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Surrey () is a
county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Robert Chambers (publisher bo ...
in
South East England South East England is one of the nine official regions of England at the ITL 1 statistical regions of England, first level of International Territorial Level, ITL for Statistics, statistical purposes. It consists of the counties of england, ...
which borders
Kent Kent is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Robert ...

Kent
to the east,
East Sussex East Sussex is a county in South East England on the English Channel The English Channel,, "The Sleeve"; nrf, la Maunche, "The Sleeve" ( Cotentinais) or (Jèrriais), (Guernésiais), "The Channel"; br, Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; c ...

East Sussex
to the southeast,
West Sussex West Sussex is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William an ...

West Sussex
to the south,
Hampshire Hampshire (, ; abbreviated to Hants) is a Counties of England, county in South East England on the coast of the English Channel. The county town is Winchester, but the county is named after Southampton. Its two largest cities are Southampton a ...

Hampshire
to the west,
Berkshire Berkshire ( ; in the 17th century sometimes spelt phonetically as Barkeshire; abbreviated Berks.) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers ...

Berkshire
to the northwest, and
Greater London Greater London is an Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties of England, administrative area governed by the Greater London Authority, and a Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county of England that covers the bulk of the same area ...

Greater London
to the northeast. With about 1.2 million people, Surrey is the 12th-most populous English county, the third-most populous home county, after
Kent Kent is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Robert ...

Kent
and
Essex Essex () is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Ro ...

Essex
, and the third-most populous in the Southeast, after Hampshire and Kent. Surrey is a relatively affluent county. It has the highest proportion of
woodland A woodland () is, in the broad sense, land covered with trees, or in a narrow sense, synonymous with wood (or in the U.S., the ''plurale tantum'' woods), a low-density forest forming open habitats with plenty of sunlight and limited shade (see d ...

woodland
of counties in England. It has four
horse racing Horse racing is an equestrian The word equestrian is a reference to Equestrianism, horseback riding, derived from Latin ' and ', "horse". Horseback riding (or Riding in British English) Notable examples of this are: *List of equestrian spo ...

horse racing
courses, and
golf course A golf course is the grounds where the sport of golf Golf is a club-and-ball sport Sport pertains to any form of Competition, competitive physical activity or game that aims to use, maintain or improve physical ability and skills whi ...

golf course
s including the international competition venue at Wentworth.
Guildford Guildford () is a town in Surrey Surrey () is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William ...

Guildford
is popularly regarded as the
county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some pref ...
, although
Surrey County Council Surrey County Council is the county council A county council is the elected administrative body governing an area known as a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictiona ...
is currently based in
Reigate Reigate ( ) is a town A town is a human settlement In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and ...
, having moved from its former headquarters in
Kingston-upon-Thames Kingston upon Thames (hyphenated until 1965, colloquially known as Kingston) is a town in the Royal Borough of Kingston Upon Thames The Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames is a borough A borough is an administrative division in various Engl ...
in 2020. Surrey is divided into eleven districts.


Geography

Surrey is divided in two by the chalk ridge of the
North Downs The North Downs are a ridge of chalk hills in south east England that stretch from Farnham in Surrey to the White Cliffs of Dover in Kent. Much of the North Downs comprises two Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, Areas of Outstanding Natural Bea ...
, running east–west. The ridge is pierced by the rivers Wey and
Mole Mole (or Molé) may refer to: Animals * Mole (animal) or "true mole", mammals in the family Talpidae, found in Eurasia and North America * Golden moles, southern African mammals in the family Chrysochloridae, similar to but unrelated to Talpidae ...
, tributaries of the
Thames The River Thames ( ), known alternatively in parts as the River Isis, is a river that flows through southern England Southern England, or the South of England, also known as the South, is an area of England consisting of its southernm ...
, which formed the northern border of the county before modern redrawing of county boundaries, which has left part of its north bank within the county. To the north of the Downs the land is mostly flat, forming part of the basin of the Thames. The geology of this area is dominated by
London Clay The London Clay Formation is a marine Marine is an adjective meaning of or pertaining to the sea or ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approximately 71% of the surface of the Eart ...
in the east, Bagshot Sands in the west and
alluvial Alluvium (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of t ...
deposits along the rivers. To the south of the Downs in the western part of the county are the sandstone Surrey Hills, while further east is the plain of the Low
Weald The Weald (, ) is an area of between the parallel s of the and the . It crosses the counties of , , and . It has three separate parts: the "High Weald" in the centre; the "Low Weald" periphery; and the , which stretches around the north a ...
, rising in the extreme southeast to the edge of the hills of the High Weald. The Downs and the area to the south form part of a concentric pattern of geological deposits which also extends across southern Kent and most of Sussex, predominantly composed of Wealden Clay,
Lower Greensand The Lower Greensand Group is a geological unit, part of the quite widely remaining underlying geological structure of southeast England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land ...
and the chalk of the Downs. Much of Surrey is in the
Metropolitan Green Belt The Metropolitan Green Belt is a statutory green belt around London, England. It comprises parts of Greater London Greater London is a Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county of England that makes up the majority of the London ...
. It contains valued reserves of mature
woodland A woodland () is, in the broad sense, land covered with trees, or in a narrow sense, synonymous with wood (or in the U.S., the ''plurale tantum'' woods), a low-density forest forming open habitats with plenty of sunlight and limited shade (see d ...

woodland
(reflected in the official logo of Surrey County Council, a pair of interlocking oak leaves). Among its many notable beauty spots are Box Hill,
Leith Hill Leith Hill in southern England is the highest summit of the Greensand Ridge The Greensand Ridge, also known as the Wealden Greensand is an extensive, prominent, often wooded, mixed greensand (geology), greensand/sandstone escarpment in so ...

Leith Hill
, Frensham Ponds,
Newlands Corner Newlands Corner is a nature reserve east of Guildford in Surrey. It is owned by the Albury Estate managed by the Surrey Wildlife Trust under an access agreement between the estate and Surrey County Council. Features The site reaches with hill- ...

Newlands Corner
and Puttenham & Crooksbury Commons. Surrey is the most wooded county in England, with 22.4% coverage compared to a national average of 11.8% and as such is one of the few counties not to recommend new woodlands in the subordinate planning authorities' plans. Box Hill has the oldest untouched area of natural box woodland in the UK, one of the oldest in Europe. In 2020 the
Surrey Heath Surrey Heath is a local government district The districts of England (also known as local authority districts or local government districts to distinguish from unofficial city districts) are a level of subnational division of England used ...
district had the highest proportion of tree cover in England at 41%. Surrey also contains England's principal concentration of lowland
heath A heath () is a shrubland Shrubland, scrubland, scrub, brush, or bush is a plant community characterized by vegetation dominance (ecology), dominated by shrubs, often also including grasses, Herbaceous plant, herbs, and geophytes. Shrubland m ...
, on sandy soils in the west of the county. Agriculture not being intensive, there are many
commons The commons is the culture, cultural and nature, natural resources accessible to all members of a society, including natural materials such as air, water, and a habitable earth. These resources are held in common, not owned privately. Commons c ...
and access lands, together with an extensive network of footpaths and bridleways including the
North Downs Way The North Downs Way National Trail National Trails are long distance footpath , Vancouver Island Vancouver Island, often simply "the Island" to residents of southwestern BC, is in the northeastern Pacific Ocean, and part of the Canadi ...

North Downs Way
, a scenic
long-distance path , Vancouver Island Vancouver Island, often simply "the Island" to residents of southwestern BC, is in the northeastern Pacific Ocean, and part of the Canadian Provinces and territories of Canada, province of British Columbia. The island is in l ...
. Accordingly, Surrey provides many rural and semi-rural leisure activities, with a large horse population in modern terms. The highest elevation in Surrey is
Leith Hill Leith Hill in southern England is the highest summit of the Greensand Ridge The Greensand Ridge, also known as the Wealden Greensand is an extensive, prominent, often wooded, mixed greensand (geology), greensand/sandstone escarpment in so ...

Leith Hill
near
Dorking Dorking () is a market town in Surrey in South East England, about south of London. It is in Mole Valley, Mole Valley District and the non-metropolitan district, council headquarters are to the east of the centre. The High Street runs roughl ...
. It is above sea level and is the second highest point in southeastern England after
Walbury Hill Walbury Hill is a summit of the North Wessex Downs The North Wessex Downs Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty An Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB; ; AHNE) is an area of countryside File:Rural landscape in Finland.jpg, A rural lan ...
in
West Berkshire West Berkshire is a local government district The districts of England (also known as local authority districts or local government districts to distinguish from unofficial city districts) are a level of subnational division of England used f ...
which is .


Surrey rivers

The longest river to enter Surrey is the
Thames The River Thames ( ), known alternatively in parts as the River Isis, is a river that flows through southern England Southern England, or the South of England, also known as the South, is an area of England consisting of its southernm ...
, which historically formed the boundary between the county and
Middlesex Middlesex (; abbreviation: Middx) is a Historic counties of England, historic county in South East England, southeast England. Its area is almost entirely within the wider urbanised area of London and mostly within the Ceremonial counties of En ...

Middlesex
. As a result of the 1965 boundary changes, many of the Surrey boroughs on the south bank of the river were transferred to
Greater London Greater London is an Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties of England, administrative area governed by the Greater London Authority, and a Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county of England that covers the bulk of the same area ...

Greater London
, shortening the length associated with the county. The Thames now forms the Surrey-
Berkshire Berkshire ( ; in the 17th century sometimes spelt phonetically as Barkeshire; abbreviated Berks.) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers ...

Berkshire
border between
Runnymede Runnymede is a water-meadow A water-meadow (also water meadow or watermeadow) is an area of grassland Grasslands are areas where the vegetation Vegetation is an assemblage of plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryo ...

Runnymede
and
Staines-upon-Thames Staines-upon-Thames is a town on the bank (geography), left bank of the River Thames in Surrey, England, in the borough of Spelthorne. At or near the Roman settlement of Pontibus, it became Stanes and then Staines. Its borough is in the Historic ...
, before flowing wholly within Surrey to Sunbury, from which point it marks the Surrey-Greater London border as far as
Surbiton Surbiton is a suburban neighbourhood in South West London London is the Capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. It stands on the River Thames in south-east Eng ...
. The
River Wey The River Wey is a tributary A tributary, or affluent, is a stream A stream is a body of water (Lysefjord) in Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway,Names in the official and recognised languages: Bokmål B ...
is the longest
tributary A tributary, or affluent, is a stream A stream is a body of water (Lysefjord) in Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway,Names in the official and recognised languages: Bokmål Bokmål (, ; literally "book tongue") ...
of the
Thames The River Thames ( ), known alternatively in parts as the River Isis, is a river that flows through southern England Southern England, or the South of England, also known as the South, is an area of England consisting of its southernm ...
above London. Other tributaries of the Thames with their courses partially in Surrey include the
Mole Mole (or Molé) may refer to: Animals * Mole (animal) or "true mole", mammals in the family Talpidae, found in Eurasia and North America * Golden moles, southern African mammals in the family Chrysochloridae, similar to but unrelated to Talpidae ...
, the Addlestone branch and Chertsey branch of the River Bourne (which merge shortly before joining the Thames), and the
Hogsmill River The Hogsmill River in Surrey Surrey () is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William C ...
, which drains
Epsom Epsom is the principal town of the Borough of Epsom and Ewell Epsom and Ewell () is a Non-metropolitan district, local government district with borough status in Surrey, England, covering the towns of Epsom and Ewell. The borough was formed ...
and
Ewell Ewell ( , ) is a suburban area with a village centre in the Epsom and Ewell, borough of Epsom and Ewell in Surrey, approximately south of Centre of London, central London and northeast of Epsom. In the 2011 United Kingdom census, 2011 Census ...
. The upper reaches of the River Eden, a tributary of the
Medway Medway is a conurbation A conurbation is a region comprising a number of metropolis in the background A metropolis () is a large city or conurbation which is a significant economic, political, and cultural center for a country or reg ...
, are in
Tandridge District Tandridge District is a Non-metropolitan district, local government district in east Surrey, England containing part of the North Downs Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, part of the Weald and the towns of Warlingham, Caterham, Oxted, Godstone and ...
, in east Surrey. The
River ColneRiver Colne is the name of several rivers in England * River Colne, Essex, passing through Halstead, Colchester and Wivenhoe * River Colne, Hertfordshire, a tributary of the River Thames, flowing from south Hertfordshire to form the border of Buckin ...
and its
anabranch An anabranch is a section of a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course wit ...
, the
Wraysbury River The Wraysbury River is an anabranch of the River Colne to the west of London. Course The river leaves the Colne at West Drayton and runs under the M4 motorway then close to Longford, London, Longford when it passes under the M25 motorway. A ...
, make a brief appearance in the north of the county to join the Thames at Staines.


Settlements

Surrey has a population of approximately 1.1 million people. Its largest town is
Guildford Guildford () is a town in Surrey Surrey () is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William ...

Guildford
, with a population of 77,057 (2011 census);
Woking Woking ( ) is a town in northwest Surrey, England. It is at the southwestern edge of the Greater London Urban Area and is a part of the London commuter belt, with frequent trains and a journey time of approximately 24 minutes to London Waterloo ...
is second with 62,796. They are followed by
Ewell Ewell ( , ) is a suburban area with a village centre in the Epsom and Ewell, borough of Epsom and Ewell in Surrey, approximately south of Centre of London, central London and northeast of Epsom. In the 2011 United Kingdom census, 2011 Census ...
with 39,994 people and
Camberley Camberley is a town in the Borough of Surrey Heath in Surrey, England, approximately southwest of Central London. The town is in the far west of the county, close to the borders of Hampshire and Berkshire. Once part of Windsor Forest, Camberle ...
with 30,155. Towns of between 25,000 and 30,000 inhabitants are
AshfordAshford is a relatively common English placename: it goes back to Old English ''æscet'', indicating a ford near a clump of ash trees. Places Australia *Ashford, New South Wales *Ashford, South Australia *Electoral district of Ashford, South Austr ...
,
Epsom Epsom is the principal town of the Borough of Epsom and Ewell Epsom and Ewell () is a Non-metropolitan district, local government district with borough status in Surrey, England, covering the towns of Epsom and Ewell. The borough was formed ...
,
Farnham Farnham is a market town A market town is a European that obtained by custom or royal charter, in the , a market right, which allowed it to host a regular ; this distinguished it from a or . In Britain, small rural towns with a hinte ...

Farnham
,
Staines Staines-upon-Thames is a town on the bank (geography), left bank of the River Thames in Surrey, England, in the borough of Spelthorne. At or near the Roman settlement of Pontibus, it became Stanes and then Staines. Its borough is in the Historic ...

Staines
and Redhill. Guildford is often regarded as the historic
county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some pref ...
, although the county administration was moved to Newington in 1791 and to
Kingston upon Thames Kingston upon Thames (hyphenated until 1965, colloquially known as Kingston) is a town in the Royal Borough of Kingston Upon Thames The Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames is a London boroughs, borough in southwest London. The main town is ...
in 1893. The county council's headquarters have been outside the county's boundaries since 1 April 1965, when Kingston and other areas were included within
Greater London Greater London is an Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties of England, administrative area governed by the Greater London Authority, and a Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county of England that covers the bulk of the same area ...

Greater London
by the
London Government Act 1963 The London Government Act 1963 (c. 33) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the supreme legislative body A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meeti ...
. The administration is due to move to Reigate in 2021. Due to its proximity to London there are many commuter towns and villages in Surrey. The population density is medium to high on residentially developed land and the area is one of the richest parts of the UK. Much of the north of the county is an urban area contiguous to
Greater London Greater London is an Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties of England, administrative area governed by the Greater London Authority, and a Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county of England that covers the bulk of the same area ...

Greater London
. In the west, there is a
conurbation A conurbation is a region comprising a number of metropolis A metropolis () is a large city or conurbation A conurbation is a region comprising a number of metropolis in the background A metropolis () is a large city or conurbati ...
straddling the Hampshire/Surrey border, including in Surrey
Camberley Camberley is a town in the Borough of Surrey Heath in Surrey, England, approximately southwest of Central London. The town is in the far west of the county, close to the borders of Hampshire and Berkshire. Once part of Windsor Forest, Camberle ...
and
Farnham Farnham is a market town A market town is a European that obtained by custom or royal charter, in the , a market right, which allowed it to host a regular ; this distinguished it from a or . In Britain, small rural towns with a hinte ...

Farnham
.


History


Ancient British and Roman periods

Before Roman times the area today known as Surrey was probably largely occupied by the
Atrebates The Atrebates (Gaulish Gaulish was an ancient Celtic language The Celtic languages ( , ) are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic The Proto-Celtic language, also called Common Celtic, is the ancestral proto-languag ...
tribe, centred at
Calleva Atrebatum Calleva Atrebatum ("Calleva of the Atrebates") was originally an British Iron Age, Iron Age oppidum, settlement, capital of the Atrebates civitas, tribe, and subsequently a town in the Roman province of Britannia. Its ruins lie to the west of, and ...
(
Silchester Silchester is a village and civil parish In England, a civil parish is a type of Parish (administrative division), administrative parish used for Local government in England, local government. It is a territorial designation which is the lo ...
), in the modern county of
Hampshire Hampshire (, ; abbreviated to Hants) is a Counties of England, county in South East England on the coast of the English Channel. The county town is Winchester, but the county is named after Southampton. Its two largest cities are Southampton a ...

Hampshire
, but eastern parts of it may have been held by the
Cantiaci The Cantiaci or Cantii were an Iron Age Celtic people living in Britain before the Roman conquest, and gave their name to a ''civitas In the history of Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder ...
, based largely in
Kent Kent is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Robert ...

Kent
. The Atrebates are known to have controlled the southern bank of the
Thames The River Thames ( ), known alternatively in parts as the River Isis, is a river that flows through southern England Southern England, or the South of England, also known as the South, is an area of England consisting of its southernm ...

Thames
from Roman texts describing the tribal relations between them and the powerful
Catuvellauni The Catuvellauni (Gaulish language, Gaulish: "war-chiefs") were a Celtic tribe or state of southeastern prehistoric Britain, Britain before the Roman conquest of Britain, Roman conquest, attested by inscriptions into the 4th century. The fortu ...
on the north bank. In about AD 42 King
Cunobelinus Cunobeline (or Cunobelin, from Latin , derived from Common Brittonic Common Brittonic ( ang, Brytisċ; cy, Brythoneg; kw, Brythonek; br, Predeneg), also known as Common Brythonic or Proto-Brittonic, was a Celtic language The Celtic lang ...

Cunobelinus
(in Welsh legend ) of the Catuvellauni died and war broke out between his sons and King
Verica Verica (early 1st century AD) was a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people The British people, or Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the Britis ...
of the Atrebates. The Atrebates were defeated, their capital captured and their lands made subject to
Togodumnus Togodumnus (died AD 43) was king of the British Catuvellauni The Catuvellauni ( Gaulish: "war-chiefs") were a Celtic tribe or state of southeastern Britain before the Roman conquest, attested by inscriptions into the 4th century The 4th cen ...
, king of the Catuvellauni, ruling from
Camulodunum Camulodunum (; la, ), the Ancient Roman In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman people, Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th cent ...
(
Colchester Colchester () is a historic market town and the largest settlement within the borough of Colchester in the county of Essex, in the East of England. Colchester occupies the site of what was Camulodunum, the first Colonia (Roman), major Roman ci ...
). Verica fled to
Gaul Gaul ( la, Gallia) was a region of Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rat ...

Gaul
and appealed for Roman aid. The Atrebates were allied with Rome during the invasion of Britain in AD 43. During the Roman era, the only important settlement within the historic area of Surrey was the London suburb of
Southwark Southwark ( ) is a district of Central London situated on the south bank of the River Thames, forming the north-western part of the wider modern London Borough of Southwark. The district, which is the oldest part of South London, developed ...

Southwark
(now part of
Greater London Greater London is an Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties of England, administrative area governed by the Greater London Authority, and a Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county of England that covers the bulk of the same area ...

Greater London
), but there were small towns at
Staines Staines-upon-Thames is a town on the bank (geography), left bank of the River Thames in Surrey, England, in the borough of Spelthorne. At or near the Roman settlement of Pontibus, it became Stanes and then Staines. Its borough is in the Historic ...

Staines
,
Ewell Ewell ( , ) is a suburban area with a village centre in the Epsom and Ewell, borough of Epsom and Ewell in Surrey, approximately south of Centre of London, central London and northeast of Epsom. In the 2011 United Kingdom census, 2011 Census ...
,
Dorking Dorking () is a market town in Surrey in South East England, about south of London. It is in Mole Valley, Mole Valley District and the non-metropolitan district, council headquarters are to the east of the centre. The High Street runs roughl ...
,
Croydon Croydon is a large town in South London, England that gives its name to the London Borough of Croydon. It is one of the largest commercial districts in Greater London, with an extensive shopping district and night-time economy. The entire town ...

Croydon
and
Kingston upon Thames Kingston upon Thames (hyphenated until 1965, colloquially known as Kingston) is a town in the Royal Borough of Kingston Upon Thames The Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames is a London boroughs, borough in southwest London. The main town is ...
. Remains of Roman rural temples have been excavated on Farley Heath and near Wanborough and
Titsey Titsey is a rural village and a on the almost wholly within the in the District of , . In local government it forms the south-western part of the ''Tatsfield and Titsey'' and in national statistics approximates to output area E00157289. ...
, and possible temple sites at
Chiddingfold Chiddingfold is a village and civil parish In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government. It is a territorial designation which is the lowest tier of local government below districts and countie ...
,
Betchworth Betchworth is a village and civil parish in the Mole Valley district of Surrey Surrey () is a county in South East England which borders Kent to the east, East Sussex to the southeast, West Sussex to the south, Hampshire to the west, Berks ...
and
Godstone Godstone is a village and civil parishes in England, civil parish in Surrey, England, east of Reigate at the junction of the A22 road, A22 and A25 road, A25 roads, near the M25 motorway and the North Downs. Godstone railway station is separate ...

Godstone
. The area was traversed by
Stane StreetStane Street may refer to one of two Roman roads: * Stane Street (Chichester) - from London Bridge to Chichester (West Sussex) * Stane Street (Colchester) - from Braughing (Hertfordshire) to Colchester (Essex) ** Stane Street Halt railway station, n ...
and other Roman roads.


Formation of Surrey

During the 5th and 6th centuries Surrey was conquered and settled by
Saxons The Saxons ( la, Saxones, german: Sachsen, ang, Seaxan, osx, Sahson, nds, Sassen, nl, Saksen) were a group of early Germanic Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples, an ethno-linguistic group identified by their use of the Germanic langua ...

Saxons
. The names of possible tribes inhabiting the area have been conjectured on the basis of place names. These include the (around
Godalming Godalming is a historic market town A market town is a European settlement that obtained by custom or royal charter, in the Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and c ...
) and (between
Woking Woking ( ) is a town in northwest Surrey, England. It is at the southwestern edge of the Greater London Urban Area and is a part of the London commuter belt, with frequent trains and a journey time of approximately 24 minutes to London Waterloo ...
and
Wokingham Wokingham is a market town A market town is a European Human settlement, settlement that obtained by custom or royal charter, in the Middle Ages, the right to host market (place), markets (market right), which distinguished it from a vi ...
in Berkshire). It has also been speculated that the entries for the and peoples in the
Tribal Hidage Image:Tribal Hidage 2.svg, 400px, alt=insert description of map here, The tribes of the Tribal Hidage. Where an appropriate article exists, it can be found by clicking on the name. rect 275 75 375 100 w:Elmet rect 375 100 450 150 w:Hatfield Chas ...

Tribal Hidage
may refer to two groups living in the vicinity of Surrey. Together their lands were assessed at a total of 7,000 hides, equal to the assessment for
Sussex Sussex (), from the Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, e ...
or
Essex Essex () is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Ro ...
. Surrey may have formed part of a larger kingdom or confederacy, also including areas north of the Thames. The name Surrey is derived from (or ), meaning "southern region", and this may originate in its status as the southern portion of the Middle Saxon territory. If it ever existed, the Middle Saxon kingdom had disappeared by the 7th century, and Surrey became a frontier area disputed between the kingdoms of
Kent Kent is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Robert ...

Kent
, Essex, Sussex,
Wessex Wessex (; ang, Westseaxna rīċe , 'the Kingdom of the West Saxons') was an Anglo-Saxons, Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy, kingdom in the south of Great Britain, from 519 until England was Kingdom of England, unified by Æthelstan in 927. The Anglo-Sa ...

Wessex
and
Mercia Mercia (, ang, Miercna rīċe; la, Merciorum regnum) was one of the kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon The Anglo-Saxons were a cultural group Cultural identity is a part of a person's identity Identity may refer to: Social sciences * Id ...

Mercia
, until its permanent absorption by Wessex in 825. Despite this fluctuating situation it retained its identity as an enduring territorial unit. During the 7th century Surrey became Christian and initially formed part of the East Saxon
diocese of London In church governance, a diocese or bishopric is the ecclesiastical district under the jurisdiction of a bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted ...
, indicating that it was under East Saxon rule at that time, but was later transferred to the West Saxon
diocese of Winchester The Diocese of Winchester forms part of the Province of Canterbury The Province of Canterbury, or less formally the Southern Province, is one of two ecclesiastical provinces which constitute the Church of England The Church of England (C ...
. Its most important religious institution throughout the
Anglo-Saxon The Anglo-Saxons were a cultural group Cultural identity is a part of a person's identity Identity may refer to: Social sciences * Identity (social science), personhood or group affiliation in psychology and sociology Group expression ...
period and beyond was
Chertsey Abbey Chertsey is a town in the Borough of Runnymede The Borough of Runnymede is a Non-metropolitan district, local government district with borough status in the England, English county of Surrey. It is a very prosperous part of the London commu ...
, founded in 666. At this point Surrey was evidently under Kentish domination, as the abbey was founded under the patronage of King Ecgberht of Kent. However, a few years later at least part of it was subject to Mercia, since in 673–675 further lands were given to Chertsey Abbey by Frithuwald, a local sub-king () ruling under the sovereignty of
Wulfhere of Mercia Wulfhere or Wulfar (died 675) was King of Mercia The Mercia, Kingdom of Mercia was a state in the English Midlands from the 6th century to the 10th century. For some two hundred years from the mid-7th century onwards it was the dominant memb ...
. A decade later Surrey passed into the hands of King Caedwalla of Wessex, who also conquered Kent and Sussex, and founded a monastery at
Farnham Farnham is a market town A market town is a European that obtained by custom or royal charter, in the , a market right, which allowed it to host a regular ; this distinguished it from a or . In Britain, small rural towns with a hinte ...

Farnham
in 686. The region remained under the control of Caedwalla's successor Ine in the early 8th century. Its political history for most of the 8th century is unclear, although West Saxon control may have broken down around 722, but by 784–785 it had passed into the hands of
King Offa Offa (died 29 July 796 AD) was King of the King of the Romans (variant used in the early modern period) File:Nezahualpiltzintli.jpg">Aztec King Nezahualpiltzintli of Texcoco King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of ...

King Offa
of Mercia. Mercian rule continued until 825, when following his victory over the Mercians at the
Battle of Ellandun The Battle of Ellendun or Battle of Wroughton was fought between Ecgberht, King of Wessex, Ecgberht of Wessex and Beornwulf of Mercia in September 825. Sir Frank Stenton described it as "one of the most decisive battles of English history". It ef ...
, of Wessex seized control of Surrey, along with Sussex, Kent and Essex. It was incorporated into Wessex as a
shire Shire is a traditional term for an administrative division of land in Great Britain Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of , it is the largest of the Britis ...

shire
and continued thereafter under the rule of the West Saxon kings, who eventually became kings of all of England.


Identified sub-kings of Surrey

* Frithuwald () * Frithuric? ()


West Saxon and English shire

In the 9th century England was afflicted, along with the rest of northwestern Europe, by the attacks of
Scandinavian A Scandinavian is a resident of Scandinavia or something associated with the region, including: Culture * Scandinavianism, political and cultural movement * Scandinavian design, a design movement of the 1950s * Scandinavian folklore * Scandinavia ...
Vikings Vikings—"pirate", non, víkingr is the modern name given to seafaring people primarily from Scandinavia Scandinavia; : ''Skadesi-suolu''/''Skađsuâl''. ( ) is a in , with strong historical, cultural, and linguistic ties. In ...

Vikings
. Surrey's inland position shielded it from coastal raiding, so that it was not normally troubled except by the largest and most ambitious Scandinavian armies. In 851 an exceptionally large invasion force of
Danes Danes ( da, danskere, ) are a North Germanic The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European The Indo-European languages are a lang ...
arrived at the mouth of the Thames in a fleet of about 350 ships, which would have carried over 15,000 men. Having sacked
Canterbury Canterbury (, ) is a City status in the United Kingdom, cathedral city and UNESCO World Heritage Site, situated in the heart of the City of Canterbury, a local government district of Kent, England. It lies on the River Stour, Kent, River Stour ...

Canterbury
and London and defeated King Beorhtwulf of Mercia in battle, the Danes crossed the Thames into Surrey, but were slaughtered by a West Saxon army led by in the
Battle of Aclea The Battle of Aclea occurred in 851 between the West Saxons led by Æthelwulf, King of Wessex and the Danish Vikings Vikings—"pirate", non, víkingr were the seafaring Norse people from southern Scandinavia (present-day Denmark, ...
, bringing the invasion to an end. Two years later the men of Surrey marched into Kent to help their Kentish neighbours fight a raiding force at Thanet, but suffered heavy losses including their
ealdorman Ealdorman () was a term in Anglo-Saxon England Anglo-Saxon England or Early Medieval England, existing from the 5th to the 11th centuries from the end of Roman Britain until the Norman Conquest, Norman conquest in 1066, consisted of various ...
, Huda. In 892 Surrey was the scene of another major battle when a large Danish army, variously reported at 200, 250 and 350 ship-loads, moved west from its encampment in Kent and raided in Hampshire and Berkshire. Withdrawing with their loot, the Danes were intercepted and defeated at Farnham by an army led by
Alfred the Great Alfred the Great (848/49 – 26 October 899) was king of the West Saxons This is a list of monarchs of Wessex until 886 AD. For later monarchs, see the List of English monarchs. While the details of the later monarchs are confirmed by a numbe ...

Alfred the Great
's son , and fled across the Thames towards Essex. Surrey remained safe from attack for over a century thereafter, due to its location and to the growing power of the West Saxon, later English, kingdom.
Kingston Kingston may refer to: Places * List of places called Kingston, including the four most populated: ** Kingston, Jamaica ** City of Kingston, Victoria, Australia ** Kingston, Ontario, Canada ** Kingston upon Thames, England Animals * Kingston (ho ...
was the scene for the coronations of
Æthelstan Æthelstan or Athelstan (; ang, Æðelstān ; on, Aðalsteinn; meaning "noble stone"; 894 – 27 October 939) was List of monarchs of Wessex, King of the Anglo-Saxons from 924 to 927 and List of English monarchs, King of the English from 927 ...
in 924 and of
Æthelred the Unready Æthelred (Old English: ''Æþelræd'', ;Different spellings of this king’s name most commonly found in modern texts are "Ethelred" and "Æthelred" (or "Aethelred"), the latter being closer to the original Old English language, Old English fo ...
in 978, and, according to later tradition, also of other 10th-century Kings of England. The renewed Danish attacks during the disastrous reign of Æthelred led to the devastation of Surrey by the army of
Thorkell the Tall 250px, The rune stone U 344 in Orkesta, Uppland, Sweden, was raised by the Viking">Sweden.html" ;"title="Uppland, Sweden">Uppland, Sweden, was raised by the Viking Ulfr who commemorated that he had taken a danegeld in England with Thorkell the Ta ...
, which ravaged all of southeastern England in 1009–1011. The climax of this wave of attacks came in 1016, which saw prolonged fighting between the forces of and the Danish king
Cnut Cnut (; ang, Cnut cyning; non, Knútr inn ríki ; or , no, Knut den mektige, sv, Knut den Store. died 12 November 1035), also known as Cnut the Great and Canute, was King of the English This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of En ...
, including an English victory over the Danes somewhere in northeastern Surrey, but ended with the conquest of England by Cnut. Cnut's death in 1035 was followed by a period of political uncertainty, as the succession was disputed between his sons. In 1036
Alfred Alfred may refer to: Arts and entertainment *''Alfred J. Kwak'', Dutch-German-Japanese anime television series *Alfred (Arne opera), ''Alfred'' (Arne opera), a 1740 masque by Thomas Arne *Alfred (Dvořák opera), ''Alfred'' (Dvořák opera), an ...
, son of King Æthelred, returned from Normandy, where he had been taken for safety as a child at the time of Cnut's conquest of England. It is uncertain what his intentions were, but after landing with a small retinue in Sussex he was met by Godwin, Earl of Wessex, who escorted him in apparently friendly fashion to
Guildford Guildford () is a town in Surrey Surrey () is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William ...

Guildford
. Having taken lodgings there, Alfred's men were attacked as they slept and killed, mutilated or enslaved by Godwin's followers, while the prince himself was blinded and imprisoned, dying shortly afterwards. This must have contributed to the antipathy between Godwin and Alfred's brother Edward the Confessor, who came to the throne in 1042. This hostility peaked in 1051, when Godwin and House of Godwin, his sons were driven into exile; returning the following year, the men of Surrey rose to support them, along with those of Sussex, Kent, Essex and elsewhere, helping them secure their reinstatement and the banishment of the king's Normans, Norman entourage. The repercussions of this antagonism helped bring about the Norman Conquest of England in 1066. Domesday Book records that the largest landowners in Surrey at the end of Edward's reign were
Chertsey Abbey Chertsey is a town in the Borough of Runnymede The Borough of Runnymede is a Non-metropolitan district, local government district with borough status in the England, English county of Surrey. It is a very prosperous part of the London commu ...
and Harold Godwinson, Earl of Wessex and later king, followed by the estates of King Edward himself. Apart from the abbey, most of whose lands were within the shire, Surrey was not the principal focus of any major landowner's holdings, a tendency which was to persist in later periods. Given the vast and widespread landed interests and the national and international preoccupations of the monarchy and the earldom of Wessex, the Abbot of Chertsey was therefore probably the most important figure in the local elite. The Anglo-Saxon period saw the emergence of the shire's internal division into 14 hundred (division), hundreds, which continued until Victorian era, Victorian times. These were the hundreds of Blackheath, Surrey (hundred), Blackheath, Brixton (hundred), Brixton, Copthorne (hundred), Copthorne, Effingham (half hundred), Effingham Half-Hundred, Elmbridge (hundred), Elmbridge, Farnham (hundred), Farnham,
Godalming Godalming is a historic market town A market town is a European settlement that obtained by custom or royal charter, in the Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and c ...
, Godley (hundred), Godley, Kingston (hundred), Kingston, Reigate (hundred), Reigate, Tandridge (hundred), Tandridge, Wallington (hundred), Wallington, Woking (hundred), Woking and Wotton (hundred), Wotton.


Identified ''ealdorman, ealdormen'' of Surrey

* Wulfheard () * Huda (?–853) * Æðelweard (late 10th century) * Æðelmær (?–1016)


Later Medieval Surrey

After the Battle of Hastings, the Norman people, Norman army advanced through Kent into Surrey, where they defeated an English force which attacked them at
Southwark Southwark ( ) is a district of Central London situated on the south bank of the River Thames, forming the north-western part of the wider modern London Borough of Southwark. The district, which is the oldest part of South London, developed ...

Southwark
and then burned that suburb. Rather than try to attack London across the river, the Normans continued west through Surrey, crossed the Thames at Wallingford, Oxfordshire, Wallingford in Berkshire and descended on London from the north-west. As was the case across England, the native ruling class of Surrey was virtually eliminated by Norman seizure of land. Only one significant English landowner, the brother of the last English Abbot of Chertsey, remained by the time the Domesday survey was conducted in 1086. At that time the largest landholding in Surrey, as in many other parts of the country, was the expanded royal estate, while the next largest holding belonged to Richard fitz Gilbert, founder of the de Clare family. In 1088, William II of England, King William II granted William de Warenne, 1st Earl of Surrey, William de Warenne the title of Earl of Surrey as a reward for Warenne's loyalty during the Rebellion of 1088, rebellion that followed the death of William I. When the male line of the Warennes became extinct in the 14th century, the earldom was inherited by the Fitzalan Earls of Arundel. The Fitzalan line of Earls of Surrey died out in 1415, but after other short-lived revivals in the 15th century the title was conferred in 1483 on the House of Howard, Howard family, who still hold it. However, Surrey was not a major focus of any of these families' interests. Guildford Castle, one of many fortresses originally established by the Normans to help them subdue the country, was rebuilt in stone and developed as a royal palace in the 12th century. Farnham Castle was built during the 12th century as a residence for the Bishop of Winchester, while other stone castles were constructed in the same period at Bletchingley Castle, Bletchingley by the de Clares and at Reigate Castle, Reigate by the Warennes. During John of England, King John's First Barons' War, struggle with the barons, Magna Carta was issued in June 1215 at
Runnymede Runnymede is a water-meadow A water-meadow (also water meadow or watermeadow) is an area of grassland Grasslands are areas where the vegetation Vegetation is an assemblage of plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryo ...

Runnymede
near Egham. John's efforts to reverse this concession reignited the war, and in 1216 the barons invited Louis VIII of France, Prince Louis of France to take the throne. Having landed in Kent and been welcomed in London, he advanced across Surrey to attack John, then at Winchester, occupying Reigate and Guildford castles along the way. Guildford Castle later became one of the favourite residences of Henry III of England, King Henry III, who considerably expanded the palace there. During the Second Barons' War, baronial revolt against Henry, in 1264 the rebel army of Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, Simon de Montfort passed southwards through Surrey on their way to the Battle of Lewes in Sussex. Although the rebels were victorious, soon after the battle royal forces captured and destroyed Bletchingley Castle, whose owner Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Gloucester, Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Hertford and Gloucester, was de Montfort's most powerful ally. By the 14th century, castles were of dwindling military importance, but remained a mark of social prestige, leading to the construction of castles at Starborough Castle, Starborough near Lingfield, Surrey, Lingfield by John de Cobham, 2nd Baron Cobham (of Kent), Lord Cobham, and at Betchworth Castle, Betchworth by John Fitzalan, 1st Baron Arundel, John Fitzalan, whose father had recently inherited the Earldom of Surrey. Though Reigate and Bletchingley remained modest settlements, the role of their castles as local centres for the two leading aristocratic interests in Surrey had enabled them to gain Ancient borough, borough status by the early 13th century. As a result, they gained representation in Parliament of England, Parliament when it became established towards the end of that century, alongside the more substantial urban settlements of Guildford and Southwark. Surrey's third sizeable town, Kingston, despite its size, borough status and historical association with the monarchy, did not gain parliamentary representation until 1832. Surrey had little political or economic significance in the Middle Ages. Its agricultural wealth was limited by the infertility of most of its soils, and it was not the main power-base of any important aristocratic family, nor the seat of a bishopric. The London suburb of Southwark was a major urban settlement, and the proximity of the capital boosted the wealth and population of the surrounding area, but urban development elsewhere was sapped by the overshadowing predominance of London and by the lack of direct access to the sea. Population pressure in the 12th and 13th centuries initiated the gradual clearing of the
Weald The Weald (, ) is an area of between the parallel s of the and the . It crosses the counties of , , and . It has three separate parts: the "High Weald" in the centre; the "Low Weald" periphery; and the , which stretches around the north a ...
, the forest spanning the borders of Surrey, Sussex and Kent, which had hitherto been left undeveloped due to the difficulty of farming on its heavy clay soil. Surrey's most significant source of prosperity in the later Middle Ages was the production of woollen cloth, which emerged during that period as England's main export industry. The county was an early centre of English textile manufacturing, benefiting from the presence of deposits of fuller's earth, the rare mineral composite important in the process of finishing cloth, around Reigate and Nutfield, Surrey, Nutfield. The industry in Surrey was focused on Guildford, which gave its name to a variety of cloth, ''gilforte'', which was exported widely across Europe and the Middle East and imitated by manufacturers elsewhere in Europe. However, as the English cloth industry expanded, Surrey was outstripped by other growing regions of production. Though Surrey was not the scene of serious fighting in the various rebellions and civil wars of the period, armies from Kent heading for London via Southwark passed through what were then the extreme north-eastern fringes of Surrey during the Peasants' Revolt of 1381 and Jack Cade, Cade's Rebellion in 1450, and at various stages of the Wars of the Roses in 1460, 1469 and 1471. The upheaval of 1381 also involved widespread local unrest in Surrey, as was the case all across south-eastern England, and some recruits from Surrey joined the Kentish rebel army. In 1082 a Cluniac abbey was founded at Bermondsey Abbey, Bermondsey by Alwine, a wealthy English citizen of London. Waverley Abbey near Farnham, founded in 1128, was the first Cistercian monastery in England. Over the next quarter-century monks spread out from here to found new houses, creating a network of twelve monasteries descended from Waverley across southern and central England. The 12th and early 13th centuries also saw the establishment of Augustinian Order, Augustinian priories at Merton Priory, Merton, Newark Priory, Newark, Tandridge Priory, Tandridge, Southwark Cathedral, Southwark and Reigate. A Dominican Order, Dominican friary was established at Guildford Black Friary, Guildford by Henry III's widow Eleanor of Provence, in memory of her grandson who had died at Guildford in 1274. In the 15th century a Carthusian priory was founded by Henry V of England, King Henry V at Sheen Priory, Sheen. These would all perish, along with the still important Benedictine abbey of Chertsey Abbey, Chertsey, in the 16th-century Dissolution of the Monasteries. Now fallen into disuse, some English counties had nicknames for those raised there such as a Yorkshire, 'tyke' from Yorkshire, or a Yellowbelly (Lincolnshire), 'yellowbelly' from Lincolnshire. In the case of Surrey, the term was a 'Surrey capon', from Surrey's role in the later Middle Ages as the county where chickens were fattened up for the London meat markets.


Early Modern Surrey

Under the early Tudor dynasty, Tudor kings, magnificent royal palaces were constructed in northeastern Surrey, conveniently close to London. At Richmond Palace, Richmond an existing royal residence was rebuilt on a grand scale under Henry VII of England, King Henry VII, who also founded a Franciscan Sheen Friary, friary nearby in 1499. The still more spectacular palace of Nonsuch Palace, Nonsuch was later built for Henry VIII of England, Henry VIII near Ewell. The palace at Guildford Castle had fallen out of use long before, but a royal hunting lodge existed outside the town. All these have since been demolished. During the Cornish Rebellion of 1497, the rebels heading for London briefly occupied Guildford and fought a skirmish with a government detachment on Guildown outside the town, before marching on to defeat at Blackheath, London, Blackheath in Kent. The forces of Wyatt's Rebellion in 1554 passed through what was then northeastern Surrey on their way from Kent to London, briefly occupying Southwark and then crossing the Thames at Kingston after failing to storm London Bridge. Surrey's cloth industry declined in the 16th century and collapsed in the 17th, harmed by falling standards and competition from more effective producers in other parts of England. The iron industry in the Weald, whose rich deposits had been exploited since prehistoric times, expanded and spread from its base in Sussex into Kent and Surrey after 1550. New furnace technology stimulated further growth in the early 17th century, but this hastened the extinction of the business as the mines were worked out. However, this period also saw the emergence of important new industries, centred on the valley of the River Tillingbourne, Tillingbourne, south-east of Guildford, which often adapted watermills originally built for the now moribund cloth industry. The production of brass goods and wire in this area was relatively short-lived, falling victim to competitors in the Midlands in the mid-17th century, but the manufacture of paper and gunpowder proved more enduring. For a time in the mid-17th century the Surrey mills were the main producers of gunpowder in England. A glass industry also developed in the mid-16th century on the southwestern borders of Surrey, but had collapsed by 1630, as the wood-fired Surrey glassworks were surpassed by emerging coal-fired works elsewhere in England. The Wey and Godalming Navigations, Wey Navigation, opened in 1653, was one of England's first canal systems. George Abbot (bishop), George Abbot, the son of a Guildford clothworker, served as Archbishop of Canterbury in 1611–1633. In 1619 he founded Abbot's Hospital, an almshouse in Guildford, which is still operating. He also made unsuccessful efforts to revitalise the local cloth industry. One of his brothers, Robert Abbot (bishop), Robert, became Bishop of Salisbury, while another, Maurice Abbot, Maurice, was a founding shareholder of the East India Company who became the company's Governor and later Lord Mayor of London. Southwark expanded rapidly in this period, and by 1600, if considered as a separate entity, it was the second-largest urban area in England, behind only London itself. Parts of it were outside the jurisdiction of the government of the City of London, and as a result the area of Bankside became London's principal entertainment district, since the social control exercised there by the local authorities of Surrey was less effective and restrictive than that of the City authorities. Bankside was the scene of the golden age of English Renaissance theatre, Elizabethan and Jacobean theatre, with the work of playwrights including William Shakespeare, Christopher Marlowe, Ben Jonson and John Webster performed in its playhouses. The leading actor and impresario Edward Alleyn founded the College of God's Gift in Dulwich with an endowment including an art collection, which was later expanded and opened to the public in 1817, becoming Dulwich Picture Gallery, Britain's first public art gallery. Surrey almost entirely escaped the direct impact of fighting during the First English Civil War, main phase of the English Civil War in 1642–1646. The local Roundhead, Parliamentarian gentry led by Richard Onslow (Parliamentarian), Sir Richard Onslow were able to secure the county without difficulty on the outbreak of war. Farnham Castle was briefly occupied by the advancing Cavaliers, Royalists in late 1642, but was easily stormed by the Parliamentarians under Sir William Waller. A new Royalist offensive in late 1643 saw skirmishing around Farnham between Waller's forces and Ralph Hopton's Royalists, but these brief incursions into the western fringes of Surrey marked the limits of Royalist advances on the county. At the end of 1643 Surrey combined with Kent, Sussex and Hampshire to form the South-Eastern Association, a military federation modelled on Parliament's existing Eastern Association. In the uneasy peace that followed the Royalists' defeat, a political crisis in summer 1647 saw Sir Thomas Fairfax's New Model Army pass through Surrey on their way to occupy London, and subsequent billeting of troops in the county caused considerable discontent. During the brief Second English Civil War, Second Civil War of 1648, the Henry Rich, 1st Earl of Holland, Earl of Holland entered Surrey in July, hoping to ignite a Royalist revolt. He raised his standard at Kingston and advanced south, but found little support. After confused manoeuvres between Reigate and
Dorking Dorking () is a market town in Surrey in South East England, about south of London. It is in Mole Valley, Mole Valley District and the non-metropolitan district, council headquarters are to the east of the centre. The High Street runs roughl ...
as Parliamentary troops closed in, his force of 500 men fled northwards and was overtaken and routed at Kingston. Surrey had a central role in the history of the radical political movements unleashed by the civil war. In October 1647 the first manifesto of the movement that became known as the Levellers, ''The Case of the Armie Truly Stated'', was drafted at Guildford by the Agitators, elected representatives of army regiments and civilian radicals from London. This document combined specific grievances with wider demands for constitutional change on the basis of popular sovereignty. It formed the template for the more systematic and radical ''Agreement of the People'', drafted by the same men later that month. It also led to the Putney Debates shortly afterwards, in which its signatories met with Oliver Cromwell and other Grandee (New Model Army), senior officers in the Surrey village of Putney, where the army had established its headquarters, to argue over the future political constitution of England. In 1649 the Diggers, led by Gerrard Winstanley, established their communal settlement at St. George's Hill near Weybridge to implement egalitarian ideals of common ownership, but were eventually driven out by the local landowners through violence and litigation. A smaller Digger commune was then established near Cobham, Surrey, Cobham, but suffered the same fate in 1650.


Modern history

Prior to the Great Reform Act of 1832, Surrey returned fourteen Member of Parliament (United Kingdom), Members of Parliament (MPs), two representing the county and two each from the six boroughs of Bletchingley, Gatton, Surrey, Gatton, Guildford, Haslemere, Reigate and Southwark. For two centuries before the Reform Act, the dominant political network in Surrey was that of the Earl of Onslow, Onslows of Clandon Park, a gentry family established in the county from the early 17th century, who were raised to the Peerage of Great Britain, peerage in 1716. Members of the family won at least one of Surrey's two county seats in all but three of the 30 general elections between 1628 and 1768, while they took one or both of the seats for their local borough of Guildford in every election from 1660 to 1830, usually representing the Whigs (British political party), Whig Party after its emergence in the late 1670s. Successive heads of the family held the post of Lord Lieutenant of Surrey continuously from 1716 to 1814. One of the principal residences of the British monarchy in the 18th century was Kew Palace in north Surrey, leased by Queen Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach in 1728 and inhabited by her son Frederick, Prince of Wales, and later by King George III and Queen Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. After the latter's death at the palace in 1818 it was sold. The White House was demolished about this time, but the Dutch House survives and is now a museum. Until the modern era Surrey, apart from its northeastern corner, was quite sparsely populated in comparison with many parts of southern England, and remained somewhat rustic despite its proximity to the capital. Communications began to improve, and the influence of London to increase, with the development of Turnpike trust, turnpike roads and a stagecoach system in the 18th century. A far more profound transformation followed with the arrival of the railways, beginning in the late 1830s. The availability of rapid transport enabled prosperous London workers to settle all across Surrey and travel daily to work in the capital. This phenomenon of commuting brought explosive growth to Surrey's population and wealth, and tied its economy and society inextricably to London. There was rapid expansion in existing towns like Guildford, Farnham, and most spectacularly
Croydon Croydon is a large town in South London, England that gives its name to the London Borough of Croydon. It is one of the largest commercial districts in Greater London, with an extensive shopping district and night-time economy. The entire town ...

Croydon
, while new towns such as Woking and Redhill emerged beside the railway lines. The huge numbers of incomers to the county and the transformation of rural, farming communities into a "commuter belt" contributed to a decline in the traditional local culture, including the gradual demise of the distinctive Surrey dialect. This may have survived among the "Surrey Men" into the late 19th Century, but is now extinct. Meanwhile, London itself spread swiftly across north-eastern Surrey. In 1800 it extended only to Vauxhall; a century later the city's growth had reached as far as Putney and Streatham. This expansion was reflected in the creation of the County of London in 1889, detaching the areas subsumed by the city from Surrey. The expansion of London continued in the 20th century, engulfing Croydon, Kingston and many smaller settlements. This led to a further contraction of Surrey in 1965 with the creation of
Greater London Greater London is an Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties of England, administrative area governed by the Greater London Authority, and a Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county of England that covers the bulk of the same area ...

Greater London
, under the
London Government Act 1963 The London Government Act 1963 (c. 33) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the supreme legislative body A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meeti ...
; however, Staines-upon-Thames, Staines and Sunbury-on-Thames, previously in Middlesex, were transferred to Surrey, extending the county across the Thames. Surrey's boundaries were altered again in 1974 when Gatwick Airport was transferred to
West Sussex West Sussex is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William an ...

West Sussex
. In 1849 Brookwood Cemetery was established near Woking to serve the population of London, connected to the capital by London Necropolis Railway, its own railway service. It soon developed into the largest burial ground in the world. Woking was also the site of Britain's Woking Crematorium, first crematorium, which opened in 1878, and its Shah Jahan Mosque, Woking, first mosque, founded in 1889. In 1881 Godalming became the first town in the world with a public electricity supply. The eastern part of Surrey was transferred from the Diocese of Winchester to that of Diocese of Rochester, Rochester in 1877. In 1905 this area was separated to form a new Anglican Diocese of Southwark, Diocese of Southwark. The rest of the county, together with part of eastern Hampshire, was separated from Winchester in 1927 to become the Diocese of Guildford, whose Guildford Cathedral, cathedral was consecrated in 1961. During the later 19th century Surrey became important in the development of architecture in Britain and the wider world. Its traditional building forms made a significant contribution to the vernacular revival architecture associated with the Arts and Crafts Movement, and would exert a lasting influence. The prominence of Surrey peaked in the 1890s, when it was the focus for globally important developments in domestic architecture, in particular the early work of Edwin Lutyens, who grew up in the county and was greatly influenced by its traditional styles and materials. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw the demise of Surrey's long-standing industries manufacturing paper and gunpowder. Most of the county's paper mills closed in the years after 1870, and the last survivor shut in 1928. Gunpowder production fell victim to the First World War, which brought about a huge expansion of the British munitions industry, followed by sharp contraction and consolidation when the war ended, leading to the closure of the Surrey powder mills. New industrial developments included the establishment of the vehicle manufacturers Dennis Specialist Vehicles, Dennis Brothers in Guildford in 1895. Beginning as a maker of bicycles and then of cars, the firm soon shifted into the production of commercial and utility vehicles, becoming internationally important as a manufacturer of fire engines and buses. Though much reduced in size and despite multiple changes of ownership, this business continues to operate in Guildford. Kingston and nearby Ham, London, Ham became a centre of aircraft manufacturing, with the establishment in 1912 of the Sopwith Aviation Company and in 1920 of its successor H.G. Hawker Engineering, which later became Hawker Aviation and then Hawker Siddeley. During the Second World War a section of the GHQ Line, GHQ Stop Line, a system of Bunker#Pillbox, pillboxes, gun emplacements, anti-tank obstacles and other fortifications, was constructed along the North Downs. This line, running from Somerset to Yorkshire, was intended as the principal fixed defence of London and the industrial core of England against the threat of invasion. German invasion plans envisaged that the main thrust of their advance inland would cross the North Downs at the gap in the ridge formed by the Wey valley, thus colliding with the defence line around Guildford. Between the wars Croydon Airport, opened in 1920, served as the main airport for London, but it was superseded after the Second World War by Heathrow Airport, Heathrow, and closed in 1959. Gatwick Airport, where commercial flights began in 1933, expanded greatly in the 1950s and 1960s, but the area occupied by the airport was transferred from Surrey to
West Sussex West Sussex is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William an ...

West Sussex
in 1974. In June 1972, British European Airways Flight 548 crashed near
Staines Staines-upon-Thames is a town on the bank (geography), left bank of the River Thames in Surrey, England, in the borough of Spelthorne. At or near the Roman settlement of Pontibus, it became Stanes and then Staines. Its borough is in the Historic ...

Staines
just after taking off from Heathrow Airport. This remains the worst air accident in the UK.


Historic architecture and monuments

Few traces of the ancient British and Roman periods survive in Surrey. There are a number of round barrows and bell barrows in various locations, mostly dating to the Bronze Age. Remains of Iron Age hillforts exist at Holmbury Hill, Hascombe Hill, Capel, Surrey#Anstiebury, Anstiebury (near Capel, Surrey, Capel), Dry Hill (Surrey), Dry Hill (near Lingfield, Surrey, Lingfield), St. Ann's Hill, Chertsey, St Ann's Hill (Chertsey) and St George's Hill (Weybridge). Most of these sites were created in the 1st century BC and many were re-occupied during the middle of the 1st century AD. Only fragments of
Stane StreetStane Street may refer to one of two Roman roads: * Stane Street (Chichester) - from London Bridge to Chichester (West Sussex) * Stane Street (Colchester) - from Braughing (Hertfordshire) to Colchester (Essex) ** Stane Street Halt railway station, n ...
and Ermine Street, the Roman roads which crossed the county, remain. Anglo-Saxon elements survive in a number of Surrey churches, notably at Guildford (St Mary's Church, Guildford, St Mary), Godalming (Church of St. Peter & St. Paul, Godalming, St Peter & St Paul), Stoke D'Abernon (St Mary's Church, Stoke d'Abernon, St Mary), Thursley, Witley, Compton, Guildford, Compton and Albury, Surrey, Albury (in ''Old Albury''). Numerous medieval churches exist in Surrey, but the county's parish churches are typically relatively small and simple, and experienced particularly widespread destruction and remodelling of their form in the course of Victorian restoration. Important medieval church interiors survive at Chaldon, Lingfield, Surrey, Lingfield, Stoke D'Abernon, Compton, Guildford, Compton and Dunsfold. Large monastic churches fell into ruin after their institutions were dissolved, although fragments of Waverley Abbey and Newark Priory survive. Southwark Priory, no longer in Surrey has survived, though much altered, and is now Southwark Cathedral. Farnham Castle largely retains its medieval structure, while the keep and fragments of the curtain walls and palace buildings survive at Guildford Castle. Very little non-military secular architecture survives in Surrey from earlier than the 15th century. Wholly or partially surviving houses and barns from that century, with considerable later modifications, include those at Wanborough Manor, Bletchingley, Littleton, Spelthorne, Littleton, East Horsley, Ewhurst, Surrey, Ewhurst, Dockenfield, Lingfield, Surrey, Lingfield, Limpsfield, Oxted, Crowhurst Place, Haslemere and Old Surrey Hall. Major examples of Tudor period, 16th-century architecture include the grand mid-century country houses of Loseley Park and Sutton Place, Surrey, Sutton Place and the old building of the Royal Grammar School, Guildford, founded in 1509. A considerable number of smaller houses and public houses of the 16th century are also still standing. From the 17th century the number of surviving buildings proliferates further. Abbot's Hospital, founded in 1619, is a grand edifice built in the Tudor architecture, Tudor style, despite its date. More characteristic examples of major 17th-century building include West Horsley Place, Slyfield Manor, and the Guildford Guildhall, Guildhall in Guildford.


Notable inhabitants


Literature

Besides its role in English Renaissance theatre, Elizabethan and Jacobean theatre, many important writers have lived and worked in Surrey. * ''The Owl and the Nightingale'', one of the earliest Middle English poems, may have been written by one Nicholas of Guildford, who is mentioned in its text. * John Donne (1572–1631) lived and worked for a time in Pyrford. * John Evelyn (1620–1706) was born and spent much of his life in Wotton, Surrey, Wotton, and is buried there. * Daniel Defoe (1659/61–1731) was educated in Dorking. * William Cobbett (1763–1835) was born and raised in Farnham, later lived in Wyke, Surrey, Wyke, where he died, and is buried in Farnham; Surrey features prominently in his ''Rural Rides''. * Thomas Love Peacock (1785–1866) lived in Lower Halliford, then part of Middlesex, now in Surrey. * Benjamin Disraeli (1804–1881) wrote ''Coningsby (novel), Coningsby'' while living in Dorking. * Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Alfred Tennyson (1809–1892) spent the latter part of his life, and died, in Haslemere. * Charles Dickens (1812–1870) wrote part of ''The Pickwick Papers'' in Dorking, and refers to the town in the novel. * Robert Browning (1812–1889) was born in Camberwell, then part of Surrey. * George Eliot (1819–1880) wrote most of ''Middlemarch'' while living in Haslemere. * Matthew Arnold (1822–1888) lived in Laleham, then part of Middlesex, now in Surrey. * George Meredith (1828–1909) lived at Box Hill. * Lewis Carroll (1832–1898) spent much of his time at his sisters' home in Guildford, where he wrote ''Through the Looking-Glass''; he died there and is buried in the town. * Isabella Beeton (1836–1865) lived for several years in Epsom, where her step-father was clerk of the racecourse. * George Bernard Shaw (1856–1950) lived in Woking and later in Hindhead, where he wrote ''Caesar and Cleopatra (play), Caesar and Cleopatra''. * Arthur Conan Doyle (1859–1930) lived and wrote many of his books in Hindhead and served as deputy lieutenant of Surrey; the county forms a setting for several of the Sherlock Holmes stories. * J. M. Barrie (1860–1937) lived in Tilford, and based ''The Boy Castaways'', which later evolved into ''Peter Pan'', in the nearby countryside. * H. G. Wells (1866–1946) wrote ''The War of the Worlds'' while living in Woking; much of northern Surrey is laid waste in the course of the story. * John Galsworthy (1867–1933) was born in Kingston and the ''Forsyte Saga'' is partly set in the area. * E. M. Forster (1879–1970) lived and wrote in Weybridge and Abinger Hammer. * P. G. Wodehouse (1881–1975) was born in Guildford and baptised there in St. Nicolas' Church, Guildford, St Nicolas' Church. * Aldous Huxley (1894–1963) was born and raised in Godalming and his ashes are interred at Compton; the end of ''Brave New World'' is set in Surrey. * Robert Graves (1895–1985) was born in Wimbledon, London, Wimbledon, then part of Surrey. * Rosemary Sutcliff (1920–1992) was born in East Clandon. * Clive King (1924–2018) was born in Richmond, London, Richmond, then part of Surrey. * John Osborne (1929–1994) grew up in Stoneleigh, Surrey, Stoneleigh. * Kazuo Ishiguro (born 1954) grew up in Guildford.


Arts and sciences

* William of Ockham (), scholasticism, scholastic philosopher, most famous for "Occam's Razor", came from Ockham, Surrey, Ockham. * Thomas Malthus (1766–1834), pioneer of demography, was born and raised in Westcott, Surrey, Westcott, and later lived in Albury. * Ada Lovelace (1815–1852), mathematician, lived at East Horsley. * Eadweard Muybridge (1830–1904), photographer, was born and raised in Kingston, then part of Surrey. * Gertrude Jekyll (1843–1932), garden designer, lived for much of her life at Munstead near Godalming, created significant gardens in Surrey and is buried in Busbridge. * Edwin Lutyens (1869–1944), architect, grew up in Thursley; many of his early works were built in Surrey, including collaborations with Gertrude Jekyll. * Ralph Vaughan Williams (1872–1958), composer, grew up at Leith Hill and later lived in Dorking. * Laurence Olivier (1907–1989), actor, was born in Dorking. * Peggy Ashcroft (1907–1991), actress, was born and raised in Croydon, then part of Surrey. * David Lean (1908–1991), film director, was born in Croydon. * Alan Turing (1912–1954), mathematician and pioneer of computer science, lived for much of his early life in Guildford. * Jimmy Perry (1923–2016), actor and screenwriter, was born in Barnes, London, Barnes, then part of Surrey. * Roy Hudd (1936-2020), comedian and actor, was born and raised in Croydon. * Alex Kingston (born 1963), actress, was born and raised in
Epsom Epsom is the principal town of the Borough of Epsom and Ewell Epsom and Ewell () is a Non-metropolitan district, local government district with borough status in Surrey, England, covering the towns of Epsom and Ewell. The borough was formed ...
. * Tracey Emin (born 1963), artist, was born in Croydon. * Tom Holland (actor) (1996) came from Kingston Upon Thames


Popular music

The "Surrey Delta" produced many of the musicians in 60s British blues movements. The Rolling Stones developed their music at the Crawdaddy Club in Richmond upon Thames, Richmond. * Roger Waters (born 1943) was born in Great Bookham, a village in Surrey. * Jimmy Page (born 1944) spent much of his early life in
Epsom Epsom is the principal town of the Borough of Epsom and Ewell Epsom and Ewell () is a Non-metropolitan district, local government district with borough status in Surrey, England, covering the towns of Epsom and Ewell. The borough was formed ...
. * Jeff Beck (born 1944) was born in Wallington, London, Wallington, then part of Surrey. * Eric Clapton (born 1945) was born and grew up in Ripley, Surrey, Ripley. * Peter Gabriel (born 1950) was born in Chobham and grew up in Surrey. His band Genesis (band), Genesis was formed at the Charterhouse School in Godalming. * The Stranglers were formed in
Guildford Guildford () is a town in Surrey Surrey () is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William ...

Guildford
. * Paul Weller (born 1958) was born and grew up in
Woking Woking ( ) is a town in northwest Surrey, England. It is at the southwestern edge of the Greater London Urban Area and is a part of the London commuter belt, with frequent trains and a journey time of approximately 24 minutes to London Waterloo ...
, which inspired the song "Town Called Malice". The Jam were formed at Sheerwater Secondary School in the town. * Kirsty MacColl (1959–2000) was born in Croydon, then part of Surrey. * Fatboy Slim, Norman Cook, a.k.a. Fatboy Slim (born 1963), grew up in Reigate. * Georgia Buchanan a.k.a. Call Me Loop (born 1991), was born in Surrey. * Hard-Fi members Richard Archer, Ross Phillips and Kai Stephens are from Staines-upon-Thames. * Justin Hawkins, lead singer of rock band The Darkness (band), The Darkness, was born in Surrey. * Disclosure (band), Disclosure members Guy and Howard Lawrence are from Reigate. *Keith Relf (1943-1976) was born and grew up in Richmond, London, Richmond, then part of Surrey. *Jane Relf (born 1947) was born and grew up in Richmond, London, Richmond, then part of Surrey.


Sport

* Cricket makes its first appearance in history in Surrey, in a reference to the game being played at the Royal Grammar School, Guildford in the 16th century (see History of English cricket to 1696). Mitcham Cricket Club, formed in 1685 and the oldest documented club in the game's history, was within Surrey's borders until 1965. The Surrey County Cricket Club has been based at The Oval in Kennington, now part of
Greater London Greater London is an Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties of England, administrative area governed by the Greater London Authority, and a Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county of England that covers the bulk of the same area ...

Greater London
, since its foundation in 1845. The club also uses Whitgift School in South Croydon and Woodbridge Road in
Guildford Guildford () is a town in Surrey Surrey () is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William ...

Guildford
for some games. It was one of the original participants in the County Championship and has won the competition 19 times outright and once jointly, more than any other county except Yorkshire County Cricket Club, Yorkshire. * Epsom Downs Racecourse is the venue for the most prestigious event in British flat horse-racing, the Epsom Derby, Derby, which has been held there most years since 1780. Surrey is also home to Lingfield Park Racecourse, Lingfield, Kempton Park Racecourse, Kempton and Sandown Park Racecourse, Sandown Park Racecourses, presenting an unusually high concentration in one county. * Brooklands between Woking and Weybridge was the world's first purpose-built motorsport race circuit, opened in 1907. The headquarters of the McLaren Formula One team are at Woking. James Hunt, the 1976 Formula 1 World Driver's Champion was born in Belmont, Sutton, then part of Surrey, in 1947. * The All England Lawn Tennis Club, venue for the Wimbledon Championships, and the headquarters of the Lawn Tennis Association were within Surrey until 1965. * Surrey's leading Rugby union, rugby club, Esher RFC, Esher, currently compete in the National League 1, the third tier of English rugby. * Surrey is one of a handful of English counties with no teams in the top 92 Association football, football teams, the Football League. Its leading team is Woking F.C., Woking, currently playing in the fifth-tier National League (division), National League. * Surrey is home to the ice hockey team the Guildford Flames, who compete in the top-tier Elite Ice Hockey League. * The basketball team Surrey Scorchers, based in Guildford, play in the top tier of British basketball, the British Basketball League. * The netball team Surrey Storm, based in Guildford play in the Netball Superleague. They are the franchise for the Greater London area and the South East. * Golf has been played in the county since before 1900 most notably as international venue Wentworth; by 2013 a 142nd co-existing Surrey golf course was in planning consultation; 141 were recorded by ''The Daily Telegraph'' newspaper. * Rowing clubs include Molesey Boat Club, Molesey (with an elite development programme hosting several leading British Rowing crews), Walton Rowing Club, Walton, (one of the UK's top clubs in the junior category), Weybridge Rowing Club, Weybridge
Weybridge LadiesWeybridge Mariners
Rowing on the River Thames, Burway, Staines Boat Club, Staines an
Guildford
whose top female quad boat won Henley Women's Regatta, Henley Women's in 2012. * Volleyball teams include British Airways, BA, Friends Provident an
Guildford International Volleyball Club
(whose elite men's team has won the Volleyball England, 1st of the 4 National Divisions), while twelve clubs in Surrey and three in south-west Greater London compete in the Surrey Volleyball League.


Surrey football clubs

The county has numerous football teams. In the Combined Counties League can be found the likes of Ash United F.C., Ash United, Badshot Lea F.C., Badshot Lea, Banstead Athletic F.C., Banstead Athletic, Camberley Town F.C., Camberley Town, Chessington & Hook United F.C., Chessington & Hook United, Cobham F.C., Cobham, Epsom & Ewell F.C., Epsom & Ewell, Epsom Athletic F.C., Epsom Athletic, Farleigh Rovers F.C., Farleigh Rovers, Farnham Town F.C., Farnham Town, Frimley Green F.C., Frimley Green, Knaphill F.C., Knaphill, Mole Valley SCR F.C., Mole Valley SCR, Molesey F.C., Molesey, Sheerwater F.C., Sheerwater, Spelthorne Sports F.C., Spelthorne Sports and Westfield F.C. (Surrey), Westfield; Horley Town F.C., Horley Town and Lingfield F.C., Lingfield play at the same level but in the Southern Combination Football League, Southern Combination; Ashford Town F.C., Ashford Town, Chertsey Town F.C., Chertsey Town, Godalming Town F.C., Godalming Town and Guildford City F.C., Guildford City play higher in the Southern Football League, Southern League; equally Dorking Wanderers F.C., Dorking Wanderers, Leatherhead F.C., Leatherhead, Merstham F.C., Merstham, Redhill F.C., Redhill, South Park F.C., South Park, Staines Town F.C., Staines Town, Walton Casuals F.C., Walton Casuals and Walton & Hersham F.C., Walton and Hersham are in the Isthmian League, Isthmian; Woking F.C., Woking are currently the highest ranked Surrey based club, playing in the National League (division), National League. Chelsea F.C. practice at the Cobham Training Centre located in the village of Stoke d'Abernon near Cobham, Surrey. The training ground was built in 2004 and officially opened in 2007.


Local government


History

The Local Government Act 1888 reorganised county-level local government throughout England and Wales. Accordingly, the administrative county of Surrey was formed in 1889 when the Provisional Surrey County Council first met, consisting of 19 aldermen and 57 councillors. The county council assumed the administrative responsibilities previously exercised by the county's justice of the peace, justices in quarter sessions. The county had revised boundaries, with the north east of the historic county bordering the City of London becoming part of a new County of London. These areas now form the London Boroughs of London Borough of Lambeth, Lambeth, London Borough of Southwark, Southwark and London Borough of Wandsworth, Wandsworth, and the Penge Urban District, Penge area of the London Borough of Bromley. At the same time, the County Borough of Croydon, borough of Croydon became a county borough, outside the jurisdiction of the county council. For purposes other than local government the administrative county of Surrey and county borough of Croydon continued to form a "county of Surrey" to which a Lord Lieutenant and Custos Rotulorum of Surrey, Custos Rotulorum (chief magistrate) and a High Sheriff of Surrey, High Sheriff were appointed. Surrey had been administered from Newington since the 1790s, and the county council was initially based in the sessions house there. As Newington was included in the County of London, it lay outside the area administered by the council, and a site for a new county hall within the administrative county was sought. By 1890 six towns were being considered: Epsom, Guildford, Kingston, Redhill,
Surbiton Surbiton is a suburban neighbourhood in South West London London is the Capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. It stands on the River Thames in south-east Eng ...
and Wimbledon. In 1891 it was decided to build the new County Hall (Surrey), County Hall at Kingston, and the building opened in 1893, but this site was also overtaken by the growing London conurbation, and by the 1930s most of the north of the county had been built over, becoming Outer London, outer suburbs of London, although continuing to form part of Surrey administratively. In 1960 the report of the Royal Commission on Local Government in Greater London, Herbert Commission recommended that much of north Surrey (including Kingston and Croydon) be included in a new "
Greater London Greater London is an Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties of England, administrative area governed by the Greater London Authority, and a Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county of England that covers the bulk of the same area ...

Greater London
". These recommendations were enacted in highly modified form in 1965 by the
London Government Act 1963 The London Government Act 1963 (c. 33) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the supreme legislative body A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meeti ...
. The areas that now form the London Boroughs of London Borough of Croydon, Croydon, Royal Borough of Kingston-upon-Thames, Kingston, London Borough of Merton, Merton, and London Borough of Sutton, Sutton and that part of London Borough of Richmond upon Thames, Richmond south of the River Thames, were transferred from Surrey to Greater London. At the same time part of the county of
Middlesex Middlesex (; abbreviation: Middx) is a Historic counties of England, historic county in South East England, southeast England. Its area is almost entirely within the wider urbanised area of London and mostly within the Ceremonial counties of En ...

Middlesex
, which had been abolished by the legislation, was added to Surrey. This area now forms the borough of Spelthorne. Further local government reform under the Local Government Act 1972 took place in 1974. The 1972 Act abolished administrative counties and introduced non-metropolitan county, non-metropolitan counties in their place. The boundaries of the non-metropolitan county of Surrey were similar to those of the administrative county with the exception of Gatwick Airport and some surrounding land which was transferred to
West Sussex West Sussex is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William an ...

West Sussex
. It was originally proposed that the parishes of Horley and Charlwood would become part of West Sussex; however this met fierce local opposition and it was reversed by the Charlwood and Horley Act 1974.


Today

After the elections of May 2017 the County Councillors' party affiliations are as follows: As of 2 May 2019, the Conservative Party (UK), Conservative local councillors control 4 out of 11 councils in Surrey, the Liberal Democrats (UK), Liberal Democrats control Mole Valley, the Residents Associations of Epsom and Ewell control Epsom and Ewell, and the remaining 5 are in No overall control, No Overall Control. Of the five No Overall Control councils, Elmbridge and Waverley are both run by coalitions of Residents and Liberal Democrats, Guildford is run by a Liberal Democrats minority administration, and Tandridge and Woking are both run by Conservative minority administrations. The Conservatives hold all List of Parliamentary constituencies in Surrey, 11 Parliamentary constituencies within the county borders.


Economy

The average wage in Surrey is bolstered by the high proportion of residents who work in financial services. Surrey has more organisation and company headquarters than any other county in the UK. Electronics manufacturers Whirlpool Corporation, Whirlpool, Canon (company), Canon, Toshiba, Samsung and Philips are housed here, as are distributors Burlodge, Future Electronics, Kia Motors and Toyota UK, the medico-pharma companies Pfizer and Sanofi-Aventis and oil giant Esso. Some of the largest fast-moving consumer goods multinationals in the world have their UK and/or European headquarters here, including Unilever, Procter & Gamble, Superdrug, Nestlé, SC Johnson, Kimberly-Clark and Colgate-Palmolive. NGOs including World Wide Fund for Nature, WWF UK & Compassion in World Farming are also based here. Government Quangos such as SEEDA, SEERA and GOSE are headquartered in Guildford.


Transport


Road

Three major motorways pass through the county. These are: * M25 motorway, M25 (London Orbital) runs through the county, including a long cutting (transportation), cutting into the Reigate, Reigate Hill-Walton Down scarp of the
North Downs The North Downs are a ridge of chalk hills in south east England that stretch from Farnham in Surrey to the White Cliffs of Dover in Kent. Much of the North Downs comprises two Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, Areas of Outstanding Natural Bea ...
and has 8 junctions in the county.
It connects among others to the M1 motorway, M1, M11 motorway, M11, M20 motorway, M20, M26 motorway, M26, M4 motorway, M4 and M40 motorway, M40. The motorway runs close to Heathrow Airport and the motorway network can be used to access Gatwick Airport, Gatwick, Stansted Airport, Stansted and Luton Airport, Luton Airports and the Channel Tunnel motor vehicle service. *M3 motorway (Great Britain), M3 crosses the north-west of the county. It connects London to Southampton and the South West of England (excluding Gloucestershire, Bath, Somerset, Bath and Wiltshire connected by the M4) having in Surrey the Sunbury-on-Thames, M25 interchange and Lightwater/Bagshot junctions. *M23 motorway, M23 (north–south) in effect connects
Croydon Croydon is a large town in South London, England that gives its name to the London Borough of Croydon. It is one of the largest commercial districts in Greater London, with an extensive shopping district and night-time economy. The entire town ...

Croydon
to Brighton as the dualled A23 trunk road to the north and beyond Crawley. It has junction to a spur to Gatwick Airport on the Surrey/Sussex border. It has a Surrey junction, the M25 Merstham interchange, close to the Reigate M25 junction. Other major roads include: *The A3 road, A3 trunk road from Portsmouth to London. The road now bypasses and historically assisted in the growth of Haslemere, Godalming,
Guildford Guildford () is a town in Surrey Surrey () is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William ...

Guildford
, Esher and
Kingston upon Thames Kingston upon Thames (hyphenated until 1965, colloquially known as Kingston) is a town in the Royal Borough of Kingston Upon Thames The Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames is a London boroughs, borough in southwest London. The main town is ...
. The Hindhead Tunnel bypasses a former bottleneck at Hindhead and the Devil's Punchbowl. *The A24 road (England), A24 from London to Littlehampton and Worthing. In Surrey, it passes through or around
Ewell Ewell ( , ) is a suburban area with a village centre in the Epsom and Ewell, borough of Epsom and Ewell in Surrey, approximately south of Centre of London, central London and northeast of Epsom. In the 2011 United Kingdom census, 2011 Census ...
,
Epsom Epsom is the principal town of the Borough of Epsom and Ewell Epsom and Ewell () is a Non-metropolitan district, local government district with borough status in Surrey, England, covering the towns of Epsom and Ewell. The borough was formed ...
, Ashtead, Leatherhead and
Dorking Dorking () is a market town in Surrey in South East England, about south of London. It is in Mole Valley, Mole Valley District and the non-metropolitan district, council headquarters are to the east of the centre. The High Street runs roughl ...
. It passes Box Hill, near Dorking. Unlike the A3, which is almost completely dual carriageway, the A24 is, apart from a central Surrey stretch, single carriageway; it bypasses Leatherhead,
Dorking Dorking () is a market town in Surrey in South East England, about south of London. It is in Mole Valley, Mole Valley District and the non-metropolitan district, council headquarters are to the east of the centre. The High Street runs roughl ...
and Horsham. *The A31 road, A31 trunk road west from
Guildford Guildford () is a town in Surrey Surrey () is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William ...

Guildford
to Bere Regis via
Farnham Farnham is a market town A market town is a European that obtained by custom or royal charter, in the , a market right, which allowed it to host a regular ; this distinguished it from a or . In Britain, small rural towns with a hinte ...

Farnham
and is connected to the M3 near Winchester and via the A331 near Aldershot. It is dual carriageway along the Hog's Back from the A3 to Farnham, Surrey, Farnham. It is one of the ancient routes from London to Winchester, see Pilgrims' Way. *The short A331 connects the A31 to the M3. It runs along the Surrey-Hampshire border, bypassing Aldershot, Frimley and Farnborough, Hampshire, Farnborough.


Rail

Much of Surrey lies within the London commuter belt with regular services into Central London. South Western Railway (train operating company), South Western Railway is the sole train operator in Elmbridge, Runnymede, Spelthorne, Surrey Heath, Woking and Waverley, and the main train operator in the Borough of Guildford, running regular services into and regional services towards the south coast and South west. Southern (train operating company), Southern is the main train operator in Mole Valley, Epsom and Ewell and Reigate and Banstead and the sole train operator in Tandridge, providing services into and . There are a number of national rail routes: in anti-clockwise order, the Waterloo to Reading Line, South West Main Line, Portsmouth Direct Line, Sutton and Mole Valley Lines (from Horsham,
West Sussex West Sussex is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William an ...

West Sussex
itself on the Arun Valley Line from Littlehampton) and the Brighton Main Line. The Waterloo to Reading Line calls at , , and in Surrey. The South West Main Line calls at and up to six other Surrey stops including . The Portsmouth Direct Line is significant in linking , and to the South West Main Line at Woking. The Sutton and Mole Valley Lines link , , , to Waterloo via or London Victoria via . The Brighton Main Line calls at and before reaching either London Bridge or London Victoria. is on the east–west North Downs Line. Consequently, the towns Staines-upon-Thames, Staines, Woking, Surrey, Woking,
Guildford Guildford () is a town in Surrey Surrey () is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William ...

Guildford
, Walton-on-Thames,
Epsom Epsom is the principal town of the Borough of Epsom and Ewell Epsom and Ewell () is a Non-metropolitan district, local government district with borough status in Surrey, England, covering the towns of Epsom and Ewell. The borough was formed ...
and
Ewell Ewell ( , ) is a suburban area with a village centre in the Epsom and Ewell, borough of Epsom and Ewell in Surrey, approximately south of Centre of London, central London and northeast of Epsom. In the 2011 United Kingdom census, 2011 Census ...
and
Reigate Reigate ( ) is a town A town is a human settlement In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and ...
and Redhill, statistically the largest examples, are established rapid-transit commuter towns for Central London. The above routes have had a stimulative effect. The relative development of Surrey at the time of the Beeching cuts led to today's retention of numerous other commuter routes except the Cranleigh Line, all with direct services to London, including: # Chertsey Branch Line, Chertsey Line linking the first two of the above national routes via and # New Guildford Line via and from # Hampton Court Branch Line to via from Surbiton # Shepperton Branch Line, Branch Line via Sunbury railway station, Surrey, Sunbury # Ascot to Guildford Line via , , into Hampshire via Aldershot and back into Surrey to serve , and . # Alton Line calls at the far southwest Surrey town, . # Epsom Downs Branch from Sutton Common railway station, Sutton and then Belmont in Greater London to and . # Tattenham Corner Line, Tattenham Corner Branch Line calls at , and . # Oxted Line calls at and . # Redhill to Tonbridge Line serves and . The only diesel route is the east–west North Downs Line, which runs from Reading via Guildford, , and Redhill. The major stations in the county are Guildford railway station (Surrey), Guildford (8.0 million passengers), Woking railway station, Woking (7.4 million passengers), Epsom railway station, Epsom (3.6 million passengers), Redhill railway station, Redhill (3.6 million passengers) and Staines railway station, Staines (2.9 million passengers).


Air

Both Heathrow Airport, Heathrow (in the London Borough of Hillingdon) and Gatwick (in Crawley Borough Council, Crawley Borough, West Sussex) have a perimeter road in Surrey. A National Express Coaches, National Express coach from Woking to Heathrow Airport and early-until-late buses to nearby Surrey towns operate. Fairoaks Airport on the edge of Chobham and Ottershaw is from Woking town centre and operates as a private airfield with two training schools and is home to other aviation businesses. Redhill Aerodrome is also in Surrey.


Education

The UK has a Comprehensive school, comprehensive, state-funded education system, accordingly Surrey has 37 state secondary schools, 17 Academy (English school), Academies, 7 sixth form colleges and 55 state primaries. The county has 41 independent schools, including Charterhouse School, Charterhouse (one of the nine independent schools mentioned in the Public Schools Act 1868) and the Royal Grammar School, Guildford. More than half the state secondary schools in Surrey have sixth forms. Brooklands (twinned with a site in Ashford, Surrey), Reigate, Esher, Egham, Woking and Waverley host sixth-form equivalent colleges each with technical specialisations and standard sixth-form study courses. Brooklands College offers aerospace and automotive design, engineering and allied study courses reflecting the aviation and motor industry leading UK research and maintenance hubs nearby.


Higher education

* The University of Surrey is based in
Guildford Guildford () is a town in Surrey Surrey () is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William ...

Guildford
and the University for the Creative Arts (UCA) has campuses in
Farnham Farnham is a market town A market town is a European that obtained by custom or royal charter, in the , a market right, which allowed it to host a regular ; this distinguished it from a or . In Britain, small rural towns with a hinte ...

Farnham
and
Epsom Epsom is the principal town of the Borough of Epsom and Ewell Epsom and Ewell () is a Non-metropolitan district, local government district with borough status in Surrey, England, covering the towns of Epsom and Ewell. The borough was formed ...
* Royal Holloway, University of London is based in Egham * The University of Law has a campus in Guildford * The Guildford School of Acting is located on the Surrey University campus.


Emergency services

Surrey is served by the following emergency services: *Surrey Police *British Transport Police *South East Coast Ambulance Service *Surrey Fire & Rescue Service *SURSAR


Places of interest

Significant landscapes in Surrey include Box Hill just north of
Dorking Dorking () is a market town in Surrey in South East England, about south of London. It is in Mole Valley, Mole Valley District and the non-metropolitan district, council headquarters are to the east of the centre. The High Street runs roughl ...
; the Devil's Punch Bowl at Hindhead and Frensham Common.
Leith Hill Leith Hill in southern England is the highest summit of the Greensand Ridge The Greensand Ridge, also known as the Wealden Greensand is an extensive, prominent, often wooded, mixed greensand (geology), greensand/sandstone escarpment in so ...

Leith Hill
southwest of
Dorking Dorking () is a market town in Surrey in South East England, about south of London. It is in Mole Valley, Mole Valley District and the non-metropolitan district, council headquarters are to the east of the centre. The High Street runs roughl ...
in the Greensand Ridge is the second highest point in southeast England. Witley Common and Thursley Common are expansive areas of ancient heathland south of Godalming run by the National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, National Trust and Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom), Ministry of Defence. The Surrey Hills are an area of outstanding natural beauty (AONB). More manicured landscapes can be seen at Claremont Landscape Garden, south of Esher (dating from 1715). There is also Winkworth Arboretum southeast of Godalming and Windlesham Arboretum near Lightwater created in the 20th century. Wisley is home to the Royal Horticultural Society RHS Garden, Wisley, gardens. Kew, historically part of Surrey but now in Greater London, features the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, as well as The National Archives (United Kingdom), The National Archives for England & Wales. There are 80 Surrey Wildlife Trust reserves with at least one in all 11 non-metropolitan districts.
Surrey Wildlife Trust reserves
Surrey's important country houses include the Tudor period, Tudor mansion of Loseley Park, built in the 1560s and Clandon House, an 18th-century Palladian mansion in West Clandon to the east of Guildford. Nearby Hatchlands Park in East Clandon, was built in 1758 with Robert Adam interiors and a collection of keyboard instruments. Polesden Lacey south of Great Bookham is a regency architecture, regency villa with extensive grounds. On a smaller scale, Oakhurst Cottage in Hambledon, Surrey, Hambledon near Godalming is a restored 16th-century worker's home. Shalford Mill on the River Tillingbourne, is an 18th-century water-mill. A canal system, the Wey and Godalming Navigations is administered at Dapdune Wharf in
Guildford Guildford () is a town in Surrey Surrey () is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William ...

Guildford
, where an exhibition commemorates the work of the canal system and is home to a restored Wey barge, the Reliance. The Wey and Arun Canal is being restored by volunteers with hopes of a future full reopening.
Runnymede Runnymede is a water-meadow A water-meadow (also water meadow or watermeadow) is an area of grassland Grasslands are areas where the vegetation Vegetation is an assemblage of plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryo ...

Runnymede
at Egham is the site of the sealing of the Magna Carta in 1215. Guildford Cathedral is a 20th-century cathedral built from bricks made from the clay of the hill on which it stands. Brooklands Museum recognises the motoring and aeronautical past of Surrey. The county is also home to the Thorpe Park theme park.


In popular culture

Jane Austen's novel Emma (novel), ''Emma'' is set in the fictional town of Highbury, Surrey, and the picnic at which Emma Woodhouse embarrasses Miss Bates takes place on Box Hill. Austen's unfinished novel ''The Watsons'' is also set in Surrey, and Emma Watson's brothers Robert and Samuel live in
Croydon Croydon is a large town in South London, England that gives its name to the London Borough of Croydon. It is one of the largest commercial districts in Greater London, with an extensive shopping district and night-time economy. The entire town ...

Croydon
and
Guildford Guildford () is a town in Surrey Surrey () is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William ...

Guildford
, respectively, while Emma has recently returned home to the fictional village of Stanton. Much of H. G. Wells' 1898 novel ''The War of the Worlds'' is set in Surrey with many specific towns and villages identified. The Martians first land on Horsell Common SSSI, Horsell Common on the north side of
Woking Woking ( ) is a town in northwest Surrey, England. It is at the southwestern edge of the Greater London Urban Area and is a part of the London commuter belt, with frequent trains and a journey time of approximately 24 minutes to London Waterloo ...
, outside the Bleak House pub, now called Sands. The narrator flees in the direction of London, first passing Byfleet and then Weybridge before travelling east along the north bank of the
Thames The River Thames ( ), known alternatively in parts as the River Isis, is a river that flows through southern England Southern England, or the South of England, also known as the South, is an area of England consisting of its southernm ...

Thames
. The late Poet Laureate Sir John Betjeman mentions
Camberley Camberley is a town in the Borough of Surrey Heath in Surrey, England, approximately southwest of Central London. The town is in the far west of the county, close to the borders of Hampshire and Berkshire. Once part of Windsor Forest, Camberle ...
in his poem "A Subaltern's Lovesong", while Carshalton forms the literary backdrop to many of the poems by James Farrar (poet), James Farrar. The character Ford Prefect (character), Ford Prefect from ''The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy'' claimed to be from Guildford in Surrey, but in actuality he was from a small planet somewhere in the vicinity of Betelgeuse. Thomas Paine Kydd, the hero of the Kydd (novel), ''Kydd'' series of naval adventure novels written by Julian Stockwin, starts off as a young wig-maker from Guildford who is pressed into service and thus begins a life at sea. Ian McEwan's Atonement (novel), ''Atonement'' is set in Surrey. In J. K. Rowling's Harry Potter (series), ''Harry Potter'' series, Harry Potter (character), Harry spends his childhood in the fictional town of Little Whinging, Surrey, under the guardianship of his pernicious relatives, the Dursleys. He leaves their house permanently four days before his seventeenth birthday, and that night there is an aerial battle in the skies over Surrey between the Order of the Phoenix and the Death Eaters. The county has also been used as a film location. Part of the movie ''The Holiday'' was filmed in Godalming and Shere: Kate Winslet's character Iris lived in a cottage in Shere and Cameron Diaz's character Amanda switched houses with her as part of a home exchange. The final scene of ''Bridget Jones: The Edge of Reason'' uses the village church, also in Shere, as does the movie ''The Wedding Date''. In the 1976 film The Omen (1976 film), ''The Omen'', the scenes at the cathedral were filmed at Guildford Cathedral. The film I Want Candy (film), ''I Want Candy'' follows two hopeful lads from Leatherhead trying to break into the movies, and was partly filmed in Brooklands College (Weybridge campus). Surrey woodland represented Germany in the opening scene of Gladiator (2000 film), ''Gladiator'', starring Russell Crowe; it was filmed at the Bourne Woods near
Farnham Farnham is a market town A market town is a European that obtained by custom or royal charter, in the , a market right, which allowed it to host a regular ; this distinguished it from a or . In Britain, small rural towns with a hinte ...

Farnham
in Surrey. Scenes for the 2009 BBC production of Emma (2009 TV serial), ''Emma'', starring Romola Garai and Michael Gambon, were filmed at St Mary the Virgin Church, Send, Surrey, Send near
Guildford Guildford () is a town in Surrey Surrey () is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William ...

Guildford
and at Loseley House.


See also

* Lord Lieutenant of Surrey, List of Lord Lieutenants of Surrey * High Sheriff of Surrey, List of High Sheriffs of Surrey * Custos Rotulorum of Surrey—Keepers of the Rolls * Surrey (UK Parliament constituency)—Historical list of MPs for Surrey constituency * Surrey (carriage) * Healthcare in Surrey * Surrey Police and Crime Commissioner


Notes


References


Bibliography

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


External links


Surrey County Council

Surrey Interactive Map

Exploring Surrey's Past

Surrey Search & Rescue (SurSAR)

Surrey History Centre

Images of Surrey
at the English Heritage Archive {{Authority control Surrey, Non-metropolitan counties South East England Home counties Counties of England established in antiquity