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Wyoming () is a
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
in the
Mountain West The Mountain West Conference (MW) is one of the collegiate athletic conferences affiliated with the National Collegiate Athletic Association The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) is a nonprofit organization that regulates stud ...
subregion of the
Western United States The Western United States (also called the American West, the Far West, and the West) is the region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the ...
. The 10th largest state by area, it is also the least populous and least densely populated state in the
contiguous United States The contiguous United States or officially the conterminous United States, also known as the Lower 48, consists of the 48 adjoining U.S. states and the Washington, D.C., District of Columbia on the continent of North America. The terms exclude ...
. It is bordered by
Montana Montana () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper ...

Montana
to the north and northwest,
South Dakota South Dakota () (Sioux The Sioux or Oceti Sakowin (; Dakota Dakota may refer to: * Dakota people, a sub-tribe of the Sioux ** Dakota language, their language From this origin, Dakota may also refer to: Places United States * Dakot ...

South Dakota
and
Nebraska Nebraska () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper ...

Nebraska
to the east,
Idaho Idaho () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in ...

Idaho
to the west,
Utah Utah ( , ) is a U.S. state, state in the Mountain states, Mountain West subregion of the Western United States. Utah is a landlocked U.S. state bordered to its east by Colorado, to its northeast by Wyoming, to its north by Idaho, to its so ...

Utah
to the southwest, and
Colorado Colorado (, other variants) is a state in the Mountain West The Mountain West Conference (MW) is one of the collegiate athletic conferences affiliated with the National Collegiate Athletic Association The National Collegiate Athletic ...

Colorado
to the south. The state population was 576,851 at the 2020 United States census, making it the least populated U.S. state. The
state capital Below is an index of pages containing lists of capital cities A capital or capital city is the municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-gov ...
and the
most populous city The United Nations uses three definitions for what constitutes a city, as not all cities in all jurisdictions are classified using the same criteria. Cities may be defined as the city proper, cities proper, the extent of their urban area, or the ...
is
Cheyenne The Cheyenne ( ) are an Indigenous people of the Great Plains Plains Indians or Indigenous peoples of the Great Plains and Canadian Prairies are the Native Americans in the United States, Native American tribe (Native American), tribes and ...
, which had an estimated population of 63,957 in 2018. Wyoming's western half is mostly covered by the ranges and rangelands of the
Rocky Mountains The Rocky Mountains, also known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range A mountain range is a series of mountains ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similari ...

Rocky Mountains
, while the eastern half of the state is high-elevation
prairie Wheatfield intersection in the Southern Saskatchewan prairies, Canada. Prairies are ecosystem An ecosystem is a community (ecology), community of living organisms in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment, interact ...
called the High Plains. It is drier and windier than the rest of the country, being split between
semi-arid A semi-arid climate, semi-desert climate, or steppe climate is the climate Climate is the long-term pattern of weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning ' ...
and
continental Continental may refer to: Places * Continent * Continental, Arizona, a small community in Pima County, Arizona, US * Continental, Ohio, a small town in Putnam County, US Arts and entertainment * Continental (album), ''Continental'' (album), an alb ...
climates with greater temperature extremes. Almost half of the land in Wyoming is owned by the
federal government A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of Institutionalisation, institutionalized ...
, leading the state to rank 6th by area and fifth by proportion of a state's land owned by the federal government. Federal lands include two national parks—
Grand Teton Grand Teton is the highest mountain A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust, generally with steep sides that show significant exposed bedrock. A mountain differs from a plateau in having a limited summit area, and is larger th ...

Grand Teton
and
Yellowstone Yellowstone National Park is an American national park located in the western United States, largely in the northwest corner of Wyoming and extending into Montana and Idaho. It was established by the U.S. Congress and signed into law by ...

Yellowstone
—two national recreation areas, two national monuments, several national forests, historic sites, fish hatcheries, and wildlife refuges. Original inhabitants of the region include the
Arapaho The Arapaho (; french: Arapahos, ) are a people of Native Americans Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native American ...

Arapaho
,
Crow A crow is a bird of the genus ''Corvus'', or more broadly a synonym for all of ''Corvus''. The word "crow" is used as part of the common name of species including: * ''Corvus albus'' – pied crow (Central African coasts to southern Africa) * ''Co ...

Crow
,
LakotaLakota may refer to: * Lakota people, a confederation of seven related Native American tribes *Lakota language Lakota (), also referred to as Lakhota, Teton or Teton Sioux, is a Siouan language spoken by the Lakota people of the Sioux tribes. T ...
, and
Shoshone The Shoshone or Shoshoni ( or ) are a Tribe (Native American), Native American tribe with four large cultural/linguistic divisions: * Eastern Shoshone: Wyoming * Northern Shoshone: southern Idaho * Western Shoshone: Nevada, northern Utah * Goshu ...

Shoshone
. Southwest Wyoming was claimed by the
Spanish Empire The Spanish Empire ( es, link=no, Imperio Español), also known as the Hispanic Monarchy ( es, link=no, Monarquía Hispánica) or the Catholic Monarchy ( es, link=no, Monarquía Católica) during the Early Modern period, was a colonial empire ...

Spanish Empire
and then as Mexican territory until it was ceded to the U.S. in 1848 at the end of the
Mexican–American War The Mexican–American War, also known in the United States as the Mexican War and in Mexico as the (''U.S. intervention in Mexico''), was an armed conflict between the United States and Second Federal Republic of Mexico, Mexico from 1846 ...

Mexican–American War
. The region acquired the name "Wyoming" when a bill was introduced to
Congress Congresses are formal meetings of the representatives of different countries A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, ...
in 1865 to provide a temporary government for the territory of Wyoming. The name had been used earlier for the
Wyoming Valley The Wyoming Valley is a historic industrialized region of Northeastern Pennsylvania, once famous for fueling the industrial revolution in the United States with its many anthracite coal mines. As a metropolitan area, it is known as the Scranton/Wil ...
in
Pennsylvania Pennsylvania ( , elsewhere ; pdc, Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a landlocked A landlocked country is a country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastlines lie on endorheic basi ...

Pennsylvania
, and is derived from the
Munsee The Munsee (or Minsi or Muncee) or mə́n'si·w are a subtribe of the Lenape The Lenape (, , or Lenape ), also called the Leni Lenape, Lenni Lenape and Delaware people, are an indigenous people of the Northeastern Woodlands Indigenous peo ...
word , meaning "at the big river flat".Bright, William (2004). ''Native American Place Names of the United States''. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, pg. 576State of Wyoming—Narrative
Wyoming's economy is driven by tourism and the extraction of minerals such as
coal Coal is a combustible , Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language , languages = German language, German , ...

coal
,
natural gas Natural gas (also called fossil gas; sometimes just gas) is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting of methane and commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxid ...

natural gas
,
oil An oil is any nonpolar chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can b ...

oil
, and
trona Trona (trisodium hydrogendicarbonate dihydrate In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the Chemical element, elements that make up matter to th ...
. Agricultural commodities include barley, hay, livestock,
sugar beet A sugar beet is a plant whose root contains a high concentration of sucrose Sucrose is a type of sugar Sugar is the generic name for Sweetness, sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. Table sugar, granulated ...
s, wheat, and wool. It was the first state to allow women the
right to vote Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise, is the right to vote in public, political elections (although the term is sometimes used for any right to vote). In some languages, and occasionally in English, the right to vote is called ac ...

right to vote
and become politicians, as well as the first state to elect a female governor. Due to this part of its history, its main nickname is "The Equality State" and its official state motto is "Equal Rights". It has been a politically conservative state since the 1950s, with the
Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of government that is not a monarchy or dictatorship, and is usually associated with the rule of law. ** Republicanism, the ideology in support of republics or against ...
presidential nominee carrying the state in every election since
1968 The year was highlighted by protests and other unrests that occurred worldwide. Events January * January 5 Events Pre-1600 *1477 – Battle of Nancy: Charles the Bold is defeated and killed in a conflict with René II, Duke of L ...
. A notable exception is Teton County, which has achieved notability for being Wyoming's most
Democratic Democrat, Democrats, or Democratic may refer to: *A proponent of democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' and ''kratos'' 'rule') is a form of government in which people, the people have the a ...
county and the only county in the state to be won by a Democrat in every election since 2004.


History

Several Native American groups originally inhabited the region now known as Wyoming. The
Crow A crow is a bird of the genus ''Corvus'', or more broadly a synonym for all of ''Corvus''. The word "crow" is used as part of the common name of species including: * ''Corvus albus'' – pied crow (Central African coasts to southern Africa) * ''Co ...

Crow
,
Arapaho The Arapaho (; french: Arapahos, ) are a people of Native Americans Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native American ...

Arapaho
,
LakotaLakota may refer to: * Lakota people, a confederation of seven related Native American tribes *Lakota language Lakota (), also referred to as Lakhota, Teton or Teton Sioux, is a Siouan language spoken by the Lakota people of the Sioux tribes. T ...
, and
Shoshone The Shoshone or Shoshoni ( or ) are a Tribe (Native American), Native American tribe with four large cultural/linguistic divisions: * Eastern Shoshone: Wyoming * Northern Shoshone: southern Idaho * Western Shoshone: Nevada, northern Utah * Goshu ...

Shoshone
were but a few of the original inhabitants white explorers encountered when they first visited the region. What is now southwestern Wyoming became a part of the
Spanish Empire The Spanish Empire ( es, link=no, Imperio Español), also known as the Hispanic Monarchy ( es, link=no, Monarquía Hispánica) or the Catholic Monarchy ( es, link=no, Monarquía Católica) during the Early Modern period, was a colonial empire ...

Spanish Empire
, and later Mexican territory, of
Alta California Alta California ('Upper California'), also known as ('New California'), among other names, was a province of New Spain, formally established in 1804. Along with the Baja California peninsula, it had previously comprised the province of , but wa ...
, until it was ceded to the United States in 1848 at the end of the
Mexican–American War The Mexican–American War, also known in the United States as the Mexican War and in Mexico as the (''U.S. intervention in Mexico''), was an armed conflict between the United States and Second Federal Republic of Mexico, Mexico from 1846 ...

Mexican–American War
.
French-Canadian French Canadians (referred to as Canadiens mainly before the twentieth century ; french: Canadiens français, ; feminine form: , ) are an ethnic group who trace their ancestry to French people, French colonists who settled in Canada (New France) ...
trappers from Québec and Montréal ventured into the area in the late 18th century, leaving French toponyms such as Téton and La Ramie.
John Colter John Colter (c.1770–1775 – May 7, 1812 or November 22, 1813) was a member of the Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804–1806). Though party to one of the more famous expeditions in history, Colter is best remembered for explorations he made d ...
, a member of the
Lewis and Clark Expedition The Lewis and Clark Expedition from August 31, 1803, to September 25, 1806, also known as the Corps of Discovery Expedition, was the United States expedition to cross the newly acquired western portion of the country after the Louisiana Pur ...
, itself guided by French Canadian
Toussaint Charbonneau Toussaint Charbonneau (March 20, 1767 – August 12, 1843) was a French-Canadian French Canadians (also referred to as Canadiens; french: Canadiens français, ; feminine form: , ), or Franco-Canadians (french: Franco-Canadiens), are an et ...
and his young Shoshone wife,
Sacagawea Sacagawea (; also Sakakawea or Sacajawea; May – December 20, 1812 or April 9, 1884)Sacagawea
" Yellowstone Yellowstone National Park is an American national park located in the western United States, largely in the northwest corner of Wyoming and extending into Montana and Idaho. It was established by the U.S. Congress and signed into law by ...
area were considered to be fictional. Robert Stuart and a party of five men, returning from
Astoria Astoria may refer to: Places United States * Astoria, Illinois * Astoria, Missouri * Astoria, Queens, neighborhood in New York City * Astoria, Oregon * Astoria, South Dakota * Astoria Township, Fulton County, Illinois Other places * Astoria ...
, discovered South Pass in 1812. The
Oregon Trail The Oregon Trail was a east–west, large-wheeled wagon route and emigrant trail in the United States that connected the Missouri River to valleys in Oregon. The eastern part of the Oregon Trail spanned part of what is now the state of Kansas ...
later followed that route. In 1850,
Jim Bridger James Felix Bridger (March 17, 1804 – July 17, 1881) was an American mountain man A mountain man is an explorer Exploration is the act of searching for the purpose of discovery of information Information can be thought of as the ...

Jim Bridger
located what is now known as Bridger Pass, which the
Union Pacific Railroad The Union Pacific Railroad , legally Union Pacific Railroad Company and simply Union Pacific, is a freight-hauling railroad that operates 8,300 locomotives over routes in 23 U.S. state In the United States The United States of A ...
used in 1868, as did
Interstate 80 Interstate 80 (I-80) is an east–west transcontinental Controlled-access highway, freeway in the United States that runs from downtown San Francisco, California, to Teaneck, New Jersey, in the New York City Metropolitan Area. The highway was des ...
, 90 years later. Bridger also explored Yellowstone and filed reports on the region that, like those of Colter, were largely regarded at the time as
tall tale A tall tale is a story with unbelievable elements, related as if it were true and factual. Some tall tales are exaggerations of actual events, for example wikt:fish story, fish stories ("the fish that got away") such as, "That fish was so big, why I ...
s. The region acquired the name ''Wyoming'' by 1865, when Representative James Mitchell Ashley of
Ohio Ohio () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Co ...

Ohio
introduced a bill to Congress to provide a "temporary government for the territory of Wyoming". The territory was named after the
Wyoming Valley The Wyoming Valley is a historic industrialized region of Northeastern Pennsylvania, once famous for fueling the industrial revolution in the United States with its many anthracite coal mines. As a metropolitan area, it is known as the Scranton/Wil ...
in Pennsylvania, made famous by the 1809 poem '' Gertrude of Wyoming'' by
Thomas CampbellThomas Campbell may refer to: Arts and entertainment * Thomas Campbell (poet) (1777–1844), Scottish poet * Thomas Campbell (sculptor) (1790–1858), Scottish sculptor * Thomas Campbell (visual artist) (born 1969), California-based visual artist ...
, based on the
Battle of Wyoming The Battle of Wyoming (also known as the Wyoming Massacre) was an encounter during the American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the Revolutionary War and the American War of Independence, was ...
in the
American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the Revolutionary War and the American War of Independence, was initiated by delegates from thirteen American colonies of British America British America comprised the colon ...
. The name ultimately derives from the
Munsee The Munsee (or Minsi or Muncee) or mə́n'si·w are a subtribe of the Lenape The Lenape (, , or Lenape ), also called the Leni Lenape, Lenni Lenape and Delaware people, are an indigenous people of the Northeastern Woodlands Indigenous peo ...
word , meaning 'at the big river flat'. The region's population grew steadily after the
Union Pacific Railroad The Union Pacific Railroad , legally Union Pacific Railroad Company and simply Union Pacific, is a freight-hauling railroad that operates 8,300 locomotives over routes in 23 U.S. state In the United States The United States of A ...
reached the town of
Cheyenne The Cheyenne ( ) are an Indigenous people of the Great Plains Plains Indians or Indigenous peoples of the Great Plains and Canadian Prairies are the Native Americans in the United States, Native American tribe (Native American), tribes and ...
in 1867, and the federal government established the
Wyoming Territory The Territory of Wyoming was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from July 25, 1868, until July 10, 1890, when it was admitted to the United States, Union as the State of Wyoming. Cheyenne, Wyoming, Cheyenne was ...
on July 25, 1868. Wyoming lacked significant deposits of gold and silver, unlike mineral-rich
Colorado Colorado (, other variants) is a state in the Mountain West The Mountain West Conference (MW) is one of the collegiate athletic conferences affiliated with the National Collegiate Athletic Association The National Collegiate Athletic ...

Colorado
, and did not experience Colorado's related population boom. However, South Pass City did have a short-lived boom after the Carissa Mine began producing gold in 1867. Furthermore, copper was mined in some areas between the Sierra Madre Mountains and the Snowy Range near Grand Encampment. Once government-sponsored expeditions to the Yellowstone country began, reports by Colter and Bridger, previously believed to be apocryphal, were found to be true. That led to the creation of
Yellowstone National Park Yellowstone National Park is an American national park#REDIRECT National park A national park is a park in use for Conservation (ethic), conservation purposes, created and protected by national governments. Often it is a reserve of natur ...

Yellowstone National Park
, which became the world's first
national park#REDIRECT National park A national park is a park in use for Conservation (ethic), conservation purposes, created and protected by national governments. Often it is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state dec ...

national park
in 1872. Nearly all of Yellowstone National Park lies within the far northwestern borders of Wyoming. On December 10, 1869, territorial Governor
John Allen Campbell John Allen Campbell (October 8, 1835July 14, 1880) was a politician and officer in the United States Army The United States Army (USA) is the land military branch, service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the eight Unifo ...

John Allen Campbell
extended the right to vote to women, making Wyoming the first territory and, later, United States state, to grant
suffrage Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise, is the right to vote in public, political elections (although the term is sometimes used for any right to vote). In some languages, and occasionally in English, the right to vote is called a ...

suffrage
to women. Wyoming was also a pioneer in welcoming women into politics. Women first served on juries in Wyoming ( Laramie in 1870). Wyoming had the first female court bailiff ( Mary Atkinson, Laramie, in 1870), and the first female
justice of the peace A justice of the peace (JP) is a judicial officer A judicial officer is a person with the responsibilities and powers to facilitate, arbitrate, preside over, and make decisions and directions in regard to the application of the law. Judicial ...
in the country (
Esther Hobart Morris Esther Hobart Morris (August 8, 1812 – April 2, 1902) was the first woman justice of the peace A justice of the peace (JP) is a judicial officer of a lower or '' puisne'' court, elected or appointed by means of a commission (letter ...
, South Pass City, in 1870). As well, in 1924, Wyoming became the first state to elect a female governor,
Nellie Tayloe Ross Nellie Davis Tayloe Ross (November 29, 1876 – December 19, 1977) was an American politician, the List of Governors of Wyoming, 14th governor of Wyoming from 1925 to 1927 and director of the United States Mint from 1933 to 1953. She was one of the ...

Nellie Tayloe Ross
, who took office in January 1925. Due to its civil-rights history, one of Wyoming's state nicknames is "The Equality State", and the official state motto is "Equal Rights". Wyoming's constitution included
women's suffrage Women's suffrage is the women's rights, right of women to Suffrage, vote in elections. Beginning in the mid-19th century, aside from the work being done by women for broad-based economic and political equality and for social reforms, women so ...
and a pioneering article on
water right Water right in water law Water (chemical formula H2O) is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and Color of water, nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere an ...
s. Congress admitted Wyoming into the Union as the 44th state on July 10, 1890. Wyoming was the location of the
Johnson County War The Johnson County War, also known as the War on Powder River and the Wyoming Range War, was a range conflict that took place in Johnson County, Wyoming Wyoming () is a state in the Mountain West region of the United States The ...
of 1892, which erupted between competing groups of cattle ranchers. The passage of the federal
Homestead Act The Homestead Acts were several laws in the United States by which an applicant could acquire ownership of government land or the public domain The public domain consists of all the creative workA creative work is a manifestation of c ...
led to an influx of small ranchers. A
range war A range war or range conflict is a type of usually violent conflict, most commonly in the 19th and early 20th centuries in the American West. The subject of these conflicts was control of " open range", or range land freely used for cattle grazing ...
broke out when either or both of the groups chose violent conflict over commercial competition in the use of the public land.


Geography


Climate

Wyoming's climate is generally
semi-arid A semi-arid climate, semi-desert climate, or steppe climate is the climate Climate is the long-term pattern of weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning ' ...
and
continental Continental may refer to: Places * Continent * Continental, Arizona, a small community in Pima County, Arizona, US * Continental, Ohio, a small town in Putnam County, US Arts and entertainment * Continental (album), ''Continental'' (album), an alb ...
(
Köppen climate classification The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by German-Russian climate science, climatologist Wladimir Köppen (1846–1940) in 1884, with several later modifications by ...
'' ''BSk''''), and is drier and windier in comparison to most of the United States with greater temperature extremes. Much of this is due to the topography of the state. Summers in Wyoming are warm with July high temperatures averaging between in most of the state. With increasing elevation, however, this average drops rapidly with locations above averaging around . Summer nights throughout the state are characterized by a rapid cooldown with even the hottest locations averaging in the range at night. In most of the state, most of the precipitation tends to fall in the late spring and early summer. Winters are cold, but are variable with periods of sometimes extreme cold interspersed between generally mild periods, with
Chinook winds Chinook winds , or simply Chinooks, are föhn winds in the interior West of North America, where the Canadian Prairies The Canadian Prairies (usually referred to as simply the Prairies in Canada) is a region in Western Canada Western Canad ...
providing unusually warm temperatures in some locations. Wyoming is a dry state with much of the land receiving less than of rainfall per year. Precipitation depends on elevation with lower areas in the
Big Horn Basin The Bighorn Basin is a plateau region and intermontane basin, approximately 100 miles (160 km) wide, in north-central Wyoming in the United States. It is bounded by the Absaroka Range on the west, the Pryor Mountains on the north, the Bighorn ...

Big Horn Basin
averaging , making the area nearly a true
desert A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and, consequently, living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life. The lack of vegetation exposes the unprotected surface of the ground to the processes of ...

desert
. The lower areas in the North and on the eastern plains typically average around , making the climate there
semi-arid A semi-arid climate, semi-desert climate, or steppe climate is the climate Climate is the long-term pattern of weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning ' ...
. Some mountain areas do receive a good amount of precipitation, or more, much of it as snow, sometimes or more annually. The state's highest recorded temperature is at Basin on July 12, 1900, and the lowest recorded temperature is at Riverside on February 9, 1933. The number of
thunderstorm A thunderstorm, also known as an electrical storm or a lightning storm, is a storm characterized by the presence of lightning and its acoustics, acoustic effect on the Earth's atmosphere, known as thunder. Relatively weak thunderstorms are s ...

thunderstorm
days vary across the state with the southeastern plains of the state having the most days of thunderstorm activity. Thunderstorm activity in the state is highest during the late spring and early summer. The southeastern corner of the state is the most vulnerable part of the state to
tornado A tornado is a violently rotating column of air that is in contact with both the surface of the Earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, the base of a cumulus cloud. It is often referred to as a twister, whirlwind or cyclone, althoug ...

tornado
activity. Moving away from that point and westwards, the incidence of tornadoes drops dramatically with the west part of the state showing little vulnerability. Tornadoes, where they occur, tend to be small and brief, unlike some of those that occur farther east.


Location and size

As specified in the designating legislation for the Territory of Wyoming, Wyoming's borders are lines of
latitude In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and planets. The first person to use the ...

latitude
41°N and , and
longitude Longitude (, ) is a geographic coordinate A geographic coordinate system (GCS) is a coordinate system associated with position (geometry), positions on Earth (geographic position). A GCS can give positions: *as Geodetic coordinates, ...

longitude
104°3'W and 111°3'W (27 and 34 west of the
Washington Meridian The Washington meridians are four meridian (geography), meridians that were used as prime meridians in the United States and pass through History of Washington, D.C., Washington, D.C. The four which have been specified are: # through the United Stat ...
)—a
geodesic In geometry Geometry (from the grc, γεωμετρία; ''wikt:γῆ, geo-'' "earth", ''wikt:μέτρον, -metron'' "measurement") is, with arithmetic, one of the oldest branches of mathematics. It is concerned with properties of space t ...

geodesic
quadrangle. Wyoming is one of only three states (the others being
Colorado Colorado (, other variants) is a state in the Mountain West The Mountain West Conference (MW) is one of the collegiate athletic conferences affiliated with the National Collegiate Athletic Association The National Collegiate Athletic ...

Colorado
and
Utah Utah ( , ) is a U.S. state, state in the Mountain states, Mountain West subregion of the Western United States. Utah is a landlocked U.S. state bordered to its east by Colorado, to its northeast by Wyoming, to its north by Idaho, to its so ...

Utah
) to have borders defined by ''only'' "straight" lines. Due to surveying inaccuracies during the 19th century, Wyoming's legal border deviates from the true
latitude In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and planets. The first person to use the ...

latitude
and
longitude Longitude (, ) is a geographic coordinate A geographic coordinate system (GCS) is a coordinate system associated with position (geometry), positions on Earth (geographic position). A GCS can give positions: *as Geodetic coordinates, ...

longitude
lines by up to half of a mile (0.8 km) in some spots, especially in the mountainous region along the . Wyoming is bordered on the north by
Montana Montana () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper ...

Montana
, on the east by
South Dakota South Dakota () (Sioux The Sioux or Oceti Sakowin (; Dakota Dakota may refer to: * Dakota people, a sub-tribe of the Sioux ** Dakota language, their language From this origin, Dakota may also refer to: Places United States * Dakot ...

South Dakota
and
Nebraska Nebraska () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper ...

Nebraska
, on the south by
Colorado Colorado (, other variants) is a state in the Mountain West The Mountain West Conference (MW) is one of the collegiate athletic conferences affiliated with the National Collegiate Athletic Association The National Collegiate Athletic ...

Colorado
, on the southwest by
Utah Utah ( , ) is a U.S. state, state in the Mountain states, Mountain West subregion of the Western United States. Utah is a landlocked U.S. state bordered to its east by Colorado, to its northeast by Wyoming, to its north by Idaho, to its so ...

Utah
, and on the west by
Idaho Idaho () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in ...

Idaho
. It is the tenth largest state in the United States in total area, containing and is made up of 23 counties. From the north border to the south border it is ; and from the east to the west border is at its south end and at the north end.


Natural landforms


Mountain ranges

The
Great Plains The Great Plains (french: Grandes Plaines), sometimes simply "the Plains", is a broad expanse of in . It is located west of the and east of the , much of it covered in , and . It is the southern and main part of the , which also include the ...
meet the
Rocky Mountains The Rocky Mountains, also known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range A mountain range is a series of mountains ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similari ...

Rocky Mountains
in Wyoming. The state is a great
plateau In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rock (geology), rocks of which it is composed, and the proces ...

plateau
broken by many
mountain range A mountain range is a series of mountains ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form, structure, and alignment that have arisen from the same cause, us ...

mountain range
s. Surface elevations range from the summit of
Gannett Peak Gannett Peak is the highest mountain peak in the U.S. state of Wyoming at . It lies in the Wind River Range within the Bridger Wilderness of the Bridger-Teton National Forest. Straddling the Continental Divide along the boundary between Fremont ...

Gannett Peak
in the Wind River Mountain Range, at , to the
Belle Fourche River 250px, A view of the upper course of the Belle Fourche River in Devils Tower National Monument The Belle Fourche River (pronounced ''bel FOOSH''; lkt, Šahíyela Wakpá) is a tributary of the Cheyenne River, approximately long, in the U.S. st ...
valley in the state's northeast corner, at . In the northwest are the Absaroka, Owl Creek,
Gros Ventre The Gros Ventre ( , ; meaning "big belly"), also known as the Aaniiih, A'aninin, Haaninin, Atsina, and White Clay, are a historically Algonquian languages, Algonquian-speaking Native Americans in the United States, Native American tribe located in ...
, Wind River, and the ranges. In the north central are the
Big Horn Mountains The Bighorn Mountains ( cro, Basawaxaawúua, lit=our mountains or cro, Iisaxpúatahchee Isawaxaawúua, label=none, lit=bighorn sheep's mountains) are a mountain range in northern Wyoming and southern Montana Montana () is a U.S. state, ...

Big Horn Mountains
; in the northeast, the
Black Hills The Black Hills ( lkt, Ȟe Sápa; chy, Moʼȯhta-voʼhonáaeva; hid, awaxaawi shiibisha) is a small and isolated mountain range A mountain range is a series of mountains ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or ...

Black Hills
; and in the southern region the Laramie, Snowy, and Sierra Madre ranges. The Snowy Range in the south central part of the state is an extension of the Colorado
Rockies The Rocky Mountains, also known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range A mountain range is a series of mountains ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similari ...

Rockies
both in geology and in appearance. The Wind River Range in the west central part of the state is remote and includes more than 40 mountain peaks in excess of tall in addition to Gannett Peak, the highest peak in the state. The Big Horn Mountains in the north central portion are somewhat isolated from the bulk of the Rocky Mountains. The Teton Range in the northwest extends for , part of which is included in
Grand Teton National Park Grand Teton National Park is an American national park A national park is a park in use for Conservation (ethic), conservation purposes, created and protected by national governments. Often it is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or develo ...

Grand Teton National Park
. The park includes the
Grand Teton Grand Teton is the highest mountain A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust, generally with steep sides that show significant exposed bedrock. A mountain differs from a plateau in having a limited summit area, and is larger th ...

Grand Teton
, the second highest peak in the state. The
Continental Divide A continental divide is a drainage divide on a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regions are commonly regarded as co ...

Continental Divide
spans north–south across the central portion of the state. Rivers east of the divide drain into the
Missouri River Basin The Missouri River Valley outlines the journey of the Missouri River from its headwaters where the Madison River, Madison, Jefferson River, Jefferson and Gallatin Rivers flow together in Montana to its confluence with the Mississippi River in the St ...
and eventually the
Gulf of Mexico The Gulf of Mexico ( es, Golfo de México) is an ocean basin 400px, Diagrammatic cross-section of an ocean basin, showing the various geographic features In hydrology Hydrology (from Greek: wikt:ὕδωρ, ὕδωρ, "hýdōr" meaning ...

Gulf of Mexico
. They are the
North Platte North is one of the four compass points The points of the compass are the vectors by which planet A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or Stellar evolution#Stellar remnants, stellar remnant that is massive enough to be Hydros ...
,
Wind Wind is the natural movement of air or other gases relative to a planet's surface. Wind occurs on a range of scales, from thunderstorm A thunderstorm, also known as an electrical storm or a lightning storm, is a storm characterized by th ...
, and the
Yellowstone Yellowstone National Park is an American national park located in the western United States, largely in the northwest corner of Wyoming and extending into Montana and Idaho. It was established by the U.S. Congress and signed into law by ...

Yellowstone
rivers. The
Snake River The Snake River is a major river of the greater Pacific Northwest region in the United States. At long, it is the largest tributary of the Columbia River, in turn the largest North American river that empties into the Pacific Ocean. The Snake Ri ...

Snake River
in northwest Wyoming eventually drains into the
Columbia River The Columbia River (Upper Chinook Upper Chinook, endonym Kiksht, also known as Columbia Chinook, and Wasco-Wishram after its last surviving dialect, is a recently extinct language of the US Pacific Northwest. It had 69 speakers in 1990, of w ...

Columbia River
and the Pacific Ocean, as does the Green River through the
Colorado River The Colorado River ( es, Río Colorado) is one of the principal rivers (along with the Rio Grande) in the Southwestern United States and northern Mexico. The river drains an expansive, arid drainage basin, watershed that encompasses parts of ...

Colorado River
Basin. The Continental Divide forks in the south central part of the state in an area known as the
Great Divide Basin The Great Divide Basin or Great Divide Closed Basin is an area of land in the Red Desert of Wyoming Wyoming () is a state in the Mountain West region of the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the ...
where water that precipitates onto or flows into it cannot reach an ocean—it ''all'' sinks into the soil and eventually evaporates. Several rivers begin in or flow through the state, including the Yellowstone River, Bighorn River, Green River, and the Snake River.


Basins

Much of Wyoming is covered with large basins containing different eco-regions, from shrublands to smaller patches of desert. Regions of the state classified as basins contain everything from large geologic formations to sand dunes and vast unpopulated spaces. Basin landscapes are typically at lower elevations and include rolling hills, valleys, mesas, terraces and other rugged terrain, but also include natural springs as well as rivers and artificial reservoirs. They have common plant species such as various subspecies of
sagebrush Sagebrush is the common name of several woody and herbaceous species of plants in the genus ''Artemisia (genus), Artemisia''. The best known sagebrush is the shrub ''Artemisia tridentata''. Sagebrushes are native to the North American west. F ...
,
juniper Junipers are conifer Conifers are a group of conifer cone, cone-bearing Spermatophyte, seed plants, a subset of gymnosperms. Scientifically, they make up the phylum, division Pinophyta (), also known as Coniferophyta () or Coniferae. The divi ...

juniper
and grasses such as
wheatgrass Wheatgrass is the freshly sprouted first leaves of the common wheat plant (''Triticum aestivum''), used as a food, drink, or dietary supplement. Wheatgrass is served freeze dried or fresh, and so it differs from wheat malt Malt is germina ...
, but basins are known for their diversity of plant and animal species.


Islands

Wyoming has 32 named islands; the majority are in Jackson Lake and
Yellowstone Lake Yellowstone Lake is the largest body of water in Yellowstone National Park. The lake is above sea level and covers with of shoreline. While the average depth of the lake is , its greatest depth is at least . Yellowstone Lake is the largest fresh ...

Yellowstone Lake
, within
Yellowstone National Park Yellowstone National Park is an American national park#REDIRECT National park A national park is a park in use for Conservation (ethic), conservation purposes, created and protected by national governments. Often it is a reserve of natur ...

Yellowstone National Park
in the northwest portion of the state. The Green River in the southwest also contains a number of islands.


Regions and administrative divisions


Counties

The state of Wyoming has 23
counties A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposes Chambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations. The term is derived from the Old French ...
. Wyoming license plates have a number on the left that indicates the county where the vehicle is registered, ranked by an earlier census. Specifically, the numbers are representative of the property values of the counties in 1930. The county license plate numbers are:


Cities and towns

The State of Wyoming has 99 incorporated municipalities. In 2005, 50.6% of Wyomingites lived in one of the 13 most populous Wyoming municipalities.


Metropolitan areas

The
United States Census Bureau The United States Census Bureau (USCB), officially the Bureau of the Census, is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, ...
has defined two
Metropolitan Statistical Areas In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washi ...
(MSA) and seven Micropolitan Statistical Areas (MiSA) for the State of Wyoming. In 2008, 30.4% of Wyomingites lived in either of the
Metropolitan Statistical Areas In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washi ...
, and 73% lived in either a
Metropolitan Statistical Area #REDIRECT Metropolitan statistical area#REDIRECT Metropolitan statistical area In the United States, a metropolitan statistical area (MSA) is a geographical region with a relatively high population density at its core and close economic ties throu ...
or a Micropolitan Statistical Area.


Economy and infrastructure

According to the 2012 United States Bureau of Economic Analysis report, Wyoming's
gross state product Gross regional domestic product (GRDP), gross domestic product of region (GDPR), or gross state product (GSP) is a statistic that measures the size of a region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( ...
was $38.4 billion. As of 2014 the population was growing slightly with the most growth in tourist-oriented areas such as Teton County. Boom conditions in neighboring states such as
North Dakota North Dakota () is a U.S. state In the , a state is a , of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a , each state holds al jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory where it shares its with the . Due to th ...
were drawing energy workers away. About half of Wyoming's counties showed population losses. The state makes active efforts through Wyoming Grown, an internet-based recruitment program, to find jobs for young people educated in Wyoming who have emigrated but may wish to return. The mineral extraction industry and travel and tourism sector are the main drivers behind Wyoming's economy. The federal government owns about 50% of its landmass, while 6% is controlled by the state. Total taxable values of mining production in Wyoming for 2001 was over $6.7 billion. The
tourism industry at the archaeological site An archaeological site is a place (or group of physical sites) in which evidence of past activity is preserved (either prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history ...

tourism industry
accounts for over $2 billion in revenue for the state. In 2002, more than six million people visited Wyoming's
national park#REDIRECT National park A national park is a park in use for Conservation (ethic), conservation purposes, created and protected by national governments. Often it is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state dec ...

national park
s and monuments. The key tourist attractions in Wyoming include
Grand Teton National Park Grand Teton National Park is an American national park A national park is a park in use for Conservation (ethic), conservation purposes, created and protected by national governments. Often it is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or develo ...

Grand Teton National Park
,
Yellowstone National Park Yellowstone National Park is an American national park#REDIRECT National park A national park is a park in use for Conservation (ethic), conservation purposes, created and protected by national governments. Often it is a reserve of natur ...

Yellowstone National Park
,
Devils Tower National Monument Devils Tower (also known as Bear Lodge Butte) is a butte, possibly laccolith, laccolithic, composed of igneous rock in the Bear Lodge Ranger District of the Black Hills, near Hulett, Wyoming, Hulett and Sundance, Wyoming, Sundance in Crook Count ...

Devils Tower National Monument
, Independence Rock and
Fossil Butte National Monument File:Trionychidae FBNM.jpg, This 1.7-meter (5 foot 6 inch) ''Axestemys byssinus'' is one of the largest turtles known from Fossil Lake. Fossil Butte National Monument is a United States National Monument managed by the National Park Service, loca ...

Fossil Butte National Monument
. Each year Yellowstone National Park, the world's first national park, receives three million visitors. Historically, agriculture has been an important component of Wyoming's economy. Its overall importance to the performance of Wyoming's economy has waned. However, agriculture is still an essential part of Wyoming's culture and lifestyle. The main agricultural commodities produced in Wyoming include livestock (beef),
hay Hay is grass Poaceae () or Gramineae () is a large and nearly ubiquitous family In human society, family (from la, familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth) or affinity (by marriage or ...

hay
,
sugar beets A sugar beet is a plant whose root contains a high concentration of sucrose Sucrose is a type of sugar Sugar is the generic name for Sweetness, sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. Table sugar, granulated ...

sugar beets
, grain (wheat and barley), and
wool Wool is the textile A textile is a flexible material made by creating an interlocking bundle of yarn Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitti ...
. More than 91% of land in Wyoming is classified as rural. Wyoming is the home of only a handful of companies with a regional or national presence.
Taco John's Taco John's is a Cheyenne, Wyoming Cheyenne ( or ) is the capital and most populous city, with 65,132 residents, of the U.S. state of Wyoming. It is the principal city of the Cheyenne metropolitan area, Cheyenne metropolitan statistical area wh ...
and
Sierra Trading Post Sierra (formerly Sierra Trading Post) is an online and brick-and-mortar retailer of off-price merchandise operated by the TJX Companies. The Cheyenne, Wyoming–based company offers products in categories such as outdoor recreation, fitness and a ...
, both in Cheyenne, are privately held.
Cloud Peak Energy Cloud Peak Energy Inc. is a company headquartered in Gillette, Wyoming which mines coal in the Powder River Basin. The company was formed as a corporate spin-off from Rio Tinto Energy America in 2009. In its 2009 Annual Report Rio Tinto stated tha ...
in Gillette and U.S. Energy Corp. (NASDAQ: USEG) in Riverton are Wyoming's only publicly traded companies.


Mineral and energy production

Wyoming's mineral commodities include coal, natural gas, coalbed methane, crude oil, uranium, and
trona Trona (trisodium hydrogendicarbonate dihydrate In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the Chemical element, elements that make up matter to th ...
. * Coal: Wyoming produced 277 million short tons (251.29 million metric tons) of coal in 2019 which was a 9 percent drop from the year before. Wyoming's coal production peaked in 2008 when 514 million short tons (466.3 million metric tons) was produced. Wyoming possesses a reserve of 68.7 billion tons (62.3 billion metric tons) of coal. Major coal areas include the Powder River Basin and the Green River Basin. * Coalbed methane (CBM): The boom for CBM began in the mid-1990s. CBM is characterized as methane gas that is extracted from Wyoming's coal bed seams. It is another means of natural gas production. There has been substantial CBM production in the Powder River Basin. In 2002, the CBM production yield was 327.5 billion cubic feet (9.3 km3). * Crude oil: Wyoming produced of crude oil in 2007. The state ranked fifth nationwide in oil production in 2007. Petroleum is most often used as a motor fuel, but it is also utilized in the manufacture of plastics, paints, and synthetic rubber. * Diamonds: The Kelsey Lake Diamond Mine, located in Colorado less than from the Wyoming border, produced gem quality diamonds for several years. The Wyoming craton, which hosts the kimberlite volcanic pipes that were mined, underlies most of Wyoming. * Natural gas: Wyoming produced 1.77 trillion cubic feet (50.0 billion m3) of natural gas in 2016. The state ranked 6th nationwide for natural gas production in 2016. The major markets for natural gas include industrial, commercial, and domestic heating. * Trona: Wyoming possesses the world's largest known reserve of
trona Trona (trisodium hydrogendicarbonate dihydrate In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the Chemical element, elements that make up matter to th ...
, a mineral used for manufacturing glass, paper, soaps, baking soda, water softeners, and pharmaceuticals. In 2008, Wyoming produced 46 million short tons (41.7 million metric tons) of trona, 25% of the world's production. * Wind power: Because of Wyoming's geography and high-altitude, the potential for wind power in Wyoming is one of the highest of any state in the US. The Chokecherry and Sierra Madre Wind Energy Project is the largest commercial wind generation facility under development in North America. Carbon County, Wyoming, Carbon County is home to the largest proposed wind farm in the US. However, construction plans have been halted because of proposed new taxes on wind power energy production. * Uranium: Although uranium mining in Wyoming is much less active than it was in previous decades, recent increases in the price of uranium have generated new interest in uranium prospecting and mining.


Taxes

Unlike most other states, Wyoming does not levy an individual or corporate income tax. In addition, Wyoming does not assess any tax on retirement income earned and received from another state. Wyoming has a state sales tax of 4%. Counties have the option of collecting an additional 1% tax for general revenue and a 1% tax for specific purposes, if approved by voters. Food for human consumption is not subject to sales tax. There also is a county lodging tax that varies from 2% to 5%. The state collects a use tax of 5% on items purchased elsewhere and brought into Wyoming. All property tax is based on the assessed value of the property and Wyoming's Department of Revenue's Ad Valorem Tax Division supports, trains, and guides local government agencies in the uniform assessment, valuation and taxation of locally assessed property. "Assessed value" means taxable value; "taxable value" means a percent of the fair market value of property in a particular class. Statutes limit property tax increases. For county revenue, the property tax rate cannot exceed 12 Mill (currency), mills (or 1.2%) of assessed value. For cities and towns, the rate is limited to eight Mill (currency), mills (0.8%). With very few exceptions, state law limits the property tax rate for all governmental purposes. Personal property held for personal use is tax-exempt. Inventory if held for resale, pollution control equipment, cash, accounts receivable, stocks and bonds are also exempt. Other exemptions include property used for religious, educational, charitable, fraternal, benevolent and government purposes and improvements for handicapped access. Mine lands, underground mining equipment, and oil and gas extraction equipment are exempt from property tax but companies must pay a gross products tax on minerals and a severance tax on mineral production. Wyoming does not collect inheritance taxes. There is limited estate tax related to federal estate tax collection. In 2008, the Tax Foundation ranked Wyoming as having the single most "business friendly" tax climate of all 50 states. Wyoming state and local governments in fiscal year 2007 collected $2.242 billion in taxes, levies, and royalties from the oil and gas industry. The state's mineral industry, including oil, gas,
trona Trona (trisodium hydrogendicarbonate dihydrate In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the Chemical element, elements that make up matter to th ...
, and coal provided $1.3 billion in property taxes from 2006 mineral production. As of 2017, Wyoming receives more federal tax dollars as a percentage of state general revenue than any state except neighboring
Montana Montana () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper ...

Montana
. As of 2016, Wyoming does not require the beneficial owners of LLCs to be disclosed in the filing, which creates an opportunity for a tax haven, according to Clark Stith of Clark Stith & Associates in Rock Springs, Wyoming, a former Republican candidate for Wyoming secretary of state.


Transportation

The largest airport in Wyoming is Jackson Hole Airport, with more than 500 employees. Three interstate highways and thirteen United States highways pass through Wyoming. In addition, the state is served by the State highways in Wyoming, Wyoming state highway system. Interstate 25 in Wyoming, Interstate 25 enters the state south of Cheyenne and runs north, intersecting Interstate 80 immediately west of Cheyenne. It passes through Casper and ends at Interstate 90 near Buffalo, Wyoming, Buffalo.
Interstate 80 Interstate 80 (I-80) is an east–west transcontinental Controlled-access highway, freeway in the United States that runs from downtown San Francisco, California, to Teaneck, New Jersey, in the New York City Metropolitan Area. The highway was des ...
crosses the Utah border west of Evanston, Wyoming, Evanston and runs east through the southern third of the state, passing through Cheyenne before entering Nebraska near Pine Bluffs, Wyoming, Pine Bluffs. Interstate 90 in Wyoming, Interstate 90 comes into Wyoming near Parkman, Wyoming, Parkman and cuts through the northeastern part of the state. It serves Gillette, Wyoming, Gillette and enters South Dakota east of Sundance, Wyoming, Sundance. U.S. Routes U.S. Route 14, 14, U.S. Route 16, 16, and U.S. Route 20#Eastern Section, the eastern section of U.S. 20 all have their western terminus at the eastern entrance to Yellowstone National Park and pass through Cody, Wyoming, Cody. U.S. 14 travels eastward before joining I-90 at Gillette, Wyoming, Gillette. U.S. 14 then follows I-90 to the South Dakota border. U.S. 16 and 20 split off of U.S. 14 at Greybull, Wyoming, Greybull and U.S. 16 turns east at Worland, Wyoming, Worland while U.S. 20 continues south Shoshoni, Wyoming, Shoshoni. U.S. Route 287 carries traffic from Fort Collins, Colorado into Laramie, Wyoming through a pass between the Laramie Mountains and the Medicine Bow Mountains, merges with US 30 and I-80 until it reaches Rawlins, where it continues north, passing Lander. Outside of Moran, Wyoming, Moran, U.S. 287 is part of a large interchange with U.S. Highways 26, 191, and 89, before continuing north to the southern entrance of Yellowstone. U.S. 287 continues north of Yellowstone, but the two sections are separated by the national park. Other United States Numbered Highways, U.S. highways that pass through the state are U.S. Highway 18 (Wyoming), 18, U.S. Highway 26 (Wyoming), 26, U.S. Highway 30 (Wyoming), 30, U.S. Highway 85 (Wyoming), 85, U.S. Highway 87 (Wyoming), 87, U.S. Highway 89 (Wyoming), 89, U.S. Highway 189 (Wyoming), 189, U.S. Highway 191 (Wyoming), 191, U.S. Highway 212 (Wyoming), 212, and U.S. Highway 287 (Wyoming), 287. Wyoming is one of only two states (
South Dakota South Dakota () (Sioux The Sioux or Oceti Sakowin (; Dakota Dakota may refer to: * Dakota people, a sub-tribe of the Sioux ** Dakota language, their language From this origin, Dakota may also refer to: Places United States * Dakot ...

South Dakota
) in the 48 contiguous states not served by Amtrak. It was once served by Amtrak's San Francisco Zephyr and Pioneer (Amtrak), Pioneer lines.


Major interstates

* (300.5 mi): connects Denver,
Cheyenne The Cheyenne ( ) are an Indigenous people of the Great Plains Plains Indians or Indigenous peoples of the Great Plains and Canadian Prairies are the Native Americans in the United States, Native American tribe (Native American), tribes and ...
, Casper, Wyoming, Casper and Buffalo, Wyoming, Buffalo. Most of the highway is connected with U.S. Route 87, US 87. Major junctions include
Interstate 80 Interstate 80 (I-80) is an east–west transcontinental Controlled-access highway, freeway in the United States that runs from downtown San Francisco, California, to Teaneck, New Jersey, in the New York City Metropolitan Area. The highway was des ...
, U.S. Route 30, US 30, U.S. Route 85, US 85, U.S. Route 26, US 26, US Routes U.S. Route 18, 18 & U.S. Route 20, 20 and U.S. Route 16, US 16 before its northern terminus at Interstate 90 in Wyoming, Interstate 90 in Buffalo. * (402.8 mi): connects Evanston, Wyoming, Evanston, Rock Springs, Wyoming, Rock Springs, Rawlins, Wyoming, Rawlins, Laramie and
Cheyenne The Cheyenne ( ) are an Indigenous people of the Great Plains Plains Indians or Indigenous peoples of the Great Plains and Canadian Prairies are the Native Americans in the United States, Native American tribe (Native American), tribes and ...
. Major junctions include U.S. Route 191, US 191, U.S. Route 287, US 287, Interstate 25 in Wyoming, I-25, and U.S. Route 85, US 85 & Interstate 180 (Wyoming), I-180. * (208.8 mi): connects Sheridan, Wyoming, Sheridan, Buffalo, Wyoming, Buffalo and Gillette, Wyoming, Gillette. Primarily in northeastern Wyoming. Major junctions include U.S. Route 14, US 14, Interstate 25 in Wyoming, I-25 and U.S. Route 16, US 16.


Wind River Indian Reservation

The Wind River Indian Reservation is shared by the Shoshone, Eastern Shoshone and Arapaho, Northern Arapaho tribes of Native Americans in the central western portion of the state near Lander, Wyoming, Lander. The reservation is home to 2,500 Eastern Shoshone and 5,000 Northern Arapaho. Chief Washakie established the reservation in 1868Background of Wind River Reservation
as the result of negotiations with the federal government in the Fort Bridger Treaty. PBS. Independent Lens However, the Northern Arapaho were forced onto the Shoshone reservation in 1876 by the federal government after the government failed to provide a promised separate reservation. Today the Wind River Indian Reservation is jointly owned, with each tribe having a 50% interest in the land, water, and other natural resources. The reservation is a sovereign, self-governed land with two independent governing bodies: the Eastern Shoshone Tribe and the Northern Arapaho Tribe. Until 2014, the Shoshone Business Council and Northern Arapaho Business Council met jointly as the Joint Business Council to decide matters that affect both tribes. Six elected council members from each tribe served on the joint council.


Public lands

Nearly half the land in Wyoming (about ) is owned by the
federal government A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of Institutionalisation, institutionalized ...
; the state owns another .MainEnvironment.org
Public Land Ownership by State, 1995 Main Environment.org
Most of it is administered by the Bureau of Land Management and United States Forest Service, U.S. Forest Service in numerous United States National Forest, national forests and a United States National Grassland, national grassland, not to mention vast swaths of "public" land and an Francis E. Warren Air Force Base, air force base near Cheyenne. There are also areas managed by the National Park Service and agencies such as the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. :National parks *
Grand Teton National Park Grand Teton National Park is an American national park A national park is a park in use for Conservation (ethic), conservation purposes, created and protected by national governments. Often it is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or develo ...

Grand Teton National Park
*
Yellowstone National Park Yellowstone National Park is an American national park#REDIRECT National park A national park is a park in use for Conservation (ethic), conservation purposes, created and protected by national governments. Often it is a reserve of natur ...

Yellowstone National Park
—first designated national park in the world :Memorial parkway * The John D. Rockefeller Jr. Memorial Parkway connects Yellowstone and Grand Teton. :National recreation areas * Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area * Flaming Gorge National Recreation Area (managed by the Forest Service as part of Ashley National Forest) :National monuments * Devils Tower, Devils Tower National Monument—first national monument in the U.S. *
Fossil Butte National Monument File:Trionychidae FBNM.jpg, This 1.7-meter (5 foot 6 inch) ''Axestemys byssinus'' is one of the largest turtles known from Fossil Lake. Fossil Butte National Monument is a United States National Monument managed by the National Park Service, loca ...

Fossil Butte National Monument
:National historic trails, landmarks and sites * California Trail, California National Historic Trail * Fort Laramie National Historic Site * Independence Rock (Wyoming), Independence Rock National Historic Landmark * Medicine Wheel/Medicine Mountain National Historic Landmark * Mormon Trail, Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail * National Register of Historic Places listings in Wyoming * Oregon Trail, Oregon National Historic Trail * Pony Express, Pony Express National Historic Trail :National fish hatcheries * Jackson National Fish Hatchery * Saratoga National Fish Hatchery :National wildlife refuges * National Elk Refuge * Seedskadee National Wildlife Refuge File:Castle Geyser (3678669019).jpg,
Yellowstone National Park Yellowstone National Park is an American national park#REDIRECT National park A national park is a park in use for Conservation (ethic), conservation purposes, created and protected by national governments. Often it is a reserve of natur ...

Yellowstone National Park
File:A110, Devils Tower National Monument, Wyoming, USA, 2004.jpg, Devils Tower, Devils Tower National Monument File:Thunder Basin National Grassland Douglas.jpg, Thunder Basin National Grassland File:Seedskadee nwr sunset.jpg, Seedskadee National Wildlife Refuge


Demographics


Population

The
United States Census Bureau The United States Census Bureau (USCB), officially the Bureau of the Census, is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, ...
estimates the population of Wyoming was 578,759 in 2019, The center of population of Wyoming is in Natrona County, Wyoming, Natrona County. In 2014, the United States Census Bureau estimated the population's racial composition was 92.7% White American, white (82.9% non-Hispanic white), 2.7% American Indian and Alaska Native, 1.6% Black or African American, 1.0% Asian American, and 0.1% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander. As of 2011, 24.9% of Wyoming's population younger than age1 were minorities. According to the 2010 census, the racial composition of the population was 90.7% white, 0.8% black or African American, 2.4% American Indian and Alaska Native, 0.8% Asian American, 0.1% Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander, 2.2% from two or more races, and 3.0% from some other race. Ethnically, 8.9% of the total population was of Hispanic and Latino Americans, Hispanic or Latino origin (they may be of any race) and 91.1% Non-Hispanic, with non-Hispanic whites constituting the largest non-Hispanic group at 85.9%. As of 2015, Wyoming had an estimated population of 586,107, which was an increase of 1,954, or 0.29%, from the prior year and an increase of 22,481, or 3.99%, since the 2010 United States Census, 2010 census. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 12,165 (33,704 births minus 21,539 deaths) and an increase from net migration of 4,035 into the state. Immigration resulted in a net increase of 2,264 and migration within the country produced a net increase of 1,771. In 2004, the foreign-born population was 11,000 (2.2%). In 2005, total births in Wyoming were 7,231 (birth rate of 14.04 per thousand). Sparsely populated, Wyoming is the least populous state of the United States. Wyoming has the second-lowest population density in the country (behind Alaska) and is the sparsest-populated of the 48 contiguous states. It is one of only two states (Vermont) with a population smaller than that of the nation's capital. According to the 2000 census, the largest ancestry groups in Wyoming are: German-American, German (26.0%), English American, English (16.0%), Irish American, Irish (13.3%), Norwegian-American, Norwegian (4.3%), and Swedish Americans, Swedish (3.5%).


Birth data

''Note: Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.'' * Since 2016, data for births of White Hispanic and Latino Americans, White Hispanic origin are not collected, but included in one ''Hispanic'' group; persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.


Government and politics


State government

Wyoming's Constitution established three branches of government: the List of Governors of Wyoming, executive, Wyoming Legislature, legislative, and Wyoming Supreme Court, judicial branches. The Wyoming State Legislature, state legislature comprises a Wyoming House of Representatives, House of Representatives with 60 members and a Wyoming Senate, Senate with 30 members. The executive branch is headed by the Governor of Wyoming, governor and includes a Secretary of State of Wyoming, secretary of state, Wyoming State Auditor, auditor, treasurer and superintendent of public instruction. As Wyoming does not have a Lieutenant governor (United States)#Wyoming, lieutenant governor, the secretary of state is first in the line of succession. Wyoming's sparse population warrants it only one at-large seat in the United States House of Representatives, U.S. House of Representatives, and hence only three votes in the Electoral College (United States), Electoral College. The Wyoming State Liquor Association is the state's sole legal wholesale distributor of spirits, making it an alcoholic beverage control state. With the exception of wine, state law prohibits the purchase of alcoholic beverages for resale from any other source.


Judicial system

Wyoming's highest court is the Supreme Court of Wyoming, with five justices presiding over appeals from the state's lower courts. Wyoming is unusual in that it does not have an intermediate appellate court, like most states. This is largely attributable to the state's population and correspondingly lower caseload. Appeals from the state district courts go directly to the Wyoming Supreme Court. Wyoming also has state circuit courts (formerly county courts), of limited jurisdiction, which handle certain types of cases, such as civil claims with lower dollar amounts, misdemeanor criminal offenses, and felony arraignments. Circuit court judges also commonly hear small claims cases as well. Before 1972, Wyoming judges were selected by popular vote on a nonpartisan ballot. This earlier system was criticized by the state bar who called for the adoption of the Missouri Plan, a system designed to balance judiciary independence with judiciary accountability. In 1972, an amendment to Article5 of the Wyoming Constitution, which incorporated a modified version of the plan, was adopted by the voters. Since the adoption of the amendment, all state court judges in Wyoming are nominated by the Judicial Nominating Commission and appointed by the Governor. They are then subject to a retention vote by the electorate one year after appointment.


Political history

Wyoming's political history defies easy classification. The state was the first to grant women the right to vote and to elect a woman governor. On December 10, 1869,
John Allen Campbell John Allen Campbell (October 8, 1835July 14, 1880) was a politician and officer in the United States Army The United States Army (USA) is the land military branch, service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the eight Unifo ...

John Allen Campbell
, the first Governor of the Wyoming Territory, approved the first law in United States history explicitly granting women the right to vote. This day was later commemorated as Wyoming Day. On November 5, 1889, voters approved the first constitution in the world granting full voting rights to women. While the state elected notable Democratic Party (United States), Democrats to federal office in the 1960s and 1970s, politics have become decidedly more conservative since the 1980s as the Republican Party (United States), Republican Party came to dominate the state's congressional delegation. Today, Wyoming is represented in Washington by its two Senators, John Barrasso and Cynthia Lummis, and its one member of the House of Representatives, Congresswoman Liz Cheney. All three are Republicans; a Democrat has not represented Wyoming in the Senate since 1977 or in the House since 1978. The state has not voted for a Democrat for president since 1964, one of only eight times since statehood. At present, there is only one relatively reliably Democratic county, affluent Teton County, Wyoming, Teton, and one swing county, college county Albany County, Wyoming, Albany. In the 2004 presidential election, George W. Bush won his second-largest victory, with 69% of the vote. Former Vice President Dick Cheney is a Wyoming resident and represented the state in Congress from 1979 to 1989. Republicans are no less dominant at the state level. They have held a majority in the state senate continuously since 1936 and in the state house since 1964. However, Democrats held the governor of Wyoming, governorship for all but eight years between 1975 and 2011. Uniquely, Wyoming elected Democrat
Nellie Tayloe Ross Nellie Davis Tayloe Ross (November 29, 1876 – December 19, 1977) was an American politician, the List of Governors of Wyoming, 14th governor of Wyoming from 1925 to 1927 and director of the United States Mint from 1933 to 1953. She was one of the ...

Nellie Tayloe Ross
as the first woman in United States history to serve as state governor. She served from 1925 to 1927, winning a special election after her husband, William Bradford Ross, unexpectedly died a little more than a year into his term.


Culture


Languages

In 2010, 93.39% (474,343) of Wyomingites over the age of5 spoke English language, English as their primary language. 4.47% (22,722) spoke Spanish language, Spanish, 0.35% (1,771) spoke German language, German, and 0.28% (1,434) spoke French language, French. Other common non-English languages included Algonquian languages, Algonquian (0.18%), Russian language, Russian (0.10%), Tagalog language, Tagalog, and Greek language, Greek (both 0.09%). In 2007, the American Community Survey reported 6.2% (30,419) of Wyoming's population over five spoke a language other than English at home. Of those, 68.1% were able to speak English very well, 16.0% spoke English well, 10.9% did not speak English well, and 5.0% did not speak English at all.


Religion

According to a 2013 Gallup Poll, the religious affiliations of the people of Wyoming were: 49% Protestant, 23% Nonreligious or Other, 18% Catholicism in the United States, Catholic, 9% Latter-day Saint (Mormons) and less than 1% Jewish. A 2010 ARDA report recognized as the largest denominations in Wyoming the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) with 62,804 (11%), the Catholicism in the United States, Catholic Church with 61,222 (10.8%) and the Southern Baptist Convention with 15,812 adherents (2.8%). The same report counted 59,247 Evangelicalism, Evangelical Protestants (10.5%), 36,539 Mainline Protestants (6.5%), 785 Eastern Orthodox Church, Eastern Orthodox Christians; 281 Black church, Black Protestants, as well as 65,000 adhering to other traditions and 340,552 not claiming any religious tradition.


Sports

Due to its sparse population, Wyoming lacks any major professional sports teams. However, the Wyoming Cowboys and Cowgirls—particularly the football and basketball teams—are quite popular. Their stadiums in Laramie are about 7,200 feet (2,200 m) above sea level, the highest in NCAA Division I, NCAA DivisionI. The Wyoming High School Activities Association also sponsors twelve sports. Casper, Wyoming, Casper has hosted the College National Finals Rodeo since 2001.


State symbols

List of all Wyoming state symbols: * List of U.S. state birds, State bird: western meadowlark (''Sturnella neglecta'') * State coin: Sacagawea dollar * State dinosaur: ''Triceratops'' * State emblem: Bucking Horse and Rider * State fish: cutthroat trout (''Oncorhynchus clarki'') * Flags of the U.S. states, State flag: Flag of the State of Wyoming * List of U.S. state flowers, State flower: Castilleja linariifolia, Wyoming Indian paintbrush (''Castilleja linariifolia'') * State fossil: ''Knightia'' * List of U.S. state minerals, rocks, stones and gemstones, State gemstone: Nephrite, Wyoming nephrite jade * List of U.S. state grasses, State grass: Pascopyrum, western wheatgrass (''Pascopyrum smithii'') * List of U.S. state insects, State insect: Callophrys sheridanii, Sheridan's green hairstreak butterfly (''Callophrys sheridanii'') * List of U.S. state mammals, State mammal: American bison (''Bison bison'') * List of U.S. state mottos, State motto: ''Equal Rights (motto), Equal Rights'' * List of U.S. state nicknames, State nicknames: Equality State; Cowboy State; Big Wyoming * State reptile: horned lizard (''Phrynosoma douglassi brevirostre'') * Seals of the U.S. states, State seal: Great Seal of the State of Wyoming * List of U.S. state songs, State song: "Wyoming (song), Wyoming" by Charles E. Winter & George E. Knapp * List of U.S. state sports, State sport: rodeo * List of U.S. state trees, State tree: plains cottonwood (''Populus sargentii'')


Education

Public education is directed by the state superintendent of public instruction, an elected state official. Educational policies are set by the State Board of Education, a nine-member board appointed by the governor. The constitution prohibits the state from establishing curriculum and textbook selections; these are the prerogatives of local school boards. The Wyoming School for the Deaf was the only in-state school dedicated to supporting deaf students in Wyoming before its closure in the summer of 2000.


Higher education

Wyoming has one public four-year institution, the University of Wyoming in Laramie and one private four-year college, Wyoming Catholic College, in Lander, Wyoming, Lander, Wyoming. There are also seven two-year community colleges in the state. Before the passing of a new law in 2006, Wyoming had hosted unaccredited institutions, many of them suspected diploma mills. The 2006 law requires unaccredited institutions to make one of three choices: move out of Wyoming, close down, or apply for accreditation. The Oregon State Office of Degree Authorization predicted in 2007 that in a few years the problem of diploma mills in Wyoming might be resolved.


Media

Wyoming's media market consists of 16 broadcast TV stations, radio stations and dozens of small to medium-sized newspapers. There are also a few small independent news sources such as Wyofile.com, a non-profit news site and Oil City News.


See also

*Bibliography of Wyoming history *Index of Wyoming-related articles *Outline of Wyoming * ''''


Notes


References


External links


State of Wyoming government official website

Official Wyoming State Travel Website

Wyoming State Facts from USDA
* * {{coord, 42.9957, -107.5512, dim:300000_region:US-WY_type:adm1st, name=State of Wyoming, display=title Wyoming, 1890 establishments in the United States States and territories established in 1890 States of the United States Western United States Contiguous United States