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Ultra high frequency (UHF) is the
ITU 260px, ITU Monument, Bern The International Telecommunication Union is a specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for all matters related to information and communication technologies Information and communications technology ...
designation for
radio frequencies Radio frequency (RF) is the oscillation Oscillation is the repetitive variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibrium) or between two or more different states. The term '' vibration'' is prec ...
in the range between 300 
megahertz The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the unit Unit may refer to: Arts and entertainment * UNIT Unit may refer to: Arts and entertainment * UNIT, a fictional military organization in the science fiction television series ''Doctor Who'' * Unit of action ...
(MHz) and 3 
gigahertz The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the SI derived unit, derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle (geometry), cycle per second. It is named after Heinrich Hertz, Heinrich Rudolf Hertz, the first per ...
(GHz), also known as the decimetre band as the wavelengths range from one meter to one tenth of a meter (one
decimeter The decimetre (SI symbol dm) or decimeter ( American spelling) is a unit Unit may refer to: Arts and entertainment * UNIT, a fictional military organization in the science fiction television series ''Doctor Who'' * Unit of action, a discrete p ...
). Radio waves with frequencies above the UHF band fall into the
super-high frequency Super high frequency (SHF) is the ITU designation for radio frequencies (RF) in the range between 3 and 30 gigahertz The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the SI derived unit, derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) an ...
(SHF) or
microwave Microwave is a form of electromagnetic radiation In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ''phýsis'' 'nature'), , is the natural science that studies mat ...

microwave
frequency range. Lower frequency signals fall into the VHF (
very high frequency Very high frequency (VHF) is the ITU 260px, ITU Monument, Bern The International Telecommunication Union is a specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for all matters related to information and communication technologies ...
) or lower bands. UHF radio waves propagate mainly by
line of sight Line of sight (adjectival form line-of-sight) may refer to: Common meanings * Sightline, an unobstructed line-of-sight between a subject and object * Line of sight (gaming), visibility on a gaming field, ''i.e.'' who can see what Arts and enterta ...
; they are blocked by hills and large buildings although the transmission through building walls is strong enough for indoor reception. They are used for
television broadcasting A television network or broadcaster is a telecommunications network for distribution of television program content, where a central operation provides programming to many television stations or pay television providers. Until the mid-1980s, te ...
,
cell phones A mobile phone, cellular phone, cell phone, cellphone, handphone, or hand phone, sometimes shortened to simply mobile, cell or just phone, is a portable telephone that can make and receive telephone call, calls over a radio frequency link wh ...

cell phones
, satellite communication including
GPS The Global Positioning System (GPS), originally Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national ...

GPS
,
personal radio service A personal radio service is any system that allows individual to operate radio transmitters and receivers for personal purposes with minimal or no special license or individual authorization. Personal radio services exist around the world and typica ...
s including
Wi-Fi Wi-Fi () is a family of wireless network A wireless network is a computer network that uses wireless data connections between network nodes. Wireless networking is a method by which homes, telecommunications networks and business installatio ...

Wi-Fi
and
Bluetooth Bluetooth is a short-range wireless Wireless communication (or just wireless, when the context allows) is the telecommunication, transfer of information between two or more points that do not use an electrical conductor as a medium by which ...

Bluetooth
,
walkie-talkie A walkie-talkie, more formally known as a handheld transceiver (HT), is a hand-held, portable, two-way radio transceiver. Its development during the Second World War has been variously credited to Donald Hings, radio engineer Alfred J. Gross, He ...
s,
cordless phone The term cordless is generally used to refer to electrical or electronic devices that are powered by a battery (electricity), battery or battery pack and can operate without a power cord or cable attached to an electrical outlet to provide mains po ...
s, and numerous other applications. The
IEEE The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional association for electronic engineering and electrical engineering (and associated disciplines) with its corporate office in New York City and its operations center i ...
defines the UHF radar band as frequencies between 300 MHz and 1 GHz. Two other IEEE radar bands overlap the ITU UHF band: the
L band The L band is the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional association for electronic engineering and electrical engineering (and associated disciplines) ...
between 1 and 2 GHz and the
S band The S band is a designation by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional association for electronic engineering and electrical engineering (and associat ...
between 2 and 4 GHz.


Propagation characteristics

Radio waves in the UHF band travel almost entirely by
line-of-sight propagation Line-of-sight propagation is a characteristic of electromagnetic radiation In physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior th ...
(LOS) and ground reflection; unlike in the HF band there is little to no reflection from the
ionosphere The ionosphere () is the ionized part of Earth's upper atmosphere, from about to altitude, a region that includes the thermosphere The thermosphere is the layer in the directly above the and below the . Within this layer of the atmosphere, ...
(
skywave off the ionosphere The ionosphere () is the ionized part of Earth's upper atmosphere, from about to altitude, a region that includes the thermosphere and parts of the mesosphere upright=0.5, Diagram showing the five primary layers of the Ea ...

skywave
propagation), or
ground wave A diving thumb The thumb is the first digit of the hand A hand is a prehensile, multi- fingered appendage located at the end of the forearm The forearm is the region of the upper limb between the Elbow-joint, elbow and the wrist. The ter ...
. UHF radio waves are blocked by hills and cannot travel beyond the horizon, but can penetrate foliage and buildings for indoor reception. Since the
wavelength In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats. It is the distance between consecutive corresponding points of the same phase (waves), phase on the wave, such as two adja ...

wavelength
s of UHF waves are comparable to the size of buildings, trees, vehicles and other common objects, reflection and
diffraction Diffraction refers to various phenomena that occur when a wave In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ''phýsis'' 'nature'), , is the natural science that ...
from these objects can cause
fading In wireless communications, fading is variation of the attenuation of a signal with various variables. These variables include time, geographical position, and radio frequency. Fading is often modeled as a random process. A fading channel is a ...

fading
due to
multipath propagation In radio communication, multipath is the propagation phenomenon that results in radio Radio is the technology of signaling and telecommunication, communicating using radio waves. Radio waves are electromagnetic waves of frequency between 30& ...
, especially in built-up urban areas. Atmospheric moisture reduces, or
attenuates
attenuates
, the strength of UHF signals over long distances, and the attenuation increases with frequency. UHF TV signals are generally more degraded by moisture than lower bands, such as
VHF Very high frequency (VHF) is the designation for the range of s (s) from 30 to 300 (MHz), with corresponding wavelengths of ten meters to one meter. Frequencies immediately below VHF are denoted (HF), and the next higher frequencies are kn ...
TV signals. Since UHF transmission is limited by the visual horizon to 30–40 miles (48–64 km) and usually to shorter distances by local terrain, it allows the same frequency channels to be reused by other users in neighboring geographic areas (
frequency reuse A cellular network or mobile network is a communication network where the last link is wireless Wireless communication (or just wireless, when the context allows) is the transfer of information between two or more points that do not use an ...

frequency reuse
). Radio
repeater In telecommunications, a repeater is an electronic device that receives a signal (information theory), signal and retransmits it. Repeaters are used to extend transmissions so that the signal can cover longer distances or be received on the other s ...
s are used to retransmit UHF signals when a distance greater than the line of sight is required. Occasionally when conditions are right, UHF radio waves can travel long distances by
tropospheric ducting Tropospheric propagation describes electromagnetic propagation in relation to the troposphere. The service area from a VHF or UHF radio transmitter extends to just beyond the horizon, optical horizon, at which point signals start to rapidly reduc ...
as the atmosphere warms and cools throughout the day.


Antennas

The length of an
antenna Antenna (pl. antennas or antennae) may refer to: Science and engineering * Antenna (radio), also known as an aerial, a transducer designed to transmit or receive electromagnetic (e.g., TV or radio) waves * Antennae Galaxies, the name of two col ...
is related to the length of the radio waves used. Due to the short wavelengths, UHF antennas are conveniently stubby and short; at UHF frequencies a quarter-wave monopole, the most common
omnidirectional antenna on a walkie-talkie A walkie-talkie, more formally known as a handheld transceiver (HT), is a hand-held, portable, two-way radio transceiver. Its development during the Second World War has been variously credited to Donald Hings, radio enginee ...
is between 2.5 and 25 cm long. UHF wavelengths are short enough that efficient transmitting antennas are small enough to mount on handheld and mobile devices, so these frequencies are used for two-way
land mobile radio system A land mobile radio system (LMRS) is a person-to-person voice communication system consisting of two-way radio A two-way radio is a that can both transmit and receive s (a ), unlike a receiver which only receives content. It is an audio ...
s, such as
walkie-talkie A walkie-talkie, more formally known as a handheld transceiver (HT), is a hand-held, portable, two-way radio transceiver. Its development during the Second World War has been variously credited to Donald Hings, radio engineer Alfred J. Gross, He ...
s,
two way radio A two-way radio is a radio Radio is the technology of signaling and telecommunication, communicating using radio waves. Radio waves are electromagnetic waves of frequency between 30 hertz (Hz) and 300 gigahertz (GHz). They a ...
s in vehicles, and for portable
wireless device Wireless communication (or just wireless, when the context allows) is the transfer of information between two or more points that do not use an electrical conductor as a medium by which to perform the transfer. The most common wireless technolo ...
s;
cordless phone The term cordless is generally used to refer to electrical or electronic devices that are powered by a battery (electricity), battery or battery pack and can operate without a power cord or cable attached to an electrical outlet to provide mains po ...
s and
cell phone A mobile phone, cellular phone, cell phone, cellphone, handphone, or hand phone, sometimes shortened to simply mobile, cell or just phone, is a portable telephone A telephone is a telecommunication Telecommunication is the tra ...

cell phone
s. Omnidirectional UHF antennas used on mobile devices are usually short
whips A whip is a tool designed to strike humans or other animals to exert control through pain compliance Pain compliance is the use of painful stimulus to control or direct an organism. The stimulus can be manual (brute force, placing pressure on ...
, sleeve
dipoles In electromagnetism Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electric charge, electrically charged particles. The electromagnetic force is ca ...

dipoles
,
rubber ducky antenna The rubber ducky antenna (or rubber duck aerial) is an electrically short monopole antenna monopole antenna of an AM radio station in Chapel Hill, North Carolina. The mast itself is connected to the transmitter and radiates the radio waves. ...
s or the planar inverted F antenna (PIFA) used in cellphones. Higher gain omnidirectional UHF antennas can be made of collinear arrays of
dipoles In electromagnetism Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electric charge, electrically charged particles. The electromagnetic force is ca ...

dipoles
and are used for mobile base stations and cellular base station antennas. The short wavelengths also allow high gain antennas to be conveniently small. High gain antennas for point-to-point communication links and UHF television reception are usually
Yagi Yagi may refer to: People YAGIYagi may refer to: People YAGIYagi may refer to: People YAGI Musician, Artist Places *Yagi, Kyoto, in Japan *Yagi (Kashihara), in Nara Prefecture, Japan *Yagi-nishiguchi Station, in Kashihara, Nara, Japan *Kami-Yagi ...
,
log periodic
log periodic
,
corner reflectors
corner reflectors
, or
reflective array antenna Reflective array 'billboard' antenna of the SCR-270 radar, an early US Army radar system. It consists of 32 horizontal half wave dipoles mounted in front of a high screen reflector. With an operating frequency of 106 MHz and a wavelength o ...
s. At the top end of the band,
slot antenna A slot antenna consists of a metal A metal (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in South ...
s and
parabolic dishes
parabolic dishes
become practical. For satellite communication,
helical Helical may refer to: *Helix, the mathematical concept for the shape * Helical spring, a coilspring *Helical plc, a British property company, once a maker of steel bar stock * Helicoil, a mechanical thread repairing insert * H-el-ical//, stage name ...

helical
, and
turnstile antenna A turnstile antenna, or crossed-dipole antenna, is a radio antenna In radio engineering, an antenna or aerial is the interface between radio wave Radio waves are a type of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths in the electromagne ...
s are used since satellites typically employ
circular polarization In electrodynamics Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electric charge, electrically charged particles. The electromagnetic force is car ...
which is not sensitive to the relative orientation of the transmitting and receiving antennas. For television broadcasting specialized vertical radiators that are mostly modifications of the
slot antenna A slot antenna consists of a metal A metal (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in South ...
or
reflective array antenna Reflective array 'billboard' antenna of the SCR-270 radar, an early US Army radar system. It consists of 32 horizontal half wave dipoles mounted in front of a high screen reflector. With an operating frequency of 106 MHz and a wavelength o ...
are used: the slotted cylinder, zig-zag, and panel antennas.


Applications

UHF television broadcasting UHF television broadcasting is the use of ultra high frequency Ultra high frequency (UHF) is the ITU 260px, ITU Monument, Bern The International Telecommunication Union is a specialized agency of the United Nations responsible f ...
fulfilled the demand for additional over-the-air television channels in urban areas. Today, much of the bandwidth has been reallocated to
land mobile radio system A land mobile radio system (LMRS) is a person-to-person voice communication system consisting of two-way radio A two-way radio is a that can both transmit and receive s (a ), unlike a receiver which only receives content. It is an audio ...
, trunked radio and
mobile telephone A mobile phone, cellular phone, cell phone, cellphone, handphone, or hand phone, sometimes shortened to simply mobile, cell or just phone, is a portable telephone A telephone is a telecommunications Appliance (disambiguation), devic ...
use. UHF channels are still used for
digital television Digital television (DTV) is the transmission of television audiovisual Audiovisual (AV) is electronic media 200px, Graphical representations of electrical audio data. Electronic media uses either analog (red) or digital (blue) signal pr ...
. Since at UHF frequencies transmitting antennas are small enough to install on portable devices, the UHF spectrum is used worldwide for land mobile radio systems,
two-way radio A two-way radio is a radio that can both transmit and receive radio waves (a transceiver), unlike a radio broadcasting, broadcast receiver which only receives content. It is an audio (sound) transceiver, a transmitter and radio receiver, re ...
s used for voice communication for commercial, industrial, public safety, and military purposes. Examples of personal radio services are
GMRS The General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) is a land-mobile frequency modulation, FM Ultra high frequency, UHF radio service designed for short-distance two-way communication and authorized under part 95 of 47 USC. It requires a license in the United S ...
,
PMR446 PMR446 (Private Mobile Radio, 446 MHz The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time. It is also referred to as temporal frequency, which empha ...
, and
UHF CB UHF CB is a class-licensed citizen's band radio service authorised by the governments of Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (co ...
. Some wireless computer networks use UHF frequencies. The widely adopted
GSM GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) is a European standard for mobile devices. GSM may also refer to: Education * GSM London, a higher education provider * Guildhall School of Music and Drama The Guildhall School of Music and Drama i ...

GSM
and
UMTS The Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) is a third generation mobile cellular system for networks based on the GSM GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) is a European standard for mobile devices. GSM may also refer to: Edu ...

UMTS
cellular networks use UHF
cellular frequencies Cellular frequencies are the sets of frequency ranges within the ultra high frequency Ultra high frequency (UHF) is the ITU 260px, ITU Monument, Bern The International Telecommunication Union is a specialized agency of the United Na ...
. Major telecommunications providers have deployed voice and data cellular networks in VHF/UHF range. This allows
mobile phone A mobile phone, cellular phone, cell phone, cellphone, handphone, or hand phone, sometimes shortened to simply mobile, cell or just phone, is a portable telephone A telephone is a telecommunication Telecommunication is the tra ...

mobile phone
s and
mobile computing Mobile computing is human–computer interaction in which a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of o ...
devices to be connected to the
public switched telephone network The public switched telephone network (PSTN) provides infrastructure Infrastructure is the set of fundamental facilities and systems that support the sustainable functionality of households and firms. Serving a country, city, or other area, i ...
and the
Internet The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. It is a ''internetworking, network of networks'' that consist ...

Internet
. UHF radars are said to be effective at tracking stealth fighters, if not stealth bombers. Wi-Fi operates at 2412 MHz-2484 MHz. LTE also operates on UHF frequencies


Examples of UHF frequency allocations


Australia

* UHF citizens band (Land mobile service): 476–477 MHz * Television broadcasting uses UHF channels between 503 and 694 MHz * Fixed point-to-point Link 450.4875 - 451.5125 MHz * Land mobile service 457.50625 - 459.9875 MHz * Mobile satellite service: 406.0000 - 406.1000 MHz * Segment and Service examples: Land mobile for private, Australian, State and Territory Government, Rail industry and Mobile-Satellite


Canada

* 430–450 MHz: Amateur radio (70 cm band) * 470–806 MHz:
Terrestrial television Terrestrial television is a type of television broadcasting Broadcasting is the distributionDistribution may refer to: Mathematics *Distribution (mathematics) Distributions, also known as Schwartz distributions or generalized fun ...
(with select channels in the 600 & 700 MHz bands left vacant) * 1452–1492 MHz:
Digital Audio Broadcasting Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB) is a digital radio Digital radio is the use of digital technology to transmit or receive across the radio spectrum The radio spectrum is the part of the electromagnetic spectrum The electromagnetic spect ...

Digital Audio Broadcasting
(
L band The L band is the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional association for electronic engineering and electrical engineering (and associated disciplines) ...
) * Many other frequency assignments for Canada and Mexico are similar to their US counterparts


United Kingdom

*380–399.9 MHz:
Terrestrial Trunked Radio Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA; formerly known as Trans-European Trunked Radio), a European standard for a trunked radio system, is a professional mobile radio and two-way transceiver specification. TETRA was specifically designed for use by go ...
(TETRA) service for emergency use *430–440 MHz: Amateur radio ( 70 cm band) *446.0–446.2 MHz : European unlicensed PMR service =>
PMR446 PMR446 (Private Mobile Radio, 446 MHz The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time. It is also referred to as temporal frequency, which empha ...
*457–464 MHz: Scanning telemetry and telecontrol, assigned mostly to the water, gas, and electricity industries *606–614 MHz: Radio microphones and radio-astronomy *470–862 MHz: Previously used for analogue TV channels 21–69 (until 2012). **Currently channels 21–37, 39–48, plus 55 and 56, are used for Freeview digital TV. Channel 38 was used for radio astronomy but has been cleared to allow PMSE users access on a licensed, shared basis. **694-790 MHz: i.e. Channels 49-60 are in the process of being cleared, to allow these channels to be allocated for 5G cellular communication, however, Channels 55 and 56 are being used for COM 7 and COM 8 multiplexes for HD services. **791–862 MHz, i.e. channels 61–69 inclusive were previously used for licensed and shared wireless microphones (channel 69 only), has since been allocated to 4G cellular communications. *863–865 MHz: Used for licence-exempt wireless systems. *863–870 MHz: Short range devices,
LPWAN A low-power wide-area network (LPWAN) or low-power wide-area (LPWA) network or low-power network (LPN) is a type of wireless telecommunication wide area network designed to allow long-range communications at a low bit rate among Internet of things ...
IoT
IoT
devices such as NarrowBand-IoT. *870–960 MHz: Cellular communications (GSM900 - Vodafone and O2 only) including GSM-R and future TETRA *1240–1325 MHz: Amateur radio ( 23 cm band) *1710–1880 MHz: 2G Cellular communications (GSM1800) *1880–1900 MHz:
DECT#REDIRECT Digital enhanced cordless telecommunications {{Redirect category shell, {{R from move ...
cordless telephone A cordless telephone or portable telephone is a telephone A telephone is a telecommunications Appliance (disambiguation), device that permits two or more users to conduct a conversation when they are too far apart to be heard directly. A ...
*1900–1980 MHz: 3G cellular communications - mobile phone uplink *2110–2170 MHz: 3G cellular communications - base station downlink *2310–2450 MHz: Amateur radio ( 13 cm band)


United States

UHF channels are used for digital television broadcasting on both over the air channels and cable television channels. Since 1962, UHF channel tuners (at the time, channels 14-83) have been required in television receivers by the
All-Channel Receiver Act The All-Channel Receiver Act of 1962 (ACRA) (), commonly known as the All-Channels Act, was passed by the United States Congress The United States Congress is the legislature of the federal government of the United States. It is Bicamera ...
. However, because of their more limited range, and because few sets could receive them until older sets were replaced, UHF channels were less desirable to broadcasters than
VHF Very high frequency (VHF) is the designation for the range of s (s) from 30 to 300 (MHz), with corresponding wavelengths of ten meters to one meter. Frequencies immediately below VHF are denoted (HF), and the next higher frequencies are kn ...
channels (and licenses sold for lower prices). A complete list of US Television Frequency allocations can be found at North American Television Frequencies. There is a considerable amount of lawful unlicensed activity (cordless phones, wireless networking) clustered around 900 MHz and 2.4 GHz, regulated under
Title 47 CFR Part 15 Code of Federal Regulations The ''Code of Federal Regulations'' (''CFR'') is the codification of the general and permanent regulations published in the ''Federal Register'' by the executive departments and agencies of the federal government of t ...
. These
ISM band The ISM radio bands are portions of the radio spectrum The radio spectrum is the part of the electromagnetic spectrum with Frequency, frequencies from 3 hertz, Hz to 300 Hertz, GHz. Electromagnetic waves in this frequency range, call ...
s – frequencies with a higher unlicensed power permitted for use originally by Industrial, Scientific, Medical apparatus – are now some of the most crowded in the spectrum because they are open to everyone. The 2.45 GHz frequency is the standard for use by
microwave oven A microwave oven (commonly referred to as a microwave) is an electric oven upA double oven A ceramic oven An oven is a tool A tool is an object that can extend an individual's ability to modify features of the surrounding environment. ...

microwave oven
s, adjacent to the frequencies allocated for
Bluetooth Bluetooth is a short-range wireless Wireless communication (or just wireless, when the context allows) is the telecommunication, transfer of information between two or more points that do not use an electrical conductor as a medium by which ...

Bluetooth
network devices. The spectrum from 806 MHz to 890 MHz (UHF channels 70–83) was taken away from TV broadcast services in 1983, primarily for analog mobile telephony. In 2009, as part of the transition from analog to digital over-the-air broadcast of television, the spectrum from 698 MHz to 806 MHz (UHF channels 52–69) was removed from TV broadcasting, making it available for other uses. Channel 55, for instance, was sold to
Qualcomm Qualcomm () is an American multinational corporation headquartered in San Diego, California, and Delaware General Corporation Law, incorporated in Delaware. It creates semiconductors, software, and services related to wireless technology. It ow ...

Qualcomm
for their
MediaFLO MediaFLO was a technology developed by Qualcomm Qualcomm is an American multinational corporation headquartered in San Diego, California, and Delaware General Corporation Law, incorporated in Delaware. It creates semiconductors, software, and s ...
service, which was later sold to AT&T, and discontinued in 2011. Some US broadcasters had been offered incentives to vacate this channel early, permitting its immediate mobile use. The
FCC The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is an independent agency A regulatory agency or regulatory authority, is a Public benefit corporation Public-benefit corporation is a term that has different meanings in different jurisdictions. I ...
's scheduled auction for this newly available spectrum was completed in March 2008. The FCC has allowed Americans to connect any device and any application to the 22 MHz of radio spectrum that people are calling the 700 MHz band. The FCC did not include a wholesale condition, which would have required the owner of the band to resell bandwidth to third parties who could then service the end user.
Google Google LLC is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational stat ...

Google
argued that the wholesale requirement would have stimulated internet competition. As of 2007, 96% of the country's broadband access was controlled by DSL and cable providers. A wholesale condition could have meant a third option for internet service. *225–420 MHz: Government use, including
meteorology Meteorology is a branch of the (which include and ), with a major focus on . The study of meteorology dates back , though significant progress in meteorology did not begin until the 18th century. The 19th century saw modest progress in the f ...
, military aviation, and federal two-way use *420–450 MHz: Government radiolocation,
amateur radio satellite An amateur radio satellite is an artificial satellite built and used by amateur radio operators. It forms part of the Amateur-satellite service. These satellites use amateur radio frequency allocations to facilitate communication between amate ...
and
amateur radio Amateur radio, also known as ham radio, is the use of radio frequency Radio frequency (RF) is the oscillation Oscillation is the repetitive variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibri ...
( 70 cm band), MedRadio *450–470 MHz: UHF business band,
General Mobile Radio Service The General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) is a land-mobile frequency modulation, FM Ultra high frequency, UHF radio service designed for short-distance two-way communication and authorized under part 95 of 47 USC. It requires a license in the United S ...
, and
Family Radio Service The Family Radio Service (FRS) is an improved walkie-talkie radio system authorized in the United States since 1996. This personal radio service uses channelized frequencies around 462 and 467 MHz in the ultra high frequency (UHF) band. It ...
2-way "walkie-talkies", public safety *470–512 MHz: Low-band TV channels 14–20 (shared with public safety
land mobile Mobile radio or mobiles refer to wireless communications systems and devices which are based on radio frequencies(using commonly UHF or VHF frequencies), and where the path of communications is movable on either end. There are a variety of views ...
2-way radio in 12 major metropolitan areas scheduled to relocate to 700 MHz band by 2023) *512–608 MHz: Medium-band TV channels 21–36 *608–614 MHz:
Channel 37 Channel 37 is an intentionally unused ultra-high frequency (UHF) television broadcasting channel in the United States, Canada, Mexico, Brazil and some of Eurasian, Asian region. The frequency range allocated to this channel is important for radio a ...
used for
radio astronomy Radio astronomy is a subfield of astronomy Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the science that studies the laws of the stars) is a natural science that studies astronomical object, celestial objects and celestial ...
and wireless medical telemetry *614–698 MHz: Mobile broadband shared with TV channels 38–51 auctioned in April 2017. TV stations will relocate by 2020. **617–652 MHz: Mobile broadband service downlink **652–663 MHz: Wireless microphones (higher priority) and unlicensed devices (lower priority) **663–698 MHz: Mobile broadband service uplink *698–806 MHz: Was auctioned in March 2008; bidders got full use after the transition to
digital TV Digital television (DTV) is the transmission of television audiovisual signals using Digital signal, digital encoding, in contrast to the earlier analog television technology which used analog signals. At the time of its development it was cons ...
was completed on June 12, 2009 (formerly high-band UHF TV channels 52–69) *806–816 MHz: Public safety and commercial 2-way (formerly TV channels 70–72) *817–824 MHz: ESMR band for wideband mobile services (mobile phone) (formerly public safety and commercial 2-way) *824–849 MHz: Cellular A & B franchises, terminal (mobile phone) (formerly TV channels 73–77) *849–851 MHz: Commercial aviation air-ground systems ( Gogo) *851–861 MHz: Public safety and commercial 2-way (formerly TV channels 77–80) *862–869 MHz: ESMR band for wideband mobile services (base station) (formerly public safety and commercial 2-way) *869–894 MHz: Cellular A & B franchises, base station (formerly TV channels 80–83) *894–896 MHz: Commercial aviation air-ground systems ( Gogo) *896–901 MHz: Commercial 2-way radio *901–902 MHz: Narrowband PCS: commercial narrowband mobile services *902–928 MHz:
ISM band The ISM radio bands are portions of the radio spectrum The radio spectrum is the part of the electromagnetic spectrum with Frequency, frequencies from 3 hertz, Hz to 300 Hertz, GHz. Electromagnetic waves in this frequency range, call ...
, amateur radio ( 33 cm band), cordless phones and stereo,
radio-frequency identification Radio-frequency identification (RFID) uses electromagnetic field An electromagnetic field (also EM field or EMF) is a classical (i.e. non-quantum) field Field may refer to: Expanses of open ground * Field (agriculture), an area of land used fo ...
, datalinks *928–929 MHz:
SCADA Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) is a control system A control system manages, commands, directs, or regulates the behavior of other devices or systems using control loop A control loop is the fundamental building block of ...
, alarm monitoring, meter reading systems and other narrowband services for a company internal use *929–930 MHz: Pagers *930–931 MHz: Narrowband PCS: commercial narrowband mobile services *931–932 MHz: Pagers *932–935 MHz: Fixed microwave services: distribution of video, audio and other data *935–940 MHz: Commercial 2-way radio *940–941 MHz: Narrowband PCS: commercial narrowband mobile services *941–960 MHz: Mixed studio-transmitter fixed links,
SCADA Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) is a control system A control system manages, commands, directs, or regulates the behavior of other devices or systems using control loop A control loop is the fundamental building block of ...
, other. *960–1215 MHz: Aeronautical radionavigation *1240–1300 MHz: Amateur radio ( 23 cm band) *1300–1350 MHz: Long range radar systems *1350–1390 MHz: Military air traffic control and mobile telemetry systems at test ranges *1390–1395 MHz: Proposed wireless medical telemetry service. TerreStar failed to provide service by the required deadline. *1395–1400 MHz: Wireless medical telemetry service *1400–1427 MHz: Earth exploration, radio astronomy, and space research *1427–1432 MHz: Wireless medical telemetry service *1432–1435 MHz: Proposed wireless medical telemetry service. TerreStar failed to provide service by the required deadline. *1435–1525 MHz: Military use mostly for aeronautical mobile telemetry (therefore not available for
Digital Audio Broadcasting Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB) is a digital radio Digital radio is the use of digital technology to transmit or receive across the radio spectrum The radio spectrum is the part of the electromagnetic spectrum The electromagnetic spect ...

Digital Audio Broadcasting
, unlike Canada/Europe) *1525–1559 MHz:
SkyterraSkyTerra (SKYT), formerly Mobile Satellite Ventures (MSV or MSVLP), was a Reston, Virginia company that developed telecommunications systems that integrate satellite and terrestrial radio communication technologies into one system. In March 2010, the ...
downlink ( Ligado is seeking FCC permission for terrestrial use) **1526–1536 MHz: proposed Ligado downlink **1536–1559 MHz: proposed guard band *1559–1610 MHz: Radio Navigation Satellite Services (RNSS) Upper L-band **1563–1587 MHz:
GPS The Global Positioning System (GPS), originally Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national ...
L1 band **1593–1610 MHz:
GLONASS GLONASS (russian: ГЛОНАСС, ; , Global Navigation Satellite System) is a Russian space-based satellite navigation A satellite navigation or satnav system is a system that uses satellite File:ERS 2.jpg, alt=, A full-size model of ...
G1 band **1559–1591 MHz:
Galileo Galileo di Vincenzo Bonaiuti de' Galilei ( , ; 15 February 1564 – 8 January 1642), commonly referred to as Galileo, was an astronomer An astronomer is a in the field of who focuses their studies on a specific question or field o ...
E1 band (overlapping with GPS L1) *1610–1660.5 MHz: Mobile Satellite Service **1610–1618:
Globalstar Globalstar, Inc. is an American satellite communications company that operates a low Earth orbit A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an Earth-centered orbit near the planet, often specified as having a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, ...
uplink **1618–1626.5 MHz:
Iridium Iridium is a chemical element In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, beh ...
uplink and downlink **1626.5–1660.5 MHz:
SkyterraSkyTerra (SKYT), formerly Mobile Satellite Ventures (MSV or MSVLP), was a Reston, Virginia company that developed telecommunications systems that integrate satellite and terrestrial radio communication technologies into one system. In March 2010, the ...
uplink ( Ligado is seeking FCC permission for terrestrial use) ***1627.5–1637.5 MHz: proposed Ligado uplink 1 ***1646.5–1656.5 MHz: proposed Ligado uplink 2 *1660.5–1668.4 MHz: Radio astronomy observations. Transmitting is not permitted. *1668.4–1670 MHz: Radio astronomy observations. Weather balloons may utilize the spectrum after an advance notice. *1670–1675 MHz:
Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), operated by the United States' National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)'s National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service division, supports weather for ...
transmissions to three
earth station A ground station, Earth station, or Earth terminal is a terrestrial radio station Radio broadcasting is transmission of audio signal, audio (sound), sometimes with related metadata, by radio waves intended to reach a wide audience. In ...
s in Wallops Island, VA; Greenbelt, MD and Fairbanks, AK. Nationwide broadband service license in this range is held by a subsidiary of Crown Castle International Corp. who is trying to provide service in cooperation with
Ligado Networks Ligado Networks, formerly known as LightSquared, is an American satellite communications company. After restructuring, emerging from bankruptcy and modifying its network plan, the new company, Ligado Networks, launched in 2016. It operates the Sk ...
. *1675–1695 MHz: Meteorological federal users *1695–1780 MHz:
AWS Amazon Web Services (AWS) is a subsidiary of Amazon.com, Amazon providing Software as a service, on-demand cloud computing computing platform, platforms and Application programming interface, APIs to individuals, companies, and governments, on ...

AWS
mobile phone uplink (UL) operating band **1695–1755 MHz: AWS-3 blocks A1 and B1 **1710–1755 MHz: AWS-1 blocks A, B, C, D, E, F **1755–1780 MHz: AWS-3 blocks G, H, I, J (various federal agencies transitioning by 2025) *1780–1850 MHz: exclusive federal use (Air Force satellite communications, Army's cellular-like communication system, other agencies) *1850–1920 MHz: PCS mobile phone—order is A, D, B, E, F, C, G, H blocks. A, B, C = 15 MHz; D, E, F, G, H = 5 MHz *1920–1930 MHz:
DECT#REDIRECT Digital enhanced cordless telecommunications {{Redirect category shell, {{R from move ...
cordless telephone A cordless telephone or portable telephone is a telephone A telephone is a telecommunications Appliance (disambiguation), device that permits two or more users to conduct a conversation when they are too far apart to be heard directly. A ...
*1930–2000 MHz: PCS base stations—order is A, D, B, E, F, C, G, H blocks. A, B, C = 15 MHz; D, E, F, G, H = 5 MHz *2000–2020 MHz: lower AWS-4 downlink (mobile broadband) *2020–2110 MHz: Cable Antenna Relay service, Local Television Transmission service, TV Broadcast Auxiliary service, Earth Exploration Satellite service *2110–2200 MHz:
AWS Amazon Web Services (AWS) is a subsidiary of Amazon.com, Amazon providing Software as a service, on-demand cloud computing computing platform, platforms and Application programming interface, APIs to individuals, companies, and governments, on ...

AWS
mobile broadband downlink **2110–2155 MHz: AWS-1 blocks A, B, C, D, E, F **2155–2180 MHz: AWS-3 blocks G, H, I, J **2180–2200 MHz: upper AWS-4 *2200–2290 MHz:
NASA The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; ) is an independent agency A regulatory agency or regulatory authority, is a Public benefit corporation Public-benefit corporation is a term that has different meanings in differen ...

NASA
satellite tracking, telemetry and control (space-to-Earth, space-to-space) *2290–2300 MHz:
NASA Deep Space Network The NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) is a worldwide network of U.S. spacecraft communication facilities, located in the United States (California), Spain (Madrid), and Australia (Canberra), that supports NASA's interplanetary spacecraft missio ...
*2300–2305 MHz: Amateur radio ( 13 cm band, lower segment) *2305–2315 MHz: WCS mobile broadband service uplink blocks A and B *2315–2320 MHz: WCS block C (AT&T is pursuing
smart grid #REDIRECT Smart grid A smart grid is an electrical grid which includes a variety of operation and energy measures including: * advanced metering infrastructure (of which smart meters are a generic name for any utility side device even if it i ...
deployment) *2320–2345 MHz:
Satellite radio Satellite radio is defined by the International Telecommunication Union 260px, ITU Monument, Bern The International Telecommunication Union is a specialized agency of the United Nations United Nations Specialized Agencies are autono ...
(
Sirius XM Sirius XM Holdings Inc. is an American broadcasting company headquartered in Midtown Manhattan, New York City that provides satellite radio and online radio services operating in the United States. It was formed by the 2008 merger of Sirius Sat ...
) *2345–2350 MHz: WCS block D (AT&T is pursuing
smart grid #REDIRECT Smart grid A smart grid is an electrical grid which includes a variety of operation and energy measures including: * advanced metering infrastructure (of which smart meters are a generic name for any utility side device even if it i ...
deployment) *2350–2360 MHz: WCS mobile broadband service downlink blocks A and B *2360–2390 MHz: Aircraft landing and safety systems *2390–2395 MHz: Aircraft landing and safety systems (secondary deployment in a dozen of airports), amateur radio otherwise *2395–2400 MHz: Amateur radio ( 13 cm band, upper segment) *2400–2483.5 MHz: ISM,
IEEE 802.11 IEEE 802.11 is part of the IEEE 802 IEEE 802 is a family of Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional association for electronic engineering and electr ...
, 802.11b, 802.11g, 802.11n wireless
LAN A local area network (LAN) is a computer network A computer network is a set of s sharing resources located on or provided by . The computers use common s over to communicate with each other. These interconnections are made up of te ...

LAN
, IEEE 802.15.4-2006,
Bluetooth Bluetooth is a short-range wireless Wireless communication (or just wireless, when the context allows) is the telecommunication, transfer of information between two or more points that do not use an electrical conductor as a medium by which ...

Bluetooth
,
radio-controlled aircraft A radio-controlled aircraft (often called RC aircraft or RC plane) is a small flying machine that is controlled remotely by an operator on the ground using a hand-held radio transmitter In electronics Electronics comprises the physics, en ...
(strictly for
spread spectrum In telecommunication and radio communication, spread-spectrum techniques are methods by which a signal (electrical engineering), signal (e.g., an electrical, electromagnetic, or acoustic signal) generated with a particular Bandwidth (signal pr ...
use),
microwave oven A microwave oven (commonly referred to as a microwave) is an electric oven upA double oven A ceramic oven An oven is a tool A tool is an object that can extend an individual's ability to modify features of the surrounding environment. ...

microwave oven
s,
Zigbee Zigbee is an IEEE 802.15.4-based specification A specification often refers to a set of documented requirements to be satisfied by a material, design, product, or service. A specification is often a type of technical standard A technical sta ...
*2483.5–2495 MHz:
Globalstar Globalstar, Inc. is an American satellite communications company that operates a low Earth orbit A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an Earth-centered orbit near the planet, often specified as having a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, ...
downlink and Terrestrial Low Power Service suitable for TD-LTE small cells *2495–2690 MHz: Educational Broadcast and Broadband Radio Services *2690–2700 MHz: Receive-only range for radio astronomy and space research


See also

*
Digital Audio Broadcasting Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB) is a digital radio Digital radio is the use of digital technology to transmit or receive across the radio spectrum The radio spectrum is the part of the electromagnetic spectrum The electromagnetic spect ...

Digital Audio Broadcasting
and its regional implementations *
Digital terrestrial television Digital terrestrial television (DTTV or DTT, or DTTB with "broadcasting") is a technology for terrestrial television Terrestrial television is a type of television broadcasting Broadcasting is the distribution of sound, audio or video c ...
*
The Thing (listening device) which contained a Soviet bugging device, on display at the NSA's National Cryptologic Museum. The Thing, also known as the Great Seal bug, was one of the first covert listening device A covert listening device, more commonly known as a bug or a ...


References


External links


U.S. cable television channel frequencies
*Tomislav Stimac, "

'". IK1QFK Home Page (vlf.it). {{Authority control Radio spectrum Television technology Wireless