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The University of London (UoL; abbreviated as Lond or more rarely Londin in
post-nominals Post-nominal letters, also called post-nominal initials, post-nominal titles, designatory letters or simply post-nominals, are letters placed after a person's name to indicate that the individual holds a position, academic degree, accreditation, ...
) is a
federal Federal or foederal (archaic) may refer to: Politics General *Federal monarchy, a federation of monarchies *Federation, or ''Federal state'' (federal system), a type of government characterized by both a central (federal) government and states or ...
public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organisation (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth Engli ...
research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in va ...
located in
London London is the Capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. It stands on the River Thames in south-east England at the head of a estuary down to the North Sea, and has b ...

London
, England, United Kingdom. The university was established by
royal charter A royal charter is a formal grant issued by a monarch under royal prerogative The royal prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege, and immunity, recognized in common law and, sometimes, in civil law jurisdictions possessing ...

royal charter
in 1836, as a degree-awarding
examination board An examination board (or exam board) is an organization that sets examinations, is responsible for marking them, and distributes results. Some are run by governmental entities; some are run as not-for-profit organizations. List of national exami ...
for students holding certificates from
University College London University College London, which Trade name, operates as UCL, is a major public university , public research university located in London, United Kingdom. UCL is a Member institutions of the University of London, member institution of the Federa ...
and
King's College London King's College London (informally King's or KCL) is a public university, public research university located in London, United Kingdom, and a founding college and Member institutions of the University of London, member institution of the f ...
and "other such other Institutions, corporate or unincorporated, as shall be established for the purpose of Education, whether within the Metropolis or elsewhere within our United Kingdom", allowing it to be one of three institutions to claim the title of the third-oldest university in England, and moved to a federal structure in 1900. It is now incorporated by its fourth (1863) royal charter and governed by the University of London Act 2018. It was the first university in the United Kingdom to introduce examinations for women in 1869 and, a decade later, the first to admit women to degrees. In 1913, it appointed
Caroline Spurgeon Caroline Frances Eleanor Spurgeon (24 October 1869, India – 24 October 1942, Tucson, Arizona) was an English literary critic. In 1913, she was appointed Hildred Carlisle Professor of English at the University of London and became head of the De ...
as only the second woman professor at a British university, and in 1948 was the first British university to appoint a woman as its
vice chancellor A chancellor is a leader of a college or university, usually either the executive or ceremonial head of the university or of a university campus within a university system A university system is a set of multiple affiliated universities and coll ...
(chief executive). The university's member institutions house the oldest teaching hospitals in England. The university consists of 17 member institutions and three central academic bodies. The university has around 48,000 distance learning external students and campus-based internal students, making it the largest university by number of students in the United Kingdom. For most practical purposes, ranging from admissions to funding, the member institutions operate on an independent basis, with many awarding their own degrees whilst remaining in the federal university. The largest colleges by enrolment are UCL,
King's College London King's College London (informally King's or KCL) is a public university, public research university located in London, United Kingdom, and a founding college and Member institutions of the University of London, member institution of the f ...
,
City A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be defined as a ...
, , , the
London School of Economics , mottoeng = To understand the causes of things , established = 1895 , type = Public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is the totality of s ...
,
Royal Holloway Royal Holloway, University of London (RHUL), formally incorporated as Royal Holloway and Bedford New College, is a public university, public research university and a constituent college of the federal University of London. It has six schools, 21 ...

Royal Holloway
, and Goldsmiths, each of which has over 9,000 students. Smaller, more specialist, colleges are the School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), St George's (medicine), the
Royal Veterinary College , mottoeng = Confront disease at onset , established = (became a constituent part of University of London in 1949) , type = public university, Public veterinary school , chancellor = Anne, Princess Royal, The Princess Royal (Univer ...

Royal Veterinary College
,
London Business School London Business School (LBS) is a business school A business school is a university-level institution that confers degrees in business administration or management. A business school may also be referred to as school of management, management ...

London Business School
, the
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine The London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine (LSHTM) is a public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is the totality of such groupings. Thi ...

London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
, the
Royal Central School of Speech and Drama The Royal Central School of Speech and Drama was founded by Elsie Fogerty in 1906 (as The Central School of Speech Training and Dramatic Art) to offer a new form of training in speech and drama for young actors and other students. It became a c ...
, the
Royal Academy of Music The Royal Academy of Music (RAM) in London London is the and of and the . It stands on the in south-east England at the head of a down to the , and has been a major settlement for two millennia. The , its ancient core and financial ...

Royal Academy of Music
, the
Courtauld Institute of Art The Courtauld Institute of Art (), commonly referred to as The Courtauld, is a self-governing college of the University of London specialising in the study of the history of art and Conservation (cultural heritage), conservation. It is among th ...
, and the
Institute of Cancer Research The Institute of Cancer Research (the ICR) is a public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is the totality of such groupings. This is a differ ...

Institute of Cancer Research
.
Imperial College London Imperial College London (legally Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine) is a Public university, public research university in London. Imperial grew out of Albert, Prince Consort, Prince Albert's Albertopolis, vision for a cultural ce ...

Imperial College London
was formerly a member from 1907 before it became an independent university in 2007, and
Heythrop College Heythrop College, University of London was a constituent college of the University of London The University of London (abbreviated as Lond or more rarely Londin in post-nominals) is a collegiate university, federal Public university, public r ...
was a member from 1970 until its closure in 2018.
City A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be defined as a ...
is the most recent constituent college, having joined on 1 September 2016. Under the 2018 act, member institutions ceased to be termed colleges and gained the right to seek university status without having to leave the federal university: Birkbeck, City, Goldsmiths’, King's College London, the LSE, the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Queen Mary, the Royal Veterinary College, Royal Holloway, SOAS, St George's and UCL have all indicated that they intend to do so. As of 2015, there are around 2 million University of London alumni across the world, including 12 monarchs or royalty, 52 presidents or prime ministers (including 1
prime minister of the United Kingdom The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The head of government is either the highest or second-highest official in the Executive (government), executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a ...
), 85
Nobel laureates The Nobel Prize The Nobel Prizes ( ; sv, Nobelpriset ; no, Nobelprisen ) are five separate prizes that, according to Alfred Nobel's Will and testament, will of 1895, are awarded to "those who, during the preceding year, have conferred th ...
, 5
Fields Medal The Fields Medal is a prize awarded to two, three, or four mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity ...
lists, 4 Turing Award winners, 6
Grammy The Grammy Award (stylized as GRAMMY, originally called Gramophone Award), or just Grammy, is an award presented by to recognize "Outstanding Achievement in the " of the United States. The trophy depicts a . The Grammys are the first of the ...
winners, 2
Oscar Oscar, OSCAR, or The Oscar may refer to: People * , an Irish- and English-language name also used in other languages; the article includes the names Oskar, Oskari, Oszkár, Óscar, and other forms. * , legendary figure, son of Oisín and gran ...

Oscar
winners, 3
Olympic gold medalists This page lists the individuals who have won at least four gold medals at the Olympic Games or at least three gold medals in individual events. List of most Olympic gold medals over career This is a partial list of multiple Olympic gold medalists, ...
and the "
Father of the Nation The Father of the Nation is an honorific title given to a person considered the driving force behind the establishment of a country, Sovereign state, state, or nation. (plural ), also seen as , was a Roman honorific meaning the "Father of the Fath ...

Father of the Nation
" of several countries. The university owns
University of London Press The University of London Press (also known as UoL Press) is a publishing house that is part of the University of London. Based in the School of Advanced Study at Senate House (University of London), Senate House, it "seeks to facilitate collaborati ...
.


History


19th century

University College London University College London, which Trade name, operates as UCL, is a major public university , public research university located in London, United Kingdom. UCL is a Member institutions of the University of London, member institution of the Federa ...
(UCL) was founded under the name “London University” (but without recognition by the state) in 1826 as a secular alternative to the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, which limited their degrees to members of the established
Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is a Christian church Christian Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Critic ...
. As a result of the controversy surrounding UCL's establishment,
King's College London King's College London (informally King's or KCL) is a public university, public research university located in London, United Kingdom, and a founding college and Member institutions of the University of London, member institution of the f ...
was founded as an
Anglican Anglicanism is a Western Christianity, Western Christian tradition that has developed from the practices, liturgy, and identity of the Church of England following the English Reformation. Adherents of Anglicanism are called ''Anglicans''; t ...
college by royal charter in 1829.Cockburn, King, McDonnell (1969), pp. 345–359 In 1830, UCL applied for a royal charter as a university which would allow it to confer degrees. This was rejected, but renewed in 1834. In response to this, opposition to "exclusive" rights grew among the London medical schools. The idea of a general degree awarding body for the schools was discussed in the medical press. and in evidence taken by the Select Committee on Medical Education. However, the blocking of a bill to open up
Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town and only city of Oxfordshire. In 2017, its population was estimated at 152,450. It is northwest of London, southeast of Birmingham, and northeast of Bristol. The city is home to the Unive ...
and
Cambridge Cambridge ( ) is a College town, university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of London. At the United Kingdom Census 2011, the population of the Cambridge built-up area (which is larger ...
degrees to dissenters led to renewed pressure on the Government to grant degree awarding powers to an institution that would not apply religious tests, particularly as the degrees of the new
University of Durham Durham University (legally the University of Durham) is a collegiate university, collegiate public university, public research university in Durham, England, Durham, England, founded by an Act of Parliament in 1832 and incorporated by royal charte ...
were also to be closed to non-Anglicans. In 1835, the government announced the response to UCL's petition for a charter. Two charters would be issued, one to UCL incorporating it as a college rather than a university, without degree awarding powers, and a second "establishing a Metropolitan University, with power to grant academical degrees to those who should study at the London University College, or at any similar institution which his Majesty might please hereafter to name". Following the issuing of its charter on 28 November 1836, the new University of London started drawing up regulations for degrees in March 1837. The death of
William IV William IV (William Henry; 21 August 1765 – 20 June 1837) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England ...

William IV
in June, however, resulted in a problem – the charter had been granted "during our Royal will and pleasure", meaning it was annulled by the king's death. Queen Victoria issued a second charter on 5 December 1837, reincorporating the university. The university awarded its first degrees in 1839, all to students from UCL and King's College. The university established by the charters of 1836 and 1837 was essentially an examining board with the right to award degrees in arts, laws and medicine. However, the university did not have the authority to grant degrees in theology, considered the senior faculty in the other three English universities. In medicine, the university was given the right to determine which medical schools provided sufficient medical training. In arts and law, by contrast, it would examine students from UCL, King's College, or any other institution granted a royal warrant, effectively giving the government control of which institutions could submit students for examination by the university. Beyond this right to submit students for examination, there was no other connection between the colleges and the university. In 1849 the university held its first graduation ceremony at
Somerset House Somerset House is a large Neoclassical Neoclassical or neo-classical may refer to: * Neoclassicism or New Classicism, any of a number of movements in the fine arts, literature, theatre, music, language, and architecture beginning in the 17t ...

Somerset House
following a petition to the senate from the graduates, who had previously received their degrees without any ceremony. About 250 students graduated at this ceremony. The London academic robes of this period were distinguished by their "rich velvet facings". The list of institutions whose students could enter University of London examinations grew rapidly by 1858, including all other British universities as well as over 30 other schools and colleges outside of London. In that year, a new charter opened up the examinations to everyone, effectively abolishing the weak link between the university and the colleges. This led the
Earl of Kimberley Earl of Kimberley, of Kimberley, Norfolk, Kimberley in the Norfolk, County of Norfolk, is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created in 1866 for the prominent Liberal Party (UK), Liberal politician John Wodehouse, 1st Earl of Kim ...

Earl of Kimberley
, a member of the university's senate, to tell the House of Lords in 1888 "that there were no Colleges affiliated to the University of London, though there were some many years ago". The reforms of 1858 also incorporated the graduates of the university into a
convocation A convocation (from the Latin ''wikt:convocare, convocare'' meaning "to call/come together", a translation of the Ancient Greek, Greek wikt:ἐκκλησία, ἐκκλησία ''ekklēsia'') is a group of people formally assembled for a specia ...
, similar to those of Oxford, Cambridge and Durham, and authorised the granting of degrees in science, the first BSc being awarded in 1860. The expanded role meant the university needed more space, particularly with the growing number of students at the provincial . Between 1867 and 1870 a new headquarters was built at
6 Burlington Gardens __NOTOC__ 6 Burlington Gardens is a Listed building, Grade II*-listed building in Mayfair, London. Built for the University of London, it has been used by various institutions in the course of its history, including the Civil Service Commission ...
, providing the university with exam halls and offices. In 1863, via a fourth charter, the university gained the right to grant degrees in surgery. This 1863 charter remains the authority under which the university is incorporated, although all its other provisions were abolished under the 1898 University of London Act. In 1878, the university set another first when it became the first university in the UK to admit women to degrees, via the grant of a supplemental charter. Four female students obtained Bachelor of Arts degrees in 1880 and two obtained Bachelor of Science degrees in 1881, again the first in the country. In the late 19th century, the university came under criticism for merely serving as a centre for the administration of tests, and there were calls for a "teaching university" for London. UCL and KCL considered separating from the university to form a separate university, variously known as the Albert University, Gresham University and Westminster University. Following two
royal commission A royal commission is a major ad-hoc formal public inquiry A tribunal of inquiry is an official review of events or actions ordered by a government body. In many common law countries, such as the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of ...
s the University of London Act 1898 was passed, reforming the university and giving it a federal structure with responsibility for monitoring course content and academic standards within its institutions. This was implemented in 1900 with the approval of new statutes for the university. File:SomersetHousebyAnonpublAckermann&Co1836.jpg,
Somerset House Somerset House is a large Neoclassical Neoclassical or neo-classical may refer to: * Neoclassicism or New Classicism, any of a number of movements in the fine arts, literature, theatre, music, language, and architecture beginning in the 17t ...

Somerset House
in 1836. The university had its offices here from 1837 to 1870. File:William IV.jpg,
King William IV William IV (William Henry; 21 August 1765 – 20 June 1837) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of Englan ...

King William IV
, who granted the University of London its original royal charter in 1836. File:University of London illustration 1867.jpg, An illustration of
6 Burlington Gardens __NOTOC__ 6 Burlington Gardens is a Listed building, Grade II*-listed building in Mayfair, London. Built for the University of London, it has been used by various institutions in the course of its history, including the Civil Service Commission ...
, home to the university administration from 1870 to 1900.


20th century

The reforms initiated by the 1898 act came into force with the approval of the new federal statutes in 1900. Many of the colleges in London became schools of the university, including UCL, King's College, Bedford College,
Royal Holloway Royal Holloway, University of London (RHUL), formally incorporated as Royal Holloway and Bedford New College, is a public university, public research university and a constituent college of the federal University of London. It has six schools, 21 ...

Royal Holloway
and the
London School of Economics , mottoeng = To understand the causes of things , established = 1895 , type = Public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is the totality of s ...
.
Regent's Park College Regent's Park College (known colloquially within the university as Regent's) is a permanent private hall of the University of Oxford , mottoeng = Psalm 27, The Lord is my light , established = , endowment = £6.1 billion (includi ...
, which had affiliated in 1841, became an official divinity school of the university in 1901 (the new statutes having given London the right to award degrees in theology) and Richmond (Theological) College followed as a divinity school of the university in 1902;
Goldsmiths College Goldsmiths, University of London, is a public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is the totality of such groupings. This is a different concept ...
joined in 1904;
Imperial College , mottoeng = Scientific knowledge, the crowning glory and the safeguard of the empire , established = 1907 by royal charter , type = Public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the ...

Imperial College
was founded in 1907;
Queen Mary College , mottoeng = With united powers , established = 1785 – London Hospital Medical College1843 – St Bartholomew's Hospital Medical College1882 – Westfield College1887 – East London College/Queen Mary College , parent = University of Londo ...
joined in 1915; the
School of Oriental and African Studies SOAS University of London (; the School of Oriental and African Studies) is a public university, public research university in London, England, and a constituent college of the federal University of London. Founded in 1916, SOAS is located in ...
was founded in 1916; and
Birkbeck College , mottoeng = Advice comes over nightTranslation used by Birkbeck. , established = 1823 – London Mechanics' Institute 1866 – Birkbeck Literary and Scientific Institution 1907 – Birkbeck College , type = Public univer ...

Birkbeck College
, which was founded in 1823, joined in 1920. The previous provision for colleges outside London was not abandoned on federation, instead London offered two routes to degrees: "internal" degrees offered by schools of the university and "external" degrees offered at other colleges (now the University of London flexible and distance learning programmes). UCL and King's College, whose campaign for a teaching university in London had resulted in the university's reconstitution as a federal institution, went even further than becoming schools of the university and were actually merged into it. UCL's merger, under the 1905 University College London (Transfer) Act, happened in 1907. The charter of 1836 was surrendered and all of UCL's property became the University of London's. King's College followed in 1910 under the 1908 King's College London (Transfer) Act. This was a slightly more complicated case, as the theological department of the college (founded in 1846) did not merge into the university but maintained a separate legal existence under King's College's 1829 charter. The expansion of the university's role meant that the Burlington Garden premises were insufficient, and in March 1900 it moved to the Imperial Institute in South Kensington. However, its continued rapid expansion meant that it had outgrown its new premises by the 1920s, requiring yet another move. A large parcel of land in
Bloomsbury Bloomsbury is a district in the West End of London The West End of London (commonly referred to as the West End) is a district of Central London Central London is the innermost part of London London is the capital city, capital ...

Bloomsbury
near the
British Museum The British Museum, in the Bloomsbury Bloomsbury is a district in the West End of London The West End of London (commonly referred to as the West End) is a district of Central London Central London is the innermost part of Lond ...

British Museum
was acquired from the Duke of Bedford and
Charles Holden Charles Henry Holden Doctor of Letters, Litt.D, Royal Institute of British Architects, FRIBA, Royal Town Planning Institute, MRTPI, Royal Designers for Industry, RDI (12 May 1875 – 1 May 1960) was a Bolton-born English architect best known for ...
was appointed architect with the instruction to create a building "not to suggest a passing fashion inappropriate to buildings which will house an institution of so permanent a character as a University." This unusual remit may have been inspired by the fact that
William Beveridge William Henry Beveridge, 1st Baron Beveridge, (5 March 1879 – 16 March 1963) was a British economist and Liberal politician who was a progressive and social reformer. His 1942 report ''Social Insurance and Allied Services'' (known as the ...
, having just become director of LSE, upon asking a taxi driver to take him to the University of London was met with the response "Oh, you mean the place near the
Royal School of Needlework The Royal School of Needlework (RSN) is a hand embroidery Embroidery is the craft A craft or trade is a pastime or an occupation that requires particular skills and knowledge of skilled work. In a historical sense, particularly the Middl ...
". Holden responded by designing Senate House, the current headquarters of the university, and at the time of completion the second largest building in London. The University of London contingent of the
Officers' Training Corps The Officers' Training Corps (OTC), more fully called the University Officers' Training Corps (UOTC), are military leadership training units similar to a university club but operated by the British Army The British Army is the principal ...
(OTC) was formed in 1908 and had enrolled 950 students by autumn 1914. During the First World War, the OTC supplied 500 officers to the
British Army The British Army is the principal Army, land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of the British Armed Forces. , the British Army comprises 80,040 regular full-time personnel and 30,020 Army Reserve (United Kingdom), reserve personnel ...
between August 1914 and March 1915. Some 665 officers associated with the university died during the First World War and 245 officers in the Second World War. the London University Officers' Training Corps (UOTC), drawn from 52 universities and colleges in the London area (not just the University of London), was the largest UOTC in the country, with about 400 officer cadets. It has been based at Yeomanry House in Handel Street, London since 1992. In 2011, Canterbury Company was founded to recruit officer cadets from universities in Kent. During the
Second World War World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, the colleges of the university (with the exception of Birkbeck) and their students left London for safer parts of the UK, while Senate House was used by the Ministry of Information, with its roof becoming an observation point for the
Royal Observer Corps The Royal Observer Corps (ROC) was a civil defence Civil defense (civil defence in UK English) or civil protection is an effort to protect the citizens of a state (generally non-combatants) from military A military, also known collec ...
. Though the building was hit by bombs several times, it emerged from the war largely unscathed; rumour at the time had it that the reason the building had fared so well was that
Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (; 20 April 188930 April 1945) was an Austrian-born German politician who was the dictator of Nazi Germany, Germany from 1933 to 1945. Adolf Hitler's rise to power, He rose to power as the leader of the Nazi Party, becoming Cha ...

Adolf Hitler
had planned to use it as his headquarters in London. The latter half of the last century was less eventful. In 1948, Athlone Press was founded as the publishing house for the university, and sold to the Bemrose Corporation in 1979, subsequent to which it was acquired by Continuum publishing. However, the post-WWII period was mostly characterised by expansion and consolidation within the university, such as the acquisition as a constituent body of the Jesuit theological institution Heythrop College on its move from Oxfordshire in 1969. The 1978 University of London Act saw the university defined as a federation of self-governing colleges, starting the process of decentralisation that would lead to a marked transference of academic and financial power in this period from the central authorities in Senate House to the individual colleges. In the same period, UCL and King's College regained their legal independence via acts of parliament and the issuing of new royal charters. UCL was reincorporated in 1977, while King's College's new charter in 1980 reunited the main body of the college with the corporation formed in 1829. In 1992 centralised graduation ceremonies at the
Royal Albert Hall The Royal Albert Hall is a concert hall A concert hall is a cultural building with a stage that serves as a performance venue and an auditorium filled with seats. While early halls built in the 18th and 19th century were designed ...

Royal Albert Hall
were replaced by individual ceremonies at the colleges. One of the largest shifts in power of this period came in 1993, when
HEFCE The Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) was a non-departmental public body In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mi ...
(now the Office for Students, OfS) switched from funding the University of London, which then allocated money to the colleges, to funding the colleges directly and them paying a contribution to the university. There was also a tendency in the late 20th century for smaller colleges to be amalgamated into larger "super-colleges". Some of the larger colleges (most notably UCL, King's College, LSE and Imperial) periodically put forward the possibility of their departure from the university, although no steps were taken to actually putting this into action until the early 21st century.


21st century

In 2002,
Imperial College , mottoeng = Scientific knowledge, the crowning glory and the safeguard of the empire , established = 1907 by royal charter , type = Public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the ...

Imperial College
and UCL mooted the possibility of a merger, raising the question of the future of the University of London and the smaller colleges within it. Subsequently, considerable opposition from academic staff of both UCL and Imperial led to a rejection of the merger. Despite this failure, the trend of decentralising power continued. A significant development in this process was the closing down of the
Convocation A convocation (from the Latin ''wikt:convocare, convocare'' meaning "to call/come together", a translation of the Ancient Greek, Greek wikt:ἐκκλησία, ἐκκλησία ''ekklēsia'') is a group of people formally assembled for a specia ...
of all the university's alumni in October 2003; this recognised that individual college alumni associations were now increasingly the centre of focus for alumni. However, the university continued to grow even as it moved to a looser federation, and, in 2005, admitted the
Central School of Speech and Drama The Royal Central School of Speech and Drama was founded by Elsie Fogerty in 1906 (as The Central School of Speech Training and Dramatic Art) to offer a new form of training in speech and drama for young actors and other students. It became a co ...
. On 9 December 2005, Imperial College became the second constituent body (after Regent's Park College) to make a formal decision to leave the university. Its council announced that it was beginning negotiations to withdraw from the university in time for its own centenary celebrations, and in order to be able to award its own degrees. On 5 October 2006, the University of London accepted Imperial's formal request to withdraw from it. Imperial became fully independent on 9 July 2007, as part of the celebrations of the college's centenary. The ''
Times Higher Education Supplement ''Times Higher Education'' (''THE''), formerly ''The Times Higher Education Supplement'' (''THES''), is a British magazine reporting specifically on news and issues related to higher education. Ownership TPG Capital acquired TSL Education from ...
'' announced in February 2007 that the London School of Economics, University College London and King's College London all planned to start awarding their own degrees, rather than degrees from the federal University of London as they had done previously, from the start of the academic year starting in Autumn 2007. Although this plan to award their own degrees did not amount to a decision to leave the University of London, the ''THES'' suggested that this "raisnew doubts about the future of the federal University of London". The
School of Pharmacy, University of London The UCL School of Pharmacy (formerly The School of Pharmacy, University of London) is the pharmacy school of University College London (UCL). The School forms part of UCL's UCL Faculty of Life Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences and is located in ...
, merged with UCL on 1 January 2012, becoming the UCL School of Pharmacy within the Faculty of Life Sciences. This was followed on 2 December 2014 by the
Institute of Education The UCL Institute of Education (IOE) is the education school of University College London , mottoeng = Let all come who by merit deserve the most reward , established = , type = Public university, Public research university , endowment ...
also merging with UCL, becoming the UCL Institute of Education. Since 2010, the university has been outsourcing support services such as cleaning and portering. This has prompted industrial action by the largely
Latin American Latin Americans ( es, Latinoamericanos; pt, Latino-americanos; ) are the citizenship, citizens of Latin American countries (or people with cultural, ancestral or national origins in Latin America). Latin American countries and their diasporas a ...
workforce under the "3Cosas" campaign (the 3Cosas – 3 causes –being
sick pay Sick leave (or paid sick days or sick pay) is paid time off from work that workers can use to stay home to address their health needs without losing pay. It differs from paid vacation time or time off work to deal with personal matters, because ...
,
holiday payIn some jurisdictions, holiday pay is an allowance which an employee earns through work in the calendar year prior to the year of the holiday. It is usually a percentage supplement to the salary that has been paid the year before the holiday pay is t ...
, and pensions for outsourced workers on parity with staff employed directly by the university). The 3Cosas campaigners were members of the
UNISON Unison, stylised as UNISON, is the second largest trade union A trade union (or a labor union in American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of v ...
trade union. However, documents leaked in 2014 revealed that UNISON representatives tried to counter the 3Cosas campaign in meetings with university management. The 3Cosas workers subsequently transferred to the Independent Workers Union of Great Britain. Following good results in the
Research Excellence FrameworkThe Research Excellence Framework (REF) is a research impact evaluation of British higher education institutions. It is the successor to the Research Assessment Exercise and it was first used in 2014 to assess the period 2008–2013. REF is underta ...
in December 2014,
City University London City, University of London (abbreviated CUL), is a public research university in London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city stands on ...
said that they were exploring the possibility of joining the University of London. It was subsequently announced in July 2015 that City would join the University of London in August 2016. It will cease to be an independent university and become a college as "City, University of London". In 2016 reforms were proposed that would see the colleges become member institutions and be allowed to legally become universities in their own right. A bill to amend the university's statutes was introduced into the House of Lords in late 2016. The bill was held up by procedural matters in the House of Commons, with MP
Christopher Chope Sir Christopher Robert Chope (born 19 May 1947) is a British barrister A barrister is a type of lawyer in common law jurisdiction (area), jurisdictions. Barristers mostly specialise in courtroom advocacy and litigation. Their tasks include t ...
objecting to it receiving a second
reading Reading is the process of taking in the sense or meaning of letters, symbols, ''etc.'', especially by sight or touch. For educators and researchers, reading is a multifaceted process involving such areas as word recognition, orthography An ...
without debate and no time having been scheduled for such debate. Twelve of the colleges, including UCL and King's, said that they would seek university status once the bill was passed. The bill was debated and passed its second reading on 16 October 2018. It received royal assent on 20 December 2018. The twelve colleges (namely, all except The Courtauld, ICR, LBS, RAM and RCSSD) subsequently applied for university status, although stating they did not intend to change their names, with notice being given in the
London Gazette London is the Capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. It stands on the River Thames in south-east England at the head of a estuary down to the North Sea, and has b ...
on 4 February 2019. In 2018,
Heythrop College Heythrop College, University of London was a constituent college of the University of London The University of London (abbreviated as Lond or more rarely Londin in post-nominals) is a collegiate university, federal Public university, public r ...
became the first major British higher education institution to close since the medieval
University of Northampton The University of Northampton is a public university A public university or public college is a university or college that is in state ownership or receives significant Government spending, public funds through a national or subnational govern ...
in 1265. Its library of over 250,000 volumes was moved to the
Senate House Library The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum ">Roman_Forum.html" ;"title="Curia Julia in the Roman Forum">Curia Julia in the Roman Forum A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or Debating chamber, chamber of a bicameral legislatu ...
. In 2019, the
University of London Press The University of London Press (also known as UoL Press) is a publishing house that is part of the University of London. Based in the School of Advanced Study at Senate House (University of London), Senate House, it "seeks to facilitate collaborati ...
, founded in 1910, was relaunched as a fully
open-access Open access (OA) is a set of principles and a range of practices through which research Research is "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge". It involves the collection, organization and analysis o ...

open-access
publisher specializing in "distinctive scholarship at the forefront of the
Humanities Humanities are List of academic disciplines, academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture. In the Renaissance, the term contrasted with Divinity (academic discipline), divinity and referred to what is now called classic ...

Humanities
".


Campuses

The university owns a considerable
central London Central London is the innermost part of London London is the Capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. It stands on the River Thames in south-east England at the ...
estate 12 hectares freehold land in
Bloomsbury Bloomsbury is a district in the West End of London The West End of London (commonly referred to as the West End) is a district of Central London Central London is the innermost part of London London is the capital city, capital ...

Bloomsbury
, near
Russell Square tube station Russell Square is a London Underground The London Underground (also known simply as the Underground, or by its nickname the Tube) is a rapid transit system serving Greater London and some parts of the adjacent ceremonial counties of Englan ...

Russell Square tube station
. Some of the university's colleges have their main buildings on the estate. The Bloomsbury Campus also contains eight Halls of Residence and Senate House, which houses
Senate House Library The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum ">Roman_Forum.html" ;"title="Curia Julia in the Roman Forum">Curia Julia in the Roman Forum A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or Debating chamber, chamber of a bicameral legislatu ...
, the chancellor's official residence and previously housed the
School of Slavonic and East European Studies The UCL School of Slavonic and East European Studies (SSEES ) is a school A school is an educational institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments for the teaching of students (or "pupils") under the directi ...

School of Slavonic and East European Studies
, now part of
University College London University College London, which Trade name, operates as UCL, is a major public university , public research university located in London, United Kingdom. UCL is a Member institutions of the University of London, member institution of the Federa ...
(UCL) and housed in its own new building. Almost all of the
School of Advanced Study The School of Advanced Study, a postgraduate institution of the University of London The University of London (abbreviated as Lond or more rarely Londin in post-nominals) is a collegiate university, federal Public university, public research ...
is housed in Senate House and neighbouring Stewart House. The university also owns many of the squares that formed part of the Bedford Estate, including
Gordon Square Gordon Square is a public park square in Bloomsbury Bloomsbury is a district in the West End of London. It is considered a fashionable residential area, and is the location of numerous cultural institution, cultural, intellectual, and educat ...

Gordon Square
,
Tavistock Square Tavistock Square is a public town square, square in Bloomsbury, in the London Borough of Camden. History Tavistock Square was built shortly after 1806 by the property developer James Burton (property developer), James Burton and the Master Bui ...
,
Torrington Square __NOTOC__ Torrington Square is a square in Bloomsbury Bloomsbury is a district in the West End of London. It is considered a fashionable residential area, and is the location of numerous cultural institution, cultural, intellectual, and ed ...
and
Woburn Square Woburn Square is the smallest of the Bloomsbury Bloomsbury is a district in the West End of London. It is considered a fashionable residential area, and is the location of numerous cultural institution, cultural, intellectual, and education ...
, as well as several properties outside Bloomsbury, with many of the university's colleges and institutes occupying their own estates across London: *
Clare MarketClare may refer to: Places Antarctica * Clare RangeClare Range () is the range extending west-southwest from Sperm Bluff to the Willett Range on the south side of Mackay Glacier, in Victoria Land. It was circumnavigated in 1957 by the New Zealand N ...
, * The
Aldwych Aldwych (pronounced ) is a one-way street and the name of the area immediately surrounding it in central London, England, within the City of Westminster. The street starts Points of the compass, east-northeast of Charing Cross, the convention ...
, where the
London School of Economics and Political Science , mottoeng = To understand the causes of things , established = 1895 , type = Public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is the totality of s ...
and part of
King's College London King's College London (informally King's or KCL) is a public university, public research university located in London, United Kingdom, and a founding college and Member institutions of the University of London, member institution of the f ...
are based * The North and East Wings of
Somerset House Somerset House is a large Neoclassical Neoclassical or neo-classical may refer to: * Neoclassicism or New Classicism, any of a number of movements in the fine arts, literature, theatre, music, language, and architecture beginning in the 17t ...

Somerset House
, the location for the
Courtauld Institute of Art The Courtauld Institute of Art (), commonly referred to as The Courtauld, is a self-governing college of the University of London specialising in the study of the history of art and Conservation (cultural heritage), conservation. It is among th ...
and
King's College London King's College London (informally King's or KCL) is a public university, public research university located in London, United Kingdom, and a founding college and Member institutions of the University of London, member institution of the f ...
, respectively *
St Bartholomew's Hospital St Bartholomew's Hospital, commonly known as Barts, is a teaching hospital A teaching hospital is a hospital or medical centre that provides medical education and training to future and current health professionals. Teaching hospitals are a ...
, * the
University of London Boat Club University of London Boat Club (ULBC or UL) is the rowing Rowing is the act of propelling a boat using the motion of oars in the water by displacing water to propel the boat forward. Rowing and paddling Paddling with regard to watercraft i ...
in Chiswick, and * The campus of Royal Holloway and Bedford New College including the historic Founder's Building. The university also has several properties outside London, including a number of residential and catering units further afield and the premises of the University of London Institute in Paris, which offers undergraduate and postgraduate degrees in French and historical studies.


Organisation and administration

The university's board of trustees, the governing and executive body of the university, comprises eleven appointed independent persons – all of whom are non-executive; the vice-chancellor, the deputy vice chancellor and four heads of member institutions, appointed by the Collegiate Council. The board of trustees is supported by the Collegiate Council, which comprises the heads of the member institutions of the university, the deputy vice-chancellor, the dean and chief executive of the School of Advanced Study, the chief executive of the University of London Worldwide and the Collegiate Council's chair, the vice-chancellor.


Chancellors

The chancellors of the University of London since its founding are as follows: * William Cavendish, 7th Duke of Devonshire, William Cavendish, 2nd Earl of Burlington, 1836–1856 * Granville Leveson-Gower, 2nd Earl Granville, 1856–1891 * Edward Stanley, 15th Earl of Derby, 1891–1893 * Farrer Herschell, 1st Baron Herschell, 1893–1899 * John Wodehouse, 1st Earl of Kimberley, 1899–1902 * Archibald Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery, 1902–1929 * William Lygon, 7th Earl Beauchamp, 1929–1931 * Alexander Cambridge, 1st Earl of Athlone, 1932–1955 * Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, 1955–1981 * Anne, Princess Royal, Princess Anne (Princess Royal, The Princess Royal from 1987), University of London Chancellor election, 1981, 1981–present


Member institutions

For most practical purposes, ranging from admission of students to negotiating funding from the government, the 17 member institutions are treated as individual universities. Legally speaking they are known as ''Recognised Bodies'', with the authority to examine students and award them degrees of the university. Some member institutions also have the power to award their own degrees instead of those of the university; those which exercise that power include: * City, University of London * Goldsmiths, University of London *
King's College London King's College London (informally King's or KCL) is a public university, public research university located in London, United Kingdom, and a founding college and Member institutions of the University of London, member institution of the f ...
*
London School of Economics and Political Science , mottoeng = To understand the causes of things , established = 1895 , type = Public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is the totality of s ...
* Queen Mary University of London * Royal Holloway, University of London * SOAS, University of London * St George's, University of London *
University College London University College London, which Trade name, operates as UCL, is a major public university , public research university located in London, United Kingdom. UCL is a Member institutions of the University of London, member institution of the Federa ...
Most decisions affecting the member institutions and institutes of the University of London are made at the level of the member institutions or institutes themselves. The University of London does retain its own decision-making structure, however, with the Collegiate Council and board of trustees, responsible for matters of academic policy. The Collegiate Council is made up of the heads of member institutions of the university. The 12 institutes, or ''Listed Bodies'', within the University of London offer courses leading to degrees that are both examined and awarded by the University of London. Additionally, twelve universities in England, several in Canada and many in other Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth countries (notably in East Africa) began life as associate colleges of the university offering such degrees. By the 1970s, almost all of these colleges had achieved independence from the University of London. An increasing number of overseas and UK-based academic institutes offer courses to support students registered for the University of London International Programmes, University of London flexible and distance learning diplomas and degrees and the Teaching Institutions Recognition Framework enables the recognition of these institutions.


Member Institutions

Under the University of London Act 2018, a member institution is defined as "an educational, academic or research institution which is a constituent member of the University and has for the time being― (a) the status of a college under the statutes; or (b) the status of a university". As of February 2019, 12 of the colleges of the university have said they are seeking university status. This does not affect their status as member institution of the university or the degrees they award. The member institutions of the University of London (as of September 2018) are:


Central academic bodies

* University of London (Worldwide) * University of London Institute in Paris, formerly known as the British Institute in Paris *
School of Advanced Study The School of Advanced Study, a postgraduate institution of the University of London The University of London (abbreviated as Lond or more rarely Londin in post-nominals) is a collegiate university, federal Public university, public research ...
comprising the following institutes: ** the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies ** the Institute of Classical Studies ** the Institute of Commonwealth Studies ** the Institute of English Studies ** the Institute of Historical Research ** the Institute of Latin American Studies ** the Institute of Modern Languages Research ** the Institute of Philosophy, University of London, Institute of Philosophy ** the Warburg Institute


Former colleges and schools

Some colleges and schools of the University of London have been amalgamated into larger colleges, closed or left the University of London. Those amalgamated with larger colleges include (listed by current parent institution): ;King's College London * Chelsea College of Science and Technology, Chelsea College – Manresa Road, Chelsea, London, Chelsea * Queen Elizabeth College – Campden Hill Road, Kensington * Institute of Psychiatry – split from Maudsley Hospital, merged with King's College London in 1997 * United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy's and St Thomas' Hospitals – merged with King's College London in 1998, now part of King's College School of Medicine and Dentistry ;Queen Mary, University of London * Westfield College – Kidderpore Avenue, Hampstead; now part of Queen Mary and Westfield College (the registered Royal Charter title of Queen Mary, University of London) ;Royal Holloway, University of London * Bedford College (London), Bedford College – Inner Circle Regent's Park; now part of Royal Holloway and Bedford New College (the legal title of Royal Holloway, University of London, under its establishing act of parliament) * Institute of Musical Research – moved from
School of Advanced Study The School of Advanced Study, a postgraduate institution of the University of London The University of London (abbreviated as Lond or more rarely Londin in post-nominals) is a collegiate university, federal Public university, public research ...
in 2015 ;UCL * The School of Pharmacy, University of London; merged with UCL on 1 January 2012 *
School of Slavonic and East European Studies The UCL School of Slavonic and East European Studies (SSEES ) is a school A school is an educational institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments for the teaching of students (or "pupils") under the directi ...

School of Slavonic and East European Studies
*
Institute of Education The UCL Institute of Education (IOE) is the education school of University College London , mottoeng = Let all come who by merit deserve the most reward , established = , type = Public university, Public research university , endowment ...
; merged with UCL on 2 December 2014 Institutions that have closed or left the university include: *
Heythrop College Heythrop College, University of London was a constituent college of the University of London The University of London (abbreviated as Lond or more rarely Londin in post-nominals) is a collegiate university, federal Public university, public r ...
– closed 2018 * University Marine Biological Station, Millport, closed in 2013, now run by Field Studies Council *
Imperial College London Imperial College London (legally Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine) is a Public university, public research university in London. Imperial grew out of Albert, Prince Consort, Prince Albert's Albertopolis, vision for a cultural ce ...

Imperial College London
– became independent in July 2007 This had previously absorbed: ** Wye College – Wye, Kent; Wye courses are now run by the University of Kent in partnership with Imperial, and graduating students receive a University of Kent degree and an Imperial Associateship of Wye College ** Royal Postgraduate Medical School; now part of the Imperial College School of Medicine * New College London, was closed in 1980. Despite the name the college never had any association with Royal Holloway and Bedford New College. * The Lister Institute of Preventive Medicine, Chelsea, London, founded 1891. In 1978 became a Funding of science, science funding body * Richmond (Theological) College was closed as a theological college in 1972 with the campus being transferred to Richmond, The American International University in London, The American International University in London *
Regent's Park College Regent's Park College (known colloquially within the university as Regent's) is a permanent private hall of the University of Oxford , mottoeng = Psalm 27, The Lord is my light , established = , endowment = £6.1 billion (includi ...
moved to Oxford in 1927, becoming a Permanent Private Hall of the University of Oxford from 1957


University colleges in the external degree programme

A number of major universities originated as university colleges teaching external degrees of the University of London. These include: * Mason Science College, Mason College, Birmingham, awarded a Royal Charter in 1900 as the University of Birmingham. * Owen's College Manchester, became part of the Victoria University (UK), Victoria University in 1880, awarded a Royal Charter in 1903 as the Victoria University of Manchester. * University College Liverpool, became part of the Victoria University (UK), Victoria University in 1884, awarded a Royal Charter in 1903 as the University of Liverpool. * Yorkshire College, Leeds, became part of the Victoria University (UK), Victoria University in 1887, awarded a Royal Charter in 1904 as the University of Leeds. * Firth College, Sheffield, awarded a Royal Charter in 1905 as the University of Sheffield. * Bristol University College, awarded a Royal Charter in 1909 as the University of Bristol. * University College Reading, awarded a Royal Charter in 1926 as the University of Reading. * Ceylon University College, established by the Ceylon University Ordinance Act in 1942 as the University of Ceylon. * University College Nottingham, awarded a Royal Charter in 1948 as the University of Nottingham. * Hartley University College, Southampton, awarded a Royal Charter in 1952 as the University of Southampton. * University College Hull, awarded a Royal Charter in 1954 as the University of Hull. * University College of the South West of England, Exeter, awarded a Royal Charter in 1955 as the University of Exeter. * University College Leicester, awarded a Royal Charter in 1957 as the University of Leicester. * University College of South Wales and Monmouthshire, Cardiff, joined the University of Wales in 1893 and became Cardiff University in 2005. * University College of Wales, Aberystwyth, joined the University of Wales in 1893 and became Aberystwyth University in 2007. * University College of North Wales, Bangor, joined the University of Wales in 1893 and became Bangor University in 2007. A number of other colleges had degrees validated and awarded by the University of London. * St. Patrick's, Carlow College, Ireland – from 1840 to 1892 students studied for primary degrees in Arts (BA) and Law (BLL). * St. Patrick's College, Thurles, Ireland – from 1849 the University of London, allowed Thurles to offer degrees. * Huddersfield College * Queen's College, Birmingham * Stonyhurst College, a Catholic college in Lancashire. * Queen's College, Taunton, Wesleyan Collegiate Institution, Taunton, which became Queen's College, Taunton. * Ceylon Technical College, 1933 – 1950 students studied for engineering degrees in BSc in engineering. * University College Lahore * Singapore Institute of Management * Northwest College for Advanced Learning, India


Colleges in special relation

Between 1946 and 1970, the university entered into 'schemes of special relation' with university colleges in the Commonwealth of Nations. These schemes encouraged the development of independent universities by offering a relationship with the University of London. University colleges in these countries were granted a Royal Charter. An academic board of the university college negotiated with the University of London over the entrance requirements for the admission of students, syllabuses, examination procedures and other academic matters. During the period of the special relationship, graduates of the colleges were awarded University of London degrees. Some of the colleges which were in special relation are listed below, along with the year in which their special relation was established. * 1946 – The University College of the West Indies, until 1961. (Now the University of the West Indies) * 1948 – University College of the Gold Coast, (now University of Ghana) * 1948 – University College, Ibadan, until 1967. (Now the University of Ibadan) * 1956 – University College of Rhodesia and Nyasaland (now the University of Zimbabwe). * 1961 – Royal College Nairobi (now the University of Nairobi). * 1963 – University of East Africa In 1970, the 'Schemes of Special Relation' were phased out.


Coat of arms

The University of London received a grant of arms in April 1838. The arms depict a Saint George's Cross, cross of St George upon which there is a Tudor rose surrounded by detailing and surmounted by a crown. Above all of this there is a blue field with an open book upon it. The arms are described in the grant as: :''Argent, the Cross of St George, thereon the Union Rose irradiated and ensigned with the Imperial Crown proper, a Chief Azure, thereon an open Book also proper, Clasps gold''


Academic dress

The University of London had established a rudimentary code for academic dress by 1844. The university was the first to devise a system of academic dress based on faculty colours, an innovation that was subsequently followed by many other universities. Colleges that award their own degrees have their own academic dress for those degrees.


Student life

In , students (approximately 5% of all UK students) attended one of the University of London's federated school, affiliated schools. Additionally, over 50,000 students are part of University of London Worldwide. The ULU building on Malet Street (close to Senate House) was home to the University of London Union, which acted as the Students' union, student union for all University of London students alongside the individual college and institution unions. The building is now rebranded as "Student Central, London", offering full membership to current University of London students, and associate membership to students at other universities, and other groups. The union previously owned ''London Student,'' the largest student newspaper in Europe, which now runs as a digital news organisation


Sports, clubs and traditions

Though most sports teams are organised at the college level, ULU ran several sports clubs of its own, some of which (for example the rowing team) compete in British Universities & Colleges Sport, BUCS leagues. The union also organised leagues for college teams to participate in. These leagues and sports clubs are supported by Friends of University of London Sport which aims to promote them. In addition to these, ULU catered for sports not covered by the individual colleges through clubs such as the University of London Union Lifesaving Club, which helps students gain awards and learn new skills in lifesaving as well as sending teams to compete throughout the country in the BULSCA league. ULU also organised several societies, ranging from Ballroom and Latin American Dance to Shaolin Kung Fu, and from the University of London Big Band to the Breakdancing Society. Affiliated to the university is the University of London Society of Change Ringers, a society for bellringers at all London universities. The university runs the
University of London Boat Club University of London Boat Club (ULBC or UL) is the rowing Rowing is the act of propelling a boat using the motion of oars in the water by displacing water to propel the boat forward. Rowing and paddling Paddling with regard to watercraft i ...
.


Student housing

The university operates the following eight intercollegiate halls of residence, which accommodate students from most of its colleges and institutions: * College Hall, London, College Hall, Malet Street, WC1 * Connaught Hall, London, Connaught Hall,
Tavistock Square Tavistock Square is a public town square, square in Bloomsbury, in the London Borough of Camden. History Tavistock Square was built shortly after 1806 by the property developer James Burton (property developer), James Burton and the Master Bui ...
, WC1 * International Hall, London, International Hall, Brunswick Square, WC1 * Lillian Penson Hall, Talbot Square, W2 * Nutford House, London, Nutford House, Brown Street, W1 The Garden Halls * Canterbury Hall, Cartwright Gardens, WC1 * Commonwealth Hall, Cartwright Gardens, WC1 ''(paired with Hughes-Parry Hall for administration)'' * Hughes Parry Hall, London, Hughes Parry Hall, Cartwright Gardens, WC1 ''(paired with Canterbury Hall for administration)''


Notable people


Notable alumni, faculty and staff

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Father of the Nation
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Father of the Nation The Father of the Nation is an honorific title given to a person considered the driving force behind the establishment of a country, Sovereign state, state, or nation. (plural ), also seen as , was a Roman honorific meaning the "Father of the Fath ...

Father of the Nation
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A large number of famous individuals have passed through the University of London, either as staff or students, including at least 12 monarchs or royalty, 52 presidents or prime ministers, 84
Nobel laureates The Nobel Prize The Nobel Prizes ( ; sv, Nobelpriset ; no, Nobelprisen ) are five separate prizes that, according to Alfred Nobel's Will and testament, will of 1895, are awarded to "those who, during the preceding year, have conferred th ...
, 6
Grammy The Grammy Award (stylized as GRAMMY, originally called Gramophone Award), or just Grammy, is an award presented by to recognize "Outstanding Achievement in the " of the United States. The trophy depicts a . The Grammys are the first of the ...
winners, 2
Oscar Oscar, OSCAR, or The Oscar may refer to: People * , an Irish- and English-language name also used in other languages; the article includes the names Oskar, Oskari, Oszkár, Óscar, and other forms. * , legendary figure, son of Oisín and gran ...

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winners, 1 Ekushey Padak winner and 3
Olympic gold medalists This page lists the individuals who have won at least four gold medals at the Olympic Games or at least three gold medals in individual events. List of most Olympic gold medals over career This is a partial list of multiple Olympic gold medalists, ...
. The collegiate university, collegiate
research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in va ...
has also produced
Father of the Nation The Father of the Nation is an honorific title given to a person considered the driving force behind the establishment of a country, Sovereign state, state, or nation. (plural ), also seen as , was a Roman honorific meaning the "Father of the Fath ...

Father of the Nation
for several countries, including several members of Colonial Service and Indian Civil Service (British India), Imperial Civil Service during the British Raj and the British Empire. Staff and students of the university, past and present, have contributed to a number of important scientific advances, including the discovery of vaccines by Edward Jenner and Henry Gray (author of ''Gray's Anatomy''). Additional vital progress was made by University of London people in the following fields: the discovery of the structure of DNA (Francis Crick, Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin); the invention of modern electronic computers (Tommy Flowers); the discovery of penicillin (Alexander Fleming and Ernest Chain); the development of X-Ray technology (William Henry Bragg and Charles Glover Barkla); discoveries on the mechanism of action of Interleukin 10 (Anne O'Garra); the formulation of the theory of electromagnetism (James Clerk Maxwell); the determination of the speed of light (Louis Essen); the development of antiseptics (Joseph Lister, 1st Baron Lister, Joseph Lister); the development of fibre optics (Charles K. Kao); and the invention of the telephone (Alexander Graham Bell). Notable political figures who have passed through the university include Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal, Romano Prodi, Junichiro Koizumi, Aung San Suu Kyi, Ramsay MacDonald, Desmond Tutu, Basdeo Panday, Taro Aso, Walter Rodney, Nelson Mandela, B. R. Ambedkar and Mahatma Gandhi. List of Presidents of the United States, 35th President of the United States John F. Kennedy filed an application and paid fees for a year's study at the LSE, but later fell ill and left the university without taking a single class. In the arts, culture and literature the university has produced many notable figures. Writers include novelists Malcolm Bradbury, G. K. Chesterton, H. G. Wells, Thomas Hardy, Arthur C. Clarke and J.G. Ballard. Futurologist Donald Prell. Artists associated with the university include Jonathan Myles-Lea, and several of the leading figures in the Young British Artists movement (including Ian Davenport, Tracey Emin and Damien Hirst). Outstanding musicians across a wide range include the conductor Simon Rattle, Sir Simon Rattle, the soprano Felicity Lott and both members of Gilbert and Sullivan, to Mick Jagger, Elton John, Dido (singer), Dido, Pakistani singer Nazia Hassan (known in South Asia as the "Queen of Pop"), and Hong Kong singer Karen Mok, and members of the bands Coldplay, Keane (band), Keane, Suede (band), Suede, The Velvet Underground, Blur (band), Blur, Iron Maiden, Placebo (band), Placebo, The Libertines, and Queen (band), Queen. The university has also played host to film directors (Christopher Nolan, Derek Jarman), philosophers (Karl Popper, Roger Scruton), explorers (David Livingstone), international academics (Sam Karunaratne), Riccarton High School Head of Commerce, Tom Neumann and leading businessmen (Michael Cowpland, George Soros).


Honorary alumni

The University of London List of University of London people#Honorary degrees, presented its first honorary degrees in June 1903. This accolade has been bestowed on several members of British royal family and a wide range of distinguished individuals from both the academic and non-academic worlds. Honorary degrees are approved by the Collegiate Council, part of the university's governance structure. File:King George 1923 LCCN2014715558 (cropped).jpg, George V (LLD 1903), King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions and Emperor of India File:HRH The Prince of Wales No 4 (HS85-10-36416).jpg, Edward VIII (MCom 1921, DSc 1921), King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions and Emperor of India File:Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother portrait.jpg, Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother (DLitt 1937), Queen consort of the United Kingdom
and the Dominion, British Dominions File:Queen Elizabeth II in March 2015.jpg, Queen Elizabeth II (BMus 1946, LLD 1951), Monarchy of the United Kingdom, Queen of the United Kingdom and
the other Commonwealth realms File:Princess Margaret.jpg, Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon, Princess Margaret (DMus 1957), Member of British royal family File:Churchill HU 90973.jpg, Winston Churchill (LLD 1948), Prime Minister of the United Kingdom File:Albert Einstein Head.jpg, Albert Einstein (1936), Theoretical physicist and Recipient of Nobel Prize in Physics in 1921 File:René Cassin nobel.jpg, René Cassin (1969), Recipient of Nobel Peace Prize in 1968 File:Amartya Sen NIH.jpg, Amartya Sen (DSc Econ 2000), Recipient of Nobel Prize in Economics 1998 File:Lars Ahlfors - MFO.jpg, Lars Ahlfors (1978), Finland, Finnish mathematician Recipient of
Fields Medal The Fields Medal is a prize awarded to two, three, or four mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity ...
in 1936. File:FDR in 1933.jpg, Franklin D. Roosevelt (1941), List of Presidents of the United States, 32nd President of the United States


Controversy

In recent years the University of London has seen much controversy surrounding its treatment of staff and students. In 2012, outsourced cleaning staff ran the "3 Cosas" campaign, fighting for improvements in three areas – sick pay, holiday and pensions. After over a year of high-profile strikes, protests and occupations, concessions were made by the university in terms of sick pay and holidays, however these improvements were nowhere near to the extent of what was being demanded by the campaign. In 2013, after a student occupation in favour of ten demands, including fair pay for workers, a halt to privatisation of the university and an end to plans to shut down the university's student union ULU, police were called, resulting in the violent eviction and arrests of over 60 students, as well as police violence towards students outside supporting the occupation. After these events, a high-profile "Cops Off Campus" demonstration was held against the university's security policies, with thousands in attendance. In 2018, an article was published by Vice Media, Vice that reported on concerns over the university's security arrangements at Senate House, where over 25 extra private security staff had been brought in. Students who had been involved in an occupation of Senate House were barred from using university facilities, and there were numerous allegations of students being verbally, physically and sexually assaulted by the temporary security staff. In December 2018, the Independent Workers' Union of Great Britain called for a boycott of events at the university's central administration buildings, including Senate House, with the aim of putting pressure on the University of London to bring outsourced cleaning, catering and security staff in-house by targeting a revenue stream worth around £40 million per year. In May 2019, the congress of the University and College Union, voted to boycott the University of London's central administration buildings including Senate House, raising the pressure on the University of London. Dr Dion Georgiou, an academic supporting the boycott and a member of UCU, wrote a comment piece for ''The Guardian'' shortly before the vote, urging the congress to approve the motion and claiming that "[outsourced workers] face an intransigent university management, whose response has frequently blended short-termism with heavy-handedness". The motion was passed two days later.


The federal model elsewhere

In 1850, Queen's University of Ireland was created as a federal university to provide degrees for students from the colleges established at Belfast, Cork and Galway. This was succeeded in 1879 by the Royal University of Ireland, an examining university along the model of the University of London, which was in turn succeeded by the federal National University of Ireland in 1908. When the University of New Zealand was constituted in 1874, it was a federal university modelled on the University of London, functioning principally as an examining body. University of the Cape of Good Hope, when it was constituted in 1875 and authorised to be responsible for examinations throughout South Africa. In Canada, similar structures were adopted, but on a regional basis. The University of Toronto acted as an examining and degree awarding body for the province of Ontario from 1853 to 1887, by utilising an operating model based on that of University of London. In India, to satisfy the urge for higher education and learning, three universities were set up at three presidency towns in 1857 on the model of University of London as affiliating universities, viz., University of Calcutta, University of Mumbai and University of Madras. The University of Wales was established in 1893 on a federal model incorporating (originally) colleges in Aberystwyth, Bangor and Cardiff. A decision to dissolve the University of Wales was made in 2017.


Literature and popular culture


Literature

Dr. Watson, a fictional character in the Sherlock Holmes stories by Arthur Conan Doyle, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, received his medical degree from Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry (now part of QMUL) and met Sherlock Holmes in the chemical laboratory there. Jim Hacker, a fictional character in the 1980s British sitcom ''Yes Minister'' and its sequel ''Yes, Prime Minister'', received his degree, a third, from the university (LSE). During the
Second World War World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, the Senate House, London use by the Ministry of Information inspired two noted English writers: Graham Greene's novel ''The Ministry of Fear'' (1943) and its film adaptation ''Ministry of Fear'' by Fritz Lang (1944) set in Bloomsbury. George Orwell's wife Eileen worked in Senate House for the Censorship Department of the Ministry of Information, and her experiences inspired the description of the Ministry of Truth in Orwell's 1949 novel ''Nineteen Eighty-Four''.


Films and others

A lecturer at the university (SOAS) named William Montgomery McGovern, William McGovern was one of the Indiana Jones (character)#Historical models, real-life inspirations of the film character Indiana Jones (character), Indiana Jones. Senate House and the constituent colleges of the University of London have been featured in Hollywood and British films.


See also

* Golden triangle (universities) * List of modern universities in Europe (1801–1945) * Third-oldest university in England debate * United Hospitals


Notes


References


Further reading

* * * * *


External links

*
University of London Archives

University of London student lists



University of London military service,1914–1945
{{DEFAULTSORT:London, University Of University of London, Educational institutions established in 1836 Exempt charities 1836 establishments in the United Kingdom 1836 establishments in England Universities established in the 19th century 1836 in London Universities in London