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The tibia (; ), also known as the shinbone or shankbone, is the larger, stronger, and anterior (frontal) of the two
bone A bone is a rigid tissue Tissue may refer to: Biology * Tissue (biology), an ensemble of similar cells that together carry out a specific function * ''Triphosa haesitata'', a species of geometer moth found in North America * ''Triphosa dubit ...
s in the
leg A leg is a weight-bearingIn orthopedics Orthopedic surgery or orthopedics, is the branch of surgery concerned with conditions involving the musculoskeletal system. Orthopedic surgeons use both surgical and nonsurgical means to treat muscul ...

leg
below the
knee In human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodivers ...

knee
in
vertebrates Vertebrates () comprise all species of animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular A multicellular organism is an organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an indiv ...

vertebrates
(the other being the
fibula The fibula or calf bone is a leg A leg is a weight-bearing and locomotive anatomical structure, usually having a column A column or pillar in architecture and structural engineering is a structural element that transmits, through co ...

fibula
, behind and to the outside of the tibia), and it connects the knee with the
ankle bones In the human body, the tarsus is a cluster of seven articulating bones in each foot situated between the lower end of the tibia and the fibula of the lower leg and the metatarsus. It is made up of the midfoot (Cuboid bone, cuboid, medial, intermed ...
. The tibia is found on the
medial Medial may refer to: Mathematics * Medial magma, a mathematical identity in algebra Geometry * Medial axis, in geometry the set of all points having more than one closest point on an object's boundary * Medial graph, another graph that repres ...
side of the leg next to the fibula and closer to the
median plane The median plane also called a mid-sagittal plane is used to describe the sagittal plane as it bisects the body vertically through the midline marked by the navel, dividing the body exactly in left and right side. The term parasagittal plane is u ...
or centre-line. The tibia is connected to the fibula by the
interosseous membrane of leg The interosseous membrane of the leg (middle tibiofibular ligament) extends between the interosseous crests of the tibia and fibula, helps stabilize the Tib-Fib relationship and separates the muscles on the front from those on the back of the leg. ...
, forming a type of
fibrous joint In anatomy, fibrous joints are joints connected by Fibrous connective tissue, fibrous tissue, consisting mainly of collagen. These are fixed joints where bones are united by a layer of white fibrous tissue of varying thickness. In the skull the jo ...
called a
syndesmosis In anatomy Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any indi ...
with very little movement. The tibia is named for the flute ''
tibia The tibia (; ), also known as the shinbone or shankbone, is the larger, stronger, and anterior (frontal) of the two bone A bone is a Stiffness, rigid tissue (anatomy), tissue that constitutes part of the skeleton in most vertebrate animals. ...

tibia
''. It is the second largest bone in the
human body The human body is the structure of a Human, human being. It is composed of many different types of Cell (biology), cells that together create Tissue (biology), tissues and subsequently organ systems. They ensure homeostasis and the life, viabi ...

human body
next to the
femur The femur (; ), or thigh bone, is the proximal Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans. Terms used generally derive from Latin or Greek language, Greek roots and used to describe s ...

femur
. The leg bones are the strongest
long bone The long bones are those that are longer than they are wide. They are one of five types of bone A bone is a rigid tissue Tissue may refer to: Biology * Tissue (biology), an ensemble of similar cells that together carry out a specific funct ...

long bone
s as they support the rest of the body.


Structure

In
human anatomy The human body is the structure of a human being Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of ...

human anatomy
, the tibia is the second largest bone next to the
femur The femur (; ), or thigh bone, is the proximal Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans. Terms used generally derive from Latin or Greek language, Greek roots and used to describe s ...

femur
. As in other vertebrates the tibia is one of two bones in the lower leg, the other being the fibula, and is a component of the knee and ankle joints. The
ossification Ossification (or osteogenesis) in bone remodeling is the process of laying down new bone material by Cell (biology), cells named osteoblasts. It is synonymous with bone tissue formation. There are two processes resulting in the formation of no ...
or formation of the bone starts from three centers; one in the shaft and one in each extremity. The tibia is categorized as a
long bone The long bones are those that are longer than they are wide. They are one of five types of bone A bone is a rigid tissue Tissue may refer to: Biology * Tissue (biology), an ensemble of similar cells that together carry out a specific funct ...

long bone
and is as such composed of a
diaphysis The diaphysis is the main or midsection (shaft) of a long bone The long bones are those that are longer than they are wide. They are one of five types of bone A bone is a rigid tissue Tissue may refer to: Biology * Tissue (biology), an en ...
and two
epiphyses The epiphysis is the rounded end of a long bone, at its joint A joint or articulation (or articular surface) is the connection made between bones in the body which link the skeletal system into a functional whole.Saladin, Ken. Anatomy & Physiol ...
. The diaphysis is the midsection of the tibia, also known as the
shaft Shaft may refer to: Rotating machine elements * Shaft (mechanical engineering), a rotating machine element used to transmit power * Line shaft, a power transmission system * Drive shaft, a shaft for transferring torque * Axle, a shaft around whic ...
or body. While the epiphyses are the two rounded extremities of the bone; an upper (also known as superior or proximal) closest to the
thigh In Outline of human anatomy, human anatomy, the thigh is the area between the hip (pelvis) and the knee. Anatomically, it is part of the Human leg, lower limb. The single bone in the thigh is called the femur. This bone is very thick and strong ...

thigh
and a
lower Lower may refer to: *Lower (surname)Lower is a surname. Notable people with the surname include: * Arthur R. M. Lower (1889–1988) Canadian historian * Britt Lower (born 1985), American actress * Cyrus B. Lower (1843–1924), American Civil War ...
(also known as inferior or distal) closest to the
foot The foot (plural: feet) is an anatomical Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemis ...
. The tibia is most contracted in the lower third and the distal extremity is smaller than the proximal.


Upper extremity


Condyles of tibia

The proximal or upper extremity of the tibia is expanded in the transverse plane with a
medial Medial may refer to: Mathematics * Medial magma, a mathematical identity in algebra Geometry * Medial axis, in geometry the set of all points having more than one closest point on an object's boundary * Medial graph, another graph that repres ...
and lateral condyle, which are both flattened in the horizontal plane. The medial condyle is the larger of the two and is better supported over the
shaft Shaft may refer to: Rotating machine elements * Shaft (mechanical engineering), a rotating machine element used to transmit power * Line shaft, a power transmission system * Drive shaft, a shaft for transferring torque * Axle, a shaft around whic ...
. The upper surfaces of the condyles articulate with the femur to form the tibiofemoral joint, the weightbearing part of the kneejoint. The medial and lateral condyle are separated by the intercondylar area, where the
cruciate ligament Cruciate ligaments (also cruciform ligaments) are pairs of ligament A ligament is the Connective tissue#Types, fibrous connective tissue that connects bones to other bones. It is also known as ''articular ligament'', ''articular larua'', ''fibr ...
s and the menisci attach. Here the
medial Medial may refer to: Mathematics * Medial magma, a mathematical identity in algebra Geometry * Medial axis, in geometry the set of all points having more than one closest point on an object's boundary * Medial graph, another graph that repres ...
and lateral intercondylar tubercle forms the intercondylar eminence. Together with the medial and lateral condyle the intercondylar region forms the tibial plateau, which both articulates with and is anchored to the
lower extremity of the femur The lower extremity of femur (or distal extremity) is the lower end of the femur The femur (, pl. ''femurs'' or ''femora'' ), or thigh bone, is the proximal Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, inc ...
. The intercondylar eminence divides the intercondylar area into an
anterior Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient ...
and posterior part. The anterolateral region of the anterior intercondylar area are perforated by numerous small openings for nutrient arteries. The articular surfaces of both condyles are concave, particularly centrally. The flatter outer margins are in contact with the menisci. The medial condyles superior surface is oval in form and extends laterally onto the side of medial intercondylar tubercle. The lateral condyles superior surface is more circular in form and its medial edge extends onto the side of the lateral intercondylar tubercle. The posterior surface of the medial condyle bears a horizontal groove for part of the attachment of the
semimembranosus muscle The semimembranosus muscle () is the most medial of the three hamstring In human anatomy, a hamstring () is any one of the three posterior thigh muscles in between the hip and the knee (from medial to lateral: semimembranosus, semitendinosus a ...
, whereas the lateral condyle has a circular facet for articulation with the
head of the fibula The fibula or calf bone is a leg A leg is a weight-bearing and locomotive File:R707-loco-victorian-railways.jpg, upright=1.2, An Victorian Railways R class, R class steam locomotive number R707 as operated by the Victorian Railways of Ra ...

head of the fibula
. Beneath the condyles is the
tibial tuberosity The tuberosity of the tibia or tibial tuberosity or tibial tubercle is an elevation on the proximal, anterior aspect of the tibia The tibia (plural tibiae or tibias), also known as the shinbone or shankbone, is the larger, stronger, and anterior ...
which serves for attachment of the
patellar ligament The patellar tendon is the distal portion of the common tendon A tendon or sinew is a tough, high-tensile-strength band of dense fibrous connective tissue that connects muscle Skeletal muscles (commonly referred to as muscles) are organs ...
, a continuation of the
quadriceps femoris muscle The quadriceps femoris muscle (, also called the quadriceps extensor, quadriceps or quads) is a large muscle group that includes the four prevailing muscles on the front of the thigh. It is the sole List_of_extensors_of_the_human_body#Knee, exte ...
.


Facets

The superior articular surface presents two smooth articular
facet Facets () are flat faces on geometric shapes. The organization of naturally occurring facets was key to early developments in crystallography Crystallography is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in crystalline so ...
s. * The medial facet, oval in shape, is slightly concave from side to side, and from before backward. * The lateral, nearly circular, is concave from side to side, but slightly convex from before backward, especially at its posterior part, where it is prolonged on to the posterior surface for a short distance. The central portions of these facets articulate with the condyles of the
femur The femur (; ), or thigh bone, is the proximal Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans. Terms used generally derive from Latin or Greek language, Greek roots and used to describe s ...

femur
, while their peripheral portions support the menisci of the
knee In human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodivers ...

knee
joint, which here intervene between the two bones.


Intercondyloid eminence

Between the articular facets in the intercondylar area, but nearer the posterior than the anterior aspect of the bone, is the intercondyloid eminence (''spine of tibia''), surmounted on either side by a prominent tubercle, on to the sides of which the articular facets are prolonged; in front of and behind the intercondyloid eminence are rough depressions for the attachment of the
anterior Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient ...
and
posterior cruciate ligament The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is a ligament in each knee of humans and various other animals. It works as a counterpart to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). It connects the posterior intercondylar area of the tibia to the Medial condyl ...
s and the menisci.


Surfaces

The ''anterior surfaces'' of the condyles are continuous with one another, forming a large somewhat flattened area; this area is triangular, broad above, and perforated by large vascular foramina; narrow below where it ends in a large oblong elevation, the tuberosity of the tibia, which gives attachment to the
patellar ligament The patellar tendon is the distal portion of the common tendon A tendon or sinew is a tough, high-tensile-strength band of dense fibrous connective tissue that connects muscle Skeletal muscles (commonly referred to as muscles) are organs ...
; a
bursa (ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the used in and the from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: (), Dark Ages (), the period (), and the period (). Ancient Greek wa ...
intervenes between the deep surface of the ligament and the part of the bone immediately above the tuberosity. ''Posteriorly,'' the condyles are separated from each other by a shallow depression, the posterior intercondyloid fossa, which gives attachment to part of the
posterior cruciate ligament The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is a ligament in each knee of humans and various other animals. It works as a counterpart to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). It connects the posterior intercondylar area of the tibia to the Medial condyl ...
of the
knee-joint In humans and other primates, the knee joins the thigh with the human leg, leg and consists of two joints: one between the femur and tibia (tibiofemoral joint), and one between the femur and patella (patellofemoral joint). It is the largest joint ...
. The medial condyle presents posteriorly a deep transverse groove, for the insertion of the tendon of the
semimembranosus The semimembranosus muscle () is the most medial of the three hamstring In human anatomy The human body is the structure of a human being Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species In biology, a sp ...

semimembranosus
. Its ''medial surface'' is convex, rough, and prominent; it gives attachment to the
medial collateral ligament The medial collateral ligament (MCL), or tibial collateral ligament (TCL), is one of the four major ligaments of the knee. It is on the Human anatomical terms#Anatomical directions, medial (inner) side of the knee joint in humans and other primate ...
. The lateral condyle presents posteriorly a flat articular facet, nearly circular in form, directed downward, backward, and lateralward, for articulation with the head of the fibula. Its ''lateral surface'' is convex, rough, and prominent in front: on it is an eminence, situated on a level with the upper border of the tuberosity and at the junction of its anterior and lateral surfaces, for the attachment of the
iliotibial band The iliotibial tract or iliotibial band (also known as Maissiat's band or the IT band) is a longitudinal fibrous reinforcement of the fascia lata. The action of the muscles associated with the ITB (tensor fasciae latae muscle, tensor fasciae latae ...
. Just below this a part of the
extensor digitorum longus The extensor digitorum longus is a pennate muscle, situated at the lateral part of the front of the leg. Origin and insertion It arises from the lateral condyle of the tibia The tibia (plural tibiae or tibias), also known as the shinbone or ...

extensor digitorum longus
takes origin and a slip from the tendon of the
biceps femoris The biceps femoris () is a muscle of the thigh located to the posterior, or back. As its name implies, it has two parts, one of which (the long head) forms part of the hamstrings muscle group. Structure It has two heads of origin: *the ''long he ...

biceps femoris
is inserted.


Shaft

The shaft or body of the tibia is triangular in cross-section and forms three borders: An anterior, medial and lateral or interosseous border. These three borders form three surfaces; the medial, lateral and posterior. The forward flat part of the tibia is called the fibia, often confused with the fibula.


Borders

The anterior crest or border, the most prominent of the three, commences above at the
tuberosityIn the human skeleton The human skeleton is the internal framework of the human body. It is composed of around 270 bone A bone is a Stiffness, rigid tissue (anatomy), tissue that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton in animals. Bones ...
, and ends below at the anterior margin of the
medial malleolus A malleolus is the bony prominence on each side of the human ankle The ankle, or the talocrural region, is the region where the foot The foot (plural: feet) is an anatomical Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch ...
. It is sinuous and prominent in the upper two-thirds of its extent, but smooth and rounded below; it gives attachment to the
deep fascia Deep fascia (or investing fascia) is a fascia A fascia (; plural fasciae ; adjective fascial; from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken ...
of the leg. The medial border is smooth and rounded above and below, but more prominent in the center; it begins at the back part of the medial condyle, and ends at the posterior border of the medial malleolus; its upper part gives attachment to the tibial collateral ligament of the knee-joint to the extent of about 5 cm., and insertion to some fibers of the
popliteus muscle The popliteus muscle in the leg is used for unlocking the knees when walking, by laterally rotating the femur The femur (, pl. ''femurs'' or ''femora'' ), or thigh bone, is the proximal Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously ...
; from its middle third some fibers of the
soleus In humans and some other mammals, the soleus is a powerful muscle Skeletal muscles (commonly referred to as muscles) are organs An organ is a group of tissues with similar functions. Plant life and animal life rely on many organs that co- ...

soleus
and
flexor digitorum longus muscles The flexor digitorum longus muscle is situated on the tibial side of the Human leg, leg. At its origin it is thin and pointed, but it gradually increases in size as it descends. It serves to flex the second, third, fourth, and fifth toes. Structur ...
take origin. The interosseous crest or lateral border is thin and prominent, especially its central part, and gives attachment to the
interosseous membrane An interosseous membrane is a thick dense fibrous sheet of connective tissue that spans the space between two bones forming a type of syndesmosis joint. Interosseous membranes in the human body: * Interosseous membrane of forearm The interosseous ...
; it commences above in front of the fibular articular facet, and bifurcates below, to form the boundaries of a triangular rough surface, for the attachment of the interosseous ligament connecting the tibia and fibula.


Surfaces

The medial surface is smooth, convex, and broader above than below; its upper third, directed forward and medialward, is covered by the
aponeurosis An aponeurosis (; plural: ''aponeuroses'') is a type or a variant of the deep fascia A fascia (; plural fasciae ; adjective fascial; from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European ...
derived from the tendon of the , and by the tendons of the Gracilis and
Semitendinosus The semitendinosus () is a long superficial muscle Skeletal muscles (commonly referred to as muscles) are organs An organ is a group of tissues with similar functions. Plant life and animal life rely on many organs that co-exist in organ ...

Semitendinosus
, all of which are inserted nearly as far forward as the anterior crest; in the rest of its extent it is subcutaneous. The lateral surface is narrower than the medial; its upper two-thirds present a shallow groove for the origin of the Tibialis anterior; its lower third is smooth, convex, curves gradually forward to the anterior aspect of the bone, and is covered by the tendons of the
Tibialis anterior The tibialis anterior muscle is a muscle in human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and intelligence allowing the use of culture, ...
,
Extensor hallucis longus The extensor hallucis longus muscle is a thin skeletal muscle Skeletal muscle (also called striated muscle - although cardiac muscle is also striated) is one of three major muscle types, the others being cardiac muscle and smooth muscle. It is a ...

Extensor hallucis longus
, and
Extensor digitorum longus The extensor digitorum longus is a pennate muscle, situated at the lateral part of the front of the leg. Origin and insertion It arises from the lateral condyle of the tibia The tibia (plural tibiae or tibias), also known as the shinbone or ...

Extensor digitorum longus
, arranged in this order from the medial side. The posterior surface presents, at its upper part, a prominent ridge, the popliteal line, which extends obliquely downward from the back part of the articular facet for the fibula to the medial border, at the junction of its upper and middle thirds; it marks the lower limit of the insertion of the
Popliteus The popliteus muscle in the leg is used for unlocking the knees when walking, by laterally rotating the femur on the tibia during the closed chain portion of the bipedal gait cycle, gait cycle (one with the foot in contact with the ground). In ope ...
, serves for the attachment of the fascia covering this muscle, and gives origin to part of the
Soleus In humans and some other mammals, the soleus is a powerful muscle Skeletal muscles (commonly referred to as muscles) are organs An organ is a group of tissues with similar functions. Plant life and animal life rely on many organs that co- ...
,
Flexor digitorum longus The flexor digitorum longus muscle is situated on the tibial side of the leg A leg is a weight-bearingIn orthopedics Orthopedic surgery or orthopedics, is the branch of surgery concerned with conditions involving the musculoskeletal syst ...
, and
Tibialis posterior The tibialis posterior muscle is the most central of all the leg A leg is a weight-bearing and locomotive File:R707-loco-victorian-railways.jpg, upright=1.2, An Victorian Railways R class, R class steam locomotive number R707 as operated ...

Tibialis posterior
. The triangular area, above this line, gives insertion to the Popliteus. The middle third of the posterior surface is divided by a vertical ridge into two parts; the ridge begins at the popliteal line and is well-marked above, but indistinct below; the medial and broader portion gives origin to the Flexor digitorum longus, the lateral and narrower to part of the
Tibialis posterior The tibialis posterior muscle is the most central of all the leg A leg is a weight-bearing and locomotive File:R707-loco-victorian-railways.jpg, upright=1.2, An Victorian Railways R class, R class steam locomotive number R707 as operated ...

Tibialis posterior
. The remaining part of the posterior surface is smooth and covered by the Tibialis posterior,
Flexor digitorum longus The flexor digitorum longus muscle is situated on the tibial side of the leg A leg is a weight-bearingIn orthopedics Orthopedic surgery or orthopedics, is the branch of surgery concerned with conditions involving the musculoskeletal syst ...
, and
Flexor hallucis longus The flexor hallucis longus muscle (FHL) is one of the three deep muscles of the posterior compartment of the leg that attaches to the plantar surface of the distal phalanx The phalanx ( grc, φάλαγξ; plural phalanxes or phalanges, , ) was ...
. Immediately below the popliteal line is the nutrient foramen, which is large and directed obliquely downward.


Lower extremity

The distal end of the tibia is much smaller than the proximal end and presents five surfaces; it is prolonged downward on its medial side as a strong pyramidal process, the
medial malleolus A malleolus is the bony prominence on each side of the human ankle The ankle, or the talocrural region, is the region where the foot The foot (plural: feet) is an anatomical Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch ...
. The lower extremity of the tibia together with the fibula and talus forms the
ankle joint The ankle, or the talocrural region, is the region where the foot The foot (plural: feet) is an anatomical Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and liv ...

ankle joint
.


Surfaces

The inferior articular surface is quadrilateral, and smooth for articulation with the talus. It is concave from before backward, broader in front than behind, and traversed from before backward by a slight elevation, separating two depressions. It is continuous with that on the medial malleolus. The anterior surface of the lower extremity is smooth and rounded above, and covered by the tendons of the Extensor muscles; its lower margin presents a rough transverse depression for the attachment of the articular capsule of the ankle-joint. The posterior surface is traversed by a shallow groove directed obliquely downward and medialward, continuous with a similar groove on the posterior surface of the talus and serving for the passage of the tendon of the
Flexor hallucis longus The flexor hallucis longus muscle (FHL) is one of the three deep muscles of the posterior compartment of the leg that attaches to the plantar surface of the distal phalanx The phalanx ( grc, φάλαγξ; plural phalanxes or phalanges, , ) was ...
. The lateral surface presents a triangular rough depression for the attachment of the inferior interosseous ligament connecting it with the fibula; the lower part of this depression is smooth, covered with cartilage in the fresh state, and articulates with the fibula. The surface is bounded by two prominent borders (the
anterior Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient ...
and posterior colliculi), continuous above with the interosseous crest; they afford attachment to the anterior and posterior ligaments of the lateral malleolus. The medial surface -- see
medial malleolus A malleolus is the bony prominence on each side of the human ankle The ankle, or the talocrural region, is the region where the foot The foot (plural: feet) is an anatomical Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch ...
for details.


Fractures

Ankle fracture An ankle fracture is a break of one or more of the bones that make up the ankle The ankle, or the talocrural region, is the region where the foot and the human leg, leg meet. The ankle includes three joints: the ankle joint proper or talocrural j ...
s of the tibia have several classification systems based on location or mechanism: *
Medial malleolus A malleolus is the bony prominence on each side of the human ankle The ankle, or the talocrural region, is the region where the foot The foot (plural: feet) is an anatomical Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch ...
- Herscovici classification * Posterior malleolus - Haruguchi classification *Mechanism -
Lauge-Hansen classification The Lauge-Hansen classification is a system of categorizing ankle fractures based on the foot position and the force applied. Classification See also *Danis–Weber classification *Herscovici classification References

Bone fractures Ankle ...


Blood supply

The tibia is supplied with blood from two sources: A nutrient artery, as the main source, and periosteal vessels derived from the
anterior tibial artery The anterior tibial artery is an artery of the leg. It carries blood to the anterior compartment of the leg and dorsum (biology), dorsal surface of the foot, from the popliteal artery. Structure Course The anterior tibial artery is a branch of ...

anterior tibial artery
.


Joints

The tibia is a part of four joints; the knee, ankle,
superior Superior may refer to: *Superior (hierarchy) In a hierarchy A hierarchy (from the Greek: , from , 'president of sacred rites') is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "ab ...
and
inferior tibiofibular joint The distal tibiofibular joint (tibiofibular syndesmosis In anatomy Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek ...
. In the knee the tibia forms one of the two
articulationsArticulation may refer to: Linguistics * Articulation (phonetics), the movement of the tongue, lips, jaw, and other speech organs to make speech sounds ** Manner of articulation, how speech organs involved in making a sound make contact ** Place ...
with the
femur The femur (; ), or thigh bone, is the proximal Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans. Terms used generally derive from Latin or Greek language, Greek roots and used to describe s ...

femur
, often referred to as the ''tibiofemoral components'' of the knee joint. This is the weightbearing part of the knee joint. The tibiofibular joints are the articulations between the tibia and fibula which allows very little movement. The proximal tibiofibular joint is a small
plane joint A plane joint (arthrodial joint, gliding joint, plane articulation) is a synovial joint A synovial joint, also known as diarthrosis, joins bones or cartilage with a fibrous joint capsule In anatomy Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') i ...
. The joint is formed between the undersurface of the
lateral tibial condyle The lateral condyle is the lateral portion of the upper extremity of tibia. It serves as the insertion for the biceps femoris muscle (small slip). Most of the tendon of the biceps femoris inserts on the fibula. See also * Gerdy's tubercle * Medial ...
and the head of fibula. The
joint capsule In anatomy, a joint capsule or articular capsule is an envelope surrounding a synovial joint.anterior Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient ...
and posterior ligament of the head of the fibula. The distal tibiofibular joint (tibiofibular syndesmosis) is formed by the rough, convex surface of the medial side of the distal end of the fibula, and a rough concave surface on the lateral side of the tibia. The part of the ankle joint known as the talocrural joint, is a synovial
hinge joint A hinge joint (ginglymus or ginglymoid) is a bone A bone is a rigid tissue Tissue may refer to: Biology * Tissue (biology), an ensemble of similar cells that together carry out a specific function * ''Triphosa haesitata'', a species of g ...

hinge joint
that connects the distal ends of the tibia and fibula in the lower limb with the proximal end of the talus. The articulation between the tibia and the talus bears more weight than between the smaller fibula and the talus.


Development

The tibia is
ossified 300 px, Bone is broken down by osteoclasts, and rebuilt by osteoblasts, both of which communicate through cytokine ( IGF) signalling.">Insulin-like_growth_factor.html" ;"title="TGF-β, Insulin-like growth factor">IGF) signalling. Ossification ( ...
from three centers; a primary center for the
diaphysis The diaphysis is the main or midsection (shaft) of a long bone The long bones are those that are longer than they are wide. They are one of five types of bone A bone is a rigid tissue Tissue may refer to: Biology * Tissue (biology), an en ...
(shaft) and a secondary center for each
epiphysis The epiphysis is the rounded end of a long bone, at its joint A joint or articulation (or articular surface) is the connection made between bones in the body which link the skeletal system into a functional whole.Saladin, Ken. Anatomy & Physiol ...
(extremity). Ossification begins in the center of the body, about the seventh week of fetal life, and gradually extends toward the extremities. The center for the upper epiphysis appears before or shortly after birth at close to 34 weeks gestation; it is flattened in form, and has a thin tongue-shaped process in front, which forms the
tuberosityIn the human skeleton The human skeleton is the internal framework of the human body. It is composed of around 270 bone A bone is a Stiffness, rigid tissue (anatomy), tissue that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton in animals. Bones ...
; that for the lower epiphysis appears in the second year. The lower epiphysis fuses with the tibial shaft at about the eighteenth, and the upper one fuses about the twentieth year. Two additional centers occasionally exist, one for the tongue-shaped process of the upper epiphysis, which forms the tuberosity, and one for the
medial malleolus A malleolus is the bony prominence on each side of the human ankle The ankle, or the talocrural region, is the region where the foot The foot (plural: feet) is an anatomical Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch ...
.


Function


Muscle attachments


Strength

The tibia has been modeled as taking an axial force during walking that is up to 4.7 bodyweight. Its bending moment in the sagittal plane in the late stance phase is up to 71.6 bodyweight times millimetre.


Clinical significance


Fracture

Fracture Fracture is the separation of an object or material into two or more pieces under the action of stress (physics), stress. The fracture of a solid usually occurs due to the development of certain displacement discontinuity surfaces within the ...
s can be divided into those that only involve the tibia; bumper fracture,
Segond fracture The Segond fracture is a type of avulsion fracture An avulsion fracture is a bone fracture which occurs when a fragment of bone tears away from the main mass of bone as a result of physical trauma. This can occur at the ligament by the applicat ...
,
Gosselin fracture The Gosselin fracture is a V-shaped Bone fracture, fracture of the Anatomical terms of location#Proximal and distal, distal tibia which extends into the ankle joint and fractures the tibial synovial joint, plafond into anterior and posterior fragme ...
,
toddler's fracture Toddler's fractures are bone fracture A bone fracture (abbreviated FRX or Fx, Fx, or #) is a medical condition in which there is a partial or complete break in the continuity of the bone A bone is a Stiffness, rigid tissue (anatomy), tiss ...
, and those including both the tibia and
fibula The fibula or calf bone is a leg A leg is a weight-bearing and locomotive anatomical structure, usually having a column A column or pillar in architecture and structural engineering is a structural element that transmits, through co ...

fibula
;
trimalleolar fracture A trimalleolar fracture is a fracture (bone), fracture of the ankle that involves the lateral malleolus, the medial malleolus, and the distal posterior aspect of the tibia, which can be termed the posterior malleolus. The trauma is sometimes acco ...
, bimalleolar fracture, Pott's fracture.


Society and culture

In Judaism, the tibia, or shankbone, of a goat is used in the Passover Seder plate.


Other animals

The structure of the tibia in most other tetrapods is essentially similar to that in humans. The tuberosity of the tibia, a crest to which the
patellar ligament The patellar tendon is the distal portion of the common tendon A tendon or sinew is a tough, high-tensile-strength band of dense fibrous connective tissue that connects muscle Skeletal muscles (commonly referred to as muscles) are organs ...
attaches in mammals, is instead the point for the tendon of the quadriceps muscle in reptiles, birds, and amphibians, which have no patella.


Additional images

File:Right tibia - close up - animation.gif, Shape of right tibia File:Human tibia.stl, 3D image File:Braus 1921 292.png, Longitudinal section of tibia showing interior File:Gray345.png, Right knee-joint. Anterior view. File:Gray347.png, Right knee joint from the front, showing interior ligaments File:Gray348.png, Left knee joint from behind, showing interior ligaments File:Gray356.png, Left talocrural joint File:Gray357.png, Coronal section through right talocrural and talocalcaneal joints File:Slide3Bubu.JPG, Dorsum of Foot. Ankle joint. Deep dissection File:Slide2bubu.JPG, Dorsum of Foot. Ankle joint. Deep dissection File:Slide2tat.JPG, Ankle joint. Deep dissection. Anterior view File:Gray258.png, Bones of the right leg. Anterior surface File:Gray259.png, Bones of the right leg. Posterior surface File:Slide2coco.JPG, Dorsum of Foot. Ankle joint. Deep dissection. File:Slide4CEC3.JPG, Ankle joint. Deep dissection. File:Slide5CEC4.JPG, Ankle joint. Deep dissection. File:Slide7CEC6.JPG, Ankle joint. Deep dissection. File:Slide8CEC7.JPG, Ankle joint. Deep dissection. File:Tibia Anatomy by Jason Christian.webm, Tibia Anatomy


See also

*Shin splints *Squatting facets


References


External links

{{Authority control Tibia, Bones of the lower limb Long bones