HOME

TheInfoList




In
urban planning Urban planning, also known as regional planning, town planning, city planning, or rural planning, is a technical and political process that is focused on the development and design A design is a plan or specification for the construction o ...
, transit-oriented development (TOD) is a type of
urban development Urban means "related to a city". In that sense, the term may refer to: * Urban area An urban area, or built-up area, is a human settlement with a high population density and infrastructure of built environment. Urban areas are created throu ...
that maximizes the amount of
residential A residential area is a land used in which housing Housing, or more generally living spaces, refers to the construction Construction is a general term meaning the art and science to form Physical object, objects, systems, or organizat ...
,
business Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products (such as goods and services). Simply put, it is "any activity or enterprise entered into for profit." Having a business name A trad ...

business
and
leisure Leisure has often been defined as a quality of experience or as free time. Free time is time Time is the continued sequence of existence and event (philosophy), events that occurs in an apparently irreversible process, irreversible s ...

leisure
space within
walking Walking (also known as ambulation) is one of the main gait Gait is the pattern of movement Movement may refer to: Common uses * Movement (clockwork), the internal mechanism of a timepiece * Motion (physics), commonly referred to as move ...

walking
distance of
public transport Public transport (also known as public transportation, public transit, mass transit, or simply transit) is a system of transport Transport (in British English), or transportation (in American English), is the Motion, movement of humans ...

public transport
. It promotes a symbiotic relationship between dense, compact urban form and public transport use. In doing so, TOD aims to increase
public transport Public transport (also known as public transportation, public transit, mass transit, or simply transit) is a system of transport Transport (in British English), or transportation (in American English), is the Motion, movement of humans ...

public transport
ridership by reducing the use of private cars and by promoting sustainable urban growth. TOD typically includes a central transit stop (such as a
train station A train station, railway station, railroad station or depot is a railway Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicle A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine ...

train station
, or
light rail Light rail transit (LRT) is a form of passenger urban rail transit Urban rail transit is an all-encompassing term for various types of local rail Rail or rails may refer to: Rail transport *Rail transport and related matters *Rail (rail t ...

light rail
or
bus A bus (contracted from omnibus, with variants multibus, motorbus, autobus, etc.) is a road vehicle A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine A machine is a man-made device that uses power to apply forces and control movement t ...

bus
stop) surrounded by a high-density
mixed-use Mixed-use is a style of Real estate development, urban development, urban planning and/or a zoning type that blends residential, commercial, cultural, institutional, or entertainment uses into one space, where those functions are to some degree ...
area, with lower-density areas spreading out from this center. TOD is also typically designed to be more
walkable Walkability is a measure of how friendly an area is for walking Walking (also known as ambulation) is one of the main gait Gait is the pattern of Motion (physics), movement of the limb (anatomy), limbs of animals, including Gait (human), huma ...
than other
built-up area An urban area, or built-up area, is a human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. The complexity of a settlement can range from a small numbe ...
s, by using smaller block sizes and reducing the land area dedicated to
automobiles A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle A motor vehicle, also known as motorized vehicle or automotive vehicle, is a self-propelled vehicle A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine that transports people or cargo. Vehicle ...

automobiles
. The densest areas of TOD are normally located within a radius of ¼ to ½ mile (400 to 800 m) around the central transit stop, as this is considered to be an appropriate scale for
pedestrian A pedestrian is a person travelling on foot The foot (plural: feet) is an anatomical Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, inc ...

pedestrian
s, thus solving the last mile problem.


Description

Many of the
new town New is an adjective referring to something recently made, discovered, or created. New or NEW may refer to: Music * New, singer of K-pop group The Boyz Boyz or The Boyz may refer to: Music Bands *The Boyz (German band), a German boy band of t ...
s created after
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
in
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
,
Sweden Sweden ( sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that ...

Sweden
, and
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
have many of the characteristics of TOD communities. In a sense, nearly all communities built on
reclaimed land Land reclamation, usually known as reclamation, and also known as land fill (not to be confused with a waste landfill A landfill site, also known as a tip, dump, rubbish dump, garbage dump, or dumping ground, is a site for the disposal of wast ...
in the
Netherlands ) , national_anthem = ( en, "William of Nassau") , image_map = EU-Netherlands.svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = BES islands location map.svg , map_caption2 = , image_map3 ...

Netherlands
or as
exurban An exurb (alternately: exurban area) is an area outside the typically denser inner suburban area File:Husby Kista.jpg, The Swedish suburbs of Husby/Kista/Akalla are built according to the typical city planning of the Million Programme. A s ...
developments in
Denmark Denmark ( da, Danmark, ) is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( physical geography), hu ...

Denmark
have had the local equivalent of TOD principles integrated in their planning, including the promotion of
bicycle A bicycle, also called a bike or cycle, is a human-powered transport, human-powered or motorized bicycle, motor-powered, bicycle pedal, pedal-driven, single-track vehicle, having two bicycle wheel, wheels attached to a bicycle frame, frame, ...

bicycle
s for local use. In the United States, a half-mile-radius circle has become the de facto standard for rail-transit catchment areas for TODs. A half mile (800 m) corresponds to the distance someone can walk in 10 minutes at and is a common estimate for the distance people will walk to get to a rail station. The half-mile ring is a little more than in size. Transit-oriented development is sometimes distinguished by some planning officials from "
transit-proximate development {{Short description, Urban planning prioritising automobiles and transit Transit-proximate development is a term used by some planning officials to describe (potentially dense) development that is physically near a public transport Public tr ...
" (see, e.g., comments made during a Congressional hearing) because it contains specific features that are designed to encourage public transport use and differentiate the development from
urban sprawl Urban sprawl (also known as suburban sprawl or urban encroachment) is the unrestricted growth in many urban area An urban area, or built-up area, is a human settlement with a high population density and infrastructure of built environment. ...
. A few examples of these features include mixed-use development that will use transit at all times of day, excellent pedestrian facilities such as high quality
pedestrian crossing A pedestrian crossing or crosswalk is a place designated for pedestrians of Alinga Street and Northbourne Avenue, Canberra Canberra ( ) is the capital city of Australia. Founded following the Federation of Australia, federation of ...

pedestrian crossing
s, narrow streets, and tapering of buildings as they become more distant from the public transport node. Another key feature of transit-oriented development that differentiates it from "transit-proximate development" is reduced amounts of
parking Parking is the act of stopping and disengaging a vehicle and leaving it unoccupied. Parking on one or both sides of a road is often permitted, though sometimes with restrictions. Some buildings have parking facilities for use of the buildings' ...

parking
for personal vehicles. Transit-oriented development has a lot of benefits including but not limited to: -       Easy access to transit, making it easy to get around without a car. -       Dense, due to TODs being made for getting around transportation, other than private vehicles, allowing access to stores and private business. -       Improved access to jobs and city services. -       Increases population near transit stops, such as a commuter rail stop, which ultimately increases transit ridership across the board. Opponents of compact, or transit oriented development typically argue that Americans, and persons throughout the world, prefer low-density living, and that any policies that encourage compact development will result in substantial
utility As a topic of economics Economics () is a social science Social science is the Branches of science, branch of science devoted to the study of society, societies and the Social relation, relationships among individuals within thos ...

utility
decreases and hence large social welfare costs. Proponents of compact development argue that there are large, often unmeasured benefits of compact development or that the American preference for low-density living is a misinterpretation made possible in part by substantial local government interference in the land market.


TOD in cities

Many cities throughout the world are developing TOD policy.
Toronto Toronto (, ) is the capital city of the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Ontario. With a recorded population of 2,731,571 in 2016 in 2016, it is the List of the largest municipalities in Canada by population, most p ...

Toronto
,
Portland Portland most commonly refers to: * Portland, Oregon, the largest city in the state of Oregon, in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States * Portland, Maine, the largest city in the state of Maine, in the New England region of the northeas ...

Portland
,
Montreal Montreal ( ; officially Montréal, ) is the second-most populous city in Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of . Its extend from the to the and northward into the , covering , making it the world's . Its southern and w ...

Montreal
,
San Francisco San Francisco (; Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (dis ...

San Francisco
, and
Vancouver Vancouver ( ) is a major city in western Canada Western Canada, also referred to as the Western Provinces and more commonly known as the West, is a region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth desc ...

Vancouver
among many other cities have developed, and continue to write policies and strategic plans, which aim to reduce
automobile dependency Automobile dependency or car dependency is the concept that some city layouts cause automobiles A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle A motor vehicle, also known as motorized vehicle or automotive vehicle, is a self-propelle ...
and increase the use of public transit.


Latin America


Curitiba, Brazil

One of the earliest and most successful examples of TOD is
Curitiba Curitiba () is the capital and largest city in the States of Brazil, Brazilian state of Paraná (state), Paraná. The city's population was 1,948,626 , making it the List of cities in Brazil by population, eighth most populous city in Brazil a ...

Curitiba
,
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 mill ...

Brazil
. Curitiba was organized into transport corridors very early on in its history. Over the years, it has integrated its zoning laws and transportation planning to place high-density development adjacent to high-capacity transportation systems, particularly its BRT corridors. Since the failure of its first rather grandiose city plan due to lack of funding, Curitiba has focused on working with economical forms of infrastructure, so it has arranged unique adaptations, such as bus routes (inexpensive infrastructure) with routing systems, limited access and speeds similar to subway systems. The source of innovation in Curitiba has been a unique form of participatory city planning that emphasizes public education, discussion and agreement.


Guatemala City, Guatemala

In an attempt to control rapid growth of
Guatemala City Guatemala City ( es, Ciudad de Guatemala), locally known as Guatemala or Guate, officially Ciudad de Guatemala (art. 231 of the Political Constitution of the Republic of Guatemala), is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital l ...

Guatemala City
, the long-time Mayor of Guatemala City
Álvaro Arzú Álvaro Enrique Arzú Yrigoyen (; 14 March 1946 – 27 April 2018) was a Guatemalan politician who was the 32nd President of Guatemala from 14 January 1996 until 14 January 2000. He was elected Mayor of Guatemala City on six occasions: in 1982, ...
implemented a plan to control growth based on transects along important arterial roads and exhibiting transit-oriented development (TOD) characteristics. This plan adopted POT (Plan de Ordenamiento Territorial) aims to allow the construction of taller, mixed-use building structures right by large arterial roads; the buildings would gradually decrease in height and density the farther they are from arterial roads. This is simultaneously being implemented along with a
bus rapid transit Bus rapid transit (BRT), also called a busway or transitway, is a bus-based public transport system designed to have better capacity Capacity or capacities may refer to: Mathematics, science, and engineering * Capacity of a container, clos ...
(BRT) system called
Transmetro Transmetro is a bus rapid transit Bus rapid transit (BRT), also called a busway or transitway, is a Public transport bus service, bus-based public transport system designed to have better Route capacity, capacity and On-time performance, reli ...
.


Mexico City, Mexico

Mexico City has battled pollution for years. Many attempts have been made to orient citizens towards public transportation. Expansion of metro line, both subway and bus, have been instrumental. Following the example of Curtiba, many bus-lines were created on many of Mexico City's most important streets. The bus-line has taken two lanes from cars to be used only by the bus-line, increasing the flow for bus transit. The city has also made great attempts at increasing the number of bike lanes, including shutting down entire roads on certain days to be used only by bikers. Car regulations have also increased in the city. New regulations prevent old cars from driving in the city, other cars from driving on certain days. Electric cars are allowed to be driven everyday and have free parking. Decreasing the public space allocated to cars and increasing regulations have become a great annoyance among daily car users. The city hopes to push people to use more public transport.


North America


Canada


=Calgary, Alberta

= Calgary's Transit Oriented Development (TOD) has been evolving largely around stations along Calgary's Light Rail Transit (LRT) system, also known as the
CTrain CTrain (previously branded C-Train) is a light rail Light rail transit (LRT) is a form of passenger urban rail transit Urban rail transit is an all-encompassing term for various types of local rail Rail or rails may refer to: Rail tr ...
network. Although Calgary's CTrain system has been around since 1981, TOD activity has been fairly recent, with much of development taking place since 2010. Most of the transit oriented development has taken place along the LRT system's
Red Line Red Line may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Films * Red Line (1959 film), ''Red Line'' (1959 film), a Finnish film based on the 1909 novel * Red Line (1996 film), ''Red Line'' (1996 film), an American crime drama film * Red Line (2012 ...
especially around stations of the northwest leg with areas around stations at Brentwood, Dalhousie, and Banff Trail having seen the most development. Brentwood Station for example, with multi-building developments such as University City, has seen almost 900 residential units built in the last eight years within the 600m radius of Brentwood station, as well as proposed developments that are in the works. On the south leg of the Red Line the massive Midtown Station proposal is a reversal from previous TOD builds where development is built around existing stations. In the case of Midtown Station, the proposal is along the CTrain line, but includes building a new station solely for the purpose of serving the development. For The City of Calgary, TOD's are an ongoing process, but the city has published policy guidelines and implementation strategies for Transit Oriented Development.


=Edmonton, Alberta

= Most of the suburban high rises were not along major rail lines like other cities until recently, when there has been incentive to do so. Century Park is a growing condo community in southern Edmonton at the south end of
Edmonton's LRT
Edmonton's LRT
. It will include low to high rise condos, recreational services, shops, restaurants, and a fitness centre. Edmonton has also had a transit-proximate development for some time in the northeastern suburbs at Clareview which includes a large park and ride, and low rise apartments among big box stores and associated power center parking. Edmonton is also looking into some new TODs in various parts of the city. In the northeast, there are plans to redevelop underutilized land at two sites around existing LRT, Fort Road and Stadium station. In the west, there is plans to have some medium density condos in the Glenora neighbourhood along a future LRT route as well as a TOD in the southeast in the Strathearn neighbourhood along the same future LRT on existing low rise apartments.


=Montreal, Quebec

= According to the Metropolitan Development and Planning Regulation as of late 2011, 40% of new households will be built as TOD neighbourhoods.


=Ottawa, Ontario

= Ottawa's City Council has established transit-oriented development (TOD) priority areas in proximity to Ottawa's
Light Rail Transit Light rail transit (LRT) is a form of passenger urban rail transit Urban rail transit is an all-encompassing term for various types of local rail Rail or rails may refer to: Rail transport *Rail transport and related matters *Rail (rail t ...

Light Rail Transit
. These priority areas are a mix of moderate to high-density transit-supportive developments within a 600-metre walking distance of rapid transit stations.


=Toronto, Ontario

= Toronto has a longstanding policy of encouraging new construction along the route of its primary Yonge Street subway line. Most notable are the development of the Yonge and Eglinton area in the 1960s and 1970s; and the present development of the 2 km of the Yonge Street corridor north of Sheppard Avenue, which began in the late 1980s. In the period since 1997 alone the latter stretch has seen the appearance of a major new
shopping centre A shopping center (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of variety (linguistics), varieties of the English language native to the United Sta ...
and the building and occupation of over twenty thousand new units of
condominium A condominium (or condo for short) is a building structure divided into several units that are each separately owned, surrounded by common areas that are jointly owned. Residential condominiums are frequently constructed as apartment buildings ...
housing. Since the opening of the Sheppard subway line in 2002, there is a
condominium A condominium (or condo for short) is a building structure divided into several units that are each separately owned, surrounded by common areas that are jointly owned. Residential condominiums are frequently constructed as apartment buildings ...
construction boom along the route on Sheppard Avenue East between Yonge Street and Don Mills Road.


=Vancouver, British Columbia

= Vancouver has a strong history of creating new development around its SkyTrain lines and building regional town centres at major stations and transit corridors. Of note is the Metrotown area of the suburb of
Burnaby Burnaby is a city in British Columbia ( en, Splendour without diminishment) , image_map = British Columbia in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = None , Slog ...
,
British Columbia ( en, Splendour without diminishment) , image_map = British Columbia in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = None , Slogan = Beautiful British C ...

British Columbia
near the
Metrotown SkyTrain Station
Metrotown SkyTrain Station
. The areas around stations have spurred the development of billions of dollars of high-density real estate, with multiple high-rises near the many stations, prompting concerns about rapid gentrification.


=Winnipeg, Manitoba

= There is currently one TOD being built in Winnipeg beside the rapid transit corridor. It is known as The Yards at Fort Rouge, and was spearheaded by the developer Gem Equities. In phase two of the southwest rapid transit corridor, there will be four more TODs. This phase is an interesting example of the use of fine arts in parallel with transit planning, making several of the stations sites for public art related to the social history of the area.


United States


=Arlington County, Virginia

= For over 30 years, the government has pursued a development strategy of concentrating much of its new development within from the County's
Washington Metro The Washington Metro (or simply Metro), formally the Metrorail, is a rapid transit system serving the Washington metropolitan area of the United States. It is administered by the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA), which ...

Washington Metro
rapid transit Rapid transit or mass rapid transit (MRT), also known as heavy rail, metro, subway, tube, U-Bahn Rapid transit in Germany consists of four U-Bahn systems and fourteen S-Bahn systems. The U-Bahn or Untergrundbahn (''underground railway'') ...
stations and the high-volume bus lines of Columbia Pike. Within the transit areas, the government has a policy of encouraging
mixed-use Mixed-use is a style of Real estate development, urban development, urban planning and/or a zoning type that blends residential, commercial, cultural, institutional, or entertainment uses into one space, where those functions are to some degree ...
and pedestrian- and transit-oriented development.http://www.arlingtonva.us/departments/CPHD/planning/powerpoint/rbpresentation/rbpresentation_060107.pdf Some of these "
urban village In urban planning Urban planning, also known as regional planning, town planning, city planning, or rural planning, is a technical and political process that is focused on the development and design A design is a plan or specification f ...
" communities include Rosslyn, Ballston,
Clarendon Clarendon may refer to: Places Australia *Clarendon, New South Wales Clarendon is a suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Clarendon railway station is on the Richmond branch of the North Shore & Western Line of the Sydney ...
,
Courthouse A courthouse or court house is a building that is home to a local court A court is any person or institution, often as a government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a st ...
,
Pentagon City Pentagon City is an unincorporated neighborhood A neighbourhood (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in ...
, Crystal City, Lyon Village, Shirlington, Virginia Square, and Westover. In 2002, Arlington received the
EPA The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is an Independent agencies of the United States government, independent executive agency of the United States federal government tasked with environmental protection matters. President Richard Nixon pro ...
's National Award for Smart Growth Achievement for "Overall Excellence in
Smart Growth Smart growth is an urban planning Planning is the process A process is a series or set of Action (philosophy), activities that interact to produce a result; it may occur once-only or be recurrent or periodic. Things called a process include: B ...
" — the first ever granted by the agency. In September 2010,
Arlington County, Virginia Arlington County is a county A county is a geographical region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interact ...
, in partnership with
Washington, D.C. ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top left: the Washington Monument The Washington Monument is an obelisk within the National Mall The National Mall is a Landscape architecture, landscape ...
, opened
Capital Bikeshare Capital Bikeshare (also abbreviated CaBi) is a bicycle sharing system A bicycle-sharing system, public bicycle scheme, or public bike share (PBS) scheme, is a shared transport service in which bicycles are made available for shared use to i ...
, a
bicycle sharing system A bicycle-sharing system, public bicycle scheme, or public bike share (PBS) scheme, is a shared transport service in which bicycles are made available for shared use to individuals on a short term basis for a price or free. Many bike share syst ...
. By February 2011, Capital Bikeshare had 14 stations in the
Pentagon City Pentagon City is an unincorporated neighborhood A neighbourhood (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that h ...

Pentagon City
,
Potomac Yard Potomac Yard is a neighborhood in Northern Virginia that straddles southeastern Arlington County and northeastern Alexandria, Virginia, located principally in the area between U.S. Route 1 and the Washington Metro Blue Line / Yellow Line tr ...
, and Crystal City neighborhoods in Arlington. Arlington County also announced plans to add 30 stations in fall 2011, primarily along the densely populated corridor between the Rosslyn and Ballston neighborhoods, and 30 more in 2012.


= New Jersey

= New Jersey has become a national leader in promoting transit oriented development. The
New Jersey Department of Transportation The New Jersey Department of Transportation (NJDOT) is the agency responsible for transportation issues and policy in New Jersey, such as maintaining and operating the State's highway and public road system, planning and developing transportatio ...
established the Transit Village Initiative in 1999, offering multi-agency assistance and grants from the annual $1 million fund to any municipality with a ready-to-go project specifying appropriate mixed land-use strategy, available property, station-area management, and commitment to affordable housing, job growth, and culture. Transit village development must also preserve the architectural integrity of historically significant buildings. Since 1999 the state has numerous Transit Village designations, which are in different stages of development: Pleasantville (1999),
Morristown Morristown may refer to: Places Canada *Morristown, Nova Scotia (disambiguation) United States *Morristown, Arizona *Morristown, Indiana **Morristown station (Indiana) *Morristown, Minnesota **Morristown Township, Rice County, Minnesota *Morristow ...
(1999), (1999),
South Amboy South Amboy is a suburban City (New Jersey), city in Middlesex County, New Jersey, Middlesex County, New Jersey, on the Raritan Bay. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city's population was 8,631, reflecting an increase of 718 (+9.1%) from ...

South Amboy
(1999),
South Orange South Orange, officially the Township of South Orange Village, is a suburban Township (New Jersey), township in Essex County, New Jersey, Essex County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the village's population wa ...
(1999), Riverside (2001),
Rahway Rahway is a city (New Jersey), city in southern Union County, New Jersey, Union County, New Jersey, United States. It is part of the New York metropolitan area, southwest of Manhattan, New York, Manhattan and west of Staten Island. Built o ...
(2002),
Metuchen Metuchen ( ) is a suburban borough A borough is an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as ma ...

Metuchen
(2003), Belmar (2003), (2003), (2003), Collingswood (2003), Cranford (2003) Matawan (2003),
New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , capital = Fredericton Fredericton (; ) is the capital city of the Canadian provinc ...

New Brunswick
(2005),
Journal Square Journal Square is a business district, residential area, and transportation hub in Jersey City, New Jersey, which takes its name from the newspaper ''Jersey Journal'' whose headquarters were located there from 1911 to 2013. The "square" itself is a ...
/
Jersey City Jersey City is the second-most populous city in the U.S. state of New Jersey, after Newark, New Jersey, Newark.
(2005), Netcong (2005), Midtown
Elizabeth Elizabeth or Elisabeth may refer to: People * Elizabeth (given name), a female given name (including people with that name) * Elizabeth (biblical figure), mother of John the Baptist Ships * HMS Elizabeth, HMS ''Elizabeth'', several ships * Elisab ...
(2007), Burlington City (2007), Orange, New Jersey, Orange (2009), Montclair, New Jersey, Montclair (2010), Somerville, New Jersey, Somerville (2010), Linden, New Jersey, Linden (2010), West Windsor, New Jersey, West Windsor (2012), Dunellen, New Jersey, Dunellen (2012), Plainfield, New Jersey, Plainfield (2014), Park Ridge, New Jersey, Park Ridge (2015), Irvington, New Jersey, Irvington (2015), Hackensack, New Jersey, Hackensack (2015), Long Branch, New Jersey, Long Branch (2016), Asbury Park, New Jersey, Asbury Park (2017), and Newark, New Jersey, Newark (2021).


=New York City

= Many neighborhoods in New York City are close to a New York City Subway station, this allows easy transport throughout the cities’ neighborhoods and central business districts. To maximize the usage of the New York City Subway, many subway stations are surrounded by transit-oriented development, with high-density residential and commercial buildings surrounded by the subway station. Neighborhoods include, but are not limited to, Downtown Brooklyn, Midtown Manhattan, Long Island City, and Sunnyside, Queens, Sunnyside. Many downtowns in the New York metropolitan area, Greater New York Area also are walkable with a central regional rail station.


=Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

= The East Liberty (Pittsburgh), East Liberty neighborhood is nearing completion of a $150 million Transit Oriented Development centered around the reconfigured East Liberty Station on the city's Martin Luther King Jr. East Busway. The development included improved access to the station with a new pedestrian bridge and pedestrian walkways that increase the effective walkshed of the station. The East Busway is a fixed guideway route that offers riders an 8-minute ride from East Liberty to Pittsburgh's Downtown.


=Salt Lake City Metro Area, Utah

= The Salt Lake City metropolitan area, Salt Lake City Metro Area has seen a strong proliferation of transit-oriented developments due to the construction of new transit lines within the Utah Transit Authority's TRAX (light rail), TRAX, ''FrontRunner'' and streetcar lines. New developments in West Valley City, Utah, West Valley, Farmington, Utah, Farmington, Murray, Utah, Murray, Provo, Utah, Provo, Kaysville, Utah, Kaysville, Sugarhouse (Salt Lake City), Sugarhouse and downtown Salt Lake City have seen rapid growth and construction despite the economic downturn. The population along the Wasatch Front has reached 2.5 million and is expected to grow 50% over the next two decades. At 29.8%, Utah's population growth more than doubled the population growth of the nation (13.2%), with a vast majority of this growth occurring along the Wasatch Front. Transportation infrastructure has been vastly upgraded in the past decade as a result of the 2002 Olympic Winter Games and the need to support the growth in population. This has created a number of transit-oriented commercial and residential projects to be proposed and completed.


=San Francisco Bay Area, California

= The San Francisco Bay Area includes nine counties and 101 cities, including San Jose, California, San Jose,
San Francisco San Francisco (; Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (dis ...

San Francisco
, Oakland, California, Oakland and Fremont, California, Fremont. Local and regional governments encourage transit-oriented development to decrease traffic congestion, protect natural areas, promote public health and increase housing options. The region has designate
Priority Development Areas
an
Priority Conservation Areas
Current population forecasts for the region predict that it will grow by 2 million people by 2035 due to both the natural birth rate and job creation, and estimate that 50% of this growth can be accommodated in Priority Development Areas through transit-oriented development. Major transit village projects have been developed over the past 20 years at several stations linked to the Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) system. In their 1996 book, ''Transit Villages in the 21st Century'', Michael S. Bernick, Michael Bernick and Robert Cervero identified emerging transit villages at several BART stations, including Pleasant Hill / Contra Costa Centre (BART station), Pleasant Hill / Contra Costa Centre, Fruitvale (BART station), Fruitvale, Hayward (BART station), Hayward and Richmond Station (California), Richmond. MacArthur station (BART), MacArthur Station is a relatively new development, with construction beginning in 2011 and scheduled for completion after 2019.


=Chicago

= Chicago passed its first TOD ordinances in 2013. The city of chicago started building TODs around rail stations throughout the metropolitan area. There has been concerns that these TODs were excluding minorities since most of the TODs were built in mainly white areas therefore leaving minorities out of the picture when it came to access to transit oriented development neighborhoods. The 2020 eTOD Policy Plan was created to fix the issues that the previous TOD plans, by creating more TOD developments in minority areas.


Asia and Oceania


Hong Kong

Compared to other developed economies, the car ownership rate in Hong Kong is very low, and approximately 90% of all trips are made by public transport. In the mid-20th century, no railway was built until an area was well developed. However, in recent decades, Hong Kong has started to have some TODs, where a railway is built simultaneously with residential development above or nearby, dubbed the "Rail plus Property" (R+P) Model. Examples include: * LOHAS Park * Olympian City * Tung Chung * Union Square (Hong Kong), Union Square


Malaysia

Bandar Malaysia is an upcoming development by 1Malaysia Development Berhad, 1Malaysia Development Berhad (1MDB).


Indonesia

Many TOD are now being constructed in Jabodetabek, Greater Jakarta metro area such as Citra Sentul Raya and Dukuh Atas TOD. TOD are also being constructed in cities like Surabaya, Medan, and Palembang.


Melbourne, Victoria

Melbourne, Victoria (Australia), Victoria is expected to reach a population of 5 million by 2030 with the overwhelming majority of its residents relying on private automobiles. Since the turn of the century, sporadic efforts have been made by various levels of government to implement transit-oriented development principles. However, a lack of commitment to funding public transport infrastructure, resulting to overcrowding and amending zoning laws has dramatically slowed progress toward Sustainability, sustainable development for the city.


Milton, Queensland

Milton, Queensland, Milton, an inner suburb of Brisbane, has been identified as Queensland's first transit-oriented development under the Queensland Government's South East Queensland Regional Plan. Milton railway station, Brisbane, Milton railway station will undergo a multimillion-dollar revamp as part of the development of The Milton Residences to promote and encourage residents to embrace rail travel. This will include a new ticketing office, new public amenities, increased visibility across platforms and new and improved access points off Milton Road and Railway Terrace.


Sydney, New South Wales

The New South Wales state government has actively encouraged developments around stations on the Sydney Trains and Sydney Metro networks through its Priority Precincts plan. Several stations such as Chatswood, New South Wales, Chatswood, Burwood, New South Wales, Burwood, Parramatta and Rhodes have large scale apartment developments built within close proximity within the past decade. New apartment and office tower developments along the future Sydney Metro stations are being planned as integrated developments with the stations themselves. Examples of this include Victoria Cross railway station, Victoria Cross Station and Crows Nest railway station, Crows Nest Station whilst existing stations such as Castle Hill, New South Wales, Castle Hill and Epping, New South Wales, Epping have also had intensified development.


Europe

The term transit-oriented development, as a US-born concept, is rarely used in Europe, although many of the measures advocated in US transit-oriented development are also stressed in Europe. Many European cities have long been built around transit systems and there has thus often been little or no need to differentiate this type of development with a special term as has been the case in the US. An example of this is Copenhagen's Finger Plan from 1947, which embodied many transit-oriented development aspects and is still used as an overall planning framework today. Recently, scholars and technicians have taken interest in the concept, however.


Paris, France

Whereas the city of Paris has a centuries-long history, its main frame dates to the 19th century. The Paris Métro, subway network was made to solve both linkage between the five main train stations and local transportation assets for citizens. The whole area of Paris City has metro stations no more than 500 metres apart. Recent bicycle and car rental systems (Velib and Autolib) also ease travel, in the very same way that TOD emphasizes. So do the new trams linking suburbs close to Paris proper, and tramline 3 around the edge of the city of Paris. The La Défense area is an example of a large scale transit-oriented district.


Stedenbaan, Netherlands

In the southern part of the Randstad a neighbourhood according to the principles of TOD will be built.


Equity and housing cost concerns

One criticism of transit-oriented development is that it has the potential to spur gentrification in low-income areas. In some cases, TOD can raise the housing costs of formerly affordable neighborhoods, pushing low- and moderate-income residents farther away from jobs and transit. When this happens, TOD projects can disrupt low-income neighborhoods. This can be very concerning due to the fact that lower income people tend to use (and need) transit more than higher income people. When executed with equity in mind, however, TOD has the potential to benefit low- and moderate-income (LMI) communities: it can link workers to employment centers, create construction and maintenance jobs, and has the potential to encourage investment in areas that have suffered neglect and economic depression. Moreover, it is well recognized that neighborhood development restrictions, while potentially in the immediate neighborhood's best interest, contribute to regional undersupply of housing and drive up the cost of housing in general across a region. TOD reduces the overall cost of housing in a region by contributing to the housing supply, and therefore generally improves equity in the housing market. TOD also reduces transportation costs, which can have a greater impact on LMI households since they spend a larger share of their income on transportation relative to higher-income households. This frees up household income that can be used on food, education, or other necessary expenses. Low-income people are also less likely to own personal vehicles and therefore more likely to depend exclusively on public transportation to get to and from work, making reliable access to transit a necessity for their economic success.


See also

General: * Americas Energy and Climate Symposium * Integrated ticketing * ''Principles of intelligent urbanism'' * Smart growth * Sustainable transport * Urban consolidation * Value capture Urban planning by mode prioritised: * * * * * * * Transit: * * * * *


References


External links


Transit Oriented Development Institute



Transit Oriented Development in Calgary, Alberta, Canada
*
Transit oriented development growing in USA

Transit-Supportive Densities and Land Uses

TOD Standard: Version 2.0
Institute for Transportation and Development Policy (ITDP), November 2013.
Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco ''Community Investments'': Special Issue on TOD

''From Intentions to Consequences: San Diego TOD Design Guidelines and Rio Vista West Project''
by Aseem Inam (American Planning Association).
Effect of Smart Growth Policies on Travel Demand
Transportation Research Board, SHRP 2 Report S2-C16-RR-1, 2014.
Multiple Factors Influence Extent of Transit-Oriented Development
Government Accountability Office, U.S. Government Accountability Office, November 2014.
Transit-Oriented Development in the United States: Experiences, Challenges, and Prospects
Transit Cooperative Research Program, TCRP Report 102, 2004.
The Transit Metropolis: A Global Inquiry
Robert Cervero, 1998. {{DEFAULTSORT:Transit-oriented development Transit-oriented developments, Urban design Sustainable urban planning Sustainable transport Public transport Housing