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The Tyrrhenian Sea (; it, Mar Tirreno , french: Mer Tyrrhénienne , sc, Mare Tirrenu, co, Mari Tirrenu, scn, Mari Tirrenu, nap, Mare Tirreno) is part of the
Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by and and , on the south by , and on the east by the . The Sea has played a central role in the . Although the Mediterrane ...
off the western coast of
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest ...

Italy
. It is named for the Tyrrhenian people identified with the
Etruscans The Etruscan civilization () of ancient Italy The history of Italy covers the Ancient Period, the Middle Ages and the modern era. Since classical times, ancient Phoenicians, Magna Graecia, Greeks, Etruscan civilization, Etruscans, and Celts ha ...
of Italy.


Geography

The sea is bounded by the islands of
Corsica Corsica (, Upper , Southern , ; french: link=no, Corse ; lij, link=no, Còrsega) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north ...

Corsica
and
Sardinia Sardinia ( ; it, Sardegna ; sc, Sardigna or ) is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by and and , ...

Sardinia
(to the west), the
Italian Peninsula The Italian Peninsula (Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Reg ...
(regions of
Tuscany it, Toscano (man) it, Toscana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Citizenship , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = Italian , demogra ...
,
Lazio Lazio (, ; ; la, Latium, ) is one of the 20 Regions of Italy, administrative regions of Italy. Situated in the Central Italy, central peninsular section of the country, it has 5,864,321 inhabitants – making it the second most populated region o ...

Lazio
,
Campania it, Campano (man) it, Campana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 ...
,
Basilicata it, Lucano (man) it, Lucana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = ...
, and
Calabria it, Calabrese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demogr ...

Calabria
) to the north and east, and the island of
Sicily (man) it, Siciliana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Ethnicity , demographics1_footnotes = , demographi ...

Sicily
(to the south). The Tyrrhenian Sea also includes a number of smaller islands like
Capri Capri ( , ; ; ) is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atoll An atoll (), ...

Capri
,
Elba Elba ( it, isola d'Elba, ; la, Ilva; Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into ...

Elba
,
Ischia Ischia ( , , ) is a volcanic island in the Tyrrhenian Sea. It lies at the northern end of the Gulf of Naples, about from the city of Naples. It is the largest of the Phlegrean Islands. Roughly trapezoidal in shape, it measures approximately ...

Ischia
and
Ustica Ustica (; scn, Ùstica) is a small Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance languag ...

Ustica
. The maximum depth of the sea is . The Tyrrhenian Sea is situated near where the
African African(s) may refer to: * Anything from or pertaining to the continent of Africa: ** People who are native to Africa, descendants of natives of Africa, or individuals who trace their ancestry to indigenous inhabitants of Africa *** Ethnic groups ...
and
Eurasian Plate The Eurasian Plate is a tectonic plate This is a list of tectonic plates on Earth's surface Earth is the third planet A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or Stellar evolution#Stellar remnants, stellar remnant that is ...
s meet; therefore mountain chains and active volcanoes such as Mount
Marsili Marsili is a large undersea volcano in the Tyrrhenian Sea, about south of Naples. The seamount is about 3,000 m (9,800 feet) tall; its peak and Volcanic crater, crater are about 450 m below the sea surface. Though it has not erupted in recorded ...
are found in its depths. The eight
Aeolian Islands The Aeolian Islands ( ; it, Isole Eolie ; scn, Ìsuli Eoli; el, Αιολίδες Νήσοι, Aiolídes Nísoi), sometimes referred to as the Lipari Islands or Lipari group ( , ) after their largest island, are a volcanic A volcano is a ru ...

Aeolian Islands
and
Ustica Ustica (; scn, Ùstica) is a small Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance languag ...

Ustica
are located in the southern part of the sea, north of
Sicily (man) it, Siciliana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Ethnicity , demographics1_footnotes = , demographi ...

Sicily
.


Extent

The
International Hydrographic Organization The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) is an intergovernmental organisation representing hydrography. As of December 2021 the IHO comprised 96 Member States. A principal aim of the IHO is to ensure that the world's seas, oceans and ...
defines the limits of the Tyrrhenian Sea as follows: * In the
Strait of Messina The Strait of Messina ( it, Stretto di Messina, Sicilian: Strittu di Missina) is a narrow strait A strait is a naturally formed, narrowing, typically navigable waterway that connects two larger bodies of water. The surface water generall ...

Strait of Messina
: A line joining the North extreme of Cape Paci (15°42′E) with the East extreme of the Island of
Sicily (man) it, Siciliana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Ethnicity , demographics1_footnotes = , demographi ...

Sicily
, Cape Peloro (38°16′N). * On the Southwest: A line running from Cape Lilibeo (West extreme of Sicily) to the South extreme of Cape Teulada (8°38′E) in
Sardinia Sardinia ( ; it, Sardegna ; sc, Sardigna or ) is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by and and , ...

Sardinia
. * In the
Strait of Bonifacio The Strait of Bonifacio (french: Bouches de Bonifacio; it, Bocche di Bonifacio; co, Bucchi di Bunifaziu; sdn, Bocchi di Bunifaciu; sc, Buccas de Bonifatziu; lij, Bocche de Bunifazziu; lat, Fretum Gallicum, Fretum Taphros) is the strait betwe ...

Strait of Bonifacio
: A line joining the West extreme of Cape Testa (41°14′N) in Sardinia with the Southwest extreme of Cape Feno (41°23′N) in Corsica. * On the North: A line joining
Cape Corse
Cape Corse
(Cape Grosso, 9°23′E) in Corsica, with
Tinetto Tinetto is an Italian island situated in the Gulf of La Spezia The Gulf of La Spezia (Italian: ''Golfo della Spezia'' or ''Golfo dei poeti'') is a body of water on the north-western coast of Italy and part of the northern Tyrrhenian Sea, specifical ...
Island () and thence through Tino and Palmaria islands to San Pietro Point () on the coast of Italy.


Exits

There are four exits from the Tyrrhenian Sea (north to south):


Basins

The
Tyrrhenian BasinThe Tyrrhenian Basin is a sedimentary basin Sedimentary basins are regions of the Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life. About 29% of Earth's surface is land consisting of co ...
is divided into two basins (or plains), the Vavilov plain and the Marsili plain. They are separated by the undersea ridge known as the Issel Bridge, after
Arturo Issel Arturo Issel (Genoa April 11, 1842 – Genoa November 27, 1922) was an Italians, Italian geologist, palaeontologist, malacologist and archaeologist, born in Genoa. He is noted for first defining the Tyrrhenian Stage in 1914. Issel was also renowned ...

Arturo Issel
.


Geology

The Tyrrhenian Sea is a
back-arc basin Back-arc basins are geologic basins, submarine features associated with island arc Island arcs are long chains of active volcanoes with intense seismic activity found along convergent tectonic plate boundaries (such as the Ring of Fire). Most ...
that formed due to the
rollback In political science Political science is the scientific study of politics. It is a social science dealing with systems of governance and power, and the analysis of politics, political activities, political thoughts, political behavior, and ass ...
of the Calabrian
slab Slab or SLAB may refer to: Physical materials * Concrete slab, a flat concrete plate used in construction * Stone slab, a flat stone used in construction * Slab (casting), a length of metal * Slab (geology), that portion of a tectonic plate that is ...
towards South-East during the
Neogene The Neogene ( ) (informally Upper Tertiary or Late Tertiary) is a geologic period and system that spans 20.45 million years from the end of the Paleogene The Paleogene ( ; also spelled Palaeogene or Palæogene; informally Lower Tertiary or E ...

Neogene
. Episodes of fast and slow
trench A trench is a type of excavation or depression in the ground that is generally deeper than it is wide (as opposed to a wider gully A gully is a landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of the solid surface of the Earth or othe ...

trench
retreat formed first the Vavilov basin and, then, the Marsili basin.
Submarine volcano Submarine volcanoes are underwater vents or fissures in the Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and ...
es and the active volcano formed because trench retreat produces extension in the overriding plate allowing the
mantle Mantle may refer to: *Mantle (geology) A mantle is a layer inside a planetary body A planet is an astronomical body Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the science that studies the laws of the stars) is a n ...
to rise below the surface and partially melt. The
magmatism Magmatism is the emplacement of magma Magma () is the molten or semi-molten natural material from which all igneous rock Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ''ignis'' meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main The thr ...
here is also affected by the fluids released from the slab.


Name

Its name derives from the Greek name for the
Etruscans The Etruscan civilization () of ancient Italy The history of Italy covers the Ancient Period, the Middle Ages and the modern era. Since classical times, ancient Phoenicians, Magna Graecia, Greeks, Etruscan civilization, Etruscans, and Celts ha ...
, who were said to be emigrants from
Lydia Lydia (Lydian language, Lydian: ‎𐤮𐤱𐤠𐤭𐤣𐤠, ''Śfarda''; Aramaic: ''Lydia''; el, Λυδία, ''Lȳdíā''; tr, Lidya) was an Iron Age Monarchy, kingdom of western Asia Minor located generally east of ancient Ionia in the mod ...

Lydia
and led by the prince
Tyrrhenus In Etruscan mythology Etruscan religion comprises a set of stories, beliefs, and religious Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social wheth ...
. The Etruscans settled along the coast of modern
Tuscany it, Toscano (man) it, Toscana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Citizenship , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = Italian , demogra ...
and referred to the water as the "Sea of the Etruscans".


Islands

Islands of the Tyrrhenian Sea include: *
Corsica Corsica (, Upper , Southern , ; french: link=no, Corse ; lij, link=no, Còrsega) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north ...

Corsica
*
Sardinia Sardinia ( ; it, Sardegna ; sc, Sardigna or ) is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by and and , ...

Sardinia
*
Sicily (man) it, Siciliana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Ethnicity , demographics1_footnotes = , demographi ...

Sicily
*
Elba Elba ( it, isola d'Elba, ; la, Ilva; Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into ...

Elba
*
Ischia Ischia ( , , ) is a volcanic island in the Tyrrhenian Sea. It lies at the northern end of the Gulf of Naples, about from the city of Naples. It is the largest of the Phlegrean Islands. Roughly trapezoidal in shape, it measures approximately ...

Ischia
*
Procida Procida (; nap, Proceta ) is one of the Flegrean Islands The Phlegraean Islands ( it, Isole Flegree ; nap, Isule Flegree) are an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or coll ...

Procida
*
Capri Capri ( , ; ; ) is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atoll An atoll (), ...

Capri
*
Ustica Ustica (; scn, Ùstica) is a small Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance languag ...

Ustica
*
Aeolian Islands The Aeolian Islands ( ; it, Isole Eolie ; scn, Ìsuli Eoli; el, Αιολίδες Νήσοι, Aiolídes Nísoi), sometimes referred to as the Lipari Islands or Lipari group ( , ) after their largest island, are a volcanic A volcano is a ru ...

Aeolian Islands
(including
Lipari Lipari (; scn, Lìpari; la, Lipara; grc, Μελιγουνίς, Meligounís, or , ''Lipára'') is the largest of the Aeolian Islands The Aeolian Islands ( ; it, Isole Eolie ; scn, Ìsuli Eoli; el, Αιολίδες Νήσοι, Aiolídes Ní ...

Lipari
and
Stromboli Stromboli ( , ; scn, Struògnuli ; grc, Στρογγύλη, Strongýlē) is an island in the Tyrrhenian Sea The Tyrrhenian Sea (; it, Mar Tirreno , french: Mer Tyrrhénienne , sc, Mare Tirrenu, co, Mari Tirrenu, scn, Mari Tirrenu, nap ...

Stromboli
) *
Pontine Islands The Pontine Islands (, also ; it, Isole Ponziane ) are an archipelago in the Tyrrhenian Sea The Tyrrhenian Sea (; it, Mar Tirreno , french: Mer Tyrrhénienne , sc, Mare Tirrenu, co, Mari Tirrenu, scn, Mari Tirrenu, nap, Mare Tirreno) is ...
including
Ponza Ponza (Italian: ''isola di Ponza'' ) is the largest island of the Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italia ...


Ports

The main ports of the Tyrrhenian Sea in
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest ...

Italy
are:
Naples Naples (; it, Napoli ; nap, Napule ), from grc, Νεάπολις, Neápolis, lit=new city. is the regional capital of and the third-largest city of , after and , with a population of 967,069 within the city's administrative limits as of ...

Naples
,
Palermo Palermo ( , ; scn, Palermu , locally also or ; la, Panormus, from grc, Πάνορμος, Pánormos; older ar, بَلَرْم‎, Balarm) is a city in southern Italy Southern Italy ( it, Sud Italia; nap, 'o Sudde; scn, Italia dû Sud), ...

Palermo
,
Civitavecchia Civitavecchia (; meaning "ancient town") is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a of , roughly equivalent to a or . Importance and function The provides essential public services: of births and deaths, , and maintenance of local ...

Civitavecchia
(
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, Italy).svg , map_caption = The te ...

Rome
),
Salerno Salerno (, , ; nap, label=Salernitano, Saliernë, ) is an ancient city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a Administrative division, local administrative division of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance ...

Salerno
,
Trapani Trapani ( , ; scn, Tràpani ; lat, Drepanum; grc, Δρέπανον) is a city and municipality (''comune The (; plural: ) is a Administrative division, local administrative division of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or mun ...

Trapani
and
Gioia Tauro Gioia Tauro () is a ''comune The (; plural: ) is a Administrative division, local administrative division of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides essential public services: Civil ...
. In
Corsica Corsica (, Upper , Southern , ; french: link=no, Corse ; lij, link=no, Còrsega) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north ...

Corsica
the most important port is
Bastia Bastia (, , , ; co, Bastìa ) is a commune An intentional community is a voluntary residential community designed from the start to have a high degree of group cohesiveness, social cohesion and teamwork. The members of an intentional co ...

Bastia
. Note that even though the phrase "port of Rome" is frequently used, there is in fact no port in Rome. Instead, the "port of Rome" refers to the maritime facilities at Civitavecchia, some to the northwest of Rome, not too far from its airport.
Giglio Porto Giglio Porto is a village in Tuscany it, Toscano (man) it, Toscana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Citizenship , demographics1_footnotes = , demog ...
is a small island port in this area. It rose to prominence, when the ''
Costa Concordia ''Costa Concordia'' () was a cruise ship Cruise ships are large s used mainly for ing. Unlike s, which are used for transport, they typically embark on round-trip voyages to various ports-of-call, where passengers may go on known as "sh ...

Costa Concordia
'' ran aground near the coast of Giglio and sank. The ship was later refloated and towed to
Genoa Genoa ( ; it, Genova ; locally ; lij, Zêna ; English, historically, and la, Genua) is the capital of the Regions of Italy, Italian region of Liguria and the List of cities in Italy, sixth-largest city in Italy. In 2015, 594,733 people lived ...

Genoa
for scrapping.


Winds

In
Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A belief is an Attitude (psyc ...
, it is believed that the cliffs above the Tyrrhenian Sea housed the four winds kept by
Aeolus In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A belief ...
. The winds are the Mistral from the
Rhône The Rhône ( , ) is a major river in France and Switzerland, arising in the Alps and flowing west and south through Lake Geneva and southeastern France before discharging into the Mediterranean Sea. At Arles, near its mouth, the river divides in ...
valley, the
Libeccio The libeccio (; ; sh, lebić ; ca, llebeig ; mt, Lbiċ; el, λίβας ; oc, labech ) ; el, γαρμπής, links=no ; it, garbino ; sh, garbin, links=no ; es, garbino, ; oc, garbin ). is the westerly or south-westerly wind which predo ...

Libeccio
from the southwest, and the
Sirocco Sirocco (), scirocco, ghibli, jugo or, rarely, siroc (see below) is a Mediterranean The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin (also ...

Sirocco
and Ostro from the south.


Image gallery

File:Costa dello sbarcatello.jpg,
Monte Argentario Monte Argentario is a ''comune The (; plural: ) is a Administrative division, local administrative division of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides essential public services: Civi ...
File:Pizzo-Vista dal mare.JPG, Pizzo Image:Zambrone.jpg, File:DLOintheSOUTH.jpg,
Parghelia Parghelia is a ''comune'' (municipality) in the Province of Vibo Valentia in the Italy, Italian region Calabria, located about southwest of Catanzaro and about west of Vibo Valentia. As of 31 December 2004, it had a population of 1,383 and an are ...
File:ChiaiaDiLuna Wiki.jpg,
Ponza Ponza (Italian: ''isola di Ponza'' ) is the largest island of the Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italia ...
Image:CapoVaticano02.jpg,
Capo Vaticano Capo Vaticano is a wide bathing place in the Municipality of Ricadi Ricadi ( grc, Ρηγάδιον, translit=Rigádion) is a small rural town, as well as a municipality, located along the Tyrrhenian Tyrrhenian may refer to the: * Tyrrhenian Stag ...
Image:Scilla139.jpg,
Scilla ''Scilla'' () is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circu ...
Image:Tindari.jpg,
Tindari Tindari (; scn, Lu Tìnnaru ), ancient Tyndaris ( grc, Τυνδαρίς, Strab.) or Tyndarion (, Ptol.), is a small town, ''frazione A ''frazione'' (plural: ) is a type of subdivision of a '' comune'' ( municipality) in Italy, often a small vill ...

Tindari
Image:Cefalu.jpg,
Cefalù Cefalù (), the classical Classical may refer to: European antiquity *Classical antiquity, a period of history from roughly the 7th or 8th century B.C.E. to the 5th century C.E. centered on the Mediterranean Sea *Classical architecture, architec ...

Cefalù
Image:Palermo-Panorama-bjs-3.jpg,
Palermo Palermo ( , ; scn, Palermu , locally also or ; la, Panormus, from grc, Πάνορμος, Pánormos; older ar, بَلَرْم‎, Balarm) is a city in southern Italy Southern Italy ( it, Sud Italia; nap, 'o Sudde; scn, Italia dû Sud), ...

Palermo
Image:Castellammare-bjs-3.jpg,
Castellammare del Golfo Castellammare del Golfo (; scn, Casteddammari; la, Emporium Segestanorum or ) is a town and municipality A municipality is usually a single having status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional l ...

Castellammare del Golfo
Image:Veduta frontale di capo Miseno.JPG, Image:Terracina-vista01.jpg,
Terracina Terracina is an Italy, Italian city and ''comune'' of the province of Latina, located on the coast southeast of Rome on the Via Appia ( by rail). The site has been continuously occupied since antiquity. History Ancient times Terracina appears in ...
Image:Merchesana beach in Terme Vigliatore, Sicily.JPG,
Terme Vigliatore Terme Vigliatore (Sicilian language, Sicilian: ''Tèrmini Vigghiaturi'') is a ''comune'' (municipality) in the Metropolitan City of Messina in the Italy, Italian region Sicily, located about east of Palermo and about west of Messina at the mouth o ...

Terme Vigliatore


References

{{Authority control Marginal seas of the Mediterranean Seas of Italy Seas of France European seas Back-arc basins Landforms of Basilicata Landforms of Calabria Landforms of Campania Landforms of Lazio Landforms of Tuscany Landforms of Sicily Landforms of Corsica