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According to the
gospels Gospel originally meant the Christian message ("the gospel"), but in the 2nd century it came to be used also for the books in which the message was set out. In this sense a gospel can be defined as a loose-knit, episodic narrative of the words and ...
of Matthew and Luke in the
New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second division of the Christian biblical canon. It discusses the teachings and person of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus, as w ...

New Testament
, Mary; arc, ܡܪܝܡ, translit=Mariam; ar, مريم, translit=Maryam; el, Μαρία, translit=María; la, Maria; cop, Ⲙⲁⲣⲓⲁ, translit=Maria; also known by various titles, styles and honorifics was a first-century
Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ) is an international standard are technical standards developed by international organizations (intergovernmental organizations), suc ...

Jewish
woman of
Nazareth Nazareth ( ; ar, النَّاصِرَة, ''an-Nāṣira''; he, נָצְרַת, ''Nāṣəraṯ''; arc, ܢܨܪܬ, ''Naṣrath'') is the largest Cities in Israel, city in the Northern District (Israel), Northern District of Israel. Nazareth i ...

Nazareth
, the wife of
Joseph Joseph is a common masculine given name, derived from the Hebrew Yosef (יוֹסֵף). The form "Joseph" is used mostly in English, French and partially German-speaking (alongside "Josef") countries. This spelling is also found as a variant in th ...

Joseph
, and the mother of
Jesus Jesus, likely from he, יֵשׁוּעַ, translit=Yēšūaʿ, label= Hebrew/ Aramaic ( AD 30 / 33), also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus Christ, is the central figure of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, ...

Jesus
. Both the
New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second division of the Christian biblical canon. It discusses the teachings and person of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus, as w ...

New Testament
and the
Quran The Quran (, ; ar, القرآن , "the recitation"), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text Religious texts are texts related to a religious tradition. They differ from literary texts by being a compilation or di ...

Quran
describe Mary as a
virgin Virginity is the state of a person who has never engaged in sexual intercourse. The term ''virgin'' originally only referred to sexually inexperienced women, but has evolved to encompass a range of definitions, as found in traditional, modern a ...

virgin
. According to
Christian theology #REDIRECT Christian theology Christian theology is the theology of Christianity, Christian belief and practice. * help them better understand Christian tenets * make comparative religion, comparisons between Christianity and other traditions * C ...
, Mary conceived Jesus through the
Holy Spirit In Abrahamic religions, the Holy Spirit is an aspect or agent of God in Abrahamic religions, God, by means of which God communicates with people or acts on them. In Judaism, it refers to the divine force, quality, and influence of God over the ...
while still a virgin, and accompanied Joseph to
Bethlehem Bethlehem (; ar, بيت لحم , "House of Meat"; he, בֵּית לֶחֶם ', , "House of Bread"; ; la, Bethleem; initially named after Canaanite fertility god Laḫmu) is a city in the central West Bank, State of Palestine, Palestine, a ...

Bethlehem
, where Jesus was born.Ruiz, Jean-Pierre. "Between the Crèche and the Cross: Another Look at the Mother of Jesus in the New Testament". ''New Theology Review''; Aug. 2010, Vol. 23, Issue 3, pp. 3–4 Mary has been venerated since
early Christianity The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion Christianity is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religi ...
,Burke, Raymond L.; et al. (2008). ''Mariology: A Guide for Priests, Deacons, Seminarians, and Consecrated Persons'' page 178''Mary for evangelicals'' by Tim S. Perry, William J. Abraham 2006 page 142 and is considered by millions to be the holiest and greatest
saint In religious belief, a saint is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of Q-D-Š, holiness, likeness, or closeness to God. However, the use of the term ''saint'' depends on the context and Christian denomination, denominatio ...

saint
because of her extraordinary virtues as seen at the
Annunciation The Annunciation (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power o ...

Annunciation
by the
archangel An archangel is an angel An angel is a supernatural spiritual being who, according to various religions, is God's servant. Abrahamic religions often depict angels as wikt:benevolent, benevolent celestial intermediaries between God ( ...

archangel
Gabriel In the Abrahamic religions The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of -originated s that claim descent from the of the ancient and the worship of the . The Ab ...

Gabriel
. She is said to have miraculously appeared to believers many times over the centuries. The
Eastern Eastern may refer to: Transportation *China Eastern Airlines, a current Chinese airline based in Shanghai *Eastern Air, former name of Zambia Skyways *Eastern Air Lines, a defunct American airline that operated from 1926 to 1991 *Eastern Air Lin ...
and
Oriental Orthodox The Oriental Orthodox Churches are a group of Eastern Christian Eastern Christianity comprises Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings ...
,
Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian r ...

Catholic
,
Anglican Anglicanism is a Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western Junction, Tasmania, a locality in Australia * ...

Anglican
, and
Lutheran Lutheranism is one of the largest branches of Protestantism that identifies with the teachings of Jesus Christ and was founded by Martin Luther, a 16th-century German monk and Protestant Reformers, reformer whose efforts to reform the theology ...
churches believe that Mary, as mother of Jesus, is the (Mother of God; ). There is significant diversity in the Marian beliefs and devotional practices of major Christian traditions. The Catholic Church holds distinctive Marian dogmas, namely her status as the Mother of God, her
Immaculate Conception The Immaculate Conception is a doctrine of the Roman Catholic Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancient Ro ...

Immaculate Conception
, her perpetual virginity, and her Assumption into heaven."Mary, the mother of Jesus." ''The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Houghton Mifflin''. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2002. Credo Reference. Web. 28 September 2010. Many
Protestants Protestantism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of Jesus, Jesus of Nazareth. ...
minimize Mary's role within Christianity, basing their argument on the alleged lack of biblical support for any beliefs other than the virgin birth. Mary also has the highest position in Islam among all women. She is mentioned in the Quran more often than in the Bible, where two of the longer chapters of the Quran are named after her and .Jestice, Phyllis G. ''Holy people of the world: a cross-cultural encyclopedia, Volume 3''. 2004 pag
558 Sayyidana Maryam
/ref> According to
Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian r ...

Catholic
and
Eastern Christian Eastern Christianity comprises Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ (title), ...
teachings, at the end of her earthly life, God raised Mary's body into
heaven Heaven or the heavens, is a common religious cosmological or transcendent supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed phenomena or entities that are not subject to the . This term is attributed to , such as s, s, , and . It also ...
; this is known in the Christian West as the
Assumption of Mary The Assumption of Mary (name in full Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary) is, according to the beliefs of the Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Churches, Oriental Orthodoxy, Church of the East, and some Anglo-Catholicism, Anglo-Catholic Chu ...

Assumption of Mary
.''Munificentissimus Deus: Dogma of the Assumption'' by Pius XII, 1950, 17, access date 18 April 2015


Names and titles

Mary's name in the original manuscripts of the New Testament was based on her original
Aramaic Aramaic (: ''Arāmāyā''; : ; : ; ) is a language that originated among the in the ancient , at the end of the , and later became one of the most prominent languages of the . During its three thousand years long history, Aramaic went thr ...
name , transliterated as " Maryam" or "". The English name "
Mary Mary may refer to: People * Mary (name) Mary is a feminine Femininity (also called womanliness or girlishness) is a set of attributes, behaviors, and roles generally associated with women and girls. Although femininity is socially constru ...
" comes from the Greek , a shortened form of the name . Both and appear in the New Testament.


In Christianity

In Christianity, Mary is commonly referred to as the Virgin Mary, in accordance with the belief that the
Holy Spirit In Abrahamic religions, the Holy Spirit is an aspect or agent of God in Abrahamic religions, God, by means of which God communicates with people or acts on them. In Judaism, it refers to the divine force, quality, and influence of God over the ...
impregnated her, thereby conceiving her first-born son Jesus miraculously, without sexual relations with her betrothed/husband Joseph, "until her son
esus Esus, Hesus, or Aisus was a Gaulish god known from two monumental statues and a line in Lucan Marcus Annaeus Lucanus (3 November 39 AD – 30 April 65 AD), better known in English English usually refers to: * English language En ...
was born". The word "until" has inspired considerable analysis on whether Joseph and Mary produced
siblings A sibling is a gender neutral word for a relative that shares at least one parent with the subject. A male Male (♂) is the sex of an organism that produces the gamete known as sperm. A male gamete can fuse with a larger female gamete, or ov ...
after the birth of Jesus or not. Among her many other names and titles are the
Blessed Virgin Mary According to the gospels Gospel originally meant the Christian message, but in the 2nd century it came to be used also for the books in which the message was set out; in this sense a gospel can be defined as a loose-knit, episodic narrat ...
(often abbreviated to "BVM", or "BMV" after the
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an appa ...

Latin
),
Saint In religious belief, a saint is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of Q-D-Š, holiness, likeness, or closeness to God. However, the use of the term ''saint'' depends on the context and Christian denomination, denominatio ...

Saint
Mary (occasionally), the
Mother of God Catholic Mariology is Mariology Mariology is the theological study of Mary, the mother of Jesus Jesus; he, יֵשׁוּעַ, '' Yēšū́aʿ''; ar, عيسى, ʿĪsā ( 4 BC AD 30 / 33), also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth or ...

Mother of God
(primarily in
Western Christianity Western Christianity is one of two sub-divisions of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic, Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings ...
), the (primarily in
Eastern Christianity Eastern Christianity comprises Christianity, Christian traditions and Christian denomination, church families that originally developed during Classical antiquity, classical and late antiquity in Western Asia, Northeast Africa, Eastern Europe, ...
), Our Lady (Medieval ), and
Queen of Heaven Queen of Heaven ( la, Regina Caeli) is a title given to the Virgin Mary According to the gospels Gospel originally meant the Christian message, but in the 2nd century it came to be used also for the books in which the message was se ...
(; see also
here Here is an adverb that means "in, on, or at this place". It may also refer to: Software * Here Technologies, a mapping company * Here WeGo (formerly Here Maps), a mobile app and map website by Here Television * Here TV Here TV is an America ...
),Hillerbrand, Hans Joachim. ''Encyclopedia of Protestantism'', Volume 3, 2003. , page 1174 although the title "
queen of heaven Queen of Heaven ( la, Regina Caeli) is a title given to the Virgin Mary According to the gospels Gospel originally meant the Christian message, but in the 2nd century it came to be used also for the books in which the message was se ...
" was for centuries before used as an
epithet An epithet (, ) is a byname, or a descriptive term (word or phrase), accompanying or occurring in place of a name and having entered common usage. It has various shades of meaning when applied to seemingly real or fictitious people, divinities, ...
for a number of ancient sky-goddesses, such as ''Nin-anna'', Astarte, Ishtar and Astoreth, the
CanaaniteCanaanite may refer to: *Canaan and Canaanite people, Semitic-speaking region and civilization in the Ancient Near East *Canaanite languages *Canaanite religion *Canaanites (movement), an early Israelite non-Zionist movement. {{disambig Language an ...
sky-goddess worshipped during the Hebrew prophet Jeremiah's lifetime. Titles in use vary among
Anglicans Anglicanism is a Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western Junction, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *W ...
,
Lutherans Lutheranism is one of the largest branches of Protestantism that identifies with the teachings of Jesus Christ and was founded by Martin Luther, a 16th-century German monk and Protestant Reformers, reformer whose efforts to reform the theology a ...
,
Catholics The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ri ...
,
Orthodox Orthodox, Orthodoxy, or Orthodoxism may refer to: Religion * Orthodoxy, adherence to accepted norms, more specifically adherence to creeds, especially within Christianity and Judaism, but also less commonly in non-Abrahamic religions like Neo-paga ...
,
Protestants Protestantism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of Jesus, Jesus of Nazareth. ...
,
Mormons Mormons are a religious Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, behaviors and practices, morality, morals, beliefs, worldviews, religious text, texts, shrine, sanctified places, prophecy, ...
, and other Christians. The three main titles for Mary used by the Orthodox are ( or loosely "Mother of God"), () which means ever-virgin, as confirmed in the
Second Council of Constantinople The Second Council of Constantinople is the fifth of the first seven ecumenical councils recognized by both the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church. It is also recognized by the Old Catholic Church, Old Catholics and others. Protest ...
in 553, and () meaning "all-holy". Catholics use a wide variety of titles for Mary, and these titles have in turn given rise to many artistic depictions. For example, the title "
Our Lady of Sorrows Our Lady of Sorrows ( la, Beata Maria Virgo Perdolens), Our Lady of Dolours, the Sorrowful Mother or Mother of Sorrows ( la, Mater Dolorosa, link=no), and Our Lady of Piety, Our Lady of the Seven Sorrows or Our Lady of the Seven Dolours are na ...
" has inspired such masterpieces as
Michelangelo Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni (; 6 March 1475 – 18 February 1564), known simply as Michelangelo (), was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect and poet of the High Renaissance In art history, the High Renaissance was ...

Michelangelo
's ''Pietà''. The title was recognized at the
Council of Ephesus The Council of Ephesus was a council of Christian bishops convened in Ephesus (near present-day Selçuk in Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe and Western ...
in 431. The direct equivalents of title in Latin are and , although the phrase is more often loosely translated into Latin as ("Mother of God"), with similar patterns for other languages used in the
Latin Church , native_name_lang = la , image = San Giovanni in Laterano - Rome.jpg , imagewidth = 250px , alt = Façade of the Archbasilica of St. John in Lateran , caption = Archbasilica of Saint Joh ...
. However, this same phrase in Greek (), in the abbreviated form , is an indication commonly attached to her image in
Byzantine The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople. It survi ...
icon An icon (from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appr ...

icon
s. The Council stated that the
Church Fathers The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers, Christian Fathers, or Fathers of the Church were ancient and influential Christian theologians Christian theology is the theology Theology is the systematic study of the nature of the Divinity, di ...
"did not hesitate to speak of the holy Virgin as the Mother of God". Some Marian titles have a direct
scriptural Religious texts are texts related to a religious tradition. They differ from literary texts by being a compilation or discussion of beliefs, mythologies, ritual practices, commandments or laws Law is a system A system is a group of Int ...

scriptural
basis. For instance, the title "Queen Mother" has been given to Mary, as she was the mother of Jesus, sometimes referred to as the "King of Kings" due to his ancestral descent from
King David David (; ) (traditional spelling), , ''Dāwūd''; grc-koi, Δαυΐδ, Dauíd; la, Davidus, David; gez , ዳዊት, ''Dawit''; xcl, Դաւիթ, ''Dawitʿ''; cu, Давíдъ, ''Davidŭ''; possibly meaning "beloved one". is described in th ...

King David
. Other titles have arisen from , special appeals, or occasions for calling on Mary.


In Islam

In
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission
o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or expression that occurs as an utterance on its own and expresses a spontaneous feeling ...
) is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that Muhammad is a Muhammad in Islam, messenger of God.Peters, F. E. 2009. "Allāh." In , ed ...
, Mary is known as Maryam ( ar, مريم, translit=Maryām), mother of Isa (). She is often referred to by the honorific title , meaning "Our Lady"; this title is in parallel to ("Our Lord"), used for the prophets. A related term of endearment is , meaning "she who confirms the truth" and "she who believes sincerely completely". Another title for Mary is , which signifies both constant submission to God and absorption in prayer and invocation in Islam. She is also called , meaning "one who has been purified" and representing her status as one of two humans in creation (and the only woman) to not be touched by Satan at any point.


New Testament

*The
Gospel of Luke The Gospel according to Luke ( el, Εὐαγγέλιον κατὰ Λουκᾶν , translit=Euangélion katà Loukân), also called the Gospel of Luke or simply Luke, tells of the origins, birth Birth is the act or process of bearing or bringi ...
mentions Mary the most often, identifying her by name twelve times, all of these in the infancy narrative . *The
Gospel of Matthew The Gospel according to Matthew ( el, Κατὰ Ματθαῖον Εὐαγγέλιον, translit=Katà Matthaîon Euangélion), also called the Gospel of Matthew, or simply Matthew, is the first book of the New Testament and one of the three s ...
mentions her by name five times, four of these in the infancy narrative and only once outside the infancy narrative. *The
Gospel of Mark The Gospel according to Mark ( el, Εὐαγγέλιον κατὰ Μᾶρκον , translit=Euangélion katà Mârkon), also called the Gospel of Mark, or simply Mark, is the second of the four Gospel#Canonical_gospels, canonical gospels and of ...
names her once and mentions Jesus' mother without naming her in and . *The
Gospel of John The Gospel according to John ( el, Εὐαγγέλιον κατὰ Ἰωάννην, translit=Euangélion katà Iōánnēn, also known as the Gospel of John, or simply John) is the fourth of the four canonical gospels. It contains a highly sc ...
refers to the mother of Jesus twice, but never mentions her name. She is first seen at the
wedding at Cana 220px, The " Wedding Church" in Kafr Kanna, Israel, a pilgrimage site believed by many Christians to be the site of the biblical marriage The transformation of water into wine at the Marriage at Cana or Wedding at Cana is the first miracle of Jes ...
. The second reference has her standing near the cross of Jesus together with
Mary Magdalene Mary Magdalene, sometimes called Mary of Magdala, or simply the Magdalene or the Madeleine, was a woman who, according to the four s, traveled with as one of his followers and was a witness to and . She is mentioned by name twelve times in t ...

Mary Magdalene
,
Mary of Clopas According to the Gospel of John, Mary of Clopas ( grc, Μαρία ἡ τοῦ Κλωπᾶ, ''María hē tou Clōpá'') was one of the women at the crucifixion, women present at the crucifixion of Jesus and Myrrhbearers, bringing supplies for his f ...
(or Cleophas), and her own sister (possibly the same as Mary of Clopas; the wording is semantically ambiguous), along with the "
disciple whom Jesus loved The phrase "the disciple whom Jesus loved" ( el, ὁ μαθητὴς ὃν ἠγάπα ὁ Ἰησοῦς, ) or, in John 20:2; "the disciple beloved of Jesus" (, ), is used six times in the Gospel of John The Gospel according to John ( el, ...
". is the only text in the canonical gospels in which the adult Jesus has a conversation with Mary. He does not address her as "Mother" but as "Woman". In
Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the koiné language, common supra-regional form of Greek language, Greek spoken and written d ...
(the language that the Gospel of John was composed in), calling one's mother "Woman" was not disrespectful, and could even be tender. Accordingly, some versions of the Bible translate it as "Dear woman". ( NLT; NCV; AMP; NIV). *In the
Acts of the Apostles The Acts of the Apostles ( grc-koi, Πράξεις Ἀποστόλων, ''Práxeis Apostólōn''; la, Actūs Apostolōrum), often referred to simply as Acts, or formally the Book of Acts, is the fifth book of the New Testament The New T ...
, Mary and the
brothers of Jesus The New Testament describes James, brother of Jesus, James, Joses, brother of Jesus, Joseph (Joses), Jude, brother of Jesus, Judas (Jude), and Simon, brother of Jesus, Simon as brothers of Jesus (). Also mentioned, but not named, are sisters of J ...
are mentioned in the company of the eleven apostles who are gathered in the upper room after the
Ascension of Jesus The Ascension of Jesus ( anglicized from the Vulgate la, ascensio Iesu, lit=ascent of Jesus) is Christian teaching that Christ Jesus; he, יֵשׁוּעַ, ''Yeshua, Yēšū́aʿ''; ar, عيسى, ʿĪsā ( 4 BC AD 30 / 33), also ref ...
. *The Catholic Church identifies " woman clothed with the sun" in the Revelation to John, as Mary.


Genealogy

The New Testament tells little of Mary's early history. The Gospel of Matthew does give a genealogy for Jesus by his father's paternal line, only identifying Mary as the wife of Joseph. states that Mary had a sister; semantically it is unclear if this sister is the same as
Mary of Clopas According to the Gospel of John, Mary of Clopas ( grc, Μαρία ἡ τοῦ Κλωπᾶ, ''María hē tou Clōpá'') was one of the women at the crucifixion, women present at the crucifixion of Jesus and Myrrhbearers, bringing supplies for his f ...
, or if she is left unnamed.
Jerome Jerome (; la, Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; grc-gre, Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος; – 30 September 420), also known as Jerome of Stridon, was a Christian priest A priest is a religious leader authoriz ...

Jerome
identifies Mary of Clopas as the sister of Mary, mother of Jesus. According to the early 2nd century historian Hegesippus, Mary of Clopas was likely Mary's sister-in-law, understanding Clopas (Cleophas) to have been Joseph's brother. According to the writer of Luke, Mary was a relative of
Elizabeth Elizabeth or Elisabeth may refer to: People * Elizabeth (given name), a female given name (including people with that name) * Elizabeth (biblical figure), mother of John the Baptist Ships * HMS Elizabeth, HMS ''Elizabeth'', several ships * Elisab ...
, wife of the priest Zechariah of the priestly division of
AbijahAbijah ( ''Aviya'') is a Biblical Hebrew Biblical Hebrew ( ''Ivrit Miqra'it'' or ''Leshon ha-Miqra''), also called Classical Hebrew, is an archaic form of Hebrew language, Hebrew, a language in the Canaanite languages, Canaanite branch of Semiti ...
, who was herself part of the lineage of Aaron and so of the
Tribe of Levi According to the Bible, the Tribe of Levi is one of the tribes of Israel The Twelve Tribes of Israel ( he, שבטי ישראל, translit=Shivtei Yisrael, lit=Tribes of Israel) are, according to Judeo-Christian texts, the descendants of the Biblica ...

Tribe of Levi
. Some of those who believe that the relationship with Elizabeth was on the maternal side, believe that Mary, like Joseph, was of the royal
Davidic line The Davidic line or House of David (, ) refers to the lineage of the Israelite The Israelites (; he, בני ישראל ''Bnei Yisra'el'') were a confederation of Iron Age ancient Semitic-speaking peoples, Semitic-speaking tribes of the ...
and so of the
Tribe of Judah According to the Hebrew Bible, the tribe of Judah (, ''Shevet Yehudah'') was one of the twelve Tribes of Israel. Biblical account The Tribe of Judah, its conquests, and the centrality of its capital in Jerusalem for the worship of the god Yah ...

Tribe of Judah
, and that the
genealogy of Jesus The New Testament provides two accounts of the genealogy of Jesus, one in the Gospel of Matthew and another in the Gospel of Luke. Matthew starts with Abraham, while Luke begins with Adam. The lists are identical between Abraham and David, but d ...
presented in
Luke 3 Luke 3 is the third chapter of the in the of the , traditionally attributed to , a companion of on his missionary journeys. It contains an account of the preaching of as well as a . The states that in this chapter "the ministry of the new era ...
from Nathan, is in fact the genealogy of Mary, while the genealogy from
Solomon Solomon (; he, , ), ''Šlēmūn''; : سُلَيْمَان ', also : ' or '; el, Σολομών ''Solomōn''; : Salomon) also called Jedidiah (, ), was, according to the and Christian , a fabulously wealthy and wise monarch of the who suc ...

Solomon
given in Matthew 1 is that of Joseph. (Aaron's wife Elisheba was of the tribe of Judah, so all their descendants are from both Levi and Judah.)


Annunciation

Mary resided in "her own house" in
Nazareth Nazareth ( ; ar, النَّاصِرَة, ''an-Nāṣira''; he, נָצְרַת, ''Nāṣəraṯ''; arc, ܢܨܪܬ, ''Naṣrath'') is the largest Cities in Israel, city in the Northern District (Israel), Northern District of Israel. Nazareth i ...

Nazareth
in Galilee, possibly with her parents, and during her betrothal—the first stage of a Jewish view of marriage, Jewish marriage—the angel Gabriel announced to her that she was to be the mother of the promised Messiah by conceiving him through the Holy Spirit, and, after initially expressing incredulity at the announcement, she responded, "I am the handmaid of the Lord. Let it be done unto me according to your word." Joseph planned to quietly divorce her, but was told her conception was by the Holy Spirit in a dream by "an angel of the Lord"; the angel told him to not hesitate to take her as his wife, which Joseph did, thereby formally completing the wedding rites. Since the angel Gabriel had told Mary that Elizabeth—having previously been barren—was then miraculously pregnant, Mary hurried to see Elizabeth, who was living with her husband Zechariah in "Hebron, in the hill country of Judah". Mary arrived at the house and greeted Elizabeth who called Mary "the mother of my Lord", and Mary spoke the words of praise that later became known as the from her first word in the
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an appa ...

Latin
version. After about three months, Mary returned to her own house.


Birth of Jesus

According to the author of the gospel according to Luke, a decree of the Roman Emperor Augustus Caesar, Augustus required that Joseph return to his hometown of
Bethlehem Bethlehem (; ar, بيت لحم , "House of Meat"; he, בֵּית לֶחֶם ', , "House of Bread"; ; la, Bethleem; initially named after Canaanite fertility god Laḫmu) is a city in the central West Bank, State of Palestine, Palestine, a ...

Bethlehem
to register for a Roman census; see Census of Quirinius. While he was there with Mary, she gave birth to Jesus; but because there was no place for them in the inn, she used a manger as a cradle.Brown, Raymond Edward. ''Mary in the New Testament''. 1978 After eight days, he was Circumcision of Jesus, circumcised according to Jewish law and named "Jesus (name), Jesus" ( ''Yeshua (name), Yeshu'a''), which means "Yahweh is salvation". After Mary continued in the "Tumah and taharah, blood of her purifying" another 33 days, for a total of 40 days, she brought her Burnt offering (Judaism), burnt offering and sin offering to the Second Temple, Temple in Jerusalem, so the priest could make atonement for her. They also presented Jesus "As it is written in the law of the Lord, Every male that openeth the womb shall be called holy to the Lord" (). After the prophecies of Simeon (Gospel of Luke), Simeon and the prophetess Anna (Bible), Anna in , the family "returned into Galilee, to their own city Nazareth". According to the author of the gospel according to Matthew, the Biblical Magi, Magi arrived at Bethlehem where Jesus and his family were living. Joseph was warned in a dream that Herod the Great, King Herod wanted to murder the infant, and the Holy Family, family Flight into Egypt, fled by night to Egypt and stayed there for some time. After Herod's death in 4 BC, they returned to Nazareth in Galilee, rather than Bethlehem, because Herod's son Herod Archelaus, Archelaus was the ruler of Judaea. Mary is involved in the only event in Jesus' adolescent life that is recorded in the New Testament. At the age of 12, Jesus, having become separated from his parents on their return journey from the Passover celebration in Jerusalem, was Finding in the Temple, found in the Temple among the religious teachers.


In the life of Jesus

Mary was present when, at her suggestion, Jesus worked his first miracle during a wedding at Cana by turning water into wine. Subsequently, there are events when Mary is present along with James the Just, James, Joseph, Simon, and Jude, brother of Jesus, Judas, called Jesus' brothers, and unnamed sisters. Following
Jerome Jerome (; la, Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; grc-gre, Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος; – 30 September 420), also known as Jerome of Stridon, was a Christian priest A priest is a religious leader authoriz ...

Jerome
, the
Church Fathers The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers, Christian Fathers, or Fathers of the Church were ancient and influential Christian theologians Christian theology is the theology Theology is the systematic study of the nature of the Divinity, di ...
interpreted the words translated as "brother" and "sister" as referring to close relatives. The hagiography of Mary and the Holy Family can be contrasted with other material in the Gospels. These references include an incident which can be interpreted as Jesus rejecting his family in the New Testament: "And his mother and his brothers arrived, and standing outside, they sent in a message asking for him […] And looking at those who sat in a circle around him, Jesus said, 'These are my mother and my brothers. Whoever does the will of God is my brother, and sister, and mother'." Mary is also depicted as being present among the women at the crucifixion during the Crucifixion of Jesus, crucifixion standing near "the disciple whom Jesus loved" along with
Mary of Clopas According to the Gospel of John, Mary of Clopas ( grc, Μαρία ἡ τοῦ Κλωπᾶ, ''María hē tou Clōpá'') was one of the women at the crucifixion, women present at the crucifixion of Jesus and Myrrhbearers, bringing supplies for his f ...
and
Mary Magdalene Mary Magdalene, sometimes called Mary of Magdala, or simply the Magdalene or the Madeleine, was a woman who, according to the four s, traveled with as one of his followers and was a witness to and . She is mentioned by name twelve times in t ...

Mary Magdalene
, to which list adds "the mother of the sons of Zebedee", presumably the Salome (disciple), Salome mentioned in . This representation is called a . While not recorded in the Gospel accounts, Mary cradling the dead body of her son is a common motif in art, called a "pietà" or "pity".


After the Ascension of Jesus

In Mary is the only one other than the Twelve apostles, eleven apostles to be mentioned by name who abode in the upper room, when they returned from Mount of Olives, Mount Olivet. From this time, she disappears from the biblical accounts, although it is held by Catholics that she is again portrayed as the Woman of the Apocalypse, heavenly woman of Book of Revelation, Revelation. Her death is not recorded in the scriptures, but Catholic and Orthodox tradition and doctrine have her Assumption of Mary, assumed (taken bodily) into Heaven#In Roman Catholicism, Heaven. Belief in the corporeal assumption of Mary is a Dogma in the Catholic Church, dogma of the Catholic Church, in the Latin Church, Latin and Eastern Catholic Churches alike, and is believed as well by the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, Coptic Orthodox Church, and parts of the Anglican Communion and Continuing Anglican movement.


Later Christian writings and traditions

According to the apocryphal Gospel of James, Mary was the daughter of Saint Joachim and Saint Anne. Before Mary's conception, Anne had been barren and was far advanced in years. Mary was given to service as a consecrated virgin in the Temple in Jerusalem when she was three years old, much as Hannah (Bible), Hannah had taken Samuel (Bible), Samuel to the Tabernacle (Judaism), Tabernacle as recorded in the Old Testament.Ronald Brownrigg, Canon Brownrigg ''Who's Who in the New Testament'' 2001 page T-62 The idea that she was allowed in the Holy of Holies is a patent impossibility, as this likely would have constituted blasphemy for Ancient Jews. While unproven, some apocrypha, apocryphal accounts state that at the time of her betrothal to Joseph, Mary was 12–14 years old. According to ancient Jewish custom, Mary could have been betrothed at about 12.Allison, Dale C.
''Matthew: A Shorter Commentary'', p.12
Continuum International Publishing Group, 2004
Hyppolitus of Thebes says that Mary lived for 11 years after the death of her son Jesus, dying in 41 AD. The earliest extant biographical writing on Mary is ''Life of the Virgin (Maximus), Life of the Virgin'' attributed to the 7th century saint Maximus the Confessor, which portrays her as a key element of the Early Christianity, early Christian Church after the death of Jesus.''The Oxford handbook of early Christian studies'' by Susan Ashbrook Harvey, David G. Hunter 2008 page 527Maximus's Mary
by Sally Cuneen, ''Commonweal Magazine'', 4 December 2009
In the 19th century, a house near Ephesus in Turkey was found, based on the visions of Anne Catherine Emmerich, an Augustinian nun in Germany. It has since been visited as the House of the Virgin Mary by Christian pilgrimage, Roman Catholic pilgrims who consider it the place where Mary lived until her assumption. The Gospel of John states that Mary went to live with the Disciple whom Jesus loved, identified as John the Evangelist. Irenaeus and Eusebius of Caesarea wrote in their histories that John later went to Ephesus, which may provide the basis for the early belief that Mary also lived in Ephesus with John.


Perspectives


Christian

Christian Marian perspectives include a great deal of diversity. While some Christians such as Catholics and Eastern Orthodox have well established Marian traditions, Protestants at large pay scant attention to Mariology, Mariological themes. Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Anglican, and Lutherans veneration, venerate the Virgin Mary. This veneration especially takes the form of prayer for intercession with her Son, Jesus Christ. Additionally, it includes composing poems and songs in Mary's honor, painting
icon An icon (from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appr ...

icon
s or carving statues of her, and Titles of Mary, conferring titles on Mary that reflect her position among the saints.


Catholic

In the Catholic Church, Mary is accorded the title "Blessed" (, ) in recognition of her assumption to Heaven and her capacity to intercede on behalf of those who pray to her. There is a difference between the usage of the term "blessed" as pertaining to Mary and its usage as pertaining to a beatified person. "Blessed" as a Marian title refers to her exalted state as being the greatest among the saints; for a person who has been declared beatified, on the other hand, "blessed" simply indicates that they may be venerated despite not being officially canonized. Catholic teachings make clear that Mary is not considered divine and prayers to her are not answered by her, but rather by God through her intercession. The Roman Catholic Mariology, four Catholic dogmas regarding Mary are: her status as , or Mother of God; her perpetual virginity; the Immaculate Conception; and her bodily Assumption into Heaven (Christianity), heaven. The Veneration of Mary in Roman Catholicism, Blessed Virgin Mary, the mother of Jesus has a more central role in Roman Catholic teachings and beliefs than in any other major Christian group. Not only do Roman Catholics have more theological doctrines and teachings that relate to Mary, but they have more festivals, prayers, devotional, and venerative practices than any other group. The ''Catechism of the Catholic Church'' states: "The Church's devotion to the Blessed Virgin is intrinsic to Christian worship." For centuries, Catholics have performed acts of consecration and entrustment to Mary at personal, societal and regional levels. These acts may be directed to the Virgin herself, to the Immaculate Heart of Mary and to the
Immaculate Conception The Immaculate Conception is a doctrine of the Roman Catholic Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancient Ro ...

Immaculate Conception
. In Catholic teachings, consecration to Mary does not diminish or substitute the love of God, but enhances it, for all consecration is ultimately made to God. Following the growth of Marian devotions in the 16th century, Catholic saints wrote books such as The Glories of Mary, ''Glories of Mary'' and ''True Devotion to Mary'' that emphasized Marian veneration and taught that "the path to Jesus is through Mary". Marian devotions are at times linked to Christology, Christocentric devotions (such as the Alliance of the Hearts of Jesus and Mary). Key Marian devotions include: Seven Sorrows of Mary, Rosary and scapular, Miraculous Medal and Acts of Reparation to the Virgin Mary, Reparations to Mary. The months of May and October are traditionally "Marian months" for Roman Catholics; the daily Rosary is encouraged in October and in May devotions to the Blessed Virgin Mary, May Marian devotions take place in many regions. Popes have issued a number of Marian papal encyclicals and Apostolic Letters, Marian encyclicals and Apostolic Letters to encourage devotions to and the veneration of the Virgin Mary. Catholics place high emphasis on Mary's roles as protector and intercessor and the Catechism of the Catholic Church, ''Catechism'' refers to Mary as "honored with the title 'Mother of God,' to whose protection the faithful fly in all their dangers and needs".Ann Ball, 2003 ''Encyclopedia of Catholic Devotions and Practices'' page 365 Key Marian prayers include: , , , , , and the . Mary's participation in the processes of Salvation (Christianity), salvation and redemption has also been emphasized in the Catholic tradition, but they are not doctrines. Pope John Paul II's 1987 encyclical began with the sentence: "The Mother of the Redeemer has a precise place in the plan of salvation." In the 20th century, both popes John Paul II and Benedict XVI emphasized the Marian focus of the Catholic Church. Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger (later Pope Benedict XVI) suggested a redirection of the whole church towards the program of Pope John Paul II in order to ensure an authentic approach to Christology via a return to the "whole truth about Mary," writing:
"It is necessary to go back to Mary if we want to return to that 'truth about Jesus Christ,' 'truth about the Church' and 'truth about man.'"Burke, Raymond L.; et al. (2008). Mariology: A Guide for Priests, Deacons, Seminarians, and Consecrated Persons page xxi


Eastern Orthodox

Eastern Orthodox Church, Eastern Orthodox Christianity includes a large number of traditions regarding the Ever-Virgin Mary, the .McNally, Terrence, ''What Every Catholic Should Know about Mary'' pages 168–169 The Orthodox believe that she was and remained a virgin before and after Christ's birth. The (Hymns to Mary, hymns to the Theotokos) are an essential part of the Divine Services in the Eastern Church and their positioning within the liturgical sequence effectively places the in the most prominent place after Christ.''Ecclesiasticus II: Orthodox Icons, Saints, Feasts and Prayer'' by George Dion Dragas 2005 pages 81–83 Within the Orthodox tradition, the order of the saints begins with: the , Angels, Prophets, Apostles, Fathers and Martyrs, giving the Virgin Mary precedence over the angels. She is also proclaimed as the "Lady of the Angels". The views of the
Church Fathers The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers, Christian Fathers, or Fathers of the Church were ancient and influential Christian theologians Christian theology is the theology Theology is the systematic study of the nature of the Divinity, di ...
still play an important role in the shaping of Orthodox Marian perspective. However, the Orthodox views on Mary are mostly Doxology, doxological, rather than academic: they are expressed in hymns, praise, liturgical poetry, and the veneration of icons. One of the most loved Orthodox Akathists (Akathist to the Theotokos, standing hymns) is devoted to Mary and it is often simply called the ''Akathist to the Theotokos, Akathist Hymn''. Five of the twelve Great Feasts in Orthodoxy are dedicated to Mary. The Sunday of Orthodoxy directly links the Virgin Mary's identity as Mother of God with icon veneration. A number of Orthodox feasts are connected with the miraculous icons of the . The Orthodox view Mary as "superior to all created beings", although not divine. As such, the designation of Saint to Mary as Saint Mary is not appropriate. The Orthodox does not venerate Mary as conceived immaculate. Gregory of Nazianzus, Archbishop of Constantinople in the 4th century AD, speaking on the Nativity of Jesus Christ argues that "Conceived by the Virgin, who first in body and soul was purified by the Holy Ghost, He came forth as God with that which He had assumed, One Person in two Natures, Flesh and Spirit, of which the latter defined the former." The Orthodox celebrate the Dormition of the Theotokos, rather than Assumption. The Protoevangelium of James, an Biblical canon, extra-canonical book, has been the source of many Orthodox beliefs on Mary. The account of Mary's life presented includes her consecration as a virgin at the temple at age three. The Kohen, high priest Zachariah blessed Mary and informed her that God had magnified her name among many generations. Zachariah placed Mary on the third step of the altar, whereby God gave her grace. While in the temple, Mary was miraculously fed by an angel, until she was 12 years old. At that point, an angel told Zachariah to betroth Mary to a widower in Israel, who would be indicated. This story provides the theme of many hymns for the Feast of Presentation of Mary, and icons of the feast depict the story.Wybrew, Hugh ''Orthodox feasts of Jesus Christ & the Virgin Mary: liturgical texts'' 2000 pages 37–46 The Orthodox believe that Mary was instrumental in the growth of Christianity during the life of Jesus, and after his Crucifixion, and Orthodox theologian Sergei Bulgakov has written: "The Virgin Mary is the centre, invisible, but real, of the Apostolic Church." Theologians from the Orthodox tradition have made prominent contributions to the development of Marian thought and devotion. John Damascene (–) was one of the greatest Orthodox theologians. Among other Marian writings, he proclaimed the essential nature of Mary's heavenly Assumption or Dormition and her meditative role. More recently, Sergei Bulgakov expressed the Orthodox sentiments towards Mary as follows:
Mary is not merely the instrument, but the direct positive condition of the Incarnation, its human aspect. Christ could not have been incarnate by some mechanical process, violating human nature. It was necessary for that nature itself to say for itself, by the mouth of the most pure human being: "Behold the handmaid of the Lord, be it unto me according to Thy word."


Protestant

Protestants in general reject the veneration and invocation of the Saints. They share the belief that Mary is the mother of Jesus and "blessed among women" but they generally do not agree that Mary is to be venerated. She is considered to be an outstanding example of a life dedicated to God. As such, they tend not to accept certain church doctrines such as her being preserved from sin. Theologian Karl Barth wrote that "the heresy of the Catholic Church is its Mariology". Some early Protestants venerated Mary. Martin Luther wrote that: "Mary is full of grace, proclaimed to be entirely without sin. God's grace fills her with everything good and makes her devoid of all evil." However, as of 1532, Luther stopped celebrating the feast of the
Assumption of Mary The Assumption of Mary (name in full Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary) is, according to the beliefs of the Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Churches, Oriental Orthodoxy, Church of the East, and some Anglo-Catholicism, Anglo-Catholic Chu ...

Assumption of Mary
and also discontinued his support of the
Immaculate Conception The Immaculate Conception is a doctrine of the Roman Catholic Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancient Ro ...

Immaculate Conception
. John Calvin remarked, "It cannot be denied that God in choosing and destining Mary to be the Mother of his Son, granted her the highest honor." However, Calvin firmly rejected the notion that Mary can intercede between Christ and man. Although Calvin and Huldrych Zwingli honored Mary as the Mother of God in the 16th century, they did so less than Martin Luther. Thus the idea of respect and high honor for Mary was not rejected by the first Protestants; but, they came to criticize the Roman Catholics for venerating Mary. Following the Council of Trent in the 16th century, as Marian veneration became associated with Catholics, Protestant interest in Mary decreased. During the Age of the Enlightenment, any residual interest in Mary within Protestant churches almost disappeared, although Anglicans and Lutherans continued to honor her. In the 20th century, some Protestants reacted in opposition to the Catholic dogma of the
Assumption of Mary The Assumption of Mary (name in full Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary) is, according to the beliefs of the Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Churches, Oriental Orthodoxy, Church of the East, and some Anglo-Catholicism, Anglo-Catholic Chu ...

Assumption of Mary
. The tone of the Second Vatican Council began to mend the ecumenical differences, and Protestants began to show interest in Marian themes. In 1997 and 1998, ecumenical dialogues between Catholics and Protestants took place, but, to date, the majority of Protestants disagree with Marian veneration and some view it as a challenge to the Sola Scriptura, authority of Scripture.


=Anglican

= The various churches that form the Anglican Communion and the Continuing Anglican movement have different views on Marian doctrines and venerative practices given that there is no single church with universal authority within the Communion and that the mother church (the Church of England) understands itself to be both "Catholic" and "Protestant Reformation, Reformed". Thus unlike the Protestant churches at large, the Anglican Communion includes segments which still retain some veneration of Mary.Schroedel, Jenny ''The Everything Mary Book'', 2006 pages 81–85 Mary's special position within God's purpose of salvation as "God-bearer" is recognised in a number of ways by some Anglican Christians.Braaten, Carl, et al. ''Mary, Mother of God'' 2004 page 13 All the member churches of the Anglican Communion affirm in the historic creeds that Jesus was born of the Virgin Mary, and celebrates the feast days of the Presentation of Christ in the Temple. This feast is called in older Book of Common Prayer, prayer books the Purification of the Blessed Virgin Mary on 2 February. The
Annunciation The Annunciation (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power o ...

Annunciation
of our Lord to the Blessed Virgin on 25 March was from before the time of Bede until the 18th century New Year's Day in England. The Annunciation is called the "Annunciation of our Lady" in the 1662 Book of Common Prayer. Anglicans also celebrate in the Visitation (Christian), Visitation of the Blessed Virgin on 31 May, though in some provinces the traditional date of 2 July is kept. The feast of the St. Mary the Virgin is observed on the traditional day of the Assumption, 15 August. The Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Nativity of the Blessed Virgin is kept on 8 September. The Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary is kept in the 1662 Book of Common Prayer, on 8 December. In certain Anglo-Catholic parishes this feast is called the Immaculate Conception. Again, the Assumption of Mary is believed in by most Anglo-Catholics, but is considered a Piety, pious opinion by moderate Anglicans. Protestant-minded Anglicans reject the celebration of these feasts. Prayers and venerative practices vary greatly. For instance, as of the 19th century, following the Oxford Movement, Anglo-Catholics frequently pray the Rosary, the , , and other litanies and anthems of Mary reminiscent of Catholic practices. Conversely, Low church, Low-church Anglicans rarely invoke the Blessed Virgin except in certain hymns, such as the second stanza of ''Ye Watchers and Ye Holy Ones''. The Society of Mary (Anglican), Anglican Society of Mary was formed in 1931 and maintains chapters in many countries. The purpose of the society is to foster devotion to Mary among Anglicans. high church, High-church Anglicans espouse doctrines that are closer to Roman Catholics, and retain veneration for Mary, such as official Christian pilgrimage, Anglican pilgrimages to Our Lady of Lourdes, which have taken place since 1963, and Christian pilgrimage, pilgrimages to Our Lady of Walsingham, which have taken place for hundreds of years. Historically, there has been enough common ground between Roman Catholics and Anglicans on Marian issues that in 2005, a joint statement called ''Mary: grace and hope in Christ'' was produced through ecumenical meetings of Anglicans and Roman Catholic theologians. This document, informally known as the "Seattle Statement", is not formally endorsed by either the Catholic Church or the Anglican Communion, but is viewed by its authors as the beginning of a joint understanding of Mary.


=Lutheran

= Despite Martin Luther's harsh polemics against his Roman Catholic opponents over issues concerning Mary and the saints, theologians appear to agree that Luther adhered to the Marian decrees of the ecumenical councils and dogmas of the church. He held fast to the belief that Mary was a perpetual virgin and Mother of God. Special attention is given to the assertion that Luther, some 300 years before the dogmatization of the
Immaculate Conception The Immaculate Conception is a doctrine of the Roman Catholic Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancient Ro ...

Immaculate Conception
by Pope Pius IX in 1854, was a firm adherent of that view. Others maintain that Luther in later years changed his position on the Immaculate Conception, which, at that time was undefined in the church, maintaining however the Sinlessness of Mary, sinlessness of Mary throughout her life. For Luther, early in his life, the Assumption of Mary was an understood fact, although he later stated that the Bible did not say anything about it and stopped celebrating its feast. Important to him was the belief that Mary and the saints do live on after death. "Throughout his career as a priest-professor-reformer, Luther preached, taught, and argued about the veneration of Mary with a verbosity that ranged from childlike piety to sophisticated polemics. His views are intimately linked to his Christocentric theology and its consequences for liturgy and piety." Luther, while revering Mary, came to criticize the "Papists" for blurring the line between high admiration of the grace of God wherever it is seen in a human being, and religious service given to another creature. He considered the Roman Catholic practice of celebrating
saint In religious belief, a saint is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of Q-D-Š, holiness, likeness, or closeness to God. However, the use of the term ''saint'' depends on the context and Christian denomination, denominatio ...

saint
s' days and making intercessory requests addressed especially to Mary and other departed saints to be idolatry. His final thoughts on Marian devotion and veneration are preserved in a sermon preached at Wittenberg only a month before his death: Certain Lutheran churches such as the Anglo-Lutheran Catholic Church continue to venerate Mary and the saints in the same manner that Roman Catholics do, and hold all Marian dogmas as part of their faith.


=Methodist

= Methodists do not have any additional teachings on the Virgin Mary except from what is mentioned in Scripture and the ecumenical Creeds. As such, Methodists generally accept the doctrine of the virgin birth, but reject the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception. John Wesley, the principal founder of the Methodist movement within the Church of England, believed that Mary "continued a perpetual virginity of Mary, pure and unspotted virgin", thus upholding the doctrine of the perpetual virginity of Mary. Contemporary Methodism does hold that Mary was a virgin before, during, and immediately after the birth of Christ. In addition, some Methodists also hold the doctrine of the
Assumption of Mary The Assumption of Mary (name in full Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary) is, according to the beliefs of the Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Churches, Oriental Orthodoxy, Church of the East, and some Anglo-Catholicism, Anglo-Catholic Chu ...

Assumption of Mary
as a pious opinion.


Nontrinitarian

Nontrinitarians, such as Unitarianism, Unitarians, Christadelphians, Jehovah's Witnesses, and Latter Day Saint movement, Latter Day Saints also acknowledge Mary as the biological mother of Jesus Christ, but most reject any immaculate conception and do not recognize Marian titles such as "Mother of God". The Latter Day Saint views on Mary, Latter Day Saint movement's view affirms the virgin birth of Jesus and Christ's divinity, but only as a separate being than God the Father. The Book of Mormon refers to Mary by name in prophecies and describes her as "most beautiful and fair above all other virgins" and as a "precious and chosen vessel." In non-trinitarian groups that are also Christian mortalism, Christian mortalists, Mary is not seen as an intercessor between humankind and Jesus, whom mortalists would consider "asleep", awaiting resurrection.


Jewish

The issue of the parentage of Jesus in the Talmud also affects Jewish views of Mary. However, the Talmud does not mention Mary by name, and is considerate rather than only polemic. The story about Panthera (Jesus's father), Panthera is also found in the Toledot Yeshu, the literary origins of which can not be traced with any certainty, and given that it is unlikely to go before the 4th century, the time is too late to include authentic remembrances of Jesus. ''The Blackwell Companion to Jesus'' states that the Toledot Yeshu has no historical facts and was perhaps created as a tool for warding off conversions to Christianity. The tales from the Toledot Yeshu did impart a negative picture of Mary to ordinary Jewish readers. The circulation of the Toledot Yeshu was widespread among European and Middle Eastern Jewish communities since the 9th century. The name Panthera may be a distortion of the term (virgin) and Raymond E. Brown considers the story of Panthera a fanciful explanation of the birth of Jesus that includes very little historical evidence. Robert Van Voorst states that because Toledot Yeshu is a medieval document with its lack of a fixed form and orientation towards a popular audience, it is "most unlikely" to have reliable historical information. Stacks of the copies of the Talmud were burnt upon a court order after the Disputation of Paris, 1240 Disputation for allegedly containing material defaming the character of Mary.


Islamic

The Virgin Mary holds a singularly exalted place in
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission
o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or expression that occurs as an utterance on its own and expresses a spontaneous feeling ...
) is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that Muhammad is a Muhammad in Islam, messenger of God.Peters, F. E. 2009. "Allāh." In , ed ...
, and she is considered by the
Quran The Quran (, ; ar, القرآن , "the recitation"), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text Religious texts are texts related to a religious tradition. They differ from literary texts by being a compilation or di ...

Quran
to have been the greatest woman in the history of humankind. The Islamic scripture recounts the Divine Promise given to Mary as being: "Mary! God has chosen thee, and purified thee; He hath chosen thee above all the women of creation" (3:42). Mary is often referred to by Muslims by the honorific title (Our Lady). She is mentioned in the Quran as the daughter of Imran.''The new encyclopedia of Islam'' by Cyril Glassé, Huston Smith 2003 pag
296 sayyidatuna
/ref> Moreover, Mary is the only woman named in the Quran and she is mentioned or referred to in the scripture a total of 50 times. Mary holds a singularly distinguished and honored position among Female figures in the Quran, women in the Quran. A (chapter) in the Quran is titled "Maryam (sura), Maryam" (Mary), the only in the Quran named after a woman, in which the story of Mary (Maryam) and Jesus (Isa) is recounted according to the view of Jesus in Islam.


Birth

In a narration of Hadith from Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq, he mentions that Allah revealed to Joachim#In Islamic tradition, Imran, "I will grant you a boy, blessed, one who will cure the blind and the leper and one who will raise the dead by My permission. And I will send him as an apostle to the Children of Israel." Then Imran related the story to his wife, Saint Anne#In Islam, Hannah, the mother of Mary. When she became pregnant, she conceived it was a boy, but when she gave birth to a girl, she stated "Oh my Lord! Verily I have delivered a female, and the male is not like the female, for a girl will not be a prophet," to which Allah replies in the Quran, "Allah knows better what has been delivered" [3:36]. When Allah bestowed Jesus to Mary, he fulfilled his promise to Imran.


Motherhood

Mary was declared (uniquely along with Jesus) to be a "Sign of God" to humanity; as one who "guarded her chastity"; an "obedient one"; "chosen of her mother" and dedicated to Allah whilst still in the womb; uniquely (amongst women) "Accepted into service by God"; cared for by (one of the prophets as per Islam) Islamic view of Zechariah, Zakariya (Zacharias); that in her childhood she resided in the Temple and uniquely had access to Al-Mihrab (understood to be the Holy of Holies), and was provided with heavenly "provisions" by God. Mary is also called a "Chosen One"; a "Purified One"; a "Truthful one"; her child conceived through "a Word from God"; and "exalted above all women of The Worlds/Universes (the material and heavenly worlds)". The Quran relates detailed narrative accounts of Maryam (Mary) in two places, Quran and . These state beliefs in both the Immaculate Conception of Mary and the virgin birth of Jesus. The account given in Sura 19 is nearly identical with that in the Gospel according to Luke the Evangelist, Luke, and both of these (Luke, Sura 19) begin with an account of the visitation of an angel upon Zakariya (Zecharias) and "Good News of the birth of Yahya (John)", followed by the account of the annunciation. It mentions how Mary was informed by an angel that she would become the mother of Jesus through the actions of God alone. In the Islamic tradition, Mary and Jesus were the only children who could not be touched by Satan at the moment of their birth, for God imposed a veil between them and Satan. According to the author Shabbir Akhtar, the Islamic perspective on Mary's Immaculate Conception is compatible with the Catholic doctrine of the same topic. "O People of the Book! Do not go beyond the bounds in your religion, and do not say anything of Allah but the truth. The Messiah, Jesus son of Mary, was but a Messenger of God, and a Word of His (Power) which He conveyed to Mary, and a spirit from Him. So believe in Allah (as the One, Unique God), and His Messengers (including Jesus, as Messenger); and do not say: (Allah is one of) a trinity. Give up (this assertion) – (it is) for your own good (to do so). Allah is but One Allah; All-Glorified He is in that He is absolutely above having a son. To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth. And Allah suffices as the One to be relied on, to Whom affairs should be referred." Quran 4/171 The Quran says that Jesus was the result of a virgin birth. The most detailed account of the annunciation and birth of Jesus is provided in Suras 3 and 19 of the Quran, where it is written that God sent an angel to announce that she could shortly expect to bear a son, despite being a virgin.


Baháʼí Faith

The Baháʼí Faith venerates Mary as the mother of Jesus. The , the primary theological work of the Baháʼí religion, describes Mary as "that most beauteous countenance," and "that veiled and immortal Countenance." The Baháʼí writings claim Jesus Christ was "conceived of the Holy Ghost" and assert that in the Baháʼí Faith "the reality of the mystery of the Immaculacy of the Virgin Mary is confessed."


Biblical scholars

The statement found in Matthew 1:25 that Joseph did not have sexual relations with Mary before she gave birth to Jesus has been debated among scholars, with some saying that she did not remain a virgin and some saying that she was a perpetual virgin. Other scholars contend that the Greek word ("until") denotes a state up to a point, but does not mean that the state ended after that point, and that Matthew 1:25 does not confirm or deny the virginity of Mary after the birth of Jesus. According to Biblical scholar Bart Ehrman the Hebrew word , meaning young woman of childbearing age, was translated into Greek as , which often, though not always, refers to a young woman who has never had sex. In Isaiah 7:14, it is commonly believed by Christians to be the prophecy of the Virgin Mary referred to in Matthew 1:23. While Matthew and Luke give differing versions of the virgin birth, John quotes the uninitiated Philip and the disbelieving Jews gathered at Galilee referring to Joseph as Jesus' father. Other biblical verses have also been debated; for example, the reference made by Paul the Apostle that Jesus was made "of the seed of David according to the flesh" () may be interpreted as Joseph being the father of Jesus.


Pre-Christian Rome

From the early stages of Christianity, belief in the virginity of Mary and the virgin conception of Jesus, as stated in the gospels, holy and supernatural, was used by detractors, both political and religious, as a topic for discussions, debates, and writings, specifically aimed to challenge the divinity of Jesus and thus Christians and Christianity alike. In the 2nd century, as part of his anti-Christian polemic ''The True Word'', the pagan philosopher Celsus contended that Jesus was actually the illegitimate son of a Roman soldier named Tiberius Julius Abdes Pantera, Panthera. The church father Origen dismissed this assertion as a complete fabrication in his apologetic treatise ''Contra Celsum, Against Celsus''. How far Celsus sourced his view from Jewish sources remains a subject of discussion.


Christian devotion


2nd century

Justin Martyr was among the first to draw a parallel between Eve and Mary. This derives from his comparison of Adam and Jesus. In his ''Dialogue with Trypho'', written sometime between 155-167, he explains:
He became man by the Virgin, in order that the disobedience which proceeded from the serpent might receive its destruction in the same manner in which it derived its origin. For Eve, who was a virgin and undefiled, having conceived the word of the serpent, brought forth disobedience and death. But the Virgin Mary received faith and joy, when the angel Gabriel announced the good tidings to her that the Spirit of the Lord would come upon her, and the power of the Highest would overshadow her: wherefore also the Holy Thing begotten of her is the Son of God; and she replied, 'Be it unto me according to thy word." And by her has He been born, to whom we have proved so many scriptures refer, and by whom God destroys both the serpent and those angels and men who are like him; but works deliverance from death to those who repent of their wickedness and believe upon Him.
Ireneaus, bishop of Lyon, also takes this up, in ''Against Heresies'', written about the year 182:
In accordance with this design, Mary the Virgin is found obedient, saying, “Behold the handmaid of the Lord; be it unto me according to your word.” Luke 1:38 But Eve was disobedient; for she did not obey when as yet she was a virgin. ... having become disobedient, was made the cause of death, both to herself and to the entire human race; so also did Mary, having a man betrothed [to her], and being nevertheless a virgin, by yielding obedience, become the cause of salvation, both to herself and the whole human race. And on this account does the law term a woman betrothed to a man, the wife of him who had betrothed her, although she was as yet a virgin; thus indicating the back-reference from Mary to Eve,...For the Lord, having been born “the First-begotten of the dead,” Revelation 1:5 and receiving into His bosom the ancient fathers, has regenerated them into the life of God, He having been made Himself the beginning of those that live, as Adam became the beginning of those who die. 1 Corinthians 15:20-22 Wherefore also Luke, commencing the genealogy with the Lord, carried it back to Adam, indicating that it was He who regenerated them into the Gospel of life, and not they Him. And thus also it was that the knot of Eve's disobedience was loosed by the obedience of Mary. For what the virgin Eve had bound fast through unbelief, this did the virgin Mary set free through faith.


3rd to 5th centuries

Christian devotion to Mary predates the emergence of a specific Marian liturgical system in the 5th century, following the First Council of Ephesus in 431. In Egypt, the veneration of Mary had started in the 3rd century and the term was used by Origen, the Alexandria, Egypt, Alexandrian Father of the Church. The earliest known Marian prayer (the , or ''Beneath Thy Protection'') is from the 3rd century (perhaps 270), and its text was rediscovered in 1917 on a papyrus in Egypt. Following the Edict of Milan in 313, by the 5th century artistic images of Mary began to appear in public and larger churches were being dedicated to Mary, such as the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome. The Council of Ephesus itself was held at a church in Ephesus which had been dedicated to Mary about a hundred years before. The Church of the Seat of Mary in Palestine was built shortly after the introduction of Marian liturgy at the council of Ephesus, in 456, by a widow named Ikelia.


4th century Arabia

According to the 4th century heresiologist Epiphanius of Salamis, the Virgin Mary was worshipped as a mother goddess in the Christian sect of Collyridianism, which was found throughout Arabia sometime during the 300s AD. Collyridianism had women performing priestly acts, and made bread offerings to the Virgin Mary. The group was condemned as heretical by the Roman Catholic Church and was preached against by Epiphanius of Salamis, who wrote about the group in his writings titled Panarion. The adoption of the mother of Jesus as a virtual goddess may represent a reintroduction of aspects of the worship of Isis. According to Sabrina Higgins, "When looking at images of the Egyptian goddess Isis and those of the Virgin Mary, one may initially observe iconographic similarities. These parallels have led many scholars to suggest that there is a distinct iconographic relationship between Isis and Mary. In fact, some scholars have gone even further, and have suggested, on the basis of this relationship, a direct link between the cult of Mary and that of Isis." Conversely, Carl Olson and Sandra Miesel dispute the idea that Christianity copied elements of Isis's iconography, saying that the symbol of a mother and her child is part of the universal human experience.


Byzantium

Ephesus is a cultic centre of Mary, the site of the first church dedicated to her and the rumoured place of her death. Ephesus was previously a centre for worship of Artemis a virgin goddess; the Temple of Artemis there is regarded as one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. The cult of Mary was furthered by Queen Theodora in the 6th century. According to William E. Phipps, in the book ''Survivals of Roman Religion'' "Gordon Laing argues convincingly that the worship of Artemis as both virgin and mother at the grand Ephesian temple contributed to the veneration of Mary."


Middle Ages

The Middle Ages saw many legends about Mary, her parents, and even her grandparents. The Virgin's popularity increased dramatically from the 12th century, linked to the Vatican's designation of Mary as the mediatrix.


Depiction in Renaissance art

In paintings, Mary is traditionally portrayed in Marian blue, blue. This tradition can trace its origin to the Byzantine Empire, from AD, where blue was "the colour of an empress". A more practical explanation for the use of this colour is that in Medieval and Renaissance Europe, the blue pigment was derived from the rock lapis lazuli, a stone of greater value than gold, which was imported from Afghanistan. Beyond a painter's retainer, patrons were expected to purchase any gold or lapis lazuli to be used in the painting. Hence, it was an expression of devotion and glorification to swathe the Virgin in gowns of blue. Transformations in visual depictions of the Virgin from the 13th to 15th centuries mirror her "social" standing within the Church as well as in society.


Since the Reformation

Over the centuries, devotion and veneration to Mary has varied greatly among Christian traditions. For instance, while Protestants show scant attention to Marian prayers or devotions, of all the saints whom the Orthodox venerate, the most honored is Mary, who is considered "more honorable than the Cherubim and more glorious than the Seraphim".''Eastern Orthodoxy through Western eyes'' by Donald Fairbairn 2002 page 99-101 Orthodox theologian Sergei Bulgakov wrote: "Love and veneration of the Blessed Virgin Mary is the soul of Orthodox piety. A faith in Christ which does not include his mother is another faith, another Christianity from that of the Orthodox church."''The Orthodox Church'' by Serge? Nikolaevich Bulgakov 1997 page 116 Although the Catholics and the Orthodox may honor and venerate Mary, they do not view her as divine, nor do they worship her. Roman Catholics view Mary as subordinate to Christ, but uniquely so, in that she is seen as above all other creatures. Similarly Theologian Sergei Bulgakov wrote that the Orthodox view Mary as "superior to all created beings" and "ceaselessly pray for her intercession". However, she is not considered a "substitute for the One Mediator" who is Christ. "Let Mary be in honor, but let worship be given to the Lord", he wrote. Similarly, Catholics do not worship Mary as a divine being, but rather "hyper-venerate" her. In Roman Catholic theology, the term is reserved for Marian veneration, for the worship of God, and for the veneration of other saints and angels. The definition of the three level hierarchy of , and goes back to the Second Council of Nicaea in 787. Devotions to artistic depictions of Mary vary among Christian traditions. There is a long tradition of Catholic Marian art and no image permeates Art in Catholicism, Catholic art as does the image of Madonna and Child. The icon of the Virgin with Christ is, without doubt, the most venerated icon in the Orthodox Church. Both Roman Catholic and Orthodox Christians venerate images and icons of Mary, given that the Second Council of Nicaea in 787 permitted their veneration with the understanding that those who venerate the image are venerating the reality of the person it represents, and the 842 Synod of Constantinople confirming the same. According to Orthodox piety and traditional practice, however, believers ought to pray before and venerate only flat, two-dimensional icons, and not three-dimensional statues. The Anglican position towards Mary is in general more conciliatory than that of Protestants at large and in a book he wrote about praying with the icons of Mary, Rowan Williams, former archbishop of Canterbury, said: "It is not only that we cannot understand Mary without seeing her as pointing to Christ; we cannot understand Christ without seeing his attention to Mary." On 4 September 1781, 11 families of arrived from the Gulf of California and established a city in the name of Charles III of Spain, King Carlos III. The small town was named (after our Lady of the Angels), a city that today is known simply as Los Angeles. In an attempt to revive the custom of religious processions within the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Los Angeles, Archdiocese of Los Angeles, in September 2011 the Queen of Angels Foundation, and founder Mark Anchor Albert, inaugurated an annual Grand Marian Procession in the heart of Downtown Los Angeles' historic core. This yearly procession, held on the last Saturday of August and intended to coincide with the anniversary of the founding of the City of Los Angeles, begins at the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels and concludes at the parish of La Iglesia de Nuestra Señora Reina de los Angeles which is part of the Los Angeles Plaza Historic District, better known as "La Placita".


Feasts

The earliest feasts that relate to Mary grew out of the cycle of feasts that celebrated the Nativity of Jesus. Given that according to the Gospel of Luke (), 40 days after the birth of Jesus, along with the Presentation of Jesus at the Temple Mary was purified according to Jewish customs, the ''Feast of the Purification'' began to be celebrated by the 5th century, and became the "Feast of Simeon (Gospel of Luke), Simeon" in Byzantium.Clayton, Mary. ''The Cult of the Virgin Mary in Anglo-Saxon England''. 2003 pages 26–37 In the 7th and 8th centuries, four more Marian feasts were established in
Eastern Christianity Eastern Christianity comprises Christianity, Christian traditions and Christian denomination, church families that originally developed during Classical antiquity, classical and late antiquity in Western Asia, Northeast Africa, Eastern Europe, ...
. In the Western Christianity, West, a feast dedicated to Mary, just before Christmas was celebrated in the Churches of Milan and Ravenna in Italy in the 7th century. The four Roman Marian feasts of Purification, Annunciation, Assumption and Nativity of Mary were gradually and sporadically introduced into England by the 11th century. Over time, the number and nature of feasts (and the associated Titles of Mary) and the venerative practices that accompany them have varied a great deal among diverse Christian traditions. Overall, there are significantly more titles, feasts and venerative Marian practices among Roman Catholics than any other Christians traditions.Flinn, Frank K., J. Gordon Melton''Encyclopedia of Catholicism''. 2007 pages 443–444 Some such feasts relate to specific events, such as the Feast of Our Lady of Victory, based on the 1571 victory of the Papal States in the Battle of Lepanto (1571), Battle of Lepanto. Differences in feasts may also originate from doctrinal issues—the Feast of the Assumption is such an example. Given that there is no agreement among all Christians on the circumstances of the death, Dormition of the Theotokos, Dormition or Assumption of Mary, the feast of assumption is celebrated among some denominations and not others. While the Catholic Church celebrates the Feast of the Assumption on 15 August, some Eastern Catholic Churches, Eastern Catholics celebrate it as Dormition of the Mother of God, Dormition of the , and may do so on 28 August, if they follow the Julian calendar. The Eastern Orthodox Church, Eastern Orthodox also celebrate it as the Dormition of the , one of their 12 Great Feasts of the Orthodox Church, Great Feasts. Protestants do not celebrate this, or any other Marian feasts.


Catholic Mariology

There is significant diversity in the Marian doctrines attributed to her primarily by the Catholic Church. The key Marian doctrines held primarily in Catholicism can be briefly outlined as follows: *
Immaculate Conception The Immaculate Conception is a doctrine of the Roman Catholic Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancient Ro ...

Immaculate Conception
: Mary was conceived without original sin. *
Mother of God Catholic Mariology is Mariology Mariology is the theological study of Mary, the mother of Jesus Jesus; he, יֵשׁוּעַ, '' Yēšū́aʿ''; ar, عيسى, ʿĪsā ( 4 BC AD 30 / 33), also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth or ...

Mother of God
: Mary, as the mother of Jesus, is the (God-bearer), or Mother of God. * Virgin birth of Jesus: Mary conceived Jesus by action of the
Holy Spirit In Abrahamic religions, the Holy Spirit is an aspect or agent of God in Abrahamic religions, God, by means of which God communicates with people or acts on them. In Judaism, it refers to the divine force, quality, and influence of God over the ...
while remaining a virgin. * Perpetual Virginity: Mary remained a virgin all her life, even after the act of giving birth to Jesus. * Dormition of the Mother of God, Dormition: commemorates Mary's "falling asleep" or natural death shortly before her Assumption. * Assumption of Mary, Assumption: Mary was taken entering heaven alive, bodily into heaven either at, or before, her death. The acceptance of these Marian doctrines by Roman Catholics can be summarized as follows:''Encyclopedia of Protestantism, Volume 3'' 2003 by Hans Joachim Hillerbrand p
1174
/ref> The title "Mother of God" () for Mary was confirmed by the First Council of Ephesus, held at the Church of Mary in 431. The Council decreed that Mary is the Mother of God because her son Jesus is one person who is both God and man, divine and human. This doctrine is widely accepted by Christians in general, and the term "Mother of God" had already been used within the oldest known prayer to Mary, the , which dates to around 250 AD. The Virgin birth of Jesus was an almost universally held belief among Christians from the 2nd until the 19th century.Virgin Birth
''britannica.com''. Retrieved 22 October 2007.
It is included in the two most widely used Christian creeds, which state that Jesus "was incarnate of the Holy Spirit and the Virgin Mary" (the Nicene Creed, in what is now its familiar form) and the Apostles' Creed. The
Gospel of Matthew The Gospel according to Matthew ( el, Κατὰ Ματθαῖον Εὐαγγέλιον, translit=Katà Matthaîon Euangélion), also called the Gospel of Matthew, or simply Matthew, is the first book of the New Testament and one of the three s ...
describes Mary as a virgin who fulfilled the prophecy of , mistranslating the Hebrew word ("young woman") as "virgin". The authors of the Gospels of Matthew and Luke consider Jesus' conception not the result of intercourse, and assert that Mary had "no relations with man" before Jesus' birth. This alludes to the belief that Mary conceived Jesus through the action of God the Holy Spirit, and not through human reproduction#Copulation, intercourse with Joseph or anyone else.Miravalle, Mark ''Introduction to Mary'', 1993, , pages 56–64 The doctrines of the Assumption or Dormition of Mary relate to her death and bodily assumption to heaven. Roman Catholic Church has dogmatically defined the doctrine of the Assumption, which was done in 1950 by Pope Pius XII in . Whether Mary died or not is not defined dogmatically, however, although a reference to the death of Mary are made in . In the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Assumption of the Virgin Mary is believed, and celebrated with her Dormition of the Mother of God, Dormition, where they believe she died. Catholics believe in the Immaculate Conception of Mary, as proclaimed by Pope Pius IX in 1854, namely that she was filled with grace from the very moment of her conception in her mother's womb and preserved from the stain of original sin. The
Latin Church , native_name_lang = la , image = San Giovanni in Laterano - Rome.jpg , imagewidth = 250px , alt = Façade of the Archbasilica of St. John in Lateran , caption = Archbasilica of Saint Joh ...
has a liturgical feast of the Immaculate Conception, feast by that name, kept on 8 December. Orthodox Christians reject the Immaculate Conception dogma principally because their understanding of ancestral sin (the Greek term corresponding to the Latin "original sin") differs from the Augustine of Hippo, Augustinian interpretation and that of the Catholic Church. The Perpetual Virginity of Mary asserts Mary's real and perpetual virginity even in the act of giving birth to the Son of God made Man. The term Ever-Virgin (Greek ) is applied in this case, stating that Mary remained a virgin for the remainder of her life, making Jesus her biological and only son, whose Incarnation (Christianity), conception and Nativity of Jesus, birth are held to be miraculous.Fahlbusch, Erwin, et al. ''The encyclopedia of Christianity, Volume 3'' 2003 pages 403–409 While the Orthodox Churches hold the position articulated in the ''Gospel of James, Protoevangelium of James'' that Jesus' brothers and sisters were Joseph's children from a marriage prior to that of Mary, which had left him widowed. Roman Catholic teaching follows the Latin father
Jerome Jerome (; la, Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; grc-gre, Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος; – 30 September 420), also known as Jerome of Stridon, was a Christian priest A priest is a religious leader authoriz ...

Jerome
in considering them Jesus' cousins.


Cinematic portrayals

Mary has been portrayed in various films and on television, including: * ''The Miracle (1912 film), The Miracle'' (1912 color silent film of the play ''The Miracle (play), The Miracle'' (as a statue which comes to life)) * (1912) silent film; a German version of the play ''The Miracle (play), The Miracle'' * ''The Song of Bernadette (film), The Song of Bernadette'' (1943 film), played by Linda Darnell. * ''The Living Christ Series'' (1951 non-theatrical, non-television film twelve-part series), played by Eileen Rowe. * ''The Miracle of Our Lady of Fatima'' (1952 film), played by Virginia Gibson. * ''Ben-Hur (1959 film), Ben-Hur'' (1959 film), played by José Greci. * ''The Miracle (1959 film), The Miracle'' (1959 film; a loose remake of the 1912 film ) * ''King of Kings (1961 film), King of Kings'' (1961 film), played by Siobhán McKenna. * ''The Greatest Story Ever Told'' (1965 film), played by Dorothy McGuire. * ''Jesus of Nazareth (miniseries), Jesus of Nazareth'' (1977 two-part television miniseries), played by Olivia Hussey. * ''The Last Temptation of Christ (film), The Last Temptation of Christ'' (1988 film), played by Verna Bloom. * ''Mary, Mother of Jesus (film), Mary, Mother of Jesus'' (1999 television film), played by Pernilla August. * ''Saint Mary (film), Saint Mary'' (2002 film), played by Shabnam Gholikhani. * ''The Passion of the Christ'' (2004 film), played by Maia Morgenstern. * ''Imperium: Saint Peter'' (2005 television film), played by Lina Sastri. * ''Color of the Cross'' (2006 film), played by Debbi Morgan. * ''The Nativity Story'' (2006 film), played by Keisha Castle-Hughes. * ''The Passion (TV serial), The Passion'' (2008 television miniseries), played by Paloma Baeza. * ''The Nativity (2010 TV series), The Nativity'' (2010 four-part miniseries), played by Tatiana Maslany. * ''Mary of Nazareth (film), Mary of Nazareth'' (2012 film), played by Alissa Jung. * ''Son of God (film), Son of God'' (2014 film), played by Roma Downey. * ''Mary Magdalene (2018 film), Mary Magdalene'' (2018 film), played by Irit Sheleg. * ''Jesus: His Life'' (2019 TV series), played by Houda Echouafni. * ''Fatima (2020 film), Fatima'' (2020 film), played by Joana Ribeiro.


In art

Gallery File:Madonna catacomb.jpg, Mary nursing the Infant Jesus. Early image from the Catacomb of Priscilla, Rome, File:VergineTricherusa.jpg, ''Trojeručica'', a Byzantine representation of the ''Theotokos'', (), in Hilandar. Serbia File:Vladimirskaya.jpg, ''Our Lady of Vladimir'', a Byzantine representation of the ''Theotokos'' File:Panachranta.jpg, , from the 11th century Gertrude Psalter File:Flight into Egypt - Capella dei Scrovegni - Padua 2016.jpg, ''Flight into Egypt'' by Giotto File:Pietro lorenzetti, compianto (dettaglio) basilica inferiore di assisi (1310-1329).jpg, ''Lamentation of Christ, Lamentation'' by Pietro Lorenzetti, Assisi Basilica, File:Ethiopia-Axum Cathedral-fresco-Black Madonna.JPG, Black Madonna and Child, Church of Our Lady Mary of Zion, Axum, Ethiopia File:Chinese Madonna. St. Francis' Church, Macao.jpg, Chinese Madonna, St. Francis' Church, Macau, Macao File:Michelangelo's Pieta 5450 cropncleaned edit.jpg,
Michelangelo Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni (; 6 March 1475 – 18 February 1564), known simply as Michelangelo (), was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect and poet of the High Renaissance In art history, the High Renaissance was ...

Michelangelo
's ''Pietà (Michelangelo), Pietà'' (1498–99) in St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City File:DARET Jacques Visitation.jpg, ''Visitation (Christianity), Visitation'', from the Abbey of St. Vaast, St Vaast Altarpiece by Jacques Daret, 1434–1435 File:Virgen de guadalupe1.jpg, ''Our Lady of Guadalupe, Virgin of Guadalupe'', from the Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe, Mexico City, 16th century File:Our Lady of La Naval de Manila.jpg, Our Lady of La Naval de Manila statue in Quezon City, Philippines, File:Peter Paul Rubens 009.jpg, ''Adoration of the Magi'', Rubens, 1634 File:Tomb of the Virgin Mary. Altar.jpg, Inside of the Tomb of Mary, on the foothills of Mount of Olives, Jerusalem File:SAAM-1996.91.10 1.jpg, Virgin of Montserrat from Puerto Rico, File:SAAM-1929.6.154 1.jpg, Virgin and Child, French (15th century) File:Jungfru Maria - St. Nikolai - Ystad-2021.jpg, Mary outside St. Nikolai Catholic Church in Ystad 2021 File:Maaria.vaakuna.svg, A kneeling Virgin Mary pictured in the former coat of arms of Maaria


In music

* Claudio Monteverdi: (1610) * Johann Sebastian Bach: (1723, rev. 1733) * Franz Schubert: (1835) * Charles Gounod: (1859)


See also

* Acts of Reparation to the Virgin Mary * Anglican Roman Catholic International Commission * Christian mythology * * Genealogy of Jesus * History of Catholic Mariology * Holy Name of Mary * * * Litany of the Blessed Virgin Mary * Madonna (art) * Marian and Holy Trinity columns * Marian apparition * Maryamaweet * May crowning * Miraculous births * Miriai; Mandaean heroine that many equate with Mary * Mother of the Church * New Testament people named Mary * Shrines to the Virgin Mary * Society of Mary (Marianists) * The Golden Virgin *


Notes


References


Further reading

* Brown, Raymond, E., Donfried, Karl, P., Fitzmyer, Joseph A., & Reumann, John, (eds.),''Mary in the New Testament'', Fortress/Paulist Press, 1978, * Kugeares, Sophia Manoulian. Images Of The Annunciation Of The Virgin Mary Of The 13Th, 14Th And 15Th Century. n.p.: 1991., 1991. University of South Florida Libraries Catalog. Web. 8 April 2016.* Hahn, Scott, ''Hail, Holy Queen: The Mother of God in the Word of God'', Doubleday, 2001, * Pelikan, Jaroslav. ''Mary Through the Centuries: Her Place in the History of Culture''
Yale University Press
1998, hardcover, 240 pages ISBN *


External links


Chapter Mary in the Quran

Marilogical Society of America


*
Church Fathers on the Sinless Nature of Mary

Church Fathers on the Perpetual Virginity of Mary

Mary
(Biblical perspective)


The Queen of Angels Foundation
{{DEFAULTSORT:Mary, mother of Jesus Mary, mother of Jesus, 1st-century BC births 1st-century deaths 1st-century BCE Jews 1st-century Jews 1st-century BC women 1st-century Christian female saints Ancient Jewish women Angelic visionaries Christian saints from the New Testament Christianity and women Family of Jesus Followers of Jesus People from Nazareth Prophets of the New Testament Saints from the Holy Land Women in the New Testament