more than 750 pieces, were from
Khotan Hotan (also known as Gosthana, Gaustana, Godana, Godaniya, Khotan, Hetian, Hotien) is a major oasis town in southwestern Xinjiang, an Autonomous regions of China, autonomous region in Western China. The city proper of Hotan broke off from the ...

Khotan
in modern Xinjiang. As early as the mid-first millennium BC, the Yuezhi engaged in the jade trade, of which the major consumers were the rulers of agricultural China." Crossed by the
Northern Silk RoadImage:Tarimrivermap.png, 300px, Taklimakan Desert The Northern Silk Road is an Ancient history, ancient trackway in northern China originating in the early capital of Xi'an and extending north of the Taklimakan Desert to reach the ancient monarchy, k ...
, the Tarim and Dzungaria regions were known as the
Western Regions The Western Regions or Xiyu (Hsi-yu; ) was a historical name specified in the Chinese chronicles between the 3rd century BC to the 8th century AD that referred to the regions west of Yumen Pass, most often Central Asia Central Asia is a r ...
. At the beginning of the
Han dynasty#REDIRECT Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the House of Liu. Preceded by the short-lived Qin dynas ...

Han dynasty
(206 BC{{snd220 AD) the region was ruled by the
Xiongnu The Xiongnu (, ) were a tribal confederation A confederation (also known as a confederacy or league) is a union of sovereign groups or states united for purposes of common action. Usually created by a treaty A treaty is a formal ...

Xiongnu
, a powerful nomadic people based in present-day
Mongolia Mongolia (, mn, Монгол Улс, Mongol Uls, Traditional Mongolian: '; lit. "Mongol Nation" or "State of Mongolia") is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body ...

Mongolia
. During the 2nd century BC, the Han dynasty prepared for war against Xiongnu when
Emperor Wu of Han Emperor Wu of Han (30 July 157BC29 March 87BC), formally posthumous name, enshrined as Emperor Wu the filial piety, Filial (), born Liu Che (劉徹) and courtesy name Tong (通), was the seventh emperor of China, emperor of the Han dynasty of imp ...

Emperor Wu of Han
dispatched
Zhang Qian Zhang Qian (; died c. 114) was a Chinese official and diplomat who served as an imperial envoy to the world outside of China in the late 2nd century BC during the Han dynasty. He was one of the first official diplomats to bring back valuable info ...

Zhang Qian
to explore the mysterious kingdoms to the west and form an alliance with the Yuezhi against the Xiongnu. As a result of the war, the Chinese controlled the strategic region from the Ordos and
Gansu Gansu (, ; Chinese postal romanization, alternately romanized as Kansu) is a landlocked provinces of China, province in Northwest China. Its capital and largest city is Lanzhou, in the southeast part of the province. The seventh-largest administ ...

Gansu
corridor Corridor or The Corridor may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Films *The Corridor (1968 film), ''The Corridor'' (1968 film), a 1968 Swedish drama film *The Corridor (1995 film), ''The Corridor'' (1995 film), a 1995 Lithuanian drama fi ...

corridor
to
Lop Nor Lop Nur or Lop Nor (from a Mongolian name meaning "Lop Lake", where "Lop" is a toponym of unknown origin) is a former salt lake, now largely dried up, located between the Taklamakan and Kumtag deserts in the southeastern portion of the Xinjia ...

Lop Nor
. They separated the Xiongnu from the
Qiang people The Qiang people (; Qiangic: ''Rrmea'') are an ethnic group in China. They form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the Li ...
on the south, and gained direct access to the Western Regions. Han China sent Zhang Qian as an envoy to the states of the region, beginning several decades of struggle between the Xiongnu and Han China in which China eventually prevailed. In 60 BC, Han China established the
Protectorate of the Western Regions The Protectorate of the Western Regions () was an imperial administration imposed by Han China The Han dynasty () was the second imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the Ho ...
({{lang, zh-hant, 西域都護府) at Wulei ({{lang, zh-hant, 烏壘, near modern
Luntai Bügür County ( transliterated from Mongolian), also known from Mandarin Chinese Mandarin (; ) is a group of Sinitic (Chinese) languages spoken across most of northern and southwestern China. The group includes the Beijing dialect, the basis ...
), to oversee the region as far west as the
Pamir Mountains The Pamir Mountains are a mountain range between Central Asia, South Asia, and East Asia, at the junction of the Himalayas with the Tian Shan, Karakoram, Kunlun Mountains, Kunlun, and Hindu Kush. They are among the world's highest mountains. The ...

Pamir Mountains
. The protectorate was seized during the civil war against
Wang Mang Wang Mang () (c. 45 – 6 October 23 AD), courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in the East Asian cultural ...

Wang Mang
(r. AD 9–23), returning to Han control in 91 due to the efforts of general
Ban Chao Ban Chao (; 32–102 CE), courtesy name Zhongsheng, was a Chinese military general, explorer and diplomat of the Eastern Han Dynasty. He was born in Fufeng (region), Fufeng, now Xianyang, Shaanxi. Three of his family members—father Ban Biao, el ...
. The Western Jin dynasty succumbed to successive waves of invasions by nomads from the north at the beginning of the 4th century. The short-lived kingdoms that ruled northwestern China one after the other, including
Former Liang The Former Liang (; 320–376) was a state of the Sixteen Kingdoms during the Jin dynasty (265–420) in China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies ...
,
Former Qin The Former Qin, also called Fu Qin (苻秦) (351–394) was a dynastic state of the Sixteen Kingdoms The Sixteen Kingdoms (), less commonly the Sixteen States, was a chaotic period in Chinese history The earliest known written recor ...
,
Later LiangLater Liang may refer to the following states in Chinese history: * Later Liang (Sixteen Kingdoms) (後涼; 386–403), one of the Sixteen Kingdoms * Western Liang (555–587) The Liang (555–587), known in historiography as the Western Liang () ...
, and Western Liáng, all attempted to maintain the protectorate, with varying degrees of success. After the final reunification of northern China under the
Northern Wei Maitreya Maitreya (Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-Euro ...
empire, its protectorate controlled what is now the southeastern region of Xinjiang. Local states such as Shule, Yutian,
Guizi ''Guizi'' () is a pejorative Chinese language, Chinese slang term for foreigners, and has had a history of containing xenophobic connotations. History Starting with the arrival of European sailors in the sixteenth century, foreigners were often p ...
and
Qiemo Qiemo County () as the official romanized name, also SASM/GNC romanization#Uyghur, transliterated from Uyghur as Qarqan County (Uyghur language, Uyghur: ; ), is a county under the administration of the Bayin'gholin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture in ...

Qiemo
controlled the western region, while the central region around
Turpan Turpan (also known as Turfan or Tulufan, ug, تۇرپان) is a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.jpg, A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply "Huangshi" (). This is a useful distinc ...

Turpan
was controlled by
Gaochang Gaochang (; Old Uyghur: قۇچۇ, ''Qocho''), also called Karakhoja, Qara-hoja, Kara-Khoja or Karahoja (قاراغوجا in Uyghur language, Uyghur), is the site of a ruined, ancient oasis city on the northern rim of the inhospitable Taklamaka ...
, remnants of a state (
Northern Liang The Northern Liang (; 397-439) was a state of the Sixteen Kingdoms in China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous ...
) that once ruled part of what is now
Gansu Gansu (, ; Chinese postal romanization, alternately romanized as Kansu) is a landlocked provinces of China, province in Northwest China. Its capital and largest city is Lanzhou, in the southeast part of the province. The seventh-largest administ ...

Gansu
province in northwestern China. During the
Tang dynasty The Tang dynasty (, ; ), or Tang Empire, was an imperial dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907, with an interregnum between 690 and 705. It was preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. H ...
, a series of expeditions were conducted against the
Western Turkic Khaganate , conventional_long_name = Western Turkic Khaganate , common_name = Western Turkic Khaganate , era = Early Middle Ages , status = Khaganate (Nomadic empireNomadic empires, sometimes al ...

Western Turkic Khaganate
and their vassals: the oasis states of southern Xinjiang. began under Emperor Taizong with the annexation of Gaochang in 640.{{cite book , first2=Howard J. , last2=Wechsler , first1=Denis , last1=Twitchett , chapter=Kao-tsung (reign 649-83) and the Empress Wu: The Inheritor and the Usurper , editor1 = Denis Twitchett , editor2=John Fairbank , title = The Cambridge History of China, Volume 3: Sui and T'ang China Part I , year=1979 , publisher=Cambridge University Press , isbn=978-0-521-21446-9 , page=228 The nearby kingdom of
Karasahr Karasahr or Karashar ( ug, قاراشەھەر, Qarasheher, 6=Қарашәһәр), which was originally known, in the Tocharian languages The Tocharian (sometimes Tokharian) languages ( or ), also known as ''Arśi-Kuči'', Agnean-Kuchean or Kuchea ...
was captured by the Tang in 644, and the kingdom of
Kucha 250px, Location of Kucha within Aksu in yellow Kucha or Kuche (also: ''Kuçar'', ''Kuchar''; ug, كۇچار, Кучар; zh, t=wikt:龜茲, 龜茲, p=Qiūcí also zh, t=wikt:库车, 库车, p=Kùchē; sa, Kucina), was an ancient Buddhist ki ...
was conquered in 649.{{cite book , first=Jonathan Karem , last=Skaff , editor=Nicola Di Cosmo , title=Military Culture in Imperial China , year=2009 , publisher=Harvard University Press , isbn=978-0-674-03109-8 , pages=183–185 The Tang Dynasty then established the
Protectorate General to Pacify the West A protectorate is a state that is controlled and protected by another sovereign state. It is a dependent territory A dependent territory, dependent area, or dependency is a territory that does not possess full political independence upri ...
({{lang, zh-Hant, 安西都護府), or Anxi Protectorate, in 640 to control the region. During the
Anshi Rebellion The An Lushan Rebellion was an uprising against the Tang dynasty The Tang dynasty (, ; ), or Tang Empire, was an imperial dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907, with an interregnum between 690 and 705. It was preceded by the Sui dy ...
, which nearly destroyed the Tang dynasty,
Tibet Tibet (; ; ) is a region in East Asia covering much of the Tibetan Plateau spanning about . It is the traditional homeland of the Tibetan people as well as some other ethnic groups such as Monpa people, Monpa, Tamang, Qiang people, Qiang, S ...

Tibet
invaded the Tang on a broad front from Xinjiang to
Yunnan Yunnan () is a landlocked Provinces of China, province in Southwest China, the southwest of the People's Republic of China. The province spans approximately and has a population of 48.3 million (as of 2018). The capital of the province is Kun ...

Yunnan
. It occupied the Tang capital of Chang'an in 763 for 16 days, and controlled southern Xinjiang by the end of the century. The
Uyghur Khaganate , status = Khaganate (Nomadic empireNomadic empires, sometimes also called steppe empires, Central or Inner Asian empires, were the empires erected by the bow and arrow, bow-wielding, horse-riding, Eurasian nomads, nomadic people ...

Uyghur Khaganate
took control of northern Xinjiang, much of Central Asia, and Mongolia at the same time. As Tibet and the Uyghur Khaganate declined in the mid-9th century, the
Kara-Khanid Khanate The Kara-Khanid Khanate (), also known as the Karakhanids, Qarakhanids, Ilek Khanids or the Afrasiabids (), was a Turkic khanate that ruled Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia which stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to C ...

Kara-Khanid Khanate
(a confederation of Turkic tribes including the
Karluks The Karluks (also Qarluqs, Qarluks, Karluqs, otk, 𐰴𐰺𐰞𐰸, Qarluq, fa, خَلُّخ, ''Khallokh'', ar, قارلوق, ''Qarluq'') were a prominent nomadic Turkic peoples, Turkic tribal confederacy residing in the regions of Kara-Irtysh ...
,
Chigils The Chigil (Chihil, and also (D)Jigil, Cihil, Chiyal) were a Turkic peoples, Turkic tribe known from the 7th century CE as living around Issyk Kul lake area. They were considered to be descended from the tribe Chuyue, who were of mixed Yueban-West ...
and Yaghmas){{cite book , title = A history of Inner Asia , first = Svatopluk , last = Soucek , chapter = Chapter 5 – The Qarakhanids , publisher = Cambridge University Press , year = 2000 , isbn = 978-0-521-65704-4 , chapter-url = https://archive.org/details/historyofinneras00souc controlled western Xinjiang during the 10th and 11th centuries. After the Uyghur Khaganate in Mongolia was destroyed by the Kirghiz in 840, branches of the
Uyghurs The Uyghurs ( or ; ug, ئۇيغۇرلار, , ; zh, s=, t=, p=Wéiwú'ěr, ), alternatively spelled Uighurs, Uygurs or Uigurs, are a Turkic ethnic group originating from and culturally affiliated with the general region of Central and East Asia ...
established themselves in Qocha (Karakhoja) and
Beshbalik Jimsar County is a county in Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang Xinjiang, SASM/GNC: ''Xinjang''; zh, c=, p=Xīnjiāng; alternately romanized as Sinkiang; officially Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR) is an autonomous region ...
(near present-day Turfan and Urumchi). The Uyghur state remained in eastern Xinjiang until the 13th century, although it was ruled by foreign overlords. The Kara-Khanids converted to Islam. The Uyghur state in eastern Xinjiang, initially
Manichean Manichaeism (; in New Persian ''Āyīn Mānī''; ) was a major religion founded in the 3rd century AD by the Persian peoples, Persian or Parthian Empire, Parthian prophet Mani (prophet), Mani () in the Sasanian Empire. Manichaeism taught an el ...
, later converted to
Buddhism Buddhism (, ) is the Major religious groups#Largest religions, world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists. Buddhism encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and ...
. Remnants of the
Liao dynasty The Liao dynasty (; Khitan: ''Mos Jælud''; ), also known as the Khitan Empire (Khitan: ''Mos diau-d kitai huldʒi gur''), officially the Great Liao (), was an imperial dynasty of China that existed between 916 and 1125, ruled by the Yelü ...
from
Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, exonym for a historical and geographic region of Russia and China in Northeast Asia (mostly in Northeast China today). Its extent may vary depending on the context: * Modern geographical region: ** (most ofte ...

Manchuria
entered Xinjiang in 1132, fleeing rebellion by the neighboring
Jurchens The Jurchen ( Manchu: ''Jušen'', ; zh, 女真, ''Nǚzhēn'', ) is a term used to collectively describe a number of East Asian East Asia is the east East is one of the four cardinal direction The four cardinal directions, or cardina ...
. They established a new empire, the
Qara Khitai The Qara Khitai or Kara Khitai (; mn, Хар Хятан; literally "Black Khitan people, Khitan") empire (1124–1218), also known as the Western Liao () dynasty, officially the Great Liao (), was a Sinicization, sinicized dynastic empire in Ce ...
, which ruled the Kara-Khanid- and Uyghur-held parts of the Tarim Basin for the next century. Although Khitan and Chinese were the primary administrative languages, Persian and
UyghurUyghur may refer to: * Uyghurs, a Turkic ethnic group living in Eastern and Central Asia * Uyghur language, a Turkic language spoken primarily by the Uyghurs ** Uyghur alphabets, any of four systems used to write the language * Uyghur Khaganate, a T ...

Uyghur
were also used.


{{anchor, Islamification of XinjiangIslamization

{{Islam and China, places Present-day Xinjiang consisted of the Tarim Basin and Dzungaria, and was originally inhabited by Indo-European Tocharians and Iranian Sakas who practiced
Buddhism Buddhism (, ) is the Major religious groups#Largest religions, world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists. Buddhism encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and ...
. The Turfan and Tarim Basins were inhabited by speakers of
Tocharian languages The Tocharian (sometimes Tokharian) languages ( or ), also known as ''Arśi-Kuči'', Agnean-Kuchean or Kuchean-Agnean, are an extinct branch of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A langu ...

Tocharian languages
,{{sfnp, Millward , 2007 ,
15
} with Caucasian mummies found in the region.{{sfnp, Millward , 2007 ,
16
} The area became Islamified during the 10th century with the conversion of the
Kara-Khanid Khanate The Kara-Khanid Khanate (), also known as the Karakhanids, Qarakhanids, Ilek Khanids or the Afrasiabids (), was a Turkic khanate that ruled Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia which stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to C ...

Kara-Khanid Khanate
, who occupied Kashgar. During the mid-10th century, the Saka Buddhist
Kingdom of Khotan Kingdom may refer to: Monarchy * A type of monarchy * A realm ruled by: **A king, during the reign of a male monarch **A queen regnant, during the reign of a female monarch Taxonomy * Kingdom (biology), a category in biological taxonomy Arts an ...

Kingdom of Khotan
was attacked by the Turkic Muslim Karakhanid ruler Musa; the Karakhanid leader Yusuf Qadir Khan conquered
Khotan Hotan (also known as Gosthana, Gaustana, Godana, Godaniya, Khotan, Hetian, Hotien) is a major oasis town in southwestern Xinjiang, an Autonomous regions of China, autonomous region in Western China. The city proper of Hotan broke off from the ...

Khotan
around 1006.{{sfnp, Millward , 2007 ,
55
}


Mongol period

{{see also, Yarkent Khanate After
Genghis Khan ''Chinggis Khaan'' ͡ʃʰiŋɡɪs xaːŋongol script: ''Chinggis Qa(gh)an/ Chinggis Khagan'' , birth_name = Temüjin ; xng, Temüjin, script=Latn; ., name=Temujin , successor = Ögedei Khan , spouse = , issue = , house = Borjigin , ...

Genghis Khan
unified
Mongolia Mongolia (, mn, Монгол Улс, Mongol Uls, Traditional Mongolian: '; lit. "Mongol Nation" or "State of Mongolia") is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body ...

Mongolia
and began his advance west the Uyghur state in the Turpan-Urumchi region offered its allegiance to the Mongols in 1209, contributing taxes and troops to the Mongol imperial effort. In return, the Uyghur rulers retained control of their kingdom; Genghis Khan's
Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire of the 13th and 14th centuries was the List of largest empires, largest contiguous land empire in history and the second largest empire by landmass, second only to the British Empire. Originating in Mongolia in East Asia, the ...
conquered the
Qara Khitai The Qara Khitai or Kara Khitai (; mn, Хар Хятан; literally "Black Khitan people, Khitan") empire (1124–1218), also known as the Western Liao () dynasty, officially the Great Liao (), was a Sinicization, sinicized dynastic empire in Ce ...
in 1218. Xinjiang was a stronghold of
Ögedei Khan Ögedei (also Ogodei; mn, Өгэдэй, translit=Ögedei, Mongolian Mongolian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Mongolia, a country in Asia * Mongolian people, or Mongols * Mongolia (1911–24), the government of Mongolia, 1911 ...
and later came under the control of his descendant,
Kaidu Kaidu ( mn, ''Qaidu'', Mongolian Cyrillic alphabet, Cyrillic: Хайду; ) (c. 1230 – 1301) was the grandson of Mongol Khagan Ogedei Khan (1185–1241) and thus leader of the House of Ögedei and the ''de facto'' Khan (title), khan of the Ch ...
. This branch of the Mongol family kept the Yuan dynasty at bay until their rule ended. During the Mongol Empire era the Yuan dynasty vied with the
Chagatai Khanate The Chagatai Khanate, or Chagatai Ulus ( mn, Цагаадайн улс; uz, Chigʻatoy ulusi; ; fa, خانات جغتای), was a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate that comprised the lands ruled by Chagatai Khan, second son of Genghis Khan ...
for rule of the region, and the latter controlled most of it. After the Chagatai Khanate divided into smaller
khanate A khaganate or khanate was a political entity ruled by a khan, khagan Khagan or Qaghan ( otk, 𐰴𐰍𐰣, Kaɣan, mn, Xаан or ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ, Khaan, ota, خواقين, Ḫākan, or خوان ''Ḫān'', tr, Kağan or ''Hakan'', u ...

khanate
s during the mid-14th century, the politically-fractured region was ruled by a number of Persianized Mongol Khans, including those from
Moghulistan Moghulistan (Mughalistan, Moghul Khanate) (from fa, , ''Moqulestân/Moġūlistān''), also called the Eastern Chagatai Khanate (), was a Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; ) are an East Asian ethnic grou ...

Moghulistan
(with the assistance of local
DughlatThe Dughlat clan ( kk, :kk:Дулат, Дулат, Dulat, lit=ruthless or fierce warrior; Mongolian language, Mongolian: ''List of modern Mongolian clans#D, Dolood/sevens, Doloo/seven; Middle Mongolian: Doluga, Dolugad''; Dulğat) was a Mongol (later ...
emirs), Uigurstan (later
Turpan Turpan (also known as Turfan or Tulufan, ug, تۇرپان) is a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.jpg, A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply "Huangshi" (). This is a useful distinc ...

Turpan
), and Kashgaria. These leaders warred with each other and the
TimuridTimurid refers to those descended from Timur (Tamerlane), a 14th-century conqueror: * Timurid dynasty, a dynasty of Turco-Mongol lineage descended from Timur who established empires in Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent ** Timurid Empire of Ce ...
s of
Transoxiana in the 8th century, showing Transoxiana and its principal localities to the northeast. Image: Chorasan-Transoxanien-Choresmien neu.svg, upright=1.5, Transoxania and the neighboring regions of Greater Khorasan and Khwarazm in Central Asia Transoxia ...
to the west and the
Oirats Oirats ( mn, Ойрад, ''Oirad'', or , Oird; ; xal-RU, Өөрд; in the past, also Eleuths) are the westernmost group of the Mongolic peoples whose ancestral home is in the Altai region of Siberia Siberia (; rus, Сибирь, r=Sibir' ...
to the east: the successor Chagatai regime based in Mongolia and China. During the 17th century, the
Dzungars The name Dzungar people, also written as Zunghar (literally ''züüngar'', from the Mongolian for "left hand"), referred to the several Oirats, Oirat tribes who formed and maintained the Dzungar Khanate in the 17th and 18th centuries. Historicall ...
established an empire over much of the region. The Mongolian Dzungars were the collective identity of several Oirat tribes which formed, and maintained, one of the last nomadic empires. The Dzungar Khanate covered Dzungaria, extending from the western Great Wall of China to present-day eastern Kazakhstan and from present-day northern
Kyrgyzstan russian: Киргизская Республика, Kirgizskaya Respublika , image_flag = Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg , image_coat = Emblem of Kyrgyzstan.svg , symbol_type = Emblem , motto = "" ...

Kyrgyzstan
to southern
Siberia Siberia (; rus, Сибирь, r=Sibir', p=sʲɪˈbʲirʲ, a=Ru-Сибирь.ogg) is an extensive geographical region spanning much of Northern Asia. Siberia has been Russian conquest of Siberia, part of modern Russia since the latter half of th ...

Siberia
. Most of the region was renamed "Xinjiang" by the Chinese after the fall of the Dzungar Empire, which existed from the early 17th to the mid-18th century. The sedentary Turkic Muslims of the Tarim Basin were originally ruled by the Chagatai Khanate, and the nomadic Buddhist Oirat Mongols in Dzungaria ruled the Dzungar Khanate. The Naqshbandi Sufi Khoja (Turkestan), Khojas, descendants of Muhammad, had replaced the Chagatayid Khans as rulers of the Tarim Basin during the early 17th century. There was a struggle between two Khoja factions: the Afaqi (White Mountain) and the Ishaqi (Black Mountain). The Ishaqi defeated the Afaqi, and the Afaq Khoja invited the 5th Dalai Lama (the leader of the Tibetans) to intervene on his behalf in 1677. The Dalai Lama then called on his Dzungar Buddhist followers in the Dzungar Khanate to act on the invitation. The Dzungar Khanate conquered the Tarim Basin in 1680, setting up the Afaqi Khoja as their puppet ruler. After converting to Islam, the descendants of the previously-Qocho, Buddhist Uyghurs in Turfan believed that the "infidel Kalmuks" (Dzungar people, Dzungars) built Buddhist monuments in their region.{{cite book, author1=Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen Gibb, author2=Bernard Lewis, author3=Johannes Hendrik Kramers, author4=Charles Pellat, author5=Joseph Schacht, title=The Encyclopaedia of Islam, url=https://books.google.com/books?id=PJPrAAAAMAAJ, year=1998, publisher=Brill, page=677, access-date=10 July 2015, archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160101193741/https://books.google.com/books?id=PJPrAAAAMAAJ, archive-date=1 January 2016, url-status=live


Qing dynasty

{{Main, Xinjiang under Qing rule The Turkic Muslims of the Turfan and Hami, Kumul oases then submitted to the
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last Dynasties in Chinese history, dynasty in the History of China#Imperial China, imperial history of China. It was established in 1636, and ruled China proper from 1644 to 1912, wi ...
, and asked China to free them from the Dzungars; the Qing accepted their rulers as vassals. They warred against the Dzungars for decades before defeating them; Qing Manchu Eight Banners, Bannermen then conducted the Dzungar genocide, nearly eradicating them and depopulating Dzungaria. The Qing freed the Afaqi Khoja leader Burhan-ud-din and his brother, Khoja Jihan, from Dzungar imprisonment and appointed them to rule the Tarim Basin as Qing vassals. The Khoja brothers reneged on the agreement, declaring themselves independent leaders of the Tarim Basin. The Qing and the Turfan leader Emin Khoja crushed their revolt, and by 1759 China controlled Dzungaria and the Tarim Basin. The Manchu people, Manchu Qing dynasty gained control of eastern Xinjiang as a result of a Dzungar–Qing Wars, long struggle with the Dzungars which began during the 17th century. In 1755, with the help of the Oirat noble Amursana, the Qing attacked Yining, Ghulja and captured the Dzungar khan. After Amursana's request to be declared Dzungar khan went unanswered, he led a revolt against the Qing. Qing armies destroyed the remnants of the Dzungar Khanate over the next two years, and many Han Chinese and
Hui The Hui people ( zh, c=, p=Huízú, w=Hui2-tsu2, Xiao'erjing Xiao'erjing or Xiao'erjin or Xiaor jin or in its shortened form, Xiaojing, literally meaning "children's script" or "minor script" (cf. "original script" referring to the original ...
moved into the pacified areas.{{sfnp, Millward , 2007 , p=98 The native Dzungar people, Dzungar Oirat Mongols suffered greatly from the brutal campaigns and a simultaneous smallpox epidemic. Writer Wei Yuan described the resulting desolation in present-day northern Xinjiang as "an empty plain for several thousand ''li (unit), li'', with no Oirat yurt except those surrendered." It has been estimated that 80 percent of the 600,000 (or more) Dzungars died from a combination of disease and warfare, and recovery took generations.{{sfnp, Tyler, 2004 ,
55
} Han and Hui merchants were initially only allowed to trade in the Tarim Basin; their settlement in the Tarim Basin was banned until the 1830 Āfāqī Khoja Holy War, Muhammad Yusuf Khoja invasion, when the Qing rewarded merchants for fighting off Khoja by allowing them to settle in the basin.{{sfnp, Millward , 2007 ,
113
} The
UyghurUyghur may refer to: * Uyghurs, a Turkic ethnic group living in Eastern and Central Asia * Uyghur language, a Turkic language spoken primarily by the Uyghurs ** Uyghur alphabets, any of four systems used to write the language * Uyghur Khaganate, a T ...
Muslim Sayyid and Naqshbandi Sufi rebel of the Afaqi suborder, Jahangir Khoja was Lingchi, sliced to death (Lingchi) in 1828 by the Manchus for Āfāqī Khoja Holy War#Military Expeditions with the Support of Khoqand, leading a rebellion against the Qing. According to Robert Montgomery Martin, many Chinese with a variety of occupations were settled in Dzungaria in 1870; in Turkestan (the Tarim Basin), however, only a few Chinese merchants and garrison soldiers were interspersed with the Muslim population.{{sfnp, Martin, 1847 ,
21
} The 1765 Uqturpan County, Ush rebellion by the
Uyghurs The Uyghurs ( or ; ug, ئۇيغۇرلار, , ; zh, s=, t=, p=Wéiwú'ěr, ), alternatively spelled Uighurs, Uygurs or Uigurs, are a Turkic ethnic group originating from and culturally affiliated with the general region of Central and East Asia ...
against the Manchu began after Uyghur women were raped by the servants and son of Manchu official Su-cheng.{{sfnp, Millward , 1998 ,
124
} It was said that "Ush Muslims had long wanted to sleep on [Sucheng and son's] hides and eat their flesh" because of the months-long abuse.{{sfnp, Millward , 2007 ,
108
} The Manchu emperor ordered the massacre of the Uyghur rebel town; Qing forces enslaved the Uyghur children and women, and killed the Uyghur men.{{sfnp, Millward , 2007 ,
109
} Sexual abuse of Uyghur women by Manchu soldiers and officials triggered deep Uyghur hostility against Manchu rule.{{sfnp, Millward , 1998 , p
206–207
}


Yettishar

{{Main, Yettishar By the 1860s, Xinjiang had been under Xinjiang under Qing rule, Qing rule for a century. The region was captured in 1759 from the Dzungar Khanate, whose population (the
Oirats Oirats ( mn, Ойрад, ''Oirad'', or , Oird; ; xal-RU, Өөрд; in the past, also Eleuths) are the westernmost group of the Mongolic peoples whose ancestral home is in the Altai region of Siberia Siberia (; rus, Сибирь, r=Sibir' ...
) became the targets of genocide. Xinjiang was primarily semi-arid or desert and unattractive to non-trading Chinese Han, Han settlers, and others (including the Uyghurs) settled there. The Dungan Revolt (1862–1877), Dungan Revolt by the Muslim
Hui The Hui people ( zh, c=, p=Huízú, w=Hui2-tsu2, Xiao'erjing Xiao'erjing or Xiao'erjin or Xiaor jin or in its shortened form, Xiaojing, literally meaning "children's script" or "minor script" (cf. "original script" referring to the original ...
and other Muslims, Muslim ethnic groups was fought in China's Shaanxi, Ningxia and Gansu Provinces of China, provinces and in Xinjiang from 1862 to 1877. The conflict led to a reported 20.77 million deaths due to migration and war, with many refugees dying of starvation.{{failed verification, date=January 2021 Thousands of Muslim refugees from Shaanxi fled to Gansu; some formed battalions in eastern Gansu, intending to reconquer their lands in Shaanxi. While the Hui rebels were preparing to attack Gansu and Shaanxi, Yaqub Beg (an Uzbek or Tajiks, Tajik commander of the Kokand Khanate) fled from the khanate in 1865 after losing Tashkent to the Russians. Beg settled in Kashgar, and soon controlled Xinjiang. Although he encouraged trade, built Caravanserai, caravansareis, canals and other irrigation systems, his regime was considered harsh. The Chinese took decisive action against Yettishar; an army under General
Zuo Zongtang Zuo Zongtang, Marquis Kejing (also romanised as Tso Tsung-t'ang; ; 10 November 1812 – 5 September 1885), sometimes referred to as General Tso, was a Chinese statesman and military leader of the late Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, off ...

Zuo Zongtang
rapidly approached Kashgaria, reconquering it on 16 May 1877. After Qing reconquest of Xinjiang, reconquering Xinjiang in the late 1870s from Yaqub Beg, the Qing dynasty established Xinjiang ("new frontier") as a province in 1884{{sfnp, Mesny , 1905 , p=5{{sndmaking it part of China, and dropping the old names of Zhunbu ({{lang, zh-hant, 準部, Dzungar Region) and Huijiang (Muslimland).{{sfnp, Tyler, 2004 ,
61
} After Xinjiang became a Chinese province, the Qing government encouraged the Uyghurs to migrate from southern Xinjiang to other areas of the province (such as the region between Qitai and the capital, largely inhabited by Han Chinese, and Ürümqi, Tacheng (Tabarghatai), Yili, Jinghe, Kur Kara Usu, Ruoqiang, Lop Nor and the lower Tarim River.{{sfnp, Millward , 2007 ,
151
}


Republic of China

{{see also, History of the Republic of China, Xinjiang Province, Republic of China, First East Turkestan Republic, Second East Turkestan Republic In 1912, the Qing dynasty was replaced by the
Republic of China Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and No ...
. Yuan Dahua, the last Qing governor of Xinjiang, fled. One of his subordinates, Yang Zengxin, took control of the province and acceded in name to the Republic of China in March of that year. Balancing mixed ethnic constituencies, Yang controlled Xinjiang until his 1928 assassination after the Northern Expedition of the Kuomintang. The Kumul Rebellion and others broke out throughout Xinjiang during the early 1930s against Jin Shuren, Yang's successor, involving Uyghurs, other Turkic groups and Hui (Muslim) Chinese. Jin enlisted White movement, White Russians to crush the revolts. In the Kashgar region on 12 November 1933, the short-lived First East Turkestan Republic was self-proclaimed after debate about whether it should be called "East Turkestan" or "Uyghuristan".R. Michael Feener, "Islam in World Cultures: Comparative Perspectives", ABC-CLIO, 2004, {{ISBN, 1-57607-516-8{{cite news , url=https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/uighurs-and-chinas-xinjiang-region , title=Uighurs and China's Xinjiang Region , publisher=cfr.org , access-date=13 October 2018 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180913002530/https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/uighurs-and-chinas-xinjiang-region , archive-date=13 September 2018 , url-status=live The region claimed by the ETR encompassed the Kashgar Prefecture, Kashgar, Khotan Prefecture, Khotan and Aksu Prefectures in southwestern Xinjiang.{{sfnp, Millward , 2007 , p=24 The Hui people, Chinese Muslim Kuomintang 36th Division (National Revolutionary Army) defeated the army of the First East Turkestan Republic in the 1934 Battle of Kashgar (1934), Battle of Kashgar, ending the republic after Chinese Muslims executed its two emirs: Abdullah Bughra and Nur Ahmad Jan Bughra. The Soviet Union Soviet invasion of Xinjiang, invaded the province; it was brought under the control of northeast Han warlord Sheng Shicai after the 1937 Islamic rebellion in Xinjiang (1937), Xinjiang War. Sheng ruled Xinjiang for the next decade with support from the Soviet Union, many of whose ethnic and security policies he instituted. The Soviet Union maintained a military base in the province and deployed several military and economic advisors. Sheng invited a group of Chinese Communists to Xinjiang (including
Mao Zedong Mao Zedong pronounced ; also Romanization of Chinese, romanised traditionally as Mao Tse-tung. (December 26, 1893 – September 9, 1976), also known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who was the Proclamation of the P ...

Mao Zedong
's brother, Mao Zemin), but executed them all in 1943 in fear of a conspiracy. In 1944, President of the Republic of China, President and Premier of the Republic of China, Premier of China Chiang Kai-shek, informed by the Soviet Union of Shicai's intention to join it, transferred him to Chongqing as the Minister of Agriculture and Forestry the following year. During the Ili Rebellion, the Soviet Union backed Uyghur separatists to form the Second East Turkestan Republic (2nd ETR) in the Ili region while most of Xinjiang remained under Kuomintang control.


People's Republic of China

{{see also, Incorporation of Xinjiang into the People's Republic of China, Migration to Xinjiang The People's Liberation Army Incorporation of Xinjiang into the People's Republic of China, entered Xinjiang in 1949, when Kuomintang commander Tao Zhiyue and government chairman Burhan Shahidi surrendered the province to them. Five ETR leaders who were to negotiate with the Chinese about ETR sovereignty died in an air crash that year in the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic. The PRC autonomous region was established on 1 October 1955, replacing the province; that year (the first modern census in China was taken in 1953), Uyghurs were 73 percent of Xinjiang's total population of 5.11 million.{{sfnp, Bovingdon, 2010, p=199 Although Xinjiang was designated a "Uygur Autonomous Region" since 1954, more than 50 percent of its area is designated autonomous areas for 13 native non-Uyghur groups.{{sfnp, Bovingdon, 2010, pp=43–46 Modern Uyghurs developed ethnogenesis in 1955, when the PRC recognized formerly separately self-identified oasis peoples.{{sfnp, Hopper, Webber, 2009, p=176 In the 1950s General Wang Zhen coerced thousands of Hunanese women into sexual servitude at PLA units in Xinjiang. Southern Xinjiang is home to most of the Uyghur population, about nine million people, out of a total population of twenty million; fifty-five percent of the Han population, mainly urban, live in northern Xinjiang.{{sfnp, Guo , Guo , 2007 ,
220
}{{sfnp, Guo , Hickey , 2009 ,
164
} This created an economic imbalance, since the northern Junghar basin (Dzungaria) is more developed than the south.{{sfnp, Howell , 2009 ,
37
} Since Chinese economic reform since the late 1970s has exacerbated uneven regional development, more Uyghurs have migrated to Xinjiang's cities and some Han have migrated to Xinjiang for economic advancement. Deng Xiaoping made a nine-day visit to Xinjiang in 1981 and described the region as "unsteady".{{cite book, url=https://archive.org/details/forbiddendoor00terz, title=The Forbidden Door, date=1985, publisher=Asia 2000 Ltd, author=Tiziano Terzani, via=Internet Archive, pag
224225
isbn=9789627160014
Increased ethnic contact and labor competition coincided with Uyghur Terrorism in China#Xinjiang, terrorism since the 1990s, such as the 1997 Ürümqi bus bombings.{{sfnp, Hopper, Webber, 2009, pp=173–175 In 2000, Uyghurs were 45 percent of Xinjiang's population and 13 percent of Ürümqi's population. With nine percent of Xinjiang's population, Ürümqi accounts for 25 percent of the region's GDP; many rural Uyghurs have migrated to the city for work in its Light industry, light, Heavy industry, heavy and petrochemical industries.{{sfnp, Hopper, Webber, 2009, pp=178–179 Han in Xinjiang are older, better-educated and work in higher-paying professions than their Uyghur counterparts. Han are more likely to cite business reasons for moving to Ürümqi, while some Uyghurs cite legal trouble at home and family reasons for moving to the city.{{sfnp, Hopper, Webber, 2009, p=184 Han and Uyghurs are equally represented in Ürümqi's floating population, which works primarily in commerce. Auto-segregation in the city is widespread in residential concentration, employment relationships and endogamy.{{sfnp, Hopper, Webber, 2009, pp=187–188 In 2010, Uyghurs were a majority in the Tarim Basin and a plurality in Xinjiang as a whole.{{sfnp, Bovingdon, 2010, p=11 Xinjiang has 81 public library, public libraries and 23 museums, compared to none in 1949. It has List of newspapers in China#Xinjiang, 98 newspapers in 44 languages, compared with four in 1952. According to official statistics, the ratio of doctors, medical workers, clinics and hospital beds to the general population surpasses the national average; the immunization rate has reached 85 percent%. The ongoing Xinjiang conflict{{cite web , publisher=Central Asia-Caucasus Institute Analyst , url=http://www.cacianalyst.org/newsite/newsite/?q=node/364 , date=16 February 2000 , access-date=29 January 2010 , last=Rudelson , first=Justin Ben-Adam , title=Uyghur "separatism": China's policies in Xinjiang fuel dissent , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120229150459/http://www.cacianalyst.org/newsite/newsite/?q=node%2F364 , archive-date=29 February 2012 , url-status=dead{{cite journal, last1=Gunaratna , first1=Rohan , author-link=Rohan Gunaratna , page=59 , last2=Pereire , first2=Kenneth George , year=2006 , title=An al-Qaeda associate group operating in China? , volume=4 , issue=2 , journal=China and Eurasia Forum Quarterly , url=http://www.silkroadstudies.org/new/docs/CEF/Quarterly/May_2006/GunaratnaPereire.pdf , quote=Since the Ghulja Incident, numerous attacks including attacks on buses, clashes between ETIM militants and Chinese security forces, assassination attempts, attempts to attack Chinese key installations and government buildings have taken place, though many cases go unreported. , url-status=dead, archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110106144335/http://www.silkroadstudies.org/new/docs/CEF/Quarterly/May_2006/GunaratnaPereire.pdf , archive-date=6 January 2011 includes the 2007 Xinjiang raid, a thwarted 2008 suicide-bombing attempt on a China Southern Airlines flight, the 2008 Kashgar attack which killed 16 police officers four days before the 2008 Summer Olympics, Beijing Olympics, the September 2009 Xinjiang unrest, August 2009 syringe attacks, the 2011 Hotan attack,{{Cite news, url=http://articles.sfgate.com/2011-07-19/news/29789314_1_police-station-hotan-muslim-uighurs, title=China: Deadly attack on police station in Xinjiang, author=Richburg, Keith B., date=19 July 2011, access-date=29 July 2011, work=San Francisco Chronicle the 2014 Kunming attack, the April 2014 Ürümqi attack, and the May 2014 Ürümqi attack. Several of the attacks were orchestrated by the Turkistan Islamic Party (formerly the East Turkestan Islamic Movement), identified as a List of designated terrorist groups, terrorist group by several entities (including Russia, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States until October 2020, and the United Nations). In 2014, Chinese Communist Party (CCP) leadership in Xinjiang commenced a People's War against the "Three Evil Forces" of separatism, terrorism, and extremism. They deployed two hundred thousand party cadres to Xinjiang and the launched the Civil Servant-Family Pair Up program. Xi was dissatisfied with the initial results of the People's War and replaced Zhang Chunxian with Chen Quanguo in 2016. Following his appointment Chen oversaw the recruitment of tens of thousands of additional police officers and the division of society into three categories: trusted, average, untrustworthy. He instructed his subordinated to "Take this crackdown as the top project," and "to preëmpt the enemy, to strike at the outset." Following a meeting with Xi in Beijing Chen Quanguo held a rally in Ürümqi with ten thousand troops, helicopters, and armored vehicles. As they paraded he announced a "smashing, obliterating offensive," and declared that they would "bury the corpses of terrorists and terror gangs in the vast sea of the People's War." Chinese authorities have operated Xinjiang re-education camps to indoctrinate Uyghurs and other Muslims as part of the People's War since at least 2017.{{Cite news, url=https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2019/11/16/world/asia/china-xinjiang-documents.html, title='Absolutely No Mercy': Leaked Files Expose How China Organized Mass Detentions of Muslims, last1=Ramzy, first1=Austin, date=16 November 2019, work=The New York Times, access-date=16 November 2019, last2=Buckley, first2=Chris, issn=0362-4331 The camps have been criticized by a number of countries and human-rights organizations for abuse and mistreatment, with some alleging
Uyghur genocide The Uyghur genocide is the ongoing series of human rights abuses perpetrated by the Chinese government against the Uyghur people and other ethnic and religious minorities in and around the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region Xinjiang, S ...
. In 2020, CCP General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party, General Secretary Xi Jinping said: "Practice has proven that the party's strategy for governing Xinjiang in the new era is completely correct." In 2021 the standard Uyghur language textbooks used in Xinjiang since the early 2000s were outlawed and their authors and editors sentenced to death or life imprisonment. The textbooks had been created and approved by relevant government officials, however according to the AP in 2021 the Chinese government said that the "2003 and 2009 editions of the textbooks contained 84 passages preaching ethnic separatism, violence, terrorism and religious extremism and that several people were inspired by the books to participate in a bloody anti-government riot in the regional capital Urumqi in 2009." Shirzat Bawudun, the former head of the Xinjiang department of justice, and Sattar Sawut, the former head of the Xinjiang education department, were sentenced to death on terrorism and extremism charges. Three other educators and two textbook editors were given lesser sentences.{{cite web , title=China condemns 2 ex-Xinjiang officials in separatism cases , url=https://apnews.com/article/world-news-race-and-ethnicity-beijing-china-national-security-e4d7a915a2e3ebb6c6f50778a2aec81a , website=apnews.com , publisher=Associated Press , access-date=10 April 2021 Chen was replaced as Community Party Secretary for Xinjiang by Ma Xingrui in December 2021.


Administrative divisions

{{Main list, List of administrative divisions of Xinjiang, List of township-level divisions of Xinjiang Xinjiang is divided into thirteen Administrative divisions of China#Prefectural level, prefecture-level divisions: four Prefecture-level city, prefecture-level cities, six Prefectures of China, prefectures and five autonomous prefectures (including the sub-provincial autonomous prefecture of Ili, which in turn has two of the seven prefectures within its jurisdiction) for Mongols, Mongol, Kazakhs, Kazakh,
KyrgyzKyrgyz, Kirghiz or Kyrgyzstani may refer to: *Things related to Kyrgyzstan *Kyrgyz people *Kyrgyz language *Kyrgyz culture *Kyrgyz cuisine *Yenisei Kirghiz *The Fuyu Kyrgyz language, Fuyü Gïrgïs language in Northeastern China {{Disambig Languag ...

Kyrgyz
and Hui minorities. At the end of the year 2017, the total population of Xinjiang was 24.45 million. These are then divided into 13 districts, 25 county-level cities, 62 counties and 6 autonomous counties. Ten of the county-level cities do not belong to any prefecture and are ''de facto'' administered by the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps. Sub-level divisions of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region is shown in the adjacent picture and described in the table below: {, class="wikitable" style="margin: 0 auto 0 auto; font-size:90%; text-align: center;" ! colspan="9" , Administrative divisions of Xinjiang , - , colspan="9" style="font-size: larger;" ,
{{Image label begin, image=Administrative Division Xinjiang (PRC claimed).svg, width=900, link=, font-size=85% {{Image label, x=900, y=410, scale=900/1500, text={{small, Ürümqi {{Image label, x=815, y=240, scale=900/1500, text={{small, {{small, Karamay, K {{Image label, x=810, y=250, scale=900/1500, text={{small, {{small, Karamay, a {{Image label, x=805, y=260, scale=900/1500, text={{small, {{small, Karamay, r {{Image label, x=800, y=270, scale=900/1500, text={{small, {{small, Karamay, a {{Image label, x=790, y=280, scale=900/1500, text={{small, {{small, Karamay, m {{Image label, x=790, y=290, scale=900/1500, text={{small, {{small, Karamay, a {{Image label, x=790, y=300, scale=900/1500, text={{small, {{small, Karamay, y {{Image label, x=985, y=485, scale=900/1500, text={{small,
Turpan Turpan (also known as Turfan or Tulufan, ug, تۇرپان) is a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.jpg, A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply "Huangshi" (). This is a useful distinc ...

Turpan
{{Image label, x=1185, y=450, scale=900/1500, text={{small, Hami {{Image label, x=960, y=355, scale=900/1500, text={{small, Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Changji
Hui AP {{Image label, x=845, y=325, scale=900/1500, text={{small, {{small, Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture, (Changji) {{Image label, x=550, y=295, scale=900/1500, text={{small, Bortala Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, Bortala
Mongol AP {{Image label, x=840, y=670, scale=900/1500, text={{small, Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, Bayingolin
Mongol AP {{Image label, x=570, y=540, scale=900/1500, text={{small, Aksu Prefecture, Aksu
Prefecture {{Image label, x=280, y=630, scale=900/1500, text={{small, Kizilsu Kyrgyz Autonomous Prefecture, Kizilsu
Kyrgyz AP {{Image label, x=380, y=700, scale=900/1500, text={{small, Kashgar Prefecture, Kashgar
Prefecture {{Image label, x=560, y=800, scale=900/1500, text={{small, Hotan Prefecture, Hotan
Prefecture {{Image label, x=605, y=410, scale=900/1500, text={{small, Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture, Ili
Kazakh AP {{Image label, x=680, y=240, scale=900/1500, text={{small, Tacheng Prefecture, Tacheng
Prefecture {{Image label, x=930, y=180, scale=900/1500, text={{small, Altay Prefecture, Altay
Prefecture {{Image label, x=830, y=360, scale=900/1500, text=Shihezi, {{large, ① {{Image label, x=600, y=605, scale=900/1500, text=Aral, Xinjiang, {{large, ② {{Image label, x=500, y=650, scale=900/1500, text=Tumxuk, {{large, ③ {{Image label, x=905, y=350, scale=900/1500, text=Wujiaqu, {{large, ④ {{Image label, x=930, y=150, scale=900/1500, text=Beitun, Xinjiang, {{large, ⑤ {{Image label, x=810, y=530, scale=900/1500, text=Tiemenguan City, {{large, ⑥ {{Image label, x=650, y=325, scale=900/1500, text=Shuanghe, {{large, ⑦ {{Image label, x=570, y=385, scale=900/1500, text=Kokdala, {{large, ⑧ {{Image label, x=510, y=810, scale=900/1500, text=Kunyu, Xinjiang, {{large, ⑨ {{Image label, x=775, y=325, scale=900/1500, text=Huyanghe, {{large, ⑩ {{Image label, x=1155, y=180, scale=900/1500, text=Shihezi, {{large, ① {{small, Shihezi {{Image label, x=110, y=580, scale=900/1500, text=Aral, Xinjiang, {{large, ② {{small, Aral {{Image label, x=45, y=780, scale=900/1500, text=Tumxuk, {{large, ③ {{small, Tumxuk {{Image label, x=1355, y=180, scale=900/1500, text=Wujiaqu, {{large, ④ {{small, Wujiaqu {{Image label, x=260, y=180, scale=900/1500, text=Beitun, Xinjiang, {{large, ⑤ {{small, Beitun {{Image label, x=1355, y=780, scale=900/1500, text=Tiemenguan City, {{large, ⑥ {{small, Tiemenguan {{Image label, x=260, y=380, scale=900/1500, text=Shuanghe, {{large, ⑦ {{small, Shuanghe {{Image label, x=45, y=380, scale=900/1500, text=Kokdala, {{large, ⑧ {{small, Kokdala {{Image label, x=1235, y=980, scale=900/1500, text=Kunyu, Xinjiang, {{large, ⑨ {{small, Kunyu {{Image label, x=55, y=180, scale=900/1500, text=Huyanghe, {{large, ⑩ {{small, Huyanghe {{Image label, x=450, y=60, scale=900/1500, text= {{small, Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps, XPCC / Bingtuan administered
county-level divisions
{{Image label, x=450, y=110, scale=900/1500, text= {{small, Subordinate to Ili Kazakh A.P. {{Image label, x=50, y=940, scale=900/1500, text= {{small, Disputed areas claimed by
India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous country, the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest ...

India

and administered by China
(see Sino-Indian border dispute)
, - !! scope="col" rowspan="2" , Administrative division codes of the People's Republic of China, Division code !! scope="col" rowspan="2" , Division !! scope="col" rowspan="2" , Area in km2{{in lang, zh{{cite book , language=zh-hans , author=Shenzhen Bureau of Statistics , publisher=:zh:中国统计出版社, China Statistics Print , script-title=zh:深圳统计年鉴2014 , trans-title=Shenzhen Statistical Yearbook 2014 , url=http://www.sztj.gov.cn/nj2014/indexce.htm , access-date=29 May 2015 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150512184740/http://www.sztj.gov.cn/nj2014/indexce.htm , archive-date=12 May 2015 , url-status=dead !! scope="col" rowspan="2" , Population 2010 !! scope="col" rowspan="2" , Seat !! scope="col" colspan="4" , Divisions , - !! scope="col" width="45" , District (China), Districts !! scope="col" width="45" , Counties of China, Counties !! scope="col" width="45" , Autonomous county, Aut. counties !! scope="col" width="45" , County-level city, CL cities , - style="font-weight: bold;" ! 650000 !!Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region , 1664900.00 , , 21,813,334 , , Ürümqi city , , 13 , , 61 , , 6 , , 26 , - ! 650100 !! Ürümqi city , 13787.90 , , 3,110,280 , , Tianshan District , , 7 , , 1 , , bgcolor="grey", , , bgcolor="grey", , - ! 650200 !! Karamay city , 8654.08 , , 391,008 , , Karamay District , , 4 , , bgcolor="grey", , , bgcolor="grey", , , bgcolor="grey", , - ! 650400 !!
Turpan Turpan (also known as Turfan or Tulufan, ug, تۇرپان) is a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.jpg, A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply "Huangshi" (). This is a useful distinc ...

Turpan
city , 67562.91 , , 622,679 , , Gaochang District , , 1 , , 2 , , bgcolor="grey", , , bgcolor="grey", , - ! 650500 !! Hami city , 142094.88 , , 572,400 , , Yizhou District, Hami, Yizhou District , , 1 , , bgcolor="grey", , , 1 , , 1 , - ! 652300 !! Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture , 73139.75 , , 1,428,592 , , Changji city , , bgcolor="grey", , , 4 , , 1 , , 2 , - ! 652700 !! Bortala Mongol Autonomous Prefecture , 24934.33 , , 443,680 , , Bole, Xinjiang, Bole city , , bgcolor="grey", , , 2 , , bgcolor="grey", , , 2 , - ! 652800 !! Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture , 470954.25 , , 1,278,492 , , Korla city , , bgcolor="grey", , , 7 , , 1 , , 1 , - ! 652900 !! Aksu Prefecture , 127144.91 , , 2,370,887 , , Aksu City, Aksu city , , bgcolor="grey", , , 7 , , bgcolor="grey", , , 2 , - ! 653000 !! Kizilsu Kyrgyz Autonomous Prefecture , 72468.08 , , 525,599 , , Artux city , , bgcolor="grey", , , 3 , , bgcolor="grey", , , 1 , - ! 653100 !! Kashgar Prefecture , 137578.51 , , 3,979,362 , , Kashgar, Kashi city , , bgcolor="grey", , , 10 , , 1 , , 1 , - ! 653200 !! Hotan Prefecture , 249146.59 , , 2,014,365 , , Hotan city , , bgcolor="grey", , , 7 , , bgcolor="grey", , , 1 , - bgcolor="#98fb98" ! 654000 !! Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture , 56381.53 * , , 2,482,627 * , , Yining city , , bgcolor="grey", , , 7 * , , 1 * , , 3 * , - ! 654200 !! Tacheng Prefecture* , 94698.18 , , 1,219,212 , , Tacheng city , , bgcolor="grey", , , 4 , , 1 , , 2 , - ! 654300 !! Altay Prefecture* , 117699.01 , , 526,980 , , Altay City, Altay city , , bgcolor="grey", , , 6 , , bgcolor="grey", , , 1 , - style = "background: lightgrey; height: 2pt;" , colspan = "14" , , - bgcolor="#98fb98" ! 659000 !! Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps , 13055.57 , , 1,481,165 , , ''Ürümqi city'' , , bgcolor="grey", , , bgcolor="grey", , , bgcolor="grey", , , 10 , - style = "background: lightgrey; height: 2pt;" , colspan = "14" , , - bgcolor="lightyellow" ! 659001 !! Shihezi city   (8th Division) , 456.84 , , 635,582 , , Hongshan Subdistrict, Shihezi, ''Hongshan Subdistrict'' , , bgcolor="grey", , , bgcolor="grey", , , bgcolor="grey", , , 1 , - bgcolor="lightyellow" ! 659002 !! Aral, Xinjiang, Aral city   (1st Division) , 5266.00 , , 190,613 , , ''Jinyinchuan Road Subdistrict'', , bgcolor="grey", , , bgcolor="grey", , , bgcolor="grey", , , 1 , - bgcolor="lightyellow" ! 659003 !! Tumxuk city   (3rd Division) , 2003.00 , , 174,465 , , ''Qiganquele Subdistrict'' , , bgcolor="grey", , , bgcolor="grey", , , bgcolor="grey", , , 1 , - bgcolor="lightyellow" ! 659004 !! Wujiaqu city   (6th Division) , 742.00 , , 90,205 , , Renmin Road Subdistrict, Wujiaqu, ''Renmin Road Subdistrict'' , , bgcolor="grey", , , bgcolor="grey", , , bgcolor="grey", , , 1 , - bgcolor="lightyellow" ! 659005 !! Beitun, Xinjiang, Beitun city   (10th Division) , 910.50 , , 86,300 , , Xincheng Subdistrict, Beitun, ''Xincheng Subdistrict'' , , bgcolor="grey", , , bgcolor="grey", , , bgcolor="grey", , , 1 , - bgcolor="lightyellow" ! 659006 !! Tiemenguan City, Tiemenguan city   (2nd Division) , 590.27 , , 50,000 , , Chengqu Subdistrict, Tiemenguan, ''Chengqu Subdistrict'' , , bgcolor="grey", , , bgcolor="grey", , , bgcolor="grey", , , 1 , - bgcolor="lightyellow" ! 659007 !! Shuanghe city   (5th Division) , 742.18 , , 53,800 , , ''Tasierhai town'' , , bgcolor="grey", , , bgcolor="grey", , , bgcolor="grey", , , 1 , - bgcolor="lightyellow" ! 659008 !! Kokdala city   (4th Division) , 979.71 , , 75,000 , , ''Jieliangzi Subdistrict'' , , bgcolor="grey", , , bgcolor="grey", , , bgcolor="grey", , , 1 , - bgcolor="lightyellow" ! 659009 !! Kunyu, Xinjiang, Kunyu city   (14th Division) , 687.13 , , 45,200 , , ''Kunyu Town, Kunyu town'' , , bgcolor="grey", , , bgcolor="grey", , , bgcolor="grey", , , 1 , - bgcolor="lightyellow" ! 659010 !! Huyanghe city   (7th Division) , 677.94 , , 80,000 , , ''Gongqing Town, Gongqing town'' , , bgcolor="grey", , , bgcolor="grey", , , bgcolor="grey", , , 1 , - , colspan = "14" , {{legend, #98FB98, Sub-provincial divisions in the People's Republic of China, Sub-provincial prefecture , border = 1px solid #AAAAAA {{legend, lightyellow, Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps cities , border = 1px solid #AAAAAA * – Altay Prefecture or Tacheng Prefecture are subordinate to Ili Prefecture. / The population or area figures of Ili do not include Altay Prefecture or Tacheng Prefecture which are subordinate to Ili Prefecture. {, class="wikitable sortable collapsible collapsed" style="text-font:90%; width:auto; text-align:center; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;" ! colspan="5" , Administrative divisions in Uyghur, Chinese and varieties of romanizations , - ! English !! Uyghur !! SASM/GNC Uyghur Pinyin !! Chinese !! Pinyin , - , Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region , , {{ug-textonly, شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى , , Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni , , {{lang, zh, 新疆维吾尔自治区 , , Xīnjiāng Wéiwú'ěr Zìzhìqū , - , Ürümqi city , , {{ug-textonly, ئۈرۈمچى شەھىرى , , Ürümqi Xäĥiri , , {{lang, zh, 乌鲁木齐市 , , Wūlǔmùqí Shì , - , Karamay city , , {{ug-textonly, قاراماي شەھىرى , , K̂aramay Xäĥiri , , {{lang, zh, 克拉玛依市 , , Kèlāmǎyī Shì , - ,
Turpan Turpan (also known as Turfan or Tulufan, ug, تۇرپان) is a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.jpg, A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply "Huangshi" (). This is a useful distinc ...

Turpan
city , , {{ug-textonly, تۇرپان شەھىرى , , Turpan Xäĥiri , , {{lang, zh, 吐鲁番市 , , Tǔlǔfān Shì , - , Hami City, Hami city , , {{ug-textonly, قۇمۇل شەھىرى , , K̂umul Xäĥiri , , {{lang, zh, 哈密市 , , Hāmì Shì , - , Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture , , {{ug-textonly, سانجى خۇيزۇ ئاپتونوم ئوبلاستى , , Sanji Huyzu Aptonom Oblasti , , {{lang, zh, 昌吉回族自治州 , , Chāngjí Huízú Zìzhìzhōu , - , Bortala Mongol Autonomous Prefecture , , {{ug-textonly, بۆرتالا موڭغۇل ئاپتونوم ئوبلاستى , , Börtala Mongĝul Aptonom Oblasti , , {{lang, zh, 博尔塔拉蒙古自治州 , , Bó'ěrtǎlā Měnggǔ Zìzhìzhōu , - , Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture , , {{ug-textonly, بايىنغولىن موڭغۇل ئاپتونوم ئوبلاستى , , Bayinĝolin Mongĝul Aptonom Oblasti , , {{lang, zh, 巴音郭楞蒙古自治州 , , Bāyīnguōlèng Měnggǔ Zìzhìzhōu , - , Aksu Prefecture , , {{ug-textonly, ئاقسۇ ۋىلايىتى , , Ak̂su Vilayiti , , {{lang, zh, 阿克苏地区 , , Ākèsū Dìqū , - , Kizilsu Kirghiz Autonomous Prefecture , , {{ug-textonly, قىزىلسۇ قىرغىز ئاپتونوم ئوبلاستى , , K̂izilsu K̂irĝiz Aptonom Oblasti , , {{lang, zh, 克孜勒苏柯尔克孜自治州 , , Kèzīlèsū Kē'ěrkèzī Zìzhìzhōu , - , Kashgar Prefecture, Kashi Prefecture , , {{ug-textonly, قەشقەر ۋىلايىتى , , K̂äxk̂är Vilayiti , , {{lang, zh, 喀什地区 , , Kāshí Dìqū , - , Hotan Prefecture , , {{ug-textonly, خوتەن ۋىلايىتى , , Hotän Vilayiti , , {{lang, zh, 和田地区 , , Hétián Dìqū , - , Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture , , {{ug-textonly, ئىلى قازاق ئاپتونوم ئوبلاستى , , Ili K̂azak̂ Aptonom Oblasti , , {{lang, zh, 伊犁哈萨克自治州 , , Yīlí Hāsàkè Zìzhìzhōu , - , Tacheng Prefecture , , {{ug-textonly, تارباغاتاي ۋىلايىتى , , Tarbaĝatay Vilayiti , , {{lang, zh, 塔城地区 , , Tǎchéng Dìqū , - , Altay Prefecture , , {{ug-textonly, ئالتاي ۋىلايىتى , , Altay Vilayiti , , {{lang, zh, 阿勒泰地区 , , Ālètài Dìqū , - , Shihezi city , , {{ug-textonly, شىخەنزە شەھىرى , , Xihänzä Xäĥiri , , {{lang, zh, 石河子市 , , Shíhézǐ Shì , - , Aral, Xinjiang, Aral city , , {{ug-textonly, ئارال شەھىرى , , Aral Xäĥiri , , {{lang, zh, 阿拉尔市 , , Ālā'ěr Shì , - , Tumxuk city , , {{ug-textonly, تۇمشۇق شەھىرى , , Tumxuk̂ Xäĥiri , , {{lang, zh, 图木舒克市 , , Túmùshūkè Shì , - , Wujiaqu city , , {{ug-textonly, ۋۇجياچۈ شەھىرى , , Vujyaqü Xäĥiri , , {{lang, zh, 五家渠市 , , Wǔjiāqú Shì , - , Beitun, Xinjiang, Beitun city , , {{ug-textonly, بەيتۈن شەھىرى , , Bäatün Xäĥiri , , {{lang, zh, 北屯市 , , Běitún Shì , - , Tiemenguan City, Tiemenguan city , , {{ug-textonly, باشئەگىم شەھىرى , , Baxägym Xäĥiri , , {{lang, zh, 铁门关市 , , Tiĕménguān Shì , - , Shuanghe city , , {{ug-textonly, قوشئۆگۈز شەھىرى , , K̂oxögüz Xäĥiri , , {{lang, zh, 双河市 , , Shuānghé Shì , - , Kokdala city , , {{ug-textonly, كۆكدالا شەھىرى , , Kökdala Xäĥiri , , {{lang, zh, 可克达拉市 , , Kěkèdálā Shì , - , Kunyu, Xinjiang, Kunyu city , , {{ug-textonly, قۇرۇمقاش شەھىرى , , Kurumkax Xäĥiri , , {{lang, zh, 昆玉市 , , Kūnyù Shì , - , Huyanghe city , , {{ug-textonly, خۇياڭخې شەھىرى , , Huyanghê Xäĥiri , , {{lang, zh, 胡杨河市 , , Húyánghé Shì


Urban areas

{, class="wikitable sortable collapsible" style="font-size:90%;" ! colspan="6" , Population by urban areas of prefecture & county cities , - !#!!City!!style ="background-color: #aaaaff;", Urban area!!style ="background-color: #aaffaa;", District area!!style ="background-color: #ffaaaa;", City proper{{cite book , author1= 国务院人口普查办公室 [Department of Population Census of the State Council] , author2=国家统计局人口和社会科技统计司编 [Department of Population and Social Science and Statistics, National Bureau of Statistics] , date=2012 , script-title=zh:中国2010年人口普查分县资料 , location=Beijing , publisher=:zh:中国统计出版社, China Statistics Print , isbn=978-7-5037-6659-6 !!Census date , - , 1, , Ürümqi, , 2,853,398, , 3,029,372, , 3,112,559, , 2010-11-01 , - , 2, , Korla, , 425,182, , 549,324, , {{small, ''part of Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, Bayingolin Prefecture'', , 2010-11-01 , - , 3, , Yining, , 368,813, , 515,082, , {{small, ''part of Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture, Ili Prefecture'', , 2010-11-01 , - , 4, , Karamay, , 353,299, , 391,008, , 391,008, , 2010-11-01 , - , 5, , Shihezi, , 313,768, , 380,130, , 380,130, , 2010-11-01 , - , 6, , Hami{{efn-lr, name=Hami, Hami Prefecture is currently known as Hami PLC after census; Hami CLC is currently known as Yizhou District, Hami, Yizhou after census., , 310,500, , 472,175, , 572,400, , 2010-11-01 , - , 7, , Kashgar, Kashi, , 310,448, , 506,640, , {{small, ''part of Kashgar Prefecture, Kashi Prefecture'', , 2010-11-01 , - , 8, , Changji, , 303,938, , 426,253, , {{small, ''part of Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Changji Prefecture'', , 2010-11-01 , - , 9, , Aksu City, Aksu, , 284,872, , 535,657, , {{small, ''part of Aksu Prefecture'', , 2010-11-01 , - , 10, , Wusu, Usu, , 131,661, , 298,907, , {{small, ''part of Tacheng Prefecture'', , 2010-11-01 , - , 11, , Bole, Xinjiang, Bole, , 120,138, , 235,585, , {{small, ''part of Bortala Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, Bortala Prefecture'', , 2010-11-01 , - , 12, , Hotan, , 119,804, , 322,300, , {{small, ''part of Hotan Prefecture'', , 2010-11-01 , - , 13, , Altay City, Altay, , 112,711, , 190,064, , {{small, ''part of Altay Prefecture'', , 2010-11-01 , - , 14, ,
Turpan Turpan (also known as Turfan or Tulufan, ug, تۇرپان) is a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.jpg, A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply "Huangshi" (). This is a useful distinc ...

Turpan
{{efn-lr, name=Turpan, Turpan Prefecture is currently known as Turpan PLC after census; Turpan CLC is currently known as Gaochang District, Gaochang after census., , 89,719, , 273,385, , 622,903, , 2010-11-01 , - , 15, , Tacheng, , 75,122, , 161,037, , {{small, ''part of Tacheng Prefecture'', , 2010-11-01 , - , 16, , Wujiaqu, , 75,088, , 96,436, , 96,436, , 2010-11-01 , - , 17, , Fukang, , 67,598, , 165,006, , {{small, ''part of Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Changji Prefecture'', , 2010-11-01 , - , 18, , Aral, Xinjiang, Aral, , 65,175, , 158,593, , 158,593, , 2010-11-01 , - , 19, , Artux, , 58,427, , 240,368, , {{small, ''part of Kizilsu Kyrgyz Autonomous Prefecture, Kizilsu Prefecture'', , 2010-11-01 , - bgcolor="lightyellow" class="sortbottom" , (–), , Beitun, Xinjiang, Beitun{{efn-lr, name=Beitun, Beitun CLC was established from parts of Altay City, Altay CLC after census., , 57,889, , 57,889, , 57,889, , 2010-11-01 , - bgcolor="lightyellow" class="sortbottom" , (–), , Kokdala{{efn-lr, name=Kokdala, Kokdala CLC was established from parts of Huocheng County after census., , 57,537, , 57,537, , 57,537, , 2010-11-01 , - bgcolor="lightyellow" class="sortbottom" , (–), , Shuanghe{{efn-lr, name=Shuanghe, Shuanghe CLC was established from parts of Bole, Xinjiang, Bole CLC after census., , 53,565, , 53,565, , 53,565, , 2010-11-01 , - bgcolor="lightyellow" class="sortbottom" , (–), , Khorgas, Korgas{{efn-lr, name=Korgas, Korgas CLC was established from parts of Huocheng County after census., , 51,462, , 51,462, , {{small, ''part of Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture, Ili Prefecture'', , 2010-11-01 , - bgcolor="lightyellow" class="sortbottom" , (–), , Kunyu, Xinjiang, Kunyu{{efn-lr, name=Kunyu, Kunyu CLC was established from parts of Hotan County, Pishan County, Karakax County, Moyu County, & Qira County after census., , 36,399, , 36,399, , 36,399, , 2010-11-01 , - , 20, , Tumxuk, , 34,808, , 135,727, , 135,727, , 2010-11-01 , - bgcolor="lightyellow" class="sortbottom" , (–), , Tiemenguan City, Tiemenguan{{efn-lr, name=Tiemenguan, Tiemenguan CLC was established from parts of Korla, Korla CLC after census., , 30,244, , 30,244, , 30,244, , 2010-11-01 , - bgcolor="lightyellow" class="sortbottom" , - , 21, , Kuytun, , 20,805, , 166,261, , {{small, ''part of Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture, Ili Prefecture'', , 2010-11-01 , - bgcolor="lightyellow" class="sortbottom" , (–), , Alashankou{{efn-lr, name=Alashankou, Alashankou CLC was established from parts of Bole, Xinjiang, Bole CLC & Jinghe County after census., , 15,492, , 15,492, , {{small, ''part of Bortala Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, Bortala Prefecture'', , 2010-11-01 {{notelist-lr


Geography and geology

Xinjiang is the largest Administrative divisions of the People's Republic of China, political subdivision of China, accounting for more than one sixth of China's total territory and a quarter of its boundary length. Xinjiang is mostly covered with uninhabitable deserts and dry grasslands, with dotted oases conducive to habitation accounting for 9.7% of Xinjiang's total area by 2015 at the foot of
Tian Shan The Tian Shan,, dng, Тянсан, ; otk, 𐰴𐰣 𐱅𐰭𐰼𐰃, ; tr, Tanrı Dağı; mn, Тэнгэр уул, ; ug, تەڭرىتاغ, , ; kk, Тәңіртауы / Алатау, , ; ky, Теңир-Тоо / Ала-Тоо, , ; uz, Tyan-S ...

Tian Shan
, Kunlun Mountains and Altai Mountains, respectively.


Mountain systems and basins

{{Unreferenced section, date=July 2019 Xinjiang is split by the
Tian Shan The Tian Shan,, dng, Тянсан, ; otk, 𐰴𐰣 𐱅𐰭𐰼𐰃, ; tr, Tanrı Dağı; mn, Тэнгэр уул, ; ug, تەڭرىتاغ, , ; kk, Тәңіртауы / Алатау, , ; ky, Теңир-Тоо / Ала-Тоо, , ; uz, Tyan-S ...

Tian Shan
mountain range ({{ug-textonly, تەڭرى تاغ, Tengri Tagh, Тәңри Тағ), which divides it into two large basins: the Dzungarian Basin in the north and the
Tarim Basin The Tarim Basin is an endorheic basin in Northwest China occupying an area of about and one of the largest basins in Northwest China.Chen, Yaning, et al. "Regional climate change and its effects on river runoff in the Tarim Basin, China." Hydr ...
in the south. A small V-shaped wedge between these two major basins, limited by the Tian Shan's main range in the south and the Borohoro Mountains in the north, is the basin of the
Ili River 300px, Map of the Lake Balkhash drainage basin showing the Ili River and its tributaries The Ili ( ug, ئىلى دەرياسى, Ili deryasi, Ili dəryasi, 6=Или Дәряси; kk, Ile, ; russian: Или; zh, c=伊犁河, p=Yīlí Hé, dng, ...
, which flows into Kazakhstan's Lake Balkhash; an even smaller wedge farther north is the Emin Valley. Other major mountain ranges of Xinjiang include the
Pamir Mountains The Pamir Mountains are a mountain range between Central Asia, South Asia, and East Asia, at the junction of the Himalayas with the Tian Shan, Karakoram, Kunlun Mountains, Kunlun, and Hindu Kush. They are among the world's highest mountains. The ...

Pamir Mountains
and
Karakoram The Karakoram is a mountain range spanning the borders of China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous countr ...

Karakoram
in the southwest, the Kunlun Mountains in the south (along the border with Tibet Autonomous Region, Tibet) and the Altai Mountains in the northeast (shared with
Mongolia Mongolia (, mn, Монгол Улс, Mongol Uls, Traditional Mongolian: '; lit. "Mongol Nation" or "State of Mongolia") is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body ...

Mongolia
). The region's highest point is the mountain K2, an eight-thousander located {{convert, 8611, m, ft, sp=us above sea level in the Karakoram Mountains on the border with
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, e ...

Pakistan
. Much of the Tarim Basin is dominated by the
Taklamakan Desert The Taklamakan Desert (; zh, s=, p=Tǎkèlāmǎgān Shāmò, Xiao'erjing: , dng, Такәламаган Шамә; ug, تەكلىماكان قۇملۇقى; also spelled Taklimakan and Teklimakan) is a desert upright=1.5, alt=see captio ...

Taklamakan Desert
. North of it is the
Turpan Depression The Turpan Depression or Turfan Depression, is a fault (geology), fault-bounded trough located around and south of the city-oasis of Turpan, in the Xinjiang, Xinjiang Autonomous Region in far Western China, about southeast of the regional capita ...
, which contains the lowest point in Xinjiang and in the entire PRC, at {{convert, 155, m, ft, sp=us below sea level. The Dzungarian Basin is slightly cooler, and receives somewhat more precipitation, than the Tarim Basin. Nonetheless, it, too, has a large Gurbantünggüt Desert (also known as Dzoosotoyn Elisen) in its center. The
Tian Shan The Tian Shan,, dng, Тянсан, ; otk, 𐰴𐰣 𐱅𐰭𐰼𐰃, ; tr, Tanrı Dağı; mn, Тэнгэр уул, ; ug, تەڭرىتاغ, , ; kk, Тәңіртауы / Алатау, , ; ky, Теңир-Тоо / Ала-Тоо, , ; uz, Tyan-S ...

Tian Shan
mountain range marks the Xinjiang-Kyrgyzstan border at the Torugart Pass (3752 m). The Karakorum highway (KKH) links Islamabad, Pakistan with Kashgar over the Khunjerab Pass.


Mountain passes

From south to north, the mountain passes bordering Xinjiang are: {, class="wikitable collapsible collapsed " style="font-size:95%;" ! colspan="5" , Mountain passes bordering Xinjiang , - , {, class="wikitable sortable" style="font-size: 95%; ! width=125pt, 山口 ! width=125pt, Mountain Pass ! width=200pt, Coordinate ! Elev. ! Appendix , - , :zh:喀喇昆仑山口, 喀喇昆仑山口 , :en:Karakoram Pass, Karakoram Pass , {{coord, 35.513333, 77.823056 , 5540m , {{flagdeco, IND-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , :en:Indira Col, 图尔吉斯坦拉山口 , :en:Indira Col, Turkistan La Pass , {{coord, 35.656667, 76.860556 , , {{flagdeco, IND-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , :sv: Windy Gap (bergspass i Kina), Windy Gap , :sv: Windy Gap (bergspass i Kina), Windy Gap , {{coord, 35.87318, 76.57692 , 6111m , {{flagdeco, PAK-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , 东木斯塔山口 , :en:Mustagh Pass, Mustagh Pass , {{coord, 35.840000, 76.250000 , 5422m , {{flagdeco, PAK-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , :sv: Sarpo Laggo Pass, Sarpo Laggo Pass , :sv: Sarpo Laggo Pass, Sarpo Laggo Pass , {{coord, 35.8234, 76.16249 , 6013m , {{flagdeco, PAK-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , West Muztagh pass , West Muztagh pass , {{coord, 35.8532, 76.1424 , , {{flagdeco, PAK-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , :zh:红其拉甫口岸, 红其拉甫口岸 , :en:Khunjerab Pass, Khunjerab Pass , {{coord, 36.850000, 75.427778 , 4693m , {{flagdeco, PAK-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , Parpik Pass , Parpik Pass , {{coord, 36.95, 75.35 , 5467m , {{flagdeco, PAK-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , :sv: Mutsjliga Pass, Mutsjliga Pass , :sv: Mutsjliga Pass, Mutsjliga Pass , {{coord, 36.97374, 75.2973 , 5314m , {{flagdeco, PAK-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , 明铁盖达坂 , :en:Mintaka Pass, Mintaka Pass , {{coord, 37.0039, 74.8511 , 4709m , {{flagdeco, PAK-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , 克里克达坂 , :en:Kilik Pass, Kilik Pass , {{coord, 37.0792, 74.6722 , 4827m , {{flagdeco, PAK-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , :zh:瓦根基达坂, 瓦根基达坂 , :en:Wakhjir Pass, Wakhjir Pass , {{coord, 37.098, 74.4848 , 4837 m , {{flagdeco, AFG-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , Kara Jilga Pass , Kara Jilga Pass , {{coord, 37.2545, 74.6147 , 5386m , {{flagdeco, AFG-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , 麦曼约里达坂 , Mihman Yoli Pass , {{coord, 37.28395, 74.7328 , 4937m , {{flagdeco, AFG-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , 托克满苏山口 , :en:Tegermansu Pass, Tegermansu Pass , {{coord, 37.2236, 74.8744 , 5427m , {{flagdeco, AFG-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , 克克敖吊克达坂
别伊克山口
排依克山口 , :en:Beyik Pass, Beyik Pass , {{coord, 37.3, 75.0 , 4742m , {{flagdeco, TJK-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , 纳兹塔什山口
奈扎塔什山隘 , :en:Nezatash Pass, Nezatash Pass , {{coord, 37.58944, 74.93611 , 4476m , {{flagdeco, TJK-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , :sv: Aghbai Agachak, Agachak Pass , :sv: Aghbai Agachak, Agachak Pass , {{coord, 37.82115, 74.94492 , 5127m , {{flagdeco, TJK-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , :zh:卡拉苏口岸, 卡拉苏口岸
:zh:阔勒买口岸, 阔勒买口岸 , :en:Kulma Pass, Kulma Pass , {{coord, 38.1498, 74.8038 , 4362m , {{flagdeco, TJK-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , :sv: Aghbai Saritosh, Saritosh Pass , :sv: Aghbai Saritosh, Saritosh Pass , {{coord, 38.27694, 74.80111 , 4538m , {{flagdeco, TJK-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , :sv: Aghbai Qaratokhterak, Qaratokhterak Pass , :sv: Aghbai Qaratokhterak, Qaratokhterak Pass , {{coord, 38.42833, 74.86722 , 4877m , {{flagdeco, TJK-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , :sv: Aghbai Aromiti, Aromiti Pass , :sv: Aghbai Aromiti, Aromiti Pass , {{coord, 38.62833, 74.48472 , 4703m , {{flagdeco, TJK-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , :sv: Aghbai Budabel, Budabel Pass , :sv: Aghbai Budabel, Budabel Pass , {{coord, 38.57556, 74.07222 , 4251m , {{flagdeco, TJK-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , :sv: Pereval Kiyaz-Ashu, Kiyaz-Ashu , :sv: Pereval Kiyaz-Ashu, Kiyaz-Ashu , {{coord, 38.53333, 74.0 , 4479m , {{flagdeco, TJK-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , :zh:乌孜别里山口, 乌孜别里山口 , :de: Uzbel-Pass, Uzbel-Pass , {{coord, 38.653806, 73.8023917 , 5540m , {{flagdeco, TJK-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , :sv: Aghbai Qarazoq, Qarazoq Pass , :sv: Aghbai Qarazoq, Qarazoq Pass , {{coord, 38.85, 73.71194 , 5217m , {{flagdeco, TJK-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , :sv: Aghbai Uch-Bel, Uch-Bel Pass , :sv: Aghbai Uch-Bel, Uch-Bel Pass , {{coord, 37.82115, 74.94492 , 5127m , {{flagdeco, TJK-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , :sv: Pereval Togochar, Togochar Pass , :sv: Pereval Togochar, Togochar Pass , {{coord, 39.56447, 73.91435 , 4361m , {{flagdeco, KGZ-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , :sv: Pereval Karachaychaty, Karachaychaty Pass , :sv: Pereval Karachaychaty, Karachaychaty Pass , {{coord, 39.59439, 73.92407 , 4284m , {{flagdeco, KGZ-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , 斯姆哈纳
伊尔克什坦 , :en:Erkeshtam, Erkeshtam , {{coord, 39.7172, 73.9735 , 3005m , {{flagdeco, KGZ-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , :sv: Pereval Karachaychaty, Kashetek Pass , :sv: Pereval Karachaychaty, Kashetek Pass , {{coord, 39.72847, 73.91437 , 3120m , {{flagdeco, KGZ-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , :sv: Pereval Bezymyannyy, Bezymyannyy Pass , :sv: Pereval Bezymyannyy, Bezymyannyy Pass , {{coord, 39.74686, 73.89173 , 3306m , {{flagdeco, KGZ-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , :sv: Pereval Tupik, Tupik Pass , :sv: Pereval Tupik, Tupik Pass , {{coord, 39.74583, 73.88416 , 3299m , {{flagdeco, KGZ-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , :sv: Pereval Vorota (bergspass i Kina), Vorota Pass , :sv: Pereval Vorota (bergspass i Kina), Vorota Pass , {{coord, 39.75665, 73.86167 , 3604m , {{flagdeco, KGZ-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , :sv: Pereval Il'tyk, Il'tyk Pass , :sv: Pereval Il'tyk, Il'tyk Pass , {{coord, 39.7647, 73.8388 , 3836m , {{flagdeco, KGZ-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , :sv: Pereval Kara-Bel' (bergspass i Kina), Kara-Bel' Pass , :sv: Pereval Kara-Bel' (bergspass i Kina), Kara-Bel' Pass , {{coord, 39.8652, 73.89535 , 3863m , {{flagdeco, KGZ-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , :sv: Pereval Ityk, Ityk Pass , :sv: Pereval Ityk, Ityk Pass , {{coord, 39.9114, 73.91068 , 4133m , {{flagdeco, KGZ-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , :sv: Pereval Dungurama, Dungurama Pass , :sv: Pereval Dungurama, Dungurama Pass , {{coord, 40.01417, 73.96673 , 4067m , {{flagdeco, KGZ-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , :sv: Pereval Karachalsu, Karachalsu Pass , :sv: Pereval Karachalsu, Karachalsu Pass , {{coord, 40.04483, 73.97866 , 4201m , {{flagdeco, KGZ-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , :sv: Pereval Muzbel' (bergspass i Kina), Muzbel' Pass , :sv: Pereval Muzbel' (bergspass i Kina), Muzbel' Pass , {{coord, 40.08405, 74.01892 , 4507m , {{flagdeco, KGZ-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , :sv: Pereval Achiktash, Achiktash Pass , :sv: Pereval Achiktash, Achiktash Pass , {{coord, 40.0807, 74.0658 , 4191m , {{flagdeco, KGZ-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , :sv: Pereval Kyz-Dar, Kyz-Dar Pass , :sv: Pereval Kyz-Dar, Kyz-Dar Pass , {{coord, 40.10652, 74.11892 , 4246m , {{flagdeco, KGZ-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , :sv: Pereval Kurumdu, Kurumdu Pass , :sv: Pereval Kurumdu, Kurumdu Pass , {{coord, 40.11038, 74.1286 , 4369m , {{flagdeco, KGZ-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , :sv: Pereval Tart-Kul', Tart-Kul' Pass , :sv: Pereval Tart-Kul', Tart-Kul' Pass , {{coord, 40.1134 , 74.2698 , 3786m , {{flagdeco, KGZ-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , :sv: Pereval Shuralu-Davan, Shuralu-Davan Pass , :sv: Pereval Shuralu-Davan, Shuralu-Davan Pass , {{coord, 40.26928, 74.58181 , 3875m , {{flagdeco, KGZ-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , :sv: Pereval Tata, Tata Pass , :sv: Pereval Tata, Tata Pass , {{coord, 40.1359, 74.4161 , 4036m , {{flagdeco, KGZ-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , :sv: Pereval Sulyuktur, Sulyuktur Pass , :sv: Pereval Sulyuktur, Sulyuktur Pass , {{coord, 40.08974, 74.09467 , 4086m , {{flagdeco, KGZ-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , :sv: Pereval Talgyy, Talgyy Pass , :sv: Pereval Talgyy, Talgyy Pass , {{coord, 40.21973, 74.5368 , 3672m , {{flagdeco, KGZ-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , :sv: Pereval Kalmak-Ashu (bergspass i Kina), Kalmak-Ashu Pass , :sv: Pereval Kalmak-Ashu (bergspass i Kina), Kalmak-Ashu Pass , {{coord, 40.28128, 74.61626 , 3581m , {{flagdeco, KGZ-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , :sv: Pereval Tuz-Ashu (bergspass i Kina), Tuz-Ashu Pass , :sv: Pereval Tuz-Ashu (bergspass i Kina), Tuz-Ashu Pass , {{coord, 40.27238, 74.6524 , 3625m , {{flagdeco, KGZ-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , :sv: Pereval Dzhetimashu, Dzhetimashu Pass , :sv: Pereval Dzhetimashu, Dzhetimashu Pass , {{coord, 40.42097, 74.81503 , 3838m , {{flagdeco, KGZ-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , 苏约克山口 , :sv: Pereval Borgun, Borgun Pass , {{coord, 40.46778, 74.81406 , 3945m , {{flagdeco, KGZ-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , 吐尔尕特山口 , :en:Torugart Pass, Torugart Pass , {{coord, 40.5517, 75.3939 , 3752m , {{flagdeco, KGZ-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , :sv: Pereval Uselek, Uselek Pass , :sv: Pereval Uselek, Uselek Pass , {{coord, 40.63374, 75.5207 , 3638m , {{flagdeco, KGZ-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , :sv: Pereval Chokolay, Chokolay Pass , :sv: Pereval Chokolay, Chokolay Pass , {{coord, 40.59985, 75.62223 , 3841m , {{flagdeco, KGZ-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , :sv: Pereval Saryiymek, Saryiymek Pass , :sv: Pereval Saryiymek, Saryiymek Pass , {{coord, 40.47055, 75.72222 , 3820m , {{flagdeco, KGZ-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , :sv: Pereval Ortosu, Ortosu Pass , :sv: Pereval Ortosu, Ortosu Pass , {{coord, 40.3261, 75.82059 , 3903m , {{flagdeco, KGZ-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , :sv: Pereval Terekty, Terekty Pass , :sv: Pereval Terekty, Terekty Pass , {{coord, 40.30978, 75.85505 , 3908m , {{flagdeco, KGZ-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , :sv: Pereval Kurpe-Bel', Kurpe-Bel' Pass , :sv: Pereval Kurpe-Bel', Kurpe-Bel' Pass , {{coord, 40.37611, 75.96578 , 3667m , {{flagdeco, KGZ-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , :sv: Pereval Buzaygyr, Buzaygyr Pass , :sv: Pereval Buzaygyr, Buzaygyr Pass , {{coord, 40.36648, 76.00256 , 3783m , {{flagdeco, KGZ-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , :sv: Pereval Khodzhent, Khodzhent Pass , :sv: Pereval Khodzhent, Khodzhent Pass , {{coord, 40.41093, 76.282 , 3955m , {{flagdeco, KGZ-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , :sv: Pereval Yerteke, Yerteke Pass , :sv: Pereval Yerteke, Yerteke Pass , {{coord, 40.34612, 76.33113 , 3780m , {{flagdeco, KGZ-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , :sv: Pereval Tuyukkhodzhent, Tuyukkhodzhent Pass , :sv: Pereval Tuyukkhodzhent, Tuyukkhodzhent Pass , {{coord, 40.38185, 76.36949 , 3780m , {{flagdeco, KGZ-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , :sv: Pereval Kurumduk, Kurumduk Pass , :sv: Pereval Kurumduk, Kurumduk Pass , {{coord, 40.41196, 76.45904 , 3822m , {{flagdeco, KGZ-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , :sv: Pereval Karabel' Pervyy, Karabel' Pervyy Pass , :sv: Pereval Karabel' Pervyy, Karabel' Pervyy Pass , {{coord, 40.42914, 76.50312 , 4091m , {{flagdeco, KGZ-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , :sv: Pereval Karabel' Vtoroy, Karabel' Vtoroy Pass , :sv: Pereval Karabel' Vtoroy, Karabel' Vtoroy Pass , {{coord, 40.47805, 76.53704 , 4083m , {{flagdeco, KGZ-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , :sv: Pereval Aksaybel', Aksaybel' Pass , :sv: Pereval Aksaybel', Aksaybel' Pass , {{coord, 40.56114, 76.56965 , 4186m , {{flagdeco, KGZ-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , :sv: Pereval Tuyukbel', Tuyukbel' Pass , :sv: Pereval Tuyukbel', Tuyukbel' Pass , {{coord, 40.64156, 76.6497 , 4091m , {{flagdeco, KGZ-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , :zh:别迭里山口, 别迭里山口 , :en:Bedel Pass, Bedel Pass , {{coord, 41.4114, 78.4131 , 4284m , {{flagdeco, KGZ-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , :sv: Pereval Chonteren, Chonteren Pass , :sv: Pereval Chonteren, Chonteren Pass , {{coord, 42.04934, 80.21078 , 5331m , {{flagdeco, KGZ-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , :sv: Pereval Bysokiy, Bysokiy Pass , :sv: Pereval Bysokiy, Bysokiy Pass , {{coord, 42.07022, 80.21003 , 5435m , {{flagdeco, KGZ-{{flagdeco, PRC , - , :zh:阿拉山口市, 阿拉山口市 , :en:Alashankou, Alashankou , {{coord, 45.2, 82.6 , 291m , {{flagdeco, KAZ-{{flagdeco, PRC Border


Geology

Xinjiang is geologically young. Collision of the Indian and the Eurasian plates formed the
Tian Shan The Tian Shan,, dng, Тянсан, ; otk, 𐰴𐰣 𐱅𐰭𐰼𐰃, ; tr, Tanrı Dağı; mn, Тэнгэр уул, ; ug, تەڭرىتاغ, , ; kk, Тәңіртауы / Алатау, , ; ky, Теңир-Тоо / Ала-Тоо, , ; uz, Tyan-S ...

Tian Shan
, Kunlun Shan, and Pamir Mountains, Pamir mountain ranges; said tectonics render it a very active earthquake zone. Older geological formations are located in the far north, where the Junggar Block is geologically part of
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan ( kk, Қазақстан, Qazaqstan; russian: Казахстан, Kazakhstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan,; russian: Республика Казахстан, Respublika Kazakhstan, link=no) is a country located mainly in ...

Kazakhstan
, and in the east, where is part of the North China Craton.{{citation needed, date=April 2020


Center of the continent

Xinjiang has within its borders, in the Dzoosotoyn Elisen Desert, the location in Eurasia that is furthest from the sea in any direction (a continental pole of inaccessibility): {{coord, 46, 16.8, N, 86, 40.2, E, type:landmark, name=Eurasian pole of inaccessibility. It is at least {{convert, 1645, mi, km, abbr=on, order=flip (straight-line distance) from any coastline. In 1992, local geographers determined another point within Xinjiang{{spaced ndash{{coord, 43, 40, 52, N, 87, 19, 52, E in the southwestern suburbs of Ürümqi, Ürümqi County{{spaced ndashto be the "center point of Asia". A Geographical Center of Asian Continent, monument to this effect was then erected there and the site has become a local tourist attraction.


Rivers and lakes

Having hot summer and low precipitation, most of Xinjiang is endorheic. Its rivers either disappear in the desert, or terminate in salt lakes (within Xinjiang itself, or in neighboring Kazakhstan), instead of running towards an ocean. The northernmost part of the region, with the Irtysh River rising in the Altai Mountains, that flows (via Kazakhstan and Russia) toward the Arctic Ocean, is the only exception. But even so, a significant part of the Irtysh's waters were artificially diverted via the Irtysh–Karamay–Ürümqi Canal to the drier regions of southern Dzungarian Basin. Elsewhere, most of Xinjiang's rivers are comparatively short streams fed by the snows of the several ranges of the Tian Shan. Once they enter the populated areas in the mountains' foothills, their waters are extensively used for irrigation, so that the river often disappears in the desert instead of reaching the lake to whose basin it nominally belongs. This is the case even with the main river of the
Tarim Basin The Tarim Basin is an endorheic basin in Northwest China occupying an area of about and one of the largest basins in Northwest China.Chen, Yaning, et al. "Regional climate change and its effects on river runoff in the Tarim Basin, China." Hydr ...
, the Tarim River, Tarim, which has been dammed at a number of locations along its course, and whose waters have been completely diverted before they can reach the Lop Lake. In the Dzungarian basin, a similar situation occurs with most rivers that historically flowed into Lake Manas. Some of the salt lakes, having lost much of their fresh water inflow, are now extensively use for the production of mineral salts (used e.g., in the manufacturing of potassium fertilizers); this includes the Lop Lake and the Manas Lake.


Time

{{main, Xinjiang Time, Time in China#Xinjiang Xinjiang is in the same time zone as the rest of China, Beijing time, UTC+8. But while Xinjiang being about two time zones west of Beijing, some residents, local organizations and governments watch another time standard known as Xinjiang Time, UTC+6. Han people tend to use Beijing Time, while Uyghurs tend to use Xinjiang Time as a form of resistance to Beijing.{{cite journal , last=Han , first=Enze , title=Boundaries, Discrimination, and Interethnic Conflict in Xinjiang, China , journal=International Journal of Conflict and Violence , volume=4 , issue=2 , year=2010 , page=251 , url=http://www.ijcv.org/index.php/ijcv/article/download/77/196 , access-date=14 December 2012 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20141019103838/http://www.ijcv.org/index.php/ijcv/article/download/77/196 , archive-date=19 October 2014 , url-status=live But, regardless of the time standard preferences, most businesses, schools open and close two hours later than in the other regions of China.


Deserts

Deserts include: * Gurbantünggüt Desert, also known as ''Dzoosotoyn Elisen'' *
Taklamakan Desert The Taklamakan Desert (; zh, s=, p=Tǎkèlāmǎgān Shāmò, Xiao'erjing: , dng, Такәламаган Шамә; ug, تەكلىماكان قۇملۇقى; also spelled Taklimakan and Teklimakan) is a desert upright=1.5, alt=see captio ...

Taklamakan Desert
* Kumtag Desert, east of Taklamakan


Major cities

Due to water scarcity, most of Xinjiang's population lives within fairly narrow belts that are stretched along the foothills of the region's mountain ranges in areas conducive to irrigated agriculture. It is in these belts where most of the region's cities are found. * Ürümqi *
Turpan Turpan (also known as Turfan or Tulufan, ug, تۇرپان) is a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.jpg, A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply "Huangshi" (). This is a useful distinc ...

Turpan
* Kashgar * Karamay * Ghulja * Shihezi * Hotan * Atush * Aksu, Xinjiang, Aksu * Korla


Climate

A semiarid or desert climate (Köppen climate classification, Köppen ''BSk'' or ''BWk'', respectively) prevails in Xinjiang. The entire region has great seasonal differences in temperature with cold winters. The
Turpan Depression The Turpan Depression or Turfan Depression, is a fault (geology), fault-bounded trough located around and south of the city-oasis of Turpan, in the Xinjiang, Xinjiang Autonomous Region in far Western China, about southeast of the regional capita ...
recorded the hottest temperatures nationwide in summer, with air temperatures easily exceeding {{convert, 40, °C. Winter temperatures regularly fall below {{convert, −20, °C in the far north and highest mountain elevations. Continuous permafrost is typically found in the Tian Shan starting at the elevation of about 3,500–3,700 m above sea level. Discontinuous alpine permafrost usually occurs down to 2,700–3,300 m, but in certain locations, due to the peculiarity of the Aspect (geography), aspect and the microclimate, it can be found at elevations as low as 2,000 m.


Politics

{{Further, List of current Chinese provincial leaders ; Secretaries of the Chinese Communist Party, CCP Xinjiang Committee # 1949–1952 Wang Zhen (general), Wang Zhen ({{lang, zh-hans, 王震) # 1952–1967 Wang Enmao ({{lang, zh-hans, 王恩茂) # 1970–1972 Long Shujin ({{lang, zh-hans, 龙书金) # 1972–1978
Saifuddin Azizi Saifuddin Azizi ( ug, سەيپىدىن ئەزىزى; March 12, 1915 – November 24, 2003), also known as Seypidin Azizi, Saif al-Dīn ʿAzīz, Saifuding Aizezi and Saifuding, was the first chairman of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region X ...

Saifuddin Azizi
({{lang, zh-hans, 赛福鼎·艾则孜; {{lang, ug, سەيپىدىن ئەزىزى) # 1978–1981 Wang Feng (politician), Wang Feng ({{lang, zh-hans, 汪锋) # 1981–1985 Wang Enmao ({{lang, zh-hans, 王恩茂) # 1985–1994 Song Hanliang ({{lang, zh-hans, 宋汉良) # 1994–2010 Wang Lequan ({{lang, zh-hans, 王乐泉) # 2010–2016 Zhang Chunxian ({{lang, zh-hans, 张春贤) # 2016–{{small, present Chen Quanguo ({{lang, zh-hans, 陈全国) ; Chairmen of the Xinjiang Government # 1949–1955 Burhan Shahidi (包尔汉·沙希迪; {{lang, ug, بۇرھان شەھىدى) # 1955–1967
Saifuddin Azizi Saifuddin Azizi ( ug, سەيپىدىن ئەزىزى; March 12, 1915 – November 24, 2003), also known as Seypidin Azizi, Saif al-Dīn ʿAzīz, Saifuding Aizezi and Saifuding, was the first chairman of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region X ...

Saifuddin Azizi
({{lang, zh-hans, 赛福鼎·艾则孜; {{lang, ug, سەيپىدىن ئەزىزى) # 1968–1972 Long Shujin ({{lang, zh-hans, 龙书金) # 1972–1978
Saifuddin Azizi Saifuddin Azizi ( ug, سەيپىدىن ئەزىزى; March 12, 1915 – November 24, 2003), also known as Seypidin Azizi, Saif al-Dīn ʿAzīz, Saifuding Aizezi and Saifuding, was the first chairman of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region X ...

Saifuddin Azizi
({{lang, zh-hans, 赛福鼎·艾则孜; {{lang, ug, سەيپىدىن ئەزىزى) # 1978–1979 Wang Feng (politician), Wang Feng ({{lang, zh-hans, 汪锋) # 1979–1985 Ismail Amat ({{lang, zh-hans, 司马义·艾买提; {{lang, ug, ئىسمائىل ئەھمەد) # 1985–1993 Tömür Dawamat ({{lang, zh-hans, 铁木尔·达瓦买提; {{lang, ug, تۆمۈر داۋامەت) # 1993–2003 Abdul'ahat Abdulrixit ({{lang, zh-hans, 阿不来提·阿不都热西提; {{lang, ug, ئابلەت ئابدۇرىشىت) # 2003–2007 Ismail Tiliwaldi ({{lang, zh-hans, 司马义·铁力瓦尔地; {{lang, ug, ئىسمائىل تىلىۋالدى) # 2007–2015 Nur Bekri ({{lang, zh-hans, 努尔·白克力; {{lang, ug, نۇر بەكرى) # 2015–2021 Shohrat Zakir ({{lang, zh-hans, 雪克来提·扎克尔; {{lang, ug, شۆھرەت زاكىر) # 2021-{{small, present Erkin Tuniyaz({{lang, zh-hans, 艾尔肯·吐尼亚孜; {{lang, ug, ئەركىن تۇنىياز)


Human rights

{{Main, Human rights in China, Xinjiang internment camps, Uyghur genocide {{See also, Law of the People's Republic of China Human Rights Watch has documented ''the denial of due legal process and fair trials and failure to hold genuinely open trials as mandated by law'' e.g. to suspects arrested following ethnic violence in the city of Ürümqi's 2009 riots. According to the Radio Free Asia and Human Rights Watch, at least 120,000 members of Kashgar's Islam in China, Muslim Uyghur minority have been detained in Xinjiang re-education camps, Xinjiang's re-education camps, aimed at changing the political thinking of detainees, their identities and their religious beliefs.{{cite news, url=https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/jan/25/at-least-120000-muslim-uighurs-held-in-chinese-re-education-camps-report, title=China 'holding at least 120,000 Uighurs in re-education camps', date=25 January 2018, work=The Guardian, access-date=4 August 2018, url-status=live, archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180819010931/https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/jan/25/at-least-120000-muslim-uighurs-held-in-chinese-re-education-camps-report, archive-date=19 August 2018{{cite web, url=https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/asia_pacific/former-inmates-of-chinas-muslim-re-education-camps-tell-of-brainwashing-torture/2018/05/16/32b330e8-5850-11e8-8b92-45fdd7aaef3c_story.html, title=Former inmates of China's Muslim 'reeducation' camps tell of brainwashing, torture, date=16 May 2018, work=The Washington Post, url-status=live, archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180921174130/https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/asia_pacific/former-inmates-of-chinas-muslim-re-education-camps-tell-of-brainwashing-torture/2018/05/16/32b330e8-5850-11e8-8b92-45fdd7aaef3c_story.html, archive-date=21 September 2018, access-date=4 August 2018{{cite web, url=https://www.hrw.org/news/2017/09/10/china-free-xinjiang-political-education-detainees, title=China: Free Xinjiang 'Political Education' Detainees, date=10 September 2017, publisher=Human Rights Watch, url-status=live, archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20181025174023/https://www.hrw.org/news/2017/09/10/china-free-xinjiang-political-education-detainees, archive-date=25 October 2018, access-date=5 August 2018 Reports from the World Uyghur Congress submitted to the United Nations in July 2018 suggest that 1 million Uyghurs are currently being held in the re-education camps. The camps were established under CCP General Secretary Xi Jinping Core Administration, Xi Jinping's administration. An October 2018 Exposé (journalism), exposé by the BBC News claimed based on analysis of satellite imagery collected over time that hundreds of thousands of Uyghurs must be interned in the camps, and they are rapidly being expanded. In 2019, ''The Art Newspaper'' reported that "hundreds" of writers, artists, and academics had been imprisoned, in what the magazine qualified as an attempt to "punish any form of religious or cultural expression" among Uighurs. In July 2019, 22 countries—Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Japan, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the UK—sent a letter to the UN Human Rights Council, criticizing China for its mass arbitrary detentions and other violations against Muslims in China's Xinjiang region. However, on 12 July, a group of 37 countries submitted a similar letter in defense of China's policies: Algeria, Angola, Bahrain, Belarus, Bolivia, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Comoros, Congo, Cuba, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Eritrea, Gabon, Kuwait, Laos, Myanmar, Nigeria, North Korea, Oman, Pakistan, Philippines, Qatar, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syria, Tajikistan, Togo, Turkmenistan, United Arab Emirates, Venezuela, and Zimbabwe. However, in August 2019, Qatar withdrew its signature for 12 July letter, with Qatari Ambassador to the UN Ali Al-Mansouri quoted as: "co-authorizing the aforementioned letter would compromise our foreign policy key priorities". On 28 June 2020, The Associated Press published an investigative report which states that the Chinese government is taking draconian measures to slash birth rates among Uighurs and other minorities as part of a sweeping campaign to curb its Muslim population, even as it encourages some of the country's Han majority to have more children.{{Cite news , last=AP's global investigative team , date=28 June 2020 , title=China cuts Uighur births with IUDs, abortion, sterilization , work=The Associated Press , url=https://apnews.com/269b3de1af34e17c1941a514f78d764c , access-date=1 August 2020 While individual women have spoken out before about forced birth control, the practice is far more widespread and systematic than previously known, according to an AP investigation based on government statistics, state documents and interviews with 30 ex-detainees, family members and a former detention camp instructor. The campaign over the past four years in the far west region of Xinjiang is leading to what some experts are calling a form of "demographic genocide." On 28 July 2020, a coalition of over 180 organizations called out dozens of clothing brands and retailers to re-examine and cut any ties they might have to Xinjiang region, where allegations of human rights violations have run rampant for years. The coalition cited "credible investigations and reports" by media outlets, nonprofit groups, government agencies and think tanks to support its claims. In September 2020, the state-run Xinhua News Agency reported Xi Jinping's position as the following: "practice has proved that the party's strategy for governing Xinjiang in the new era is completely correct and must be adhered to for a long time." In February 2021, the Dutch government passed a motion stating that the treatment of the Uighur Muslim minority in China amounts to genocide


Economy

{{Update, date=March 2019 {, class="wikitable" align="right" , -bgcolor=eeeeee ! align=center colspan=2 , Development of GDP , ---- , -bgcolor=eeeeee , Year , align="right" , GDP in billions of Yuan , ---- , 1995 , align="right" , 82 , ---- , 2000 , align="right" , 136 , ---- , 2005 , align="right" , 260 , ---- , 2010 , align="right" , 544 , ---- , 2015 , align="right" , 932 , ---- , 2020 , align="right" , 1,380 , ---- , colspan=2 , Source:Historical GDP of Provinces {{cite press release , url=https://data.stats.gov.cn/english/easyquery.htm?cn=E0103, title=Home - Regional - Annual by Province, publisher=China NBS, date=31 January 2020, access-date=31 January 2020 Xinjiang has traditionally been an agricultural region, but is also rich in minerals and Petroleum, oil. Nominal GDP was about 932.4 billion Renminbi, RMB (US$140 billion) as of 2015 with an average annual increase of 10.4% for the past four years,{{cite news , url=http://zsyz.sei.gov.cn/ShowArticle.asp?ArticleID=263642 , title=Bulletin for the economy and society development in 2015 , access-date=6 May 2010 {{Dead link, date=May 2020 , bot=InternetArchiveBot , fix-attempted=yes due to discovery of the abundant reserves of coal, oil, gas as well as the China Western Development policy introduced by the State Council to boost economic development in Western China.{{Cite web , url=http://thechinaperspective.com/topics/province/xinjiang-province/ , title=Xinjiang Province: Economic News and Statistics for Xinjiang's Economy , access-date=22 October 2011 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20111008045314/http://thechinaperspective.com/topics/province/xinjiang-province/ , archive-date=8 October 2011 , url-status=live Its List of Chinese administrative divisions by GDP per capita, per capita GDP for 2009 was 19,798 RMB (US$2,898), with a growth rate of 1.7%. Southern Xinjiang, with 95% non-Han population, has an average per capita income half that of Xinjiang as a whole.{{sfnp, Millward , 2007 , p=305 In July 2010, ''China Daily'' reported that:
Local governments in China's 19 Provinces of China, provinces and Direct-controlled municipality#People's Republic of China, municipalities, including Beijing, Shanghai, Guangdong, Zhejiang and Liaoning, are engaged in the commitment of "pairing assistance" support projects in Xinjiang to promote the development of agriculture, industry, technology, education and health services in the region.{{cite news , url=http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2010-07/05/content_10058467.htm , title=Efforts to boost 'leapfrog development' in Xinjiang , publisher=China Daily{{\Xinhua , date=5 July 2010 , access-date=14 July 2010 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100723193952/http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2010-07/05/content_10058467.htm , archive-date=23 July 2010 , url-status=live
Xinjiang is a major producer of solar panel components due to its large production of the base material polysilicon. In 2020 45% of global production of solar-grade polysilicon occurred in Xinjiang. Concerns have been raised both within the solar industry and outside it that forced labor may occur in the Xinjiang part of the supply chain. The global solar panel industry are under pressure to move sourcing away from the region due to human rights and liability concerns. China's solar association claimed the allegations were baseless and unfairly stigmatized firms with operations there. A 2021 investigation in the United Kingdom (UK) found that 40% of solar farms in the UK had been built using panels from Chinese companies linked to forced labor in Xinjiang.


Agriculture and fishing

Main area is of irrigated agriculture. By 2015, the agricultural land area of the region is 631 thousand km2 or 63.1 million ha, of which 6.1 million ha is arable land. In 2016, the total cultivated land rose to 6.2 million ha, with the crop production reaching 15.1 million tons. Wheat was the main staple crop of the region, maize grown as well, millet found in the south, while only a few areas (in particular, Aksu, Xinjiang, Aksu) grew rice.{{sfnp, Bellér-Hann, 2008, pp=112–113 Cotton became an important crop in several oases, notably
Khotan Hotan (also known as Gosthana, Gaustana, Godana, Godaniya, Khotan, Hetian, Hotien) is a major oasis town in southwestern Xinjiang, an Autonomous regions of China, autonomous region in Western China. The city proper of Hotan broke off from the ...

Khotan
, Yarkant County, Yarkand and
Turpan Turpan (also known as Turfan or Tulufan, ug, تۇرپان) is a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.jpg, A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply "Huangshi" (). This is a useful distinc ...

Turpan
by the late 19th century.{{sfnp, Bellér-Hann, 2008, pp=112–113 Sericulture is also practiced.{{sfnp, Bellér-Hann, 2008, p=152 The Xinjiang cotton industry is the world's largest cotton exporter, producing 84% of Chinese cotton while the country provides 26% of global cotton export.{{Cite news , last1=Caster , first1=Michael , title=It's time to boycott any company doing business in Xinjiang , work=The Guardian , date=27 October 2019 , url=https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/oct/27/its-time-to-boycott-any-company-doing-business-in-xinjiang , language=en-GB , issn=0261-3077 , access-date=27 November 2019 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20191127183339/https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/oct/27/its-time-to-boycott-any-company-doing-business-in-xinjiang , archive-date=27 November 2019 , url-status=live Xinjiang also produces Capsicum, peppers and pepper pigments used in cosmetics such lipstick for export. Xinjiang is famous for its grapes, melons, pears, walnuts, particularly Hami melons and
Turpan Turpan (also known as Turfan or Tulufan, ug, تۇرپان) is a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.jpg, A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply "Huangshi" (). This is a useful distinc ...

Turpan
raisins.{{Citation needed, date=November 2019 The region is also a leading source for tomato paste, which it supplies for international brands.{{r, Guardian boycott The main livestock of the region have traditionally been sheep. Much of the region's pasture land is in its northern part, where more precipitation is available,{{sfnp, Bellér-Hann, 2008, p=37 but there are mountain pastures throughout the region.{{Cn, date=October 2021 Due to the lack of access to the ocean and limited amount of inland water, Xinjiang's fish resources are somewhat limited. Nonetheless, there is a significant amount of fishing in Lake Ulungur and Lake Bosten and in the Irtysh River. A large number of fish ponds have been constructed since the 1970s, their total surface exceeding 10,000 hectares by the 1990s. In 2000, the total of 58,835 tons of fish was produced in Xinjiang, 85% of which came from aquaculture in China, aquaculture. The Sayram Lake is both the largest alpine lake and highest altitude lake in Xinjiang, and is the location of a major cold-water fishery.{{Citation needed, date=October 2021 Originally Sayram had no fish but in 1998, Peled (fish), northern whitefish (Coregonus peled) from Russia were introduced and investment in breeding infrastructure and technology has consequently made Sayram into the country's largest exporter of northern whitefish with an annual output of over 400 metric tons.{{Better source needed, date=October 2021


Mining and minerals

Xinjiang was known for producing salt, Sodium, soda, borax, gold,
jade Jade is a mineral, much used in some cultures as jewellery and for ornaments, mostly known for its green varieties, though it appears naturally in other colors as well, notably yellow and white. Jade can refer to either of two different silicat ...

jade
in the 19th century.{{sfnp, Mesny , 1899 , p=386 The Lop Nur, Lop Lake was once a large brackish lake during the end of the Pleistocene but has slowly dried up in the Holocene where average annual precipitation in the area has declined to just 31.2 millimeters (1.2 inches), and experiences annual evaporation rate of 2,901 millimeters (114 inches). The area is rich in brine Potash, a key ingredient in fertilizer and is the second-largest source of potash in the country. Discovery of potash in the mid-1990s, has transformed Lop Nur into a major Potash mining industry. The oil and natural gas, gas extraction industry in Aksu City, Aksu and Karamay is growing, with the West–East Gas Pipeline linking to Shanghai. The oil and petrochemical sector get up to 60 percent of Xinjiang's economy. The region contains over a fifth of China's hydrocarbon resources and has the highest concentration of fossil fuel reserves of any region in the country. The region is rich in coal and contains 40 percent of the country's coal reserves or around 2.2 trillion tonnes, which is enough to supply China's thermal coal demand for more than 100 years even if only 15 percent of the estimated coal reserve prove recoverable. Tarim Basin, Tarim basin is the largest oil and gas bearing area in the country with about 16 billion tonnes of oil and gas reserves discovered. The area is still actively explored and in 2021, China National Petroleum Corporation found a new oil field reserve of 1 billion tons (about 907 million tonnes). That find is regarded as being the largest one in recent decades. As of 2021, the basin produces hydrocarbons at an annual rate of 2 million tons, up from 1.52 million tons from 2020.


Foreign trade

Xinjiang's exports amounted to US$19.3 billion, while imports turned out to be US$2.9 billion in 2008. Most of the overall import/export volume in Xinjiang was directed to and from
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan ( kk, Қазақстан, Qazaqstan; russian: Казахстан, Kazakhstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan,; russian: Республика Казахстан, Respublika Kazakhstan, link=no) is a country located mainly in ...

Kazakhstan
through Ala Pass. China's first border free trade zone (Horgos Free Trade Zone) was located at the Xinjiang-Kazakhstan border city of Horgos. Horgos is the largest "land port" in China's western region and it has easy access to the Central Asian market. Xinjiang also opened its second border trade market to Kazakhstan in March 2006, the Jeminay Border Trade Zone.


Economic and Technological Development Zones

{{see also, List of Chinese administrative divisions by GDP per capita * Bole Border Economic Cooperation Area * Shihezi Border Economic Cooperation Area * Tacheng Border Economic Cooperation Area * Ürümqi Economic & Technological Development Zone is northwest of Ürümqi. It was approved in 1994 by the State Council as a national level economic and technological development zones. It is {{cvt, 1.5, km from the Ürümqi International Airport, {{cvt, 2, km from the North Railway Station and {{cvt, 10, km from the city center. Wu Chang Expressway and 312 National Road passes through the zone. The development has unique resources and geographical advantages. Xinjiang's vast land, rich in resources, borders eight countries. As the leading economic zone, it brings together the resources of Xinjiang's industrial development, capital, technology, information, personnel and other factors of production. * Ürümqi Export Processing Zone is in Urumuqi Economic and Technology Development Zone. It was established in 2007 as a state-level export processing zone. * Ürümqi New & Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone was established in 1992 and it is the only high-tech development zone in Xinjiang, China. There are more than 3470 enterprises in the zone, of which 23 are Fortune 500 companies. It has a planned area of {{convert, 9.8, km2, abbr=on and it is divided into four zones. There are plans to expand the zone. * Yining Border Economic Cooperation Area


Culture

{{Further, Xinjiang cuisine, Major national historical and cultural sites (Xinjiang) {{Expand section, date=December 2020


Media

The Xinjiang Networking Transmission Limited operates the Urumqi People's Broadcasting Station and the Xinjiang People Broadcasting Station, broadcasting in Standard Chinese, Mandarin,
UyghurUyghur may refer to: * Uyghurs, a Turkic ethnic group living in Eastern and Central Asia * Uyghur language, a Turkic language spoken primarily by the Uyghurs ** Uyghur alphabets, any of four systems used to write the language * Uyghur Khaganate, a T ...

Uyghur
, Kazakh language, Kazakh and Mongolian language, Mongolian. {{As of, 1995, alt=In 1995, there were 50 minority-language newspapers published in Xinjiang, including the ''Qapqal News'', the world's only Xibe language newspaper.{{Cite news, title=News Media for Ethnic Minorities in China, date=25 October 1995, access-date=13 April 2009, url=http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P2-17895275.html, periodical=Xinhua News, archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20121025081732/http://www.highbeam.com/Search?searchTerm=News+Media+for+Ethnic+Minorities+in+China&searchType=Article¤tPage=0&orderBy=, archive-date=25 October 2012, url-status=dead The ''Xinjiang Economic Daily'' is considered one of China's most dynamic newspapers. For a time after the July 2009 Ürümqi riots, July 2009 riots, authorities placed restrictions on the internet and text messaging, gradually permitting access to state-controlled websites like ''Xinhua'''s, until restoring Internet to the same level as the rest of China on 14 May 2010. As reported by the BBC News, "China strictly controls media access to Xinjiang so reports are difficult to verify."


Demographics

{{Further, Migration to Xinjiang, Islamization and Turkification of Xinjiang {{Historical populations , title = Historical population , 1912 , 2,098,000 , 1928 , 2,552,000 , 1936–37 , 4,360,000 , 1947 , 4,047,000 , 1954{{cite web , url = http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjgb/rkpcgb/qgrkpcgb/t20020404_16767.htm , script-title=zh:中华人民共和国国家统计局关于第一次全国人口调查登记结果的公报 , publisher=National Bureau of Statistics of China , url-status=dead, archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20090805174810/http://www.stats.gov.cn/TJGB/RKPCGB/qgrkpcgb/t20020404_16767.htm , archive-date=5 August 2009 , 4,873,608 , 1964{{cite web , url = http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjgb/rkpcgb/qgrkpcgb/t20020404_16768.htm , script-title=zh:第二次全国人口普查结果的几项主要统计数字 , publisher=National Bureau of Statistics of China , url-status=dead, archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120914173158/http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjgb/rkpcgb/qgrkpcgb/t20020404_16768.htm , archive-date=14 September 2012 , 7,270,067 , 1982{{cite web , url = http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjgb/rkpcgb/qgrkpcgb/t20020404_16769.htm , script-title=zh:中华人民共和国国家统计局关于一九八二年人口普查主要数字的公报 , publisher=National Bureau of Statistics of China , url-status=dead, archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20120510075429/http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjgb/rkpcgb/qgrkpcgb/t20020404_16769.htm , archive-date=10 May 2012 , 13,081,681 , 1990{{cite web , url = http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjgb/rkpcgb/qgrkpcgb/t20020404_16772.htm , script-title=zh:中华人民共和国国家统计局关于一九九〇年人口普查主要数据的公报 , publisher=National Bureau of Statistics of China , url-status=dead, archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20120619002216/http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjgb/rkpcgb/qgrkpcgb/t20020404_16772.htm , archive-date=19 June 2012 , 15,155,778 , 2000{{cite web , url = http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjgb/rkpcgb/qgrkpcgb/t20020331_15435.htm , script-title=zh:现将2000年第五次全国人口普查快速汇总的人口地区分布数据公布如下 , publisher=National Bureau of Statistics of China , url-status=dead, archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20120829052024/http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjgb/rkpcgb/qgrkpcgb/t20020331_15435.htm , archive-date=29 August 2012 , 18,459,511 , 2010{{cite web , url = http://www.stats.gov.cn/english/newsandcomingevents/t20110429_402722516.htm , title=Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's Republic of China on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census , publisher=National Bureau of Statistics of China , url-status=dead, archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20130727021210/http://www.stats.gov.cn/english/newsandcomingevents/t20110429_402722516.htm , archive-date=27 July 2013 , 21,813,334 , 2020 , 25,852,345 The earliest
Tarim mummies The Tarim mummies are a series of mummies discovered in the Tarim Basin The Tarim Basin is an endorheic basin in Northwest China occupying an area of about and one of the largest basins in Northwest China.Chen, Yaning, et al. "Regional cli ...
, dated to 1800 BC, are of a Caucasoid physical type. East Asian migrants arrived in the eastern portions of the
Tarim Basin The Tarim Basin is an endorheic basin in Northwest China occupying an area of about and one of the largest basins in Northwest China.Chen, Yaning, et al. "Regional climate change and its effects on river runoff in the Tarim Basin, China." Hydr ...
about 3000 years ago and the Uyghur peoples appeared after the collapse of the Orkon Uyghur Kingdom, based in modern-day Mongolia, around 842 AD. The Islamization of Xinjiang started around 1000 AD by eliminating
Buddhism Buddhism (, ) is the Major religious groups#Largest religions, world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists. Buddhism encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and ...
. Xinjiang Muslim Turkic peoples contain
Uyghurs The Uyghurs ( or ; ug, ئۇيغۇرلار, , ; zh, s=, t=, p=Wéiwú'ěr, ), alternatively spelled Uighurs, Uygurs or Uigurs, are a Turkic ethnic group originating from and culturally affiliated with the general region of Central and East Asia ...
, Kazakhs, Kazaks,
KyrgyzKyrgyz, Kirghiz or Kyrgyzstani may refer to: *Things related to Kyrgyzstan *Kyrgyz people *Kyrgyz language *Kyrgyz culture *Kyrgyz cuisine *Yenisei Kirghiz *The Fuyu Kyrgyz language, Fuyü Gïrgïs language in Northeastern China {{Disambig Languag ...

Kyrgyz
, Tatars, Uzbeks; Muslim Iranian peoples comprise Tajiks, Tajiks of Xinjiang, Sarikolis/Wakhi people, Wakhis (often conflated as Tajiks); Muslim Sino-Tibetan languages, Sino-Tibetan peoples are such as the
Hui The Hui people ( zh, c=, p=Huízú, w=Hui2-tsu2, Xiao'erjing Xiao'erjing or Xiao'erjin or Xiaor jin or in its shortened form, Xiaojing, literally meaning "children's script" or "minor script" (cf. "original script" referring to the original ...
. Other list of ethnic groups in China, ethnic groups in the region are Han Chinese, Hans, Mongols (
Oirats Oirats ( mn, Ойрад, ''Oirad'', or , Oird; ; xal-RU, Өөрд; in the past, also Eleuths) are the westernmost group of the Mongolic peoples whose ancestral home is in the Altai region of Siberia Siberia (; rus, Сибирь, r=Sibir' ...
, Daur people, Daurs, Dongxiangs), Russians, Sibe people, Xibes, Manchu people, Manchus. Around 70,000 Russians in China, Russian immigrants were living in Xinjiang in 1945. The
Han Chinese The Han Chinese,
. Huayuqiao.org. Retrieved on 2013-04-26.
Hanzu, or Han peopleGansu Gansu (, ; Chinese postal romanization, alternately romanized as Kansu) is a landlocked provinces of China, province in Northwest China. Its capital and largest city is Lanzhou, in the southeast part of the province. The seventh-largest administ ...

Gansu
and
Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, exonym for a historical and geographic region of Russia and China in Northeast Asia (mostly in Northeast China today). Its extent may vary depending on the context: * Modern geographical region: ** (most ofte ...

Manchuria
; descendants of merchants from Shanxi, Tianjin, Hubei and Hunan; and descendants of peasants who started immigrating into the region in 1776.{{sfnp, Bellér-Hann, 2008, pp=51–52 Some Uyghur scholars claim descent from both the Turkic Uyghurs and the pre-Turkic
Tocharians The Tocharians, or Tokharians ( US: or ; UK: ), were speakers of Tocharian languages The Tocharian (sometimes Tokharian) languages ( or ), also known as ''Arśi-Kuči'', Agnean-Kuchean or Kuchean-Agnean, are an extinct branch of the Indo-Eur ...
(or Tokharians, whose language was
Indo-European The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages have a writing ...
); also, Uyghurs often have relatively-fair skin, hair and eyes and other Caucasoid physical traits. In 2002, there were 9,632,600 males (growth rate of 1.0%) and 9,419,300 females (growth rate of 2.2%). The population overall growth rate was 1.09%, with 1.63% of birth rate and 0.54% mortality rate. The Qing began a migration to Xinjiang, process of settling Han, Hui, and Uyghur settlers into Northern Xinjiang (Dzungaria) in the 18th century. At the start of the 19th century, 40 years after the Qing reconquest, there were around 155,000 Han and Hui Chinese in northern Xinjiang and somewhat more than twice that number of Uyghurs in Southern Xinjiang.{{sfnp, Millward , 2007 , p=306 A census of Xinjiang under Qing rule in the early 19th century tabulated ethnic shares of the population as 30%
Han Han may refer to: Ethnic groups * Han Chinese The Han Chinese,
. Huayuqiao.org. Retrieved on ...
and 60%
Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages ** Turkic alphabets (disambiguation) ** Turkish language, the most widely spoken Turkic language * T ...
and it dramatically shifted to 6% Han and 75% Uyghur in the 1953 census. However, a situation similar to the Qing era's demographics with a large number of Han had been restored by 2000, with 40.57% Han and 45.21% Uyghur.{{cite journal , url = http://www.eastwestcenter.org/fileadmin/stored/pdfs/EWCWwp001.pdf , title = Demographics and Development in Xinjiang after 1949 , first=Stanley , last=Toops , date=May 2004 , page=1 , issue=1 , periodical=East-West Center Washington Working Papers , publisher=East–West Center , access-date=14 November 2010 , archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20070716193518/http://www.eastwestcenter.org/fileadmin/stored/pdfs/EWCWwp001.pdf , archive-date=16 July 2007 , url-status=live Professor Stanley W. Toops noted that today's demographic situation is similar to that of the early Qing period in Xinjiang.{{sfnp, Starr, 2004,
243
} Before 1831, only a few hundred Chinese merchants lived in Southern Xinjiang oases (Tarim Basin), and only a few Uyghurs lived in Northern Xinjiang (
Dzungaria Dzungaria (; also transliterated as Zungaria; Dzungharia or Zungharia; Dzhungaria or Zhungaria; Djungaria or Jungaria; or Songaria) is a geographical subregion in Northwest China that corresponds to the northern half of Xinjiang—hence it ...
).{{sfnp, Millward, 2007, p=104 After 1831, the Qing encouraged Han Chinese migration into the Tarim Basin, in southern Xinjiang, but with very little success, and permanent troops were stationed on the land there as well.{{sfnp, Millward , 2007 , p=105 Political killings and expulsions of non-Uyghur populations during the uprisings in the 1860s{{sfnp, Millward, 2007, p=105 and the 1930s saw them experience a sharp decline as a percentage of the total population{{sfnp, Bellér-Hann, 2008, p=52 though they rose once again in the periods of stability from 1880, which saw Xinjiang increase its population from 1.2 million,{{sfnp, Mesny, 1896, p=272{{sfnp, Mesny , 1899, p=485 to 1949. From a low of 7% in 1953, the Han began to return to Xinjiang between then and 1964, where they comprised 33% of the population (54% Uyghur), like in Qing times. A decade later, at the beginning of the Chinese economic reform in 1978, the demographic balance was 46% Uyghur and 40% Han, which did not change drastically until the 2000 Census, when the Uyghur population had reduced to 42%.{{cite web , url = https://www.hrw.org/backgrounder/asia/china-bck1017.htm , title = China: Human Rights Concerns in Xinjiang , date = October 2001 , work = Human Rights Watch Backgrounder , publisher = Human Rights Watch , access-date = 4 December 2016 , archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20081112153554/http://www.hrw.org/backgrounder/asia/china-bck1017.htm , archive-date = 12 November 2008 , url-status = live In 2010, the population of Xinjiang was 45.84% Uyghur and 40.48% Han. The 2020 Census showed the Uyghur population decline slightly to 44.96%, and the Han population rise to 42.24% Military personnel are not counted and ethnic minorities in China, national minorities are undercounted in the Chinese census, as in most other censuses.{{sfnp, Starr, 2004,
242
} While some of the shift has been attributed to an increased Han presence, Uyghurs have also emigrated to other parts of China, where their numbers have increased steadily. Uyghur independence activists express concern over the Han population changing the Uyghur character of the region though the Han and Hui Chinese mostly live in Northern Xinjiang
Dzungaria Dzungaria (; also transliterated as Zungaria; Dzungharia or Zungharia; Dzhungaria or Zhungaria; Djungaria or Jungaria; or Songaria) is a geographical subregion in Northwest China that corresponds to the northern half of Xinjiang—hence it ...
and are separated from areas of historic Uyghur dominance south of the
Tian Shan The Tian Shan,, dng, Тянсан, ; otk, 𐰴𐰣 𐱅𐰭𐰼𐰃, ; tr, Tanrı Dağı; mn, Тэнгэр уул, ; ug, تەڭرىتاغ, , ; kk, Тәңіртауы / Алатау, , ; ky, Теңир-Тоо / Ала-Тоо, , ; uz, Tyan-S ...

Tian Shan
mountains (Southwestern Xinjiang), where Uyghurs account for about 90% of the population.{{cite book, editor1=Department of Population, Social, Science and Technology Statistics of the National Bureau of Statistics of China (国家统计局人口和社会科技统计司), editor2=Department of Economic Development of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission of China (国家民族事务委员会经济发展司), trans-title=Tabulation on Nationalities of 2000 Population Census of China, language=zh-Hans-CN, script-title=zh:2000年人口普查中国民族人口资料, volume=2 vols, location=Beijing, publisher=Nationalities PublishingHouse, year=2003, isbn=978-7-105-05425-1, oclc=54494505 In general,
Uyghurs The Uyghurs ( or ; ug, ئۇيغۇرلار, , ; zh, s=, t=, p=Wéiwú'ěr, ), alternatively spelled Uighurs, Uygurs or Uigurs, are a Turkic ethnic group originating from and culturally affiliated with the general region of Central and East Asia ...
are the majority in Southwestern Xinjiang, including the prefectures of Kashgar Prefecture, Kashgar, Hotan Prefecture, Khotan, Kizilsu Kirghiz Autonomous Prefecture, Kizilsu and Aksu Prefecture, Aksu (about 80% of Xinjiang's Uyghurs live in those four prefectures) as well as Turpan, Turpan Prefecture, in Eastern Xinjiang. The
Han Han may refer to: Ethnic groups * Han Chinese The Han Chinese,
. Huayuqiao.org. Retrieved on ...
are the majority in Eastern and Northern Xinjiang (Dzungaria), including the cities of Ürümqi, Karamay, Shihezi and the prefectures of Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Changjyi, Börtala Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, Bortala, Bayin'gholin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, Bayin'gholin, Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture, Ili (especially the cities of Kuytun, Kuitun) and Hami, Kumul.
Kazakhs The Kazakhs (also spelled Qazaqs; Kazakh: , , , , , ; the English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medi ...

Kazakhs
are mostly concentrated in Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture, Ili Prefecture in Northern Xinjiang. Kazakhs are the majority in the northernmost part of Xinjiang. {, class="wikitable sortable" style="float:right; text-align:right;" ! colspan="5" style="text-align:center;" , Ethnic groups in Xinjiang , - ! colspan="3" , {{smaller, {{nobold, {{lang, zh-Hans, 根据2015年底人口抽查统计  ! colspan="2" , {{Smaller, 2018 government data , - ! List of ethnic groups in China, Nationality !! Population !! Percentage !Population !Percentage , - , style="text-align:left;" ,
UyghurUyghur may refer to: * Uyghurs, a Turkic ethnic group living in Eastern and Central Asia * Uyghur language, a Turkic language spoken primarily by the Uyghurs ** Uyghur alphabets, any of four systems used to write the language * Uyghur Khaganate, a T ...
, , 11,303,300 , , 46.42% , 11,678,646 , 51.145% , - , style="text-align:left;" ,
Han Han may refer to: Ethnic groups * Han Chinese The Han Chinese,
. Huayuqiao.org. Retrieved on ...
, , 8,611,000 , , 38.99% , 7,857,370 , 34.410% , - , style="text-align:left;" , Kazakhs, Kazakh, , 1,591,200 , , 7.02% , 1,574,930 , 6.897% , - , style="text-align:left;" ,
Hui The Hui people ( zh, c=, p=Huízú, w=Hui2-tsu2, Xiao'erjing Xiao'erjing or Xiao'erjin or Xiaor jin or in its shortened form, Xiaojing, literally meaning "children's script" or "minor script" (cf. "original script" referring to the original ...
, , 1,015,800 , , 4.54% , 1,015,700 , 4.448% , - , style="text-align:left;" , Kyrgyz people, Kirghiz, , 202,200 , , 0.88% , 208,346 , 0.912% , - , style="text-align:left;" , Oirats, Mongols, , 180,600 , , 0.83% , 178,993 , 0.784% , - , style="text-align:left;" , Tajiks of Xinjiang, Tajiks, , 50,100 , , 0.21% , 51,355 , 0.225% , - , style="text-align:left;" , Sibe people, Xibe, , 43,200 , , 0.20% , 42,772 , 0.187% , - , style="text-align:left;" , Manchu people, Manchu, , 27,515 , , 0.11% , 27,372 , 0.120% , - , style="text-align:left;" , Tujia people, Tujia, , 15,787 , , 0.086% , N/A , N/A , - , style="text-align:left;" , Uzbeks, Uzbek, , 18,769 , , 0.066% , 19,652 , 0.086% , - , style="text-align:left;" , Russians in China, Russian, , 11,800 , , 0.048% , 11,604 , 0.051% , - , style="text-align:left;" , Hmong people, Miao, , 7,006 , , 0.038% , N/A , N/A , - , style="text-align:left;" , Daur people, Daur , N/A , N/A , 6,793 , 0.030% , - , style="text-align:left;" , Tibetan people, Tibetan, , 6,153 , , 0.033% , N/A , N/A , - , style="text-align:left;" , Zhuang people, Zhuang, , 5,642 , , 0.031% , N/A , N/A , - , style="text-align:left;" , Chinese Tatars, Tatar, , 5,183 , , 0.024% , 5,019 , 0.022% , - , style="text-align:left;" , Salar people, Salar , , 3,762 , , 0.020% , N/A , N/A , - , style="text-align:left;" , Other , , 129,190, , 0.600% , 156,024 , 0.683% {, class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align:right;" ! style="text-align: center;" colspan="5", Major ethnic groups in Xinjiang by region (2018 data){{efn-ur, Does not include members of the People's Liberation Army in active service.
P = Prefecture; AP = Autonomous prefecture; PLC = Prefecture-level city; DACLC = Directly administered county-level city.{{Cite web, date=2020-06-10, title=, script-title=zh:3-7 各地、州、市、县(市)分民族人口数, trans-title=3-7 Prefectural, Municipal, and County-level Population by Ethnicity, url=http://tjj.xinjiang.gov.cn/tjj/rkjyu/202006/3b1eef1049114b0c9cf9e81bf18433ef.shtml, url-status=dead, archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20201101062133/http://tjj.xinjiang.gov.cn/tjj/rkjyu/202006/3b1eef1049114b0c9cf9e81bf18433ef.shtml, archive-date=2020-11-01, access-date=2021-10-11, publisher=Statistic Bureau of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, language=zh , - ! !!
Uyghurs The Uyghurs ( or ; ug, ئۇيغۇرلار, , ; zh, s=, t=, p=Wéiwú'ěr, ), alternatively spelled Uighurs, Uygurs or Uigurs, are a Turkic ethnic group originating from and culturally affiliated with the general region of Central and East Asia ...
{{nobold, (%) !!
Han Han may refer to: Ethnic groups * Han Chinese The Han Chinese,
. Huayuqiao.org. Retrieved on ...
{{nobold, (%) !!
Kazakhs The Kazakhs (also spelled Qazaqs; Kazakh: , , , , , ; the English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medi ...

Kazakhs
{{nobold, (%) !! others {{nobold, (%) , - , style="text-align:left;", Xinjiang , , 51.14, , 34.41, , 6.90, , 7.55 , - , style="text-align:left;", Ürümqi PLC , , 12.85 , , 71.21 , 2.77 , , 13.16 , - , style="text-align:left;", Karamay PLC , , 15.59 , , 74.67, , 4.05 , , 5.69 , - , style="text-align:left;", Turpan, Turpan Prefecture , , 76.96, , 16.84 , , 0.05 , , 6.15 , - , style="text-align:left;", Hami Prefecture, Kumul Prefecture , , 20.01 , , 65.49, , 10.04 , , 4.46 , - , style="text-align:left;", Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Changji AP , , 4.89 , , 72.28, , 10.34 , , 12.49 , - , style="text-align:left;", Börtala Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, Bortala AP , , 14.76 , , 63.27, , 10.41 , , 11.56 , - , style="text-align:left;", Bayin'gholin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, Bayin'gholin AP , , 36.38 , , 53.31, , 0.11 , , 10.20 , - , style="text-align:left;", Aksu Prefecture , , 80.08, , 18.56 , , 0.01 , , 1.36 , - , style="text-align:left;", Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture, Kizilsu AP , , 66.24, , 6.29 , , 0.03 , , 27.44 , - , style="text-align:left;", Kashgar, Kashgar Prefecture , , 92.56, , 6.01 , , < 0.005 , , 1.42 , - , style="text-align:left;", Khotan, Khotan Prefecture , , 96.96, , 2.85 , , < 0.005 , , 0.19 , - , style="text-align:left;", Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture, Ili AP{{NoteTag, Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture is composed of Kuytun, Kuitun DACLC, Tacheng Prefecture, Altay Prefecture, Aletai Prefecture, and the former Ili Prefecture. Ili Prefecture has been disbanded and its former area is now directly administered by Ili AP. , , 17.95 , , 40.09 , , 27.16 , , 14.80 , - , style="text-align:left;" , – ''former Ili Prefecture'', , 26.30 , , 35.21 , , 21.57 , , 16.91 , - , style="text-align:left;" , – ''Tacheng Prefecture'', , 4.25 , , 54.66, , 26.66 , , 14.43 , - , style="text-align:left;" , – ''Altay Prefecture'', , 1.42 , , 39.85 , , 52.76, , 5.97 , - , style="text-align:left;" , Shihezi DACLC , , 1.09 , , 94.13, , 0.63 , , 4.15 , - , Aral, Xinjiang, Aral DACLC , 3.66 , 91.96 , < 0.005 , 4.38 , - , Tumushuke DACLC , 67.49 , 31.73 , < 0.005 , 0.78 , - , style="text-align:left;" , Wujiaqu DACLC , , 0.05 , , 96.29 , , 0.10 , , 3.55 , - , Tiemenguan City, Tiemenguan DACLC , 0.07 , 95.96 , 0.00 , 3.97 {{Notelist-ur


Vital statistics

{, class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align: right;" , - ! Year ! Population ! Live births ! Deaths ! Natural change ! Crude birth rate
(per 1000) ! Crude death rate
(per 1000) ! Natural change
(per 1000) , - , 2011 , 22,090,000 , , , , , , 14.99, , 4.42, , 10.57 , - , 2012 , 22,330,000 , , , , , , 15.32, , 4.48, , 10.84 , - , 2013 , 22,640,000 , , , , , , 15.84, , 4.92, , 10.92 , - , 2014 , 22,980,000 , , , , , , 16.44, , 4.97, , 11.47 , - , 2015 , 23,600,000 , , , , , , 15.59, , 4.51, , 11.08 , - , 2016 , 23,980,000 , , , , , , 15.34, , 4.26, , 11.08 , - , 2017 , 24,450,000 , , , , , , 15.88, , 4.48, , 11.40 , - , 2018 , 24,870,000 , , , , , , 10.69, , 4.56, , 6.13 , - , 2019 , 25,230,000 , , , , , , 8.14, , 4.45, , 3.69


Religion

{{Pie chart , caption = Religion in Xinjiang (around 2010) , label1 = Islam , value1 = 58 , color1 = Green , label2 =
Buddhism Buddhism (, ) is the Major religious groups#Largest religions, world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists. Buddhism encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and ...
, value2 = 32 , color2 = Yellow , label3 = Taoism , value3 = 9 , color3 = Red , label4 = Christianity , value4 = 1 , color4 = DodgerBlue The major religions in Xinjiang are Islam in China, Islam among the
Uyghurs The Uyghurs ( or ; ug, ئۇيغۇرلار, , ; zh, s=, t=, p=Wéiwú'ěr, ), alternatively spelled Uighurs, Uygurs or Uigurs, are a Turkic ethnic group originating from and culturally affiliated with the general region of Central and East Asia ...
and the Hui Chinese minority and many of the
Han Chinese The Han Chinese,
. Huayuqiao.org. Retrieved on 2013-04-26.
Hanzu, or Han peopleBuddhism Buddhism (, ) is the Major religious groups#Largest religions, world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists. Buddhism encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and ...
. According to a demographic analysis of the year 2010, Muslims form 58% of the province's population.Min Junqing. ''The Present Situation and Characteristics of Contemporary Islam in China''. JISMOR, 8
2010 Islam by province, page 29
{{Webarchive, url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170427140204/https://doors.doshisha.ac.jp/duar/repository/ir/18185/r002000080004.pdf , date=27 April 2017 . Data from Yang Zongde, ''Study on Current Muslim Population in China'', Jinan Muslim, 2, 2010.
In 1950, there were 29,000 mosques and 54,000 imams in Xinjiang, which fell to 14,000 mosques and 29,000 imams by 1966. Following the Cultural Revolution, there were only about 1,400 remaining mosques. By the mid-1980's, the number of mosques had returned to 1950 levels.{{cite book, url=https://archive.org/details/humanrightsdevel0000seym, title=China Rights Annals 1 Human Rights Developments in the People's Republic of China from October 1983 through September 1984, author=James D. Seymour, publisher=M. E. Sharpe, date=1985, pag
90
isbn=9780873323208, via=Internet Archive
According to a 2020 report by the Australian Strategic Policy Institute, since 2017, Chinese authorities have destroyed or damaged 16,000 mosques in Xinjiang – 65% of the region's total. Christianity in Xinjiang is the religion of 1% of the population according to the Chinese General Social Survey of 2009.{{cite thesis , degree = PhD , title=Explaining Christianity in China: Why a Foreign Religion has Taken Root in Unfertile Ground , url = https://baylor-ir.tdl.org/baylor-ir/bitstream/handle/2104/9326/WANG-THESIS-2015.pdf?sequence=1 , first=Xiuhua , last=Wang , year=2015 , page=15 , url-status=live , archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20150925123928/https://baylor-ir.tdl.org/baylor-ir/bitstream/handle/2104/9326/WANG-THESIS-2015.pdf?sequence=1 , archive-date=25 September 2015 A majority of the Uyghur Muslims adhere to Sunni Islam of the Hanafi school of jurisprudence or madhab. A minority of Shia Islam, Shias, almost exclusively of the Nizari Isma'ilism, Nizari Ismaili (Seveners) rites are located in the higher mountains of Tajik and
Tian Shan The Tian Shan,, dng, Тянсан, ; otk, 𐰴𐰣 𐱅𐰭𐰼𐰃, ; tr, Tanrı Dağı; mn, Тэнгэр уул, ; ug, تەڭرىتاغ, , ; kk, Тәңіртауы / Алатау, , ; ky, Теңир-Тоо / Ала-Тоо, , ; uz, Tyan-S ...

Tian Shan
. In the western mountains (the Tajiks), almost the entire population of Tajiks (Tajiks of Xinjiang, Sarikolis and Wakhi people, Wakhis), are Nizari Isma'ilism, Nizari Isma'ilism, Ismaili Shia. In the north, in the
Tian Shan The Tian Shan,, dng, Тянсан, ; otk, 𐰴𐰣 𐱅𐰭𐰼𐰃, ; tr, Tanrı Dağı; mn, Тэнгэр уул, ; ug, تەڭرىتاغ, , ; kk, Тәңіртауы / Алатау, , ; ky, Теңир-Тоо / Ала-Тоо, , ; uz, Tyan-S ...

Tian Shan
, the
Kazakhs The Kazakhs (also spelled Qazaqs; Kazakh: , , , , , ; the English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medi ...

Kazakhs
and
KyrgyzKyrgyz, Kirghiz or Kyrgyzstani may refer to: *Things related to Kyrgyzstan *Kyrgyz people *Kyrgyz language *Kyrgyz culture *Kyrgyz cuisine *Yenisei Kirghiz *The Fuyu Kyrgyz language, Fuyü Gïrgïs language in Northeastern China {{Disambig Languag ...

Kyrgyz
are Sunni. Afaq Khoja Mausoleum and Id Kah Mosque in Kashgar are most important Islamic Xinjiang sites. Emin Minaret in Turpan, Turfan is a key Islamic site. Bezeklik Thousand Buddha Caves is a noticeable Buddhist site. File:SerindianGroup.jpg, "Heroic Gesture of Bodhisattvathe Bodhisattva", example of 6th-7th-century terracotta Greco-Buddhist art (local populations were Buddhist) from Tumxuk, Xinjiang File:BezeklikSogdianMerchants.jpg, Sogdian people, Sogdian donors to the Buddha, 8th century fresco (with detail), Bezeklik, Eastern Tarim Basin File:Ulumuqi3.jpg, A mosque in Ürümqi File:People sporting in snow by a statue of goddess Guanyin in Wujiaqu, Xinjiang.jpg, People engaging in snow sports by a statue of bodhisattva Guanyin in Wujiaqu File:Buddhist temple in Midong, Urumqi, Xinjiang (2).jpg, Temple of the Great Buddha in Midong District, Midong, Ürümqi File:Fushou (Fortune and Longevity) Taoist Temple at Tianchi (Heavenly Lake) in Fukang, Changji, Xinjiang.jpg, Taoist Temple of Fortune and Longevity at the Heavenly Lake of Tianshan in Fukang, Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture File:Emin Minaret (40010270790).jpg, Emin Minaret File:Kashgar-mezquita-id-kah-d01.jpg, Id Kah mosque in Kashgar, largest mosque in China {{clear


Sports

Xinjiang is home to the Xinjiang Guanghui Flying Tigers professional basketball team of the Chinese Basketball Association, and to Xinjiang Tianshan Leopard F.C., a football team that plays in China League One. The capital, Ürümqi, is home to the Xinjiang University baseball team, an integrated Uyghur and Han group profiled in the documentary film ''Diamond in the Dunes''.


Transportation


Roads

In 2008, according to the Xinjiang Transportation Network Plan, the government has focused construction on State Road 314, Alar-Hotan Desert Highway, State Road 218, Qingshui River Line-Yining Highway and State Road 217, as well as other roads. The construction of the first expressway in the mountainous area of Xinjiang began a new stage in its construction on 24 July 2007. The {{convert, 56, km, abbr=on highway linking Sayram Lake and Guozi Valley in Northern Xinjiang area had cost 2.39 billion yuan. The expressway is designed to improve the speed of national highway 312 in northern Xinjiang. The project started in August 2006 and several stages have been fully operational since March 2007. Over 3,000 construction workers have been involved. The 700 m-long Guozi Valley Cable Bridge over the expressway is now currently being constructed, with the 24 main pile foundations already completed. Highway 312 national highway Xinjiang section, connects Xinjiang with China's east coast, Central Asia, Central and West Asia, plus some parts of Europe. It is a key factor in Xinjiang's economic development. The population it covers is around 40% of the overall in Xinjiang, who contribute half of the GDP in the area. The Zulfiya Abdiqadir, head of the Transport Department was quoted as saying that 24,800,000,000 Renminbi, RMB had been invested into Xinjiang's road network in 2010 alone and, by this time, the roads covered approximately {{convert, 152000, km, abbr=on.{{cite web , url=http://news.ts.cn/content/2011-03/03/content_5636418.htm , editor=Su Qingxia ({{lang, zh-hans, 苏清霞) , script-title=zh:祖丽菲娅·阿不都卡德尔代表:见证新疆交通事业的日益腾飞 , trans-title=Representative Zulfiya Abdiqadir: evidence that Xinjiang's transport projects are developing more with each passing day , language=zh-hans , date=3 March 2011 , access-date=24 February 2017 , website=Tianshan Net , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170224215419/http://news.ts.cn/content/2011-03/03/content_5636418.htm# , archive-date=24 February 2017 , url-status=live


Rail

{{multiple image , perrow = 2 , align = right , direction = horizontal , header = , header_align = left/right/center , header_background = , footer = , footer_align = left/right/center , footer_background = , width = , image1 = UrumqiSouthSta.jpg , width1 = 254 , caption1 =Ürümqi South railway station , image2 = Kashgar station, Kashgar-city, Xinjiang, China.jpg , width2 = 213 , caption2 = Kashgar railway station , image3 = Lanxin Railway Train 01.jpg , width3 = 266 , caption3 = Lanzhou-Xinjiang Railway , image4 = 徳文托盖橋.jpg , width4 = 200 , caption4 = Southern Xinjiang Railway Xinjiang's rail hub is Ürümqi. To the east, Lanzhou–Xinjiang railway, a conventional and Lanzhou–Xinjiang high-speed railway, a high-speed rail line runs through
Turpan Turpan (also known as Turfan or Tulufan, ug, تۇرپان) is a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.jpg, A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply "Huangshi" (). This is a useful distinc ...

Turpan
and Hami to Lanzhou in Gansu, Gansu Province. A Ejin–Hami railway, third outlet to the east connects Hami and Inner Mongolia. To the west, the Northern Xinjiang Railway, Northern Xinjiang runs along the northern footslopes of the
Tian Shan The Tian Shan,, dng, Тянсан, ; otk, 𐰴𐰣 𐱅𐰭𐰼𐰃, ; tr, Tanrı Dağı; mn, Тэнгэр уул, ; ug, تەڭرىتاغ, , ; kk, Тәңіртауы / Алатау, , ; ky, Теңир-Тоо / Ала-Тоо, , ; uz, Tyan-S ...

Tian Shan
range through Changji, Shihezi, Kuytun and Jinghe County, Jinghe to the Kazakhstan, Kazakh border at Alashankou, where it links up with the Turkestan–Siberia Railway. Together, the Northern Xinjiang and the Lanzhou-Xinjiang lines form part of the Eurasian Land Bridge, Trans-Eurasian Continental Railway, which extends from Rotterdam, on the North Sea, to Lianyungang, on the East China Sea. The Second Ürümqi-Jinghe Railway provides additional rail transport capacity to Jinghe, from which the Jinghe-Yining-Horgos Railway heads into the
Ili River 300px, Map of the Lake Balkhash drainage basin showing the Ili River and its tributaries The Ili ( ug, ئىلى دەرياسى, Ili deryasi, Ili dəryasi, 6=Или Дәряси; kk, Ile, ; russian: Или; zh, c=伊犁河, p=Yīlí Hé, dng, ...
Valley to Yining (city), Yining, Huocheng and Khorgos, a second rail border crossing with Kazakhstan. The Kuytun-Beitun Railway runs from Kuytun north into the Junggar Basin to Karamay and Beitun, near Altay City, Altay. In the south, the Southern Xinjiang Railway, Southern Xinjiang Line from Turpan runs southwest along the southern footslopes of the
Tian Shan The Tian Shan,, dng, Тянсан, ; otk, 𐰴𐰣 𐱅𐰭𐰼𐰃, ; tr, Tanrı Dağı; mn, Тэнгэр уул, ; ug, تەڭرىتاغ, , ; kk, Тәңіртауы / Алатау, , ; ky, Теңир-Тоо / Ала-Тоо, , ; uz, Tyan-S ...

Tian Shan
into the
Tarim Basin The Tarim Basin is an endorheic basin in Northwest China occupying an area of about and one of the largest basins in Northwest China.Chen, Yaning, et al. "Regional climate change and its effects on river runoff in the Tarim Basin, China." Hydr ...
, with stops at Karasahr, Yanqi, Korla, Kuqa, Xinjiang, Kuqa, Aksu City, Aksu, Maralbexi County, Maralbexi (Bachu), Artux and Kashgar. From Kashgar, the Kashgar–Hotan railway, follows the southern rim of the Tarim to Hotan, with stops at Shule County, Shule, Akto, Yengisar, Shache, Shache (Yarkant), Kargilik Town, Yecheng (Karghilik), Moyu County, Moyu (Karakax). The Ürümqi-Dzungaria Railway connects Ürümqi with coal fields in the eastern Junggar Basin. The Hami–Lop Nur Railway connects Hami with potash, potassium salt mines in and around Lop Nur. The Golmud-Korla Railway, opened in 2020, provides an outlet to
Qinghai Qinghai (; alternately romanized as Tsinghai, Ch'inghai), also known Kokonor, is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provinci ...

Qinghai
. Planning is underway on additional intercity railways. Railways Khunjerab Railway, to Pakistan and Kyrgyzstan have been proposed.{{citation needed, date=November 2020


East Turkestan independence movement

{{Main, Xinjiang conflict, East Turkestan independence movement, Xinjiang re-education camps, Uyghurs Some factions in Xinjiang province advocate establishing an independent country, which has led to tension and ethnic strife in the region. Autonomous regions in China putatively have a legal right to separate from the nation, however in practice this right can not be exercised.{{cite web , last1=Vassallo , first1=Christopher , title=The Soviet Origins of Xi's Xinjiang Policy , url=https://thediplomat.com/2021/06/the-soviet-origins-of-xis-xinjiang-policy/ , website=thediplomat.com , publisher=The Diplomat , access-date=13 June 2021 The Xinjiang conflict is an ongoing separatist conflict in the northwestern part of China. The separatist movement claims that the region, which they view as their homeland and refer to as East Turkestan, is not part of China, but was invaded by communists in 1949 and has been under communists' occupation since then. Chinese government asserts that the region has been part of China since ancient times. The separatist movement is led by ethnically
UyghurUyghur may refer to: * Uyghurs, a Turkic ethnic group living in Eastern and Central Asia * Uyghur language, a Turkic language spoken primarily by the Uyghurs ** Uyghur alphabets, any of four systems used to write the language * Uyghur Khaganate, a T ...
Muslim underground organizations, most notably the
East Turkestan independence movement The East Turkestan independence movement ( zh, s=东突厥斯坦独立运动) is a political movement that seeks the independence of East Turkestan, a large and sparsely-populated region in northwest China Northwest China () is a statist ...
and the Salafist Turkistan Islamic Party, against the Chinese government. According to the Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies, the two main sources for separatism in the Xinjiang Province are religion and ethnicity. Religiously, the Uyghur peoples of Xinjiang follow Islam; in the large cities of Han China many are Buddhism, Buddhist, Taoism, Taoist and Confucianism, Confucian, although many follow Islam as well, such as the Hui ethnic subgroup of the Han ethnicity, comprising some 10 million people. Thus, the major difference and source of friction with eastern China is ethnicity and religious doctrinal differences that differentiate them politically from other Muslim minorities elsewhere in the country. Because of turkification from the turkificated
Tocharians The Tocharians, or Tokharians ( US: or ; UK: ), were speakers of Tocharian languages The Tocharian (sometimes Tokharian) languages ( or ), also known as ''Arśi-Kuči'', Agnean-Kuchean or Kuchean-Agnean, are an extinct branch of the Indo-Eur ...
, the western
Uyghurs The Uyghurs ( or ; ug, ئۇيغۇرلار, , ; zh, s=, t=, p=Wéiwú'ěr, ), alternatively spelled Uighurs, Uygurs or Uigurs, are a Turkic ethnic group originating from and culturally affiliated with the general region of Central and East Asia ...
became linguistically and culturally Turkic in the 10th century, a distinction from the Han that are the majority in the eastern and central regions of Xinjiang, although many other Turkic ethnicities live in Northwest China such as the Salar people, the Chinese Tatars and the Yugur. Ironically, the capital of Xinjiang, Ürümqi, was originally a Han and Hui (Tungan) city with few Uyghur people before recent Uyghur migration to the city.{{sfnp, Millward , 2007 , pp=77–78, 133–134 Since 1996, China has engaged in "strike hard" campaigns targeted at separatists. On 5 June 2014, China sentenced nine people to death for terrorist attacks. They were alleged to be seeking to overthrow the government in Xinjiang and build an independent Uyghur state of East Turkestan.{{cite news , last=Bodeen , first=Christopher , date=5 June 2014 , title=China Sentences 9 Persons to Death for Xinjiang Attacks , url=http://time.com/2836835/china-sentences-9-persons-to-death-for-xinjiang-attacks , newspaper=Time , location=Xinjiang , access-date=6 June 2014 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140606082655/http://time.com/2836835/china-sentences-9-persons-to-death-for-xinjiang-attacks/ , archive-date=6 June 2014 , url-status=dead


See also

{{Portal, China * Affirmative action in China * Administrative divisions of China * China Cotton Association * List of universities and colleges in Xinjiang * Xinjiang coins * Xinjiang Wars


Notes

{{NoteFoot


References


Citations

{{Reflist


Sources

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J. , last=Newby , volume=16 , series=Brill's Inner Asian Library , year=2005 , publisher=BRILL , url = https://books.google.com/books?id=KTmO416hNQ8C , isbn = 978-90-04-14550-4 * {{cite book , title = Great Britain and Chinese, Russian and Japanese interests in Sinkiang, 1918-1934 , first=Lars-Erik , last=Nyman , volume=8 , series=Lund studies in international history , year=1977 , publisher=Esselte studium , url = https://books.google.com/books?id=JNlwAAAAMAAJ , isbn = 978-91-24-27287-6 * {{cite book , title=Imperial Rivals: China, Russia, and Their Disputed Frontier , first=S. C. M. , last=Paine , year=1996 , publisher=M.E. Sharpe , url = https://books.google.com/books?id=zMrx5Rw5n0AC , isbn = 978-1-56324-724-8 * {{cite book , title = The Bloody White Baron: The Extraordinary Story of the Russian Nobleman Who Became the Last Khan of Mongolia , first=James , last=Palmer , edition=reprint , year=2011 , publisher=Basic Books , url = https://books.google.com/books?id=t_2oJYvNHAQC , isbn = 978-0-465-02207-6 * {{cite book , title=Global Interactions in the Early Modern Age, 1400–1800 , first=Charles H. , last=Parker, year=2010 , publisher=Cambridge University Press , url = https://books.google.com/books?id=SKgs8-pj4_YC , isbn = 978-1-139-49141-9 * {{cite book , title = Mongolian Music, Dance, & Oral Narrative: Performing Diverse Identities , volume=1 , first=Carole , last=Pegg , year=2001 , publisher=University of Washington Press , url = https://books.google.com/books?id=uxEGTwiCvd8C , isbn = 978-0-295-98030-0 * {{cite book , title=China Marches West: The Qing Conquest of Central Eurasia , first=Peter C. , last=Perdue , edition=reprint , year=2009 , publisher=Harvard University Press , url = https://books.google.com/books?id=J4L-_cjmSqoC , isbn = 978-0-6740-4202-5 * {{citation , jstor=312949 , journal=Modern Asian Studies , title=Military Mobilization in Seventeenth and Eighteenth-Century China, Russia, and Mongolia , last=Perdue, first=Peter C., volume= 30, number=4 Special Issue: War in Modern China, date=October 1996 , pages=757–793 , doi = 10.1017/s0026749x00016796 , s2cid=146587527 , url=https://semanticscholar.org/paper/ee50c2be23ad12669b9cae8c49a995925f12c859 * {{cite book , title=State Capitalism, Contentious Politics and Large-Scale Social Change , editor-first=Vincent , editor-last=Pollard , volume=29 , series=Studies in Critical Social Sciences , year=2011 , publisher=BRILL , url = https://books.google.com/books?id=5p_rjMLgj_8C , isbn = 978-90-04-19445-8 * {{cite book , title=Historical Dictionary of Tibet , first1=John , last1=Powers , first2=David , last2=Templemanb , year=2012 , publisher=Scarecrow Press , url = https://books.google.com/books?id=LVlyX6iSDEQC , isbn = 978-0-8108-7984-3 * {{cite book , title=The modern approach to history, first=Buddha , last=Prakash, year=1963, publisher=University Publishers , url = https://books.google.com/books?id=B-1HAAAAMAAJb * {{cite book , title=March of Central Asia , first=Ram , last=Rahul, year=2000 , publisher=Indus Publishing , url = https://books.google.com/books?id=tI77bC989PoC , isbn = 978-81-7387-109-2 * {{cite book , title= The ETIM: China's Islamic Militants and the Global Terrorist Threat , first1=J. Todd , last1=Reed , first2=Diana , last2=Raschke , year= 2010 , publisher=ABC-CLIO , url = https://books.google.com/books?id=5I2b_hrJO8sC , isbn = 978-0-313-36540-9 * {{cite book , title=A History of China , first=John A.G. , last=Roberts , edition=revised , year=2011, publisher=Palgrave Macmillan, url=https://books.google.com/books?id=GZNiAQAAQBAJ , isbn = 978-0-230-34411-2 * {{cite book , title=Bones in the Sand: The Struggle to Create Uighur Nationalist Ideologies in Xinjiang, China , first1=Justin Jon , last1=Rudelson , first2=Justin Ben-Adam , last2=Rudelson , edition=reprint , year=1992 , publisher=Harvard University , url = https://books.google.com/books?id=905wAAAAMAAJ * {{cite book , title = Oasis Identities: Uyghur Nationalism Along China's Silk Road , first = Justin Jon , last = Rudelson , year=1997 , publisher=Columbia University Press , url = https://books.google.com/books?id=MT2D_0_eBPQC , isbn = 978-0-231-10786-0 {{ISBN, 0-231-10787-0 (pbk.). * {{cite news , last=Ryan , first= William L. , date= 2 January 1969 , title= Russians Back Revolution in Province Inside China , url= https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=1928&dat=19690102&id=ylsgAAAAIBAJ&pg=4665,144363 , newspaper= The Lewiston Daily Sun , page = 3 * {{cite book , title=Historical Dictionary of Mongolia , volume=74 , series=Historical Dictionaries of Asia, Oceania, and the Middle East , first=Alan J. K. , last=Sanders , edition=3rd, illustrated , year=2010 , publisher=Scarecrow Press , url = https://books.google.com/books?id=5JN83EDDLl4C , isbn = 978-0-8108-7452-7 * {{cite book , title=Encyclopedia of genocide and crimes against humanity , volume=3 , first=Dinah C. , last=Shelton , editor-first=Dinah, editor-last=Shelton , year=2005 , publisher=Macmillan Reference , url = https://books.google.com/books?id=c-8YAAAAIAAJ , isbn = 978-0-02-865850-6 * {{cite book , title = Aspects of Altaic Civilization III: Proceedings of the Thirtieth Meeting of the Permanent International Altaistic Conference, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, June 19-25, 1987 , volume=3 , series=Aspects of Altaic civilization , editor-first = Denis , editor-last = Sinor * {{cite book , title=Aspects of Altaic Civilization III: Proceedings of the Thirtieth Meeting of the Permanent International Altaistic Conference, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, June 19-25, 1987 , editor-first=Denis , editor-last=Sinor , year=1990 , publisher=Psychology Press , url = https://books.google.com/books?id=wWbAbwxMZXEC , isbn = 978-0-7007-0380-7 * {{cite book , title = Xinjiang: China's Muslim Borderland , editor-first=S. Frederick , editor-last=Starr , year=2004 , publisher = M.E. Sharpe , url = https://books.google.com/books?id=GXj4a3gss8wC , isbn = 978-0-7656-1318-9 * {{cite book , title = New Ghosts, Old Ghosts: Prisons and Labor Reform Camps in China , series=Socialism and Social Movements Series , first1=James D. , last1=Seymour , first2=Richard , last2=Anderson , others=Contributor - Sidong Fan , year=1999 , publisher=M.E. Sharpe , url = https://books.google.com/books?id=HHwkn9pnjSwC , isbn = 978-0-7656-0510-8 * {{cite book , title=The Horse that Leaps Through Clouds: A Tale of Espionage, the Silk Road, and the Rise of Modern China, first=Eric , last=Tamm , year=2013 , publisher=Counterpoint , url = https://books.google.com/books?id=kbpG8QEguXEC , isbn =978-1-58243-876-4 * {{cite book , title = War Finance and Logistics in Late Imperial China: A Study of the Second Jinchuan Campaign (1771–1776) , first=Ulrich , last=Theobald , year=2013 , publisher=BRILL , url = https://books.google.com/books?id=DUodAAAAQBAJ , isbn = 978-90-04-25567-8 * {{cite news , last=Tinibai , first=Kenjali , date=28 May 2010 , title=China and Kazakhstan: A Two-Way Street , url = http://www.businessweek.com/globalbiz/content/may2010/gb20100528_168520.htm , newspaper=Bloomberg Businessweek , url-status=dead, archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20150705185320/http://www.businessweek.com/globalbiz/content/may2010/gb20100528_168520.htm , archive-date=5 July 2015 * {{cite news , last = Tinibai , first=Kenjali , date=27 May 2010 , title= Kazakhstan and China: A Two-Way Street , url = http://www.tol.org/client/article/21490-kazakhstan-and-china-a-two-way-street.html , newspaper= Transitions Online , url-access=subscription * {{cite book , title = Wild West China: The Taming of Xinjiang , first=Christian , last=Tyler , year=2004 , publisher=Rutgers University Press , url = https://books.google.com/books?id=bEzNwgtiVQ0C , isbn = 978-0-8135-3533-3 * {{cite book , title=Eurasian Corridors of Interconnection: From the South China to the Caspian Sea , editor1-first=Susan M. , editor1-last=Walcott , editor2-first=Corey, editor2-last=Johnson , year=2013 , publisher=Routledge , url = https://books.google.com/books?id=OkAVAgAAQBAJ , isbn=978-1-135-07875-1 * {{cite book , title=China and the New International Order , editor1-first=Gungwu , editor1-last=Wang , editor2-first=Yongnian , editor2-last=Zheng , year=2008 , publisher=Taylor & Francis , url = https://books.google.com/books?id=mXXnd81uoMoC , isbn=978-0-203-93226-1 * {{cite book , title=China's War on Terrorism: Counter-Insurgency, Politics and Internal Security , first=Martin I., last=Wayne, year=2007 , publisher=Routledge, url=https://books.google.com/books?id=2ybmWJXjxUYC , isbn=978-1-134-10623-3 * {{cite book , title=China's Post-Jiang Leadership Succession: Problems and Perspectivesb , editor1-first=John, editor1-last=Wong, editor2-first=Yongnian, editor2-last=Zheng , year=2002 , publisher=World Scientific , url = https://books.google.com/books?id=cEdQ1IuJFH4C , isbn = 978-981-270-650-8 * {{cite book , title=Restless Empire: China and the World Since 1750 , first=Odd Arne , last=Westad , year=2012, publisher=Basic Books , url = https://books.google.com/books?id=uL8NoXZtyxMCb , isbn = 978-0-465-02936-5 * {{cite book , title=China's Post-Jiang Leadership Succession: Problems and Perspectives , editor1-first=John , editor1-last=Wong , editor2-first=Yongnian , editor2-last=Zheng , year=2002 , publisher=World Scientific , url = https://books.google.com/books?id=cEdQ1IuJFH4C , isbn = 978-981-270-650-8 * {{cite journal , jstor = 20062627 , doi = 10.1177/0097700405282349 , title=Reinventing China Imperial Qing Ideology and the Rise of Modern Chinese National Identity in the Early Twentieth Century , journal= Modern China , last = Zhao , first=Gang , volume= 32 , pages = 3–30 , number=1 , year = 2006 , s2cid = 144587815 * {{cite book , title= Red Shambhala: Magic, Prophecy, and Geopolitics in the Heart of Asia , first=Andrei , last=Znamenski , edition = illustrated , year=2011 , publisher=Quest Books , url = https://books.google.com/books?id=6J6T2uz1KSoC , isbn = 978-0-8356-0891-6 {{refend


Further reading

{{Library resources box * {{cite journal, last=Côté, first=Isabelle, title=Political mobilization of a regional minority: Han Chinese settlers in Xinjiang, journal=Ethnic and Racial Studies, date=2011, volume=34, issue=11, pages=1855–1873, doi= 10.1080/01419870.2010.543692, s2cid=144071415 * {{cite web , last=Croner, first=Don, year=2009, url= http://dambijantsan.doncroner.com/JaLama-Chapter1.pdf, title=False Lama – The Life and Death of Dambijantsan, website=dambijantsan.doncroner.com, location=Ulaan Baatar, publisher=Don Croner, url-status=dead, archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20140903091310/http://dambijantsan.doncroner.com/JaLama-Chapter1.pdf, archive-date=3 September 2014 * {{cite web , last1=Croner, first1=Don, year=2010, url= http://dambijantsan.doncroner.com/JaLama.1-5.pdf, title=Ja Lama – The Life and Death of Dambijantsan, website=dambijantsan.doncroner.com, location=Ulaan Baatar, publisher=Don Croner , url-status=dead, archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20140903091401/http://dambijantsan.doncroner.com/JaLama.1-5.pdf, archive-date=3 September 2014 * Hierman, Brent. "The Pacification of Xinjiang: Uighur Protest and the Chinese State, 1988–2002." Problems of Post-Communism, May/June 2007, Vol. 54 Issue 3, pp. 48–62. * {{cite book , last=Kim, first=Hodong, title=Holy War in China: The Muslim Rebellion and State in Chinese Central Asia, 1864-1877, year=2004, url= https://books.google.com/books?id=AtduqAtBzegC, publisher=Stanford University Press, isbn= 978-0-8047-6723-1 * {{cite book , last=Kim, first=Kwangmin, title=Saintly Brokers: Uyghur Muslims, Trade, and the Making of Qing Central Asia, 1696–1814, year=2008, url= https://books.google.com/books?id=AywctwAACAAJ, publisher= University of California, isbn= 978-1-109-10126-3 * {{cite book , title=Peacemaking: From Practice to Theory, editor1-first=Susan Allen, editor1-last=Nan, editor2-first=Zachariah Cherian, editor2-last=Mampilly, editor3-first=Andrea, editor3-last=Bartoli, year=2011, publisher=ABC-CLIO, isbn=978-0-313-37576-7, url= https://books.google.com/books?id=Hx0p4RCdD4wC, oclc=715288234 {{ISBN, 978-0-3133-7576-7 (set); {{ISBN, 978-0-3133-7578-1 (v. 1); {{ISBN, 978-0-3133-7580-4 (v. 2); {{ISBN, 978-0-3133-7577-4 (ebk.). * Norins, Martin R. iarchive:gatewaytoasiasin00nori/, Gateway to Asia : Sinkiang, Frontier of the Chinese Far West (1944) * Yap, Joseph P. (2009). ''Wars With The Xiongnu – A translation From Zizhi Tongjian''. AuthorHouse. {{ISBN, 978-1-4490-0604-4 * {{Cite magazine, last=Yellinek, first=Roie, url= https://jamestown.org/program/islamic-countries-engage-with-china-against-the-background-of-repression-in-xinjiang/, title=Islamic Countries Engage with China Against the Background of Repression in Xinjiang, magazine=China Brief, volume=19, issue=5, publisher=Jamestown Foundation, date=5 March 2019, access-date=2020-05-08 * {{cite conference, title=Asiatische Forschungen, Volumes 73-75, conference=Universität Bonn. Ostasiatische Seminar, year=1982, publisher=O. Harrassowitz, url= https://books.google.com/books?id=qbILAAAAIAAJ, isbn=978-3-447-02237-8, lang=de * {{cite book , title= Bulletin de la Section de géographie , volume=10 , others=Comité des travaux historiques et scientifiques. Section de géographie , language=fr , year=1895 , location=Paris , publisher=IMPRIMERIE NATIONALE , url= https://books.google.com/books?id=6MysOTiETbsC * {{cite book , title=Ethnological Information on China: A Collection; Articles from Various Issues of Sovetskai͡a Ėtnografii͡a (Moscow), year=1969, publisher=CCM Information Corporation, url= https://books.google.com/books?id=2RA5AAAAIAAJ * {{cite book , title=Inner Asia, Volume 4, Issues 1–2, year=2002, publisher=The White Horse Press, others=Mongolia and Inner Asia Studies Unit at the University of Cambridge, url= https://books.google.com/books?id=m1RuAAAAMAAJ , isbn= 978-0-8047-2933-8 * {{cite news, agency=UPI, date=22 September 1981, title=Radio war aims at China Moslems, url= https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=1946&dat=19810922&id=3oAxAAAAIBAJ&pg=5348,448513, newspaper=The Montreal Gazette, page=11, via=Google News


External links

* {{Commons category-inline * {{Wiktionary-inline, Xinjiang, Sinkiang, Hsin-chiang, Chinese Turkestan, East Turkestan, East Turkistan * {{Wikivoyage-inline
Xinjiang Travel Information Website

Xinjiang Government website
{in lang, zh an



at Hong Kong Trade Development Council, HKTDC * {{cite encyclopedia , url = https://www.britannica.com/place/Xinjiang , encyclopedia = Encyclopædia Britannica , title = Xinjiang: autonomous region, China
General Atlas of Xinjiang

Xinjiang Video Project
{{- {{Geographic location , Northwest = East Kazakhstan Province, East Kazakhstan and Almaty Provinces, {{flag, Kazakhstan , North = {{flag, Altai Republic, {{flag, Russia , Northeast = {{flag, Bayan-Ölgii, {{flag, Khovd and {{flag, Govi-Altai Provinces, {{flag, Mongolia , West = {{flagicon image, Issyk kul obl flag.svg Issyk Kul Region, Issyk Kul, {{flagicon image, Naryn obl flag.svg
Naryn Naryn ( ky, Нарын, ''Narın'', نارىن, Mongolian : Нарийн, Nariin, Traditional Mongolian ᠨᠠᠷᠢᠨ is the regional administrative center of Naryn Region in central Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan, officially the Kyrgyz Republ ...
and {{flagicon image, Flag of Osh.svg
Osh Region Osh Region ( ky, Ош облусу, ''Oş oblusu/Osh oblusu'', وش وبلاستى) is a region ('' oblast'') of Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan, officially the Kyrgyz Republic, also known as Kirghizia (in Russian), is a landlocked country in Central A ...
s, {{flag, Kyrgyzstan
Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province, {{flag, Tajikistan
Badakhshan Province Badakhshan Province ( fa, بدخشان ولایت, ''Badaxšān wilāyat'') is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , countr ...
, {{flag, Afghanistan , Centre = Xinjiang , East =
Gansu Gansu (, ; Chinese postal romanization, alternately romanized as Kansu) is a landlocked provinces of China, province in Northwest China. Its capital and largest city is Lanzhou, in the southeast part of the province. The seventh-largest administ ...

Gansu
, Southwest = {{flag, Gilgit-Baltistan, {{flag, Pakistan
{{flag, Jammu and Kashmir, {{flag, India
Aksai Chin, Disputed region of Aksai Chin , South =
Tibet Autonomous Region The Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) or Xizang Autonomous Region, called Tibet or Xizang for short, is a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' pr ...
, Southeast =
Qinghai Qinghai (; alternately romanized as Tsinghai, Ch'inghai), also known Kokonor, is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provinci ...

Qinghai
{{Xinjiang topics {{Xinjiang {{Province-level divisions of the People's Republic of China {{Inner Asia {{Authority control Xinjiang, Autonomous regions of China Western China East Asia Inner Asia States and territories established in 1955 1955 establishments in China Iranian languages regions Articles containing video clips Historical regions