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''Vibrio'' is a
genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circumscribing) and classifying gr ...
of
Gram-negative bacteria Gram-negative bacteria are bacteria Bacteria (; common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) are ubiquitous, mostly free-living organisms often consisting of one Cell (biology), biological cell. They constitute a large domain (biology), do ...
, possessing a curved-rod (comma) shape, several species of which can cause foodborne infection, usually associated with eating undercooked seafood. Typically found in
salt water Saline water (more commonly known as salt water) is water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency and translucency, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and Color of water, nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the ...

salt water
, ''Vibrio'' species are
facultative anaerobes A facultative anaerobic organism is an organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, ...
that test positive for
oxidase An oxidase is an enzyme Enzymes () are proteins that act as biological catalysts (biocatalysts). Catalysts accelerate chemical reactions. The molecules upon which enzymes may act are called substrate (chemistry), substrates, and the enzyme co ...
and do not form
spores In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mecha ...
. All members of the genus are
motile Motility is the ability of an organism to move independently, using metabolic energy. Definitions Motility, the ability of an organism to move independently, using metabolic energy, can be contrasted with Sessility (motility), sessility, the ...

motile
. They are able to have polar or lateral
flagellum A flagellum (; ) is a hairlike appendage that protrudes from a wide range of microorganism A microorganism, or microbe,, ''mikros'', "small") and ''organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and ...
with or without sheaths. ''Vibrio'' species typically possess two
chromosome A chromosome is a long DNA molecule with part or all of the genome, genetic material of an organism. Most eukaryotic chromosomes include packaging proteins called histones which, aided by Chaperone (protein), chaperone proteins, bind to and ...

chromosome
s, which is unusual for bacteria. Each chromosome has a distinct and independent origin of replication, and are conserved together over time in the genus. Recent phylogenies have been constructed based on a suite of genes (multilocus
sequence analysis In bioinformatics Bioinformatics () is an interdisciplinary field that develops methods and software tools for understanding biology, biological data, in particular when the data sets are large and complex. As an interdisciplinary field of sc ...
).
O. F. Müller O is the fifteenth letter of the modern Latin alphabet. O may also refer to: Letters * Օ (Unicode: U+0555) a letter in the Armenian alphabet The Armenian alphabet ( hy, Հայոց գրեր, ' or , '; Eastern Armenian: ; Western Armenian: ) is ...
(1773, 1786) described eight species of the genus ''Vibrio'' (included in
Infusoria Infusoria is a collective term for minute aquatic creatures such as ciliate The ciliates are a group of protozoan Protozoa (singular protozoon or protozoan, plural protozoa or protozoans) is an informal term for a group of single-celled eu ...
), three of which were spirilliforms. Some of the other species are today assigned to eukaryote taxa, e.g., to the
euglenoid Euglenids (euglenoids, or euglenophytes, formally Euglenida/Euglenoida, International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, ICZN, or Euglenophyceae, ICBN) are one of the best-known groups of flagellates, which are Excavata, excavate eukaryotes of the ph ...
'''' or to the
diatom Diatoms (''diá-tom-os'' 'cut in half', from ''diá'', 'through' or 'apart', and the root of ''tém-n-ō'', 'I cut') are a major group of algae Algae (; singular alga ) is an informal term for a large and diverse group of s. It is a grou ...

diatom
'' Bacillaria''. However, ''Vibrio'' Müller, 1773 became regarded as the name of a zoological genus, and the name of the bacterial genus became ''Vibrio'' Pacini, 1854.
Filippo Pacini Filippo Pacini (25 May 1812 – 9 July 1883) was an Italian anatomist, posthumously famous for isolating the cholera bacterium ''Vibrio cholerae'' in 1854, well before Robert Koch's more widely accepted discoveries 30 years later. Pacini was born ...

Filippo Pacini
isolated micro-organisms he called " vibrions" from cholera patients in 1854, because of their motility. In
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
"vibrio" means "to quiver". ''Vibrio'' spp. are commonly found in marine environments. Marine ''Vibrio'' species are highly salt tolerant and can grow in wide range of salinity. S.I. Paul et al. (2021) isolated, characterized, and identified multiple strains of ''Vibrio'' species ('' Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio natriegens, Vibrio pelagius, Vibrio azureus'') from of the Saint Martin's Island Area of the
Bay of Bengal The Bay of Bengal is the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world's five ocean The ocean (also the or the world ocean) is the body of that covers approximately 70.8% of the surface ...

Bay of Bengal
,
Bangladesh Bangladesh (, bn, বাংলাদেশ, ), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-c ...

Bangladesh
. Where, ''Vibrio'' species were found most dominant bacteria in marine environment.


Biochemical characteristics of ''Vibrio'' spp.

The genus ''Vibrio'' contains a large number of species. So, variation in the biochemical characteristics are most common in case of the genus ''Vibrio''. Colony, morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics of the genus ''Vibrio''  are shown in the Table below. Note: Group-1: ''Vibrio alginolyticus''; Group-2: ''Vibrio natriegens, Vibrio pelagius, Vibrio azureus''; + = Positive; – =Negative; V =Variable (+/–)


Pathogenic strains

Several species of ''Vibrio'' are
pathogens In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanism ...
. Most disease-causing strains are associated with
gastroenteritis Gastroenteritis, also known as infectious diarrhea and gastro, is inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract The gastrointestinal tract, (GI tract, GIT, digestive tract, digestion tract, alimentary canal) is the tract from the mouth to the ...

gastroenteritis
, but can also infect open wounds and cause
sepsis Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to infection An infection is the invasion of an organism's body by , their multiplication, and the reaction of tissues to the infectious agents and the s they pr ...
. They can be carried by numerous marine animals, such as crabs or prawns, and have been known to cause fatal infections in humans during exposure. Risk of clinical disease and death increases with certain factors, such as uncontrolled diabetes, elevated iron levels (cirrhosis,
sickle cell disease Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of blood disorder Hematologic diseases are disorders which primarily affect the blood & blood-forming organs. Hematologic diseases include rare genetic disorders, anemia, HIV, sickle cell disease & complica ...
,
hemochromatosis Iron overload or haemochromatosis (also spelled ''hemochromatosis'' in American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of variety (linguistics), varietie ...
), and cancer or other immunocompromised states. Pathogenic ''Vibrio'' species include '''' (the causative agent of
cholera Cholera is an infection An infection is the invasion of an organism's body by , their multiplication, and the reaction of tissues to the infectious agents and the s they produce. An infectious disease, also known as a transmissible disea ...

cholera
), '' V. parahaemolyticus'', and '' V. vulnificus.'' ''V. cholerae'' is generally transmitted by
contaminated water Water pollution is the contamination of Body of water, water bodies, usually as a result of human activities. Water bodies include for example lakes, rivers, marine pollution, oceans, aquifers and groundwater. Water pollution results when contami ...
. Pathogenic ''Vibrio'' species can cause foodborne illness (infection), usually associated with eating undercooked seafood. When ingested ''Vibrio'' bacteria can primarily result in watery diarrhea along with other secondary symptoms.The pathogenic features can be linked to
quorum sensing In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanisms ...
, where bacteria are able to express their virulence factor via their signalling molecules. ''V. vulnificus'' outbreaks commonly occur in warm climates and small, generally lethal, outbreaks occur regularly. An outbreak occurred in New Orleans after
Hurricane Katrina Hurricane Katrina was a large and destructive List of Category 5 Atlantic hurricanes, Category 5 Atlantic hurricane that caused over 1,800 fatalities and $125 billion in damage in late August 2005, especially in the city of New Orleans and ...
, and several lethal cases occur most years in Florida. As of 2013 in the United States, ''Vibrio'' infections as a whole were up 43% when compared with the rates observed in 2006–2008. ''V. vulnificus'', the most severe strain, has not increased. Foodborne ''Vibrio'' infections are most often associated with eating raw
shellfish Shellfish is a colloquial and fisheries Fishery is the enterprise of raising or harvesting fish and other aquatic life. Commercial fisheries include wild fisheries and Fish farming, fish farms, both in fresh water (about 10% of all catch) and ...

shellfish
. ''V. parahaemolyticus'' is also associated with the Kanagawa phenomenon, in which strains isolated from human
hosts A host is a person responsible for guests at an event or for providing hospitality during it. Host may also refer to: Places *Host, Pennsylvania, a village in Berks County People *Jim Host (born 1937), American businessman *Michel Host (1 ...
(clinical isolates) are
hemolytic Hemolysis or haemolysis (), also known by #Nomenclature, several other names, is the rupturing (lysis) of red blood cells (erythrocytes) and the release of their contents (cytoplasm) into surrounding fluid (e.g. blood plasma). Hemolysis may occu ...

hemolytic
on blood agar plates, while those isolated from nonhuman sources are not hemolytic. Many ''Vibrio'' species are also
zoonotic A zoonosis (plural zoonoses, or zoonotic diseases) is an infectious disease An infection is the invasion of an organism's body Tissue (biology), tissues by Pathogen, disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host (bi ...
. They cause disease in fish and shellfish, and are common causes of mortality among domestic marine life.


Treatment

Medical care depends on the clinical presentation and the presence of underlying medical conditions.


''Vibrio'' gastroenteritis

Because ''Vibrio'' gastroenteritis is self-limited in most patients, no specific medical therapy is required. Patients who cannot tolerate oral fluid replacement may require intravenous fluid therapy. Although most ''Vibrio'' species are sensitive to antibiotics such as doxycycline or quinolones, antibiotic therapy does not shorten the course of the illness or the duration of pathogen excretion. However, if the patient is ill and has a high fever or an underlying medical condition, oral antibiotic therapy with doxycycline or a quinolone can be initiated.


Noncholera'' Vibrio'' infections

Patients with noncholera ''Vibrio'' wound infection or sepsis are much more ill and frequently have other medical conditions. Medical therapy consists of: * Prompt initiation of effective antibiotic therapy (doxycycline or a quinolone) * Intensive medical therapy with aggressive fluid replacement and vasopressors for hypotension and septic shock to correct acid-base and electrolytes abnormalities that may be associated with severe sepsis * Early
fasciotomy Fasciotomy or fasciectomy is a surgical procedure where the fascia A fascia (; plural fasciae ; adjective fascial; from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin ...

fasciotomy
within 24 hours after development of clinical symptoms can be life-saving in patients with
necrotizing fasciitis Necrotizing fasciitis (NF), also known as flesh-eating disease, is a bacterial infection An infection is the invasion of an organism's body by , their multiplication, and the reaction of tissues to the infectious agents and the s they pro ...
. * Early
debridement Debridement is the medical removal of dead Death is the permanent, irreversible cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living Living or The Living may refer to: Common meanings *Life, a condition that distinguishes ...
of the infected wound has an important role in successful therapy and is especially indicated to avoid amputation of fingers, toes, or limbs. * Expeditious and serial surgical evaluation and intervention are required because patients may deteriorate rapidly, especially those with necrotizing fasciitis or
compartment syndrome Compartment syndrome is a condition in which increased pressure within one of the body's anatomical compartments results in insufficient blood supply to tissue Tissue may refer to: Biology * Tissue (biology), an ensemble of similar cells that t ...
. * Reconstructive surgery, such as skin grafts, are used in the recovery phase.


Other strains

''V. harveyi'' is a pathogen of several aquatic animals, and is notable as a cause of luminous vibriosis in shrimp (prawns). ''V. fischeri'' (or '')'' is known for its mutualistic symbiosis with the Hawaiian
bobtail squid Bobtail squid (order ''Sepiolida'') are a group of cephalopods closely related to cuttlefish Cuttlefish or cuttles are marine molluscs Mollusca is the second-largest phylum of invertebrate animals after the Arthropoda. The members are k ...

bobtail squid
, which is dependent on microbial luminescence.


Flagella

The "typical", early-discovered ''Vibrio'' species, such as ''V. cholerae'', have a single polar
flagellum A flagellum (; ) is a hairlike appendage that protrudes from a wide range of microorganism A microorganism, or microbe,, ''mikros'', "small") and ''organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and ...
(monotrichous) with sheath. Some species, such as ''V. parahaemolyticus'' and '' V. alginolyticus'', have both a single polar flagellum with sheath and thin flagella projecting in all directions (peritrichous), and the other species, such as ''V. fischeri'', have tufts of polar flagella with sheath (lophotrichous).


Natural transformation

Natural transformation In category theory Category theory formalizes mathematical structure In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), s ...
is a common bacterial adaptation for DNA transfer that employs numerous bacterial gene products. For a recipient bacterium to bind, take up, and recombine exogenous DNA into its chromosome, it must become competent, that is, enter a special physiologic state. The DNA-uptake process of naturally competent ''V. cholerae'' involves an extended competence-induced pilus and a DNA-binding protein that acts as a rachet and reels DNA into the periplasm. Natural transformation has also been described for ''V. fisheri'', ''V. vulnificus'' and ''V. parahaemolyticus''.


Small RNA

''V. cholerae'' has been used in discoveries of many
bacterial small RNABacterial small RNAs (sRNA) are small RNAs produced by bacteria Bacteria (; common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) are a type of Cell (biology), biological cell. They constitute a large domain (biology), domain of prokaryotic microorganis ...
s. Using sRNA-Seq and Northern blot candidate sRNAs were identified and characterised as -sRNA (intragenic region), AS-sRNAs (transcribed from the antisense strand of the open reading frame (ORF) and ORF-derived. One of the candidates from this study, IGR7, was shown to be involved in carbon metabolism and later renamed MtlS RNA. Other sRNAs identified in ''V. cholerae'' through genetic screens and computational methods include Qrr RNA, Vibrio regulatory RNA of OmpA, MicX sRNA, Vibrio cholerae ToxT activated RNAs, Sxy 5' UTR element, tfoR RNA, and VqmR sRNA.


See also

* Cholera toxin


References


External links


Vibrio
genomes and related information a
PATRIC
a Bioinformatics Resource Center funded b
NIAID


{{Taxonbar, from=Q753490 Bacteria genera Vibrionales