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Stephen Edwin King (born September 21, 1947) is an American author of
horror Horror may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Genres *Horror fiction, a genre of fiction **Japanese horror, Japanese horror fiction **Korean horror, Korean horror fiction *Horror film, a film genre *Horror comics, comic books focusing on h ...
,
supernatural fiction Supernatural fiction or supernaturalist fiction is a genre Genre () is any form or type of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-Eu ...
,
suspense Suspense is a state of mental uncertainty Uncertainty refers to Epistemology, epistemic situations involving imperfect or unknown information. It applies to predictions of future events, to physical measurements that are already made, or to ...
,
crime In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a State (polity), state or other authority. The term ''crime'' does not, in modern criminal law, have any simple and universally accepted definition,Farmer, Lindsay: "Crime, defi ...
,
science-fiction Science fiction (sometimes shortened to sci-fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction which typically deals with imagination, imaginative and futuristic concepts such as advanced science and technology, space exploration, time travel, Parall ...
, and
fantasy Fantasy is a genre of speculative fiction involving Magic (supernatural), magical elements, typically set in a fictional universe and sometimes inspired by mythology and folklore. Its roots are in oral traditions, which then became fantasy lit ...

fantasy
novels. Described as the "King of Horror", a play on his surname and a reference to his high standing in pop culture, his books have sold more than 350 million copies, and many have been adapted into films, television series, miniseries, and comic books. King has published 63 novels, including seven under the pen name
Richard Bachman Richard Bachman's author photo, credited to Claudia Inez Bachman. The actual subject of the photo is Richard Manuel, the insurance agent of Kirby McCauley, who was Stephen King's literary agent">Kirby_McCauley.html" ;"title="insurance agent of Ki ...

Richard Bachman
, and five non-fiction books. He has also written approximately 200 short stories, most of which have been published in book collections.Jackson, Dan (February 18, 2016)
"A Beginner's Guide to Stephen King Books"
.
Thrillist Thrillist is an online media website covering food Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any indiv ...
. Retrieved February 5, 2019.
King has received
Bram Stoker AwardThe Bram Stoker Award is a recognition presented annually by the Horror Writers Association (HWA) for "superior achievement" in dark fantasy and horror fiction, horror writing. History The Awards were established in 1987 and have been presented annu ...
s,
World Fantasy Award The World Fantasy Awards are a set of awards given each year for the best fantasy fiction published during the previous calendar year. Organized and overseen by the World Fantasy Convention, the awards are given each year at the eponymous annua ...
s, and
British Fantasy Society British Fantasy Society logo (circa 2008) The British Fantasy Society (BFS) was founded in 1971 as the British Weird Fantasy Society, an offshoot of the British Science Fiction Association. The society is dedicated to promoting the best in the fant ...
Awards. In 2003, the
National Book Foundation The National Book Foundation (NBF) is an American nonprofit organization established "to raise the cultural appreciation of great writing in America". Established 1989 by National Book Awards, Inc.,Edwin McDowell. "Book Notes: 'The Joy Luck Club' i ...
awarded him the Medal for Distinguished Contribution to American Letters. He has also received awards for his contribution to literature for his entire bibliography, such as the 2004
World Fantasy Award for Life Achievement The world is the Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life. About 29% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continent A continent is one of several large landmass ...
and the 2007 Grand Master Award from the
Mystery Writers of America Mystery Writers of America (MWA) is an organization of mystery and crime writers, based in New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from , or NYC for short, is the in the United States. With a 2020 population o ...
. In 2015, he was awarded with a
National Medal of Arts The National Medal of Arts is an award and title created by the United States Congress The United States Congress is the legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, po ...
from the U.S. National Endowment for the Arts for his contributions to literature.


Early life

Stephen Edwin King was born in
Portland, Maine Portland is the List of cities in Maine, largest city in the U.S. state of Maine and the County seat, seat of Cumberland County, Maine, Cumberland County. Portland's population was 68,408 in April 2020. The Portland metropolitan area, Maine, Gre ...
, on September 21, 1947. His father, Donald Edwin King, was a
merchant seaman
merchant seaman
who was born with the surname Pollock but changed it to King as an adult.Ancestry of Stephen King
at Genealogy.com. Retrieved August 3, 2010.
King's mother was Nellie Ruth King (née Pillsbury). His parents were married in
Scarborough, Maine Scarborough is a New England town, town in Cumberland County, Maine, Cumberland County on the southern coast of the U.S. state of Maine. The town is a coastal resort area. Located about south of Portland, Maine, Portland, Scarborough is part of the ...
, on July 23, 1939. Shortly afterwards, they lived with Donald's family in
Chicago (''City in a Garden''); I Will , image_map = , map_caption = Interactive map of Chicago , coordinates = , coordinates_footnotes = , subdivision_type = Country , subdivision_name ...

Chicago
before moving to
Croton-on-Hudson, New York Croton-on-Hudson is a administrative divisions of New York#Village, village in Westchester County, New York, Westchester County, New York (state), New York, United States. The population was 8,070 at the 2010 census. It is located in the administrat ...

Croton-on-Hudson, New York
. King's parents returned to Maine towards the end of
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, living in a modest house in Scarborough. When King was two years old, his father left the family. His mother raised him and his older brother David by herself, sometimes under great financial strain. They moved from Scarborough and depended on relatives in Chicago; Croton-on-Hudson; West De Pere, Wisconsin;
Fort Wayne, Indiana Fort Wayne is a city in and the county seat A county seat is an administrative centerAn administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public admin ...
;
Malden, Massachusetts Malden is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States. At the time of the 2020 U.S. Census, the population was 66,263 people. History Malden, a hilly woodland area north of the Mystic River, was se ...
; and
Stratford, Connecticut Stratford is a town A town is a human settlement In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and p ...
. When King was 11, his family moved to
Durham, Maine Durham is a town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world. Origin and use ...
, where his mother cared for her parents until their deaths. She then became a caregiver in a local residential facility for the mentally challenged. King was raised
Methodist Methodism, also called the Methodist movement, is a group of historically related denominations Denomination may refer to: * Religious denomination, such as a: ** Christian denomination ** Jewish denomination ** Islamic denomination ** Hindu d ...

Methodist
, but lost his belief in organized religion while in high school. While no longer religious, he says he chooses to believe in the existence of God. As a child, King apparently witnessed one of his friends being struck and killed by a train, though he has no memory of the event. His family told him that after leaving home to play with the boy, King returned speechlessly and seemingly in shock. Only later did the family learn of the friend's death. Some commentators have suggested that this event may have psychologically inspired some of King's darker works, but King makes no mention of it in his memoir '' On Writing'' (2000). He related in detail his primary inspiration for writing horror fiction in his non-fiction ''
Danse Macabre The ''Danse Macabre'' (; ) (from the French language French ( or ) is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, ...
'' (1981), in a chapter titled "An Annoying Autobiographical Pause". He compared his uncle's
dowsing Dowsing is a type of pseudoscientific divination Divination (from Latin ''divinare'', 'to foresee, to foretell, to predict, to prophesy') is the attempt to gain insight into a question or situation by way of an occult The occult, in t ...

dowsing
for water using the bough of an apple branch with the sudden realization of what he wanted to do for a living. That inspiration occurred while browsing through an attic with his elder brother, when King uncovered a paperback version of an
H. P. Lovecraft Howard Phillips Lovecraft (; August 20, 1890 – March 15, 1937) was an American writer of weird and horror fiction Horror is a genre of speculative fiction which is intended to frighten, scare, or disgust. Literary historian J. A. Cuddon ...
collection of short stories he remembers as ''The Lurker in the Shadows'', that had belonged to his father. King told Barnes & Noble Studios during a 2009 interview, "I knew that I'd found home when I read that book." King attended Durham Elementary School and graduated from Lisbon Falls High School in Lisbon Falls, Maine, in 1966. He displayed an early interest in horror as an avid reader of
EC horror comics Entertaining Comics, more commonly known as EC Comics, was an American publisher Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to the public for sale or for free. Traditionally, the ...
, including '' Tales from the Crypt'', and he later paid tribute to the comics in his screenplay for ''
Creepshow ''Creepshow'' is a 1982 American Horror film, horror comedy film, comedy anthology film directed by George A. Romero and written by Stephen King, making this film his screenwriting debut. The film's ensemble cast includes Hal Holbrook, Adrienne ...
''. He began writing for fun while still in school, contributing articles to ''Dave's Rag'', the newspaper his brother published with a
mimeograph machine A mimeograph machine (often abbreviated to mimeo, sometimes called a stencil duplicator) is a low-cost duplicating machine that works by forcing ink through a stencil Stencilling produces an image or pattern by applying pigment to a su ...
, and later began selling stories to his friends based on movies he had seen (he was forced to return the profits when discovered by teachers.) The first of his stories to be independently published was " I Was a Teenage Grave Robber", which was serialized over four issues (three published and one unpublished) of a
fanzine A fanzine ( blend of ''fan Fan commonly refers to: * Fan (machine), a machine for producing airflow, often for cooling ** Hand fan, an implement held and waved by hand to move air * Fan (person), short for fanatic; an enthusiast or supporter, espe ...

fanzine
, ''Comics Review'', in 1965. That story was published the following year in a revised form as "In a Half-World of Terror" in another fanzine, ''Stories of Suspense'', edited by
Marv Wolfman Marvin Arthur Wolfman (born May 13, 1946) is an American comic book and novelization A novelization (or novelisation) is a derivative In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quanti ...

Marv Wolfman
. As a teen, King also won a Scholastic Art and Writing Award. From 1966, King studied at the
University of Maine The University of Maine (UMaine or Maine or formerly UMO) is a Public university, public Land-grant university, land-grant research university in Orono, Maine. It was established in 1865 as the land-grant college of Maine and is the Flagship uni ...
, graduating in 1970 with a
Bachelor of Arts Bachelor of Arts (BA or AB; from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to ...

Bachelor of Arts
in English. That year, his daughter Naomi Rachel was born. He wrote a column, ''Steve King's Garbage Truck'', for the student newspaper, ''
The Maine Campus ''The Maine Campus'' is a weekly newspaper produced by the students of the University of Maine in the United States. It covers university and Town of Orono events, and has four sections: News, Opinion, Culture and Sports. It serves the 20,000 stu ...
'', and participated in a writing workshop organized by Burton Hatlen. King held a variety of jobs to pay for his studies, including janitor, gas pump attendant, and worker at an industrial laundry. King met his wife, fellow student Tabitha Spruce, at the university's Fogler Library after one of Professor Hatlen's workshops; they wed in 1971.


Career


Beginnings

King sold his first professional short story, " The Glass Floor", to ''Startling Mystery Stories'' in 1967. After graduating from the
University of Maine The University of Maine (UMaine or Maine or formerly UMO) is a Public university, public Land-grant university, land-grant research university in Orono, Maine. It was established in 1865 as the land-grant college of Maine and is the Flagship uni ...
, King earned a certificate to teach high school but, unable to find a teaching post immediately, he initially supplemented his laboring wage by selling short stories to
men's magazines This is a list of magazines primarily marketed to men. The list has been split into subcategories according to the target audience of the magazines. This list includes Adult magazine, 'adult' pornographic magazines as well as more mainstream ones. ...
such as ''
Cavalier Cavalier () was first used by Roundhead Roundheads were the supporters of the Parliament of England during the English Civil War (1642–1651). Also known as Parliamentarians, they fought against King Charles I of England and his supporte ...
''. Many of these early stories have been republished in the collection '' Night Shift''. The short story "The Raft" was published in ''Adam'', a men's magazine. After being arrested for stealing traffic cones (he was annoyed after one of the cones knocked his muffler loose), he was fined $250 for petty larceny but had no money to pay. However, a check then arrived for "The Raft" (then entitled "The Float"), and King cashed it to pay the fine. In 1971, King was hired as a teacher at
Hampden Academy Hampden Academy is a public high school located at 89 Western Avenue in Hampden, Maine, Hampden, Maine, United States. The school is a part of Regional School Unit #22 (R.S.U. 22), with approximately 708 students from Hampden, Newburgh, Maine, Newb ...

Hampden Academy
in
Hampden, Maine Hampden is a town on the Penobscot River estuary An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. Estuaries form a transition zon ...
. He continued to contribute short stories to magazines and worked on ideas for novels. During 1966–1970, he wrote a draft about his
dystopian novel Utopian and dystopian fiction are genre Genre () is any form or type of communication in any mode (written, spoken, digital, artistic, etc.) with socially-agreed-upon conventions developed over time. In popular usage, it normally describes a Cate ...
called ''
The Long Walk ''The Long Walk'' is a dystopian horror novel by American writer Stephen King Stephen Edwin King (born September 21, 1947) is an American author of horror, supernatural fiction, suspense, crime, science-fiction, and fantasy novels. His ...

The Long Walk
'' and the anti-war novel '' Sword in the Darkness'', but neither of the works was published at the time; only ''The Long Walk'' was later released in 1979.


''Carrie'' and aftermath

In 1973, King's novel ''
Carrie Carrie may refer to: People * Carrie (name), a female given name and occasionally a surname Places in the United States * Carrie, Kentucky, an unincorporated community * Carrie, Virginia, an unincorporated community * Carrie Glacier, Olympic Na ...
'' was accepted by publishing house Doubleday. ''Carrie'' was King's fourth novel, but it was the first to be published. It was written on a portable typewriter that belonged to his wife. The novel began as a short story intended for ''
Cavalier Cavalier () was first used by Roundhead Roundheads were the supporters of the Parliament of England during the English Civil War (1642–1651). Also known as Parliamentarians, they fought against King Charles I of England and his supporte ...
'' magazine, but King tossed the first three pages of his work in the garbage can. Tabitha King fished the pages out of the garbage can and encouraged him to finish the story, saying that she would help him with the female perspective; he followed her advice and expanded it into a novel. King said, "I persisted because I was dry and had no better ideas… my considered opinion was that I had written the world's all-time loser." According to ''
The Guardian ''The Guardian'' is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as ''The Manchester Guardian'', and changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers ''The Observer ''The Observer'' is a British newspaper published on Sun ...

The Guardian
'', ''Carrie'' "is the story of Carrie White, a high-school student with latent—and then, as the novel progresses, developing—telekinetic powers. It's brutal in places, affecting in others (Carrie's relationship with her almost hysterically religious mother being a particularly damaged one), and gory in even more." When ''Carrie'' was chosen for publication, King's phone was out of service. Doubleday editor William Thompson – who would eventually become King's close friend – sent a telegram to King's house in late March or early April 1973King (2000), p.83 which read: "Carrie Officially A Doubleday Book. $2,500 Advance Against Royalties. Congrats, Kid – The Future Lies Ahead, Bill." According to King, he bought a new
Ford Pinto The Ford Pinto is a subcompact car Subcompact car is a North American classification Classification is a process related to categorization Categorization is the human ability and activity of recognizing shared features or similarities be ...

Ford Pinto
with the money from the advance. On May 13, 1973,
New American Library The New American Library (also known as NAL) is an American publisher Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to the public for sale or for free. Traditionally, the term refers ...
bought the paperback rights for $400,000, which—in accordance with King's contract with Doubleday—was split between them. ''Carrie'' set King's career in motion and became a significant novel in the horror genre. In 1976, it was made into a successful
horror film A horror film is one that seeks to elicit fear Fear is an intensely unpleasant emotion Emotions are mental state, psychological states brought on by neurophysiology, neurophysiological changes, variously associated with thoughts, fee ...
. King's '' 'Salem's Lot'' was published in 1975. In a 1987 issue of ''The Highway Patrolman'' magazine, he stated, "The story seems sort of down home to me. I have a special cold spot in my heart for it!" After his mother's death, King and his family moved to
Boulder, Colorado The City of Boulder is the Home Rule Municipality Devolution is the statutory delegation of powers from the central government of a sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity that is represented by one centralized gover ...

Boulder, Colorado
, where King wrote '' The Shining'' (published 1977). The family returned to western Maine in 1975, where King completed his fourth novel, ''
The Stand ''The Stand'' is a post-apocalyptic dark fantasy Dark fantasy is a subgenre of fantasy literary, artistic, and cinematic works that incorporate darker and frightening themes of fantasy. It often combines fantasy with elements of horror fic ...
'' (published 1978). In 1977, the family, with the addition of Owen Philip (his third and youngest child), traveled briefly to England, returning to Maine that fall, where King began teaching creative writing at the University of Maine. In 1982, King published ''Different Seasons'', a collection of four novellas with a more serious dramatic bent than the horror fiction for which King is famous. The collection is notable for having had three of its four novellas turned into Hollywood films: '' Stand by Me'' (1986) was adapted from the novella '' The Body'', ''
The Shawshank Redemption ''The Shawshank Redemption'' is a 1994 American drama film In film and television show, television, drama is a category of narrative fiction (or docudrama, semi-fiction) intended to be more serious than humour, humorous in tone. Drama of ...
'' (1994) was adapted from the novella ''
Rita Hayworth and Shawshank Redemption ''Rita Hayworth and Shawshank Redemption'' is a novella by Stephen King from his 1982 collection ''Different Seasons'', subtitled ''Hope Springs Eternal''. The novella has also been published as a standalone book. The story is entirely told by the ...
'', and ''
Apt Pupil ''Apt Pupil'' (1982) is a novella by Stephen King Stephen Edwin King (born September 21, 1947) is an American author of horror, supernatural fiction, suspense, crime, science-fiction, and fantasy novels. His books have sold more than 350&nb ...
'' (1998) was adapted from the novella of the same name. In 1985, King wrote his first work for the comic book medium, writing a few pages of the benefit
X-Men The X-Men are a fictional team of superhero A superhero or superheroine is a stock character Stock (also capital stock) is all of the shares into which ownership of a corporation is divided.Longman Business English Dictionary In Am ...
comic book '' Heroes for Hope Starring the X-Men''. The book, whose profits were donated to assist with
famine A famine is a widespread scarcity of food Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual con ...

famine
relief in Africa, was written by a number of different authors in the comic book field, such as
Chris Claremont Christopher S. Claremont (; born November 25, 1950) is a British-born American comic book writer and novelist, known for his 1975–1991 stint on '' Uncanny X-Men'', far longer than that of any other writer,Claremont, Chris. ''Marvel Age Special: ...

Chris Claremont
,
Stan Lee Stan Lee (born Stanley Martin Lieber ; December 28, 1922 – November 12, 2018) was an American comic book A comic book, also called comic book, comic magazine or (in the United Kingdom and Ireland) simply comic, is a publication ...

Stan Lee
, and
Alan Moore Alan Moore (born 18 November 1953) is an English writer known primarily for his work in comic books A comic book, also called comic magazine or (in the United Kingdom and Ireland) simply comic, is a publication that consists of comics art ...

Alan Moore
, as well as authors not primarily associated with that industry, such as
Harlan Ellison Harlan Jay Ellison (May 27, 1934 – June 28, 2018) was an American writer, known for his prolific and influential work in New Wave New Wave may refer to: Music * New wave music, a genre of popular music that originated in the 1970s A ...
. The following year, King published '' It'' (1986), which was the best-selling hard-cover novel in the United States that year, and wrote the introduction to ''
Batman Batman is a superhero who appears in American comic books published by DC Comics. Batman was created by artist Bob Kane and writer Bill Finger, and debuted in Detective Comics 27, the 27th issue of the comic book ''Detective Comics'' on Marc ...

Batman
'' No. 400, an anniversary issue in which he expressed his preference for that character over
Superman Superman is a superhero A superhero or superheroine is a stock character that possesses Superpower (ability), ''superpowers'', abilities beyond those of ordinary people, and fits the role of the hero, typically using his or her powers t ...

Superman
.


''The Dark Tower'' books

In the late 1970s, King began what became a series of interconnected stories about a lone gunslinger, Roland, who pursues the "Man in Black" in an alternate-reality universe that is a cross between J. R. R. Tolkien's
Middle-earth Middle-earth is the fictional setting Setting may refer to: * A location (geography) where something is set * Set construction in theatrical scenery * Setting (narrative), the place and time in a work of narrative, especially fiction * Settin ...
and the American
Wild West The American frontier, also known as the Old West or the Wild West, includes the geography, history, folklore, and culture in the forward wave of American expansion that began with European colonial settlements in the early 17th century and e ...

Wild West
as depicted by
Clint Eastwood Clinton Eastwood Jr. (born May 31, 1930) is an American actor, film director, producer, and composer. After achieving success in the Western (genre), Western TV series ''Rawhide (TV series), Rawhide'', he rose to international fame with his ...

Clint Eastwood
and
Sergio Leone Sergio Leone (; 3 January 1929 – 30 April 1989) was an Italian film director, producer and screenwriter credited as the creator of the Spaghetti Western The Spaghetti Western is a broad subgenre of Western (genre), Western films produced in ...

Sergio Leone
in their
spaghetti Western The Spaghetti Western is a broad subgenre of Western (genre), Western films produced in Europe. It emerged in the mid-1960s in the wake of Sergio Leone's film-making style and international box-office success. The term was used by American critics ...
s. The first of these stories, '' The Dark Tower: The Gunslinger'', was initially published in five installments by ''
The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction ''The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction'' (usually referred to as ''F&SF'') is a U.S. fantasy fiction magazine, fantasy and science fiction magazine first published in 1949 by Fantasy House, a subsidiary of Lawrence E. Spivak, Lawrence Spivak ...
'' under the editorship of Edward L. Ferman, from 1977 to 1981. ''The Gunslinger'' was continued as an eight-book epic series called '' The Dark Tower'', whose books King wrote and published infrequently over four decades.


Pseudonyms

In the late 1970s and early 1980s, King published a handful of short novels—'' Rage'' (1977), ''
The Long Walk ''The Long Walk'' is a dystopian horror novel by American writer Stephen King Stephen Edwin King (born September 21, 1947) is an American author of horror, supernatural fiction, suspense, crime, science-fiction, and fantasy novels. His ...

The Long Walk
'' (1979), '' Roadwork'' (1981), ''
The Running Man Running Man may refer to: Literature * ''The Running Man'', a 1963 novel by Joan Carol Holly under the pseudonym J. Hunter Holly * The Running Man (novel), ''The Running Man'' (novel), a 1982 novel by Stephen King under the pseudonym Richard Bac ...
'' (1982) and '' Thinner'' (1984)—under the pseudonym
Richard Bachman Richard Bachman's author photo, credited to Claudia Inez Bachman. The actual subject of the photo is Richard Manuel, the insurance agent of Kirby McCauley, who was Stephen King's literary agent">Kirby_McCauley.html" ;"title="insurance agent of Ki ...

Richard Bachman
. The idea behind this was to test whether he could replicate his success again and to allay his fears that his popularity was an accident. An alternate explanation was that publishing standards at the time allowed only a single book a year. He picked up the name from the hard rock band Bachman-Turner Overdrive, of which he is a fan. Richard Bachman was exposed as King's pseudonym by a persistent Washington, D.C. bookstore clerk, Steve Brown, who noticed similarities between the works and later located publisher's records at the
Library of Congress The Library of Congress (LC) is the research library A library is a collection of materials, books or media that are easily accessible for use and not just for display purposes. It is responsible for housing updated information in order ...

Library of Congress
that named King as the author of one of Bachman's novels. This led to a press release heralding Bachman's "death"—supposedly from "cancer of the pseudonym". King dedicated his 1989 book ''
The Dark Half ''The Dark Half'' is a horror novel A novel is a relatively long work of narrative A narrative, story or tale is any account of a series of related events or experiences, whether nonfictional ( memoir, biography, news report, documentary ...
'', about a pseudonym turning on a writer, to "the deceased Richard Bachman", and in 1996, when the Stephen King novel '' Desperation'' was released, the companion novel '' The Regulators'' carried the "Bachman" byline. In 2006, during a press conference in London, King declared that he had discovered another Bachman novel, titled ''
Blaze Blaze may refer to: Places * Blaze, Kentucky * Blaze Island, Nunavut, Canada People * Blaze Bayley, former Wolfsbane and Iron Maiden vocalist * Alundra Blayze, later stage name for former female professional wrestler Debrah Miceli (born 1964) ...
''. It was published on June 12, 2007. In fact, the original manuscript had been held at King's Alma mater, the University of Maine in Orono, Maine, Orono, for many years and had been covered by numerous King experts. King rewrote the original 1973 manuscript for its publication. King has used other pseudonyms. The short story "The Fifth Quarter (short story), The Fifth Quarter" was published under the pseudonym John Swithen (the name of a character in the novel ''
Carrie Carrie may refer to: People * Carrie (name), a female given name and occasionally a surname Places in the United States * Carrie, Kentucky, an unincorporated community * Carrie, Virginia, an unincorporated community * Carrie Glacier, Olympic Na ...
''), by ''
Cavalier Cavalier () was first used by Roundhead Roundheads were the supporters of the Parliament of England during the English Civil War (1642–1651). Also known as Parliamentarians, they fought against King Charles I of England and his supporte ...
'' in April 1972. The story was reprinted in King's collection ''Nightmares & Dreamscapes'' in 1993 under his own name. In the introduction to the Bachman novel ''
Blaze Blaze may refer to: Places * Blaze, Kentucky * Blaze Island, Nunavut, Canada People * Blaze Bayley, former Wolfsbane and Iron Maiden vocalist * Alundra Blayze, later stage name for former female professional wrestler Debrah Miceli (born 1964) ...
'', King claims, with tongue-in-cheek, that "Bachman" was the person using the Swithen pseudonym. The "children's book" ''Charlie the Choo-Choo (book), Charlie the Choo-Choo: From the World of The Dark Tower'' was published in 2016 under the pseudonym Beryl Evans, who was portrayed by actress Allison Davies during a book signing at San Diego Comic-Con, and illustrated by Ned Dameron. It is adapted from a fictional book central to the plot of King's previous novel ''The Dark Tower III: The Waste Lands''.


Digital era

In 2000, King published Internet, online a serialized Horror (genre), horror novel, ''The Plant (novel), The Plant''. At first the public assumed that King had abandoned the project because sales were unsuccessful, but King later stated that he had simply run out of stories. The unfinished epistolary novel is still available from King's official site, now free. Also in 2000, he wrote a digital novella, ''Riding the Bullet'', and saying he foresaw e-books becoming 50% of the market "probably by 2013 and maybe by 2012". However, he also stated: "Here's the thing—people tire of the new toys quickly." King wrote the first draft of the 2001 novel ''Dreamcatcher (novel), Dreamcatcher'' with a notebook and a Waterman pens, Waterman fountain pen, which he called "the world's finest word processor". In August 2003, King began writing a column on pop culture appearing in ''Entertainment Weekly'', usually every third week. The column was called ''The Pop of King'' (a play on the nickname "The King of Pop" commonly attributed to Michael Jackson). In 2006, King published an Apocalyptic and post-apocalyptic fiction, apocalyptic novel, ''Cell (novel), Cell''. The book features a sudden force in which every cell phone user turns into a mindless killer. King noted in the book's introduction that he does not use cell phones. In 2008, King published both a novel, ''Duma Key'', and a collection, ''Just After Sunset''. The latter featured 13 short stories, including a previously unpublished novella, ''N. (novella), N.'' Starting July 28, 2008, ''N.'' was released as a serialized animated series to lead up to the release of ''Just After Sunset.'' In 2009, King published ''Ur (novella), Ur'', a novella written exclusively for the launch of the second-generation Amazon Kindle and available only on Amazon.com, and ''Throttle (novella), Throttle'', a novella co-written with his son Joe Hill (writer), Joe Hill and released later as an audiobook titled ''Road Rage (audiobook), Road Rage'', which included Richard Matheson's short story "Duel (1971 film), Duel". King's novel ''Under the Dome (novel), Under the Dome'' was published on November 10 of that year; it is a reworking of an unfinished novel he tried writing twice in the late 1970s and early 1980s, and at 1,074 pages, it is the largest novel he has written since '' It'' (1986). ''Under the Dome'' debuted at No. 1 in The New York Times Bestseller List, ''The New York Times'' Bestseller List. On February 16, 2010, King announced on his Web site that his next book would be a collection of four previously unpublished novellas called ''Full Dark, No Stars''. In April of that year, King published ''Blockade Billy'', an original novella issued first by independent small press Cemetery Dance Publications and later released in mass-market paperback by Simon & Schuster. The following month, DC Comics premiered ''American Vampire'', a monthly comic book series written by King with short-story writer Scott Snyder, and illustrated by Rafael Albuquerque (artist), Rafael Albuquerque, which represents King's first original comics work. King wrote the background history of the very first American vampire, Skinner Sweet, in the first five-issues story arc. Scott Snyder wrote the story of Pearl. King's next novel, ''11/22/63'', was published November 8, 2011, and was nominated for the 2012 World Fantasy Award Best Novel. The eighth ''The Dark Tower (series), Dark Tower'' volume, ''The Dark Tower: The Wind Through the Keyhole, The Wind Through the Keyhole'', was published in 2012. King's next book was ''Joyland (King novel), Joyland'', a novel about "an amusement-park serial killer", according to an article in ''The Sunday Times'', published on April 8, 2012. During his Chancellor's Speaker Series talk at University of Massachusetts Lowell on December 7, 2012, King indicated that he was writing a crime novel about a retired policeman being taunted by a murderer. With a working title ''Mr. Mercedes'' and inspired by a true event about a woman driving her car into a McDonald's restaurant, it was originally meant to be a short story just a few pages long. In an interview with ''Parade (magazine), Parade'', published on May 26, 2013, King confirmed that the novel was "more or less" completed he published it in June 2013. Later, on June 20, 2013, while doing a video chat with fans as part of promoting the upcoming ''Under the Dome (TV series), Under the Dome'' TV series, King mentioned he was halfway through writing his next novel, ''Revival (novel), Revival'', which was released November 11, 2014. King announced in June 2014 that ''Mr. Mercedes'' is part of a trilogy; the second book, ''Finders Keepers (King novel), Finders Keepers'', was released on June 2, 2015. On April 22, 2015, it was revealed that King was working on the third book of the trilogy, ''End of Watch (novel), End of Watch'', which was ultimately released on June 7, 2016. During a tour to promote ''End of Watch'', King revealed that he had collaborated on a novel, set in a women's prison in West Virginia, with his son, Owen King, titled ''Sleeping Beauties (novel), Sleeping Beauties''. In 2018, he released the novel ''The Outsider (King novel), The Outsider'', which featured the character of Holly Gibney, and the novella ''Elevation (novella), Elevation''. In 2019, he released the novel ''The Institute (novel), The Institute''. In 2020, King released ''If It Bleeds'', a collection of four previously unpublished novellas.


Collaborations


Writings

King has written two novels with horror novelist Peter Straub: ''The Talisman (King and Straub novel), The Talisman'' (1984) and a sequel, ''Black House (novel), Black House'' (2001). King has indicated that he and Straub will likely write the third and concluding book in this series, the tale of Jack Sawyer, but has set no deadline for its completion. King produced an artist's book with designer Barbara Kruger, ''My Pretty Pony'' (1989), published in a limited edition of 250 by the Library Fellows of the Whitney Museum of American Art. Alfred A. Knopf released it in a general trade edition. ''The Diary of Ellen Rimbauer: My Life at Rose Red'' (2001) was a paperback tie-in for the King-penned miniseries ''Rose Red (miniseries), Rose Red'' (2002). Published under anonymous authorship, the book was written by Ridley Pearson. The novel is written in the form of a diary by Ellen Rimbauer, and annotated by the fictional professor of paranormal activity, Joyce Reardon. The novel also presents a fictional afterword by Ellen Rimbauer's grandson, Steven. Intended to be a promotional item rather than a stand-alone work, its popularity spawned a 2003 prequel television miniseries to ''Rose Red'', titled ''The Diary of Ellen Rimbauer (film), The Diary of Ellen Rimbauer''. This spin-off is a rare occasion of another author being granted permission to write commercial work using characters and story elements invented by King. The novel tie-in idea was repeated on Stephen King's next project, the miniseries ''Kingdom Hospital''. Richard Dooling, King's collaborator on ''Kingdom Hospital'' and writer of several episodes in the miniseries, published a fictional diary, ''The Journals of Eleanor Druse'', in 2004. Eleanor Druse is a key character in ''Kingdom Hospital'', much as Dr. Joyce Readon and Ellen Rimbauer are key characters in ''Rose Red.'' ''Throttle (novella), Throttle'' (2009), a novella written in collaboration with his son Joe Hill, appears in the anthology ''He Is Legend: Celebrating Richard Matheson''. Their second novella collaboration, ''In the Tall Grass'' (2012), was published in two parts in ''Esquire (magazine), Esquire''. It was later released in e-book and audiobook formats, the latter read by Stephen Lang (actor), Stephen Lang. King and his son Owen King wrote the novel ''Sleeping Beauties (novel), Sleeping Beauties'', released in 2017, that is set in a women's prison. King and Richard Chizmar collaborated to write Gwendy's Button Box (2017), a horror novella taking place is King's fictional town of Castle Rock (Stephen King), Castle Rock. A sequel titled ''Gwendy's Magic Feather'' (2019) was written solely by Chizmar. In November 2020, Chizmar announced that he and King were writing a third installment in the series titled ''Gwendy's Final Task'', this time as a full-length novel, to be released in February 2022.


Music

In 1988, the band Blue Öyster Cult recorded an updated version of its 1974 song Astronomy (song), "Astronomy". The single released for radio play featured a narrative intro spoken by King. The Blue Öyster Cult song "(Don't Fear) The Reaper" was also used in the King TV series ''The Stand (1994 miniseries), The Stand''. King collaborated with Michael Jackson to create ''Michael Jackson's Ghosts, Ghosts'' (1996), a 40-minute musical video. King states he was motivated to collaborate as he is "always interested in trying something new, and for (him), writing a minimusical would be new". In 2005, King featured with a small spoken word part during the cover version of ''Everlong'' (by Foo Fighters) in Bronson Arroyo's album ''Covering the Bases'', at the time, Arroyo was a pitcher for Major League Baseball team Boston Red Sox of whom King is a longtime fan. In 2012, King collaborated with musician Shooter Jennings and his band Hierophant, providing the narration for their album, ''Black Ribbons''. King played guitar for the rock band Rock Bottom Remainders, several of whose members are authors. Other members include Dave Barry, Ridley Pearson, Scott Turow, Amy Tan, James McBride (writer), James McBride, Mitch Albom, Roy Blount, Jr., Matt Groening, Kathi Kamen Goldmark, Sam Barry (author), Sam Barry, and Greg Iles. King and the other band members collaborated to release an e-book called ''Hard Listening: The Greatest Rock Band Ever (of Authors) Tells All'' (June 2013). King wrote a musical entitled ''Ghost Brothers of Darkland County'' (2012) with musician John Mellencamp.


Analysis


Writing style and approach

King's formula for learning to write well is: "Read and write four to six hours a day. If you cannot find the time for that, you can't expect to become a good writer." He sets out each day with a quota of 2000 words and will not stop writing until it is met. He also has a simple definition for talent in writing: "If you wrote something for which someone sent you a check, if you cashed the check and it didn't bounce, and if you then paid the light bill with the money, I consider you talented." When asked why he writes, King responds: "The answer to that is fairly simple—there was nothing else I was made to do. I was made to write stories and I love to write stories. That's why I do it. I really can't imagine doing anything else and I can't imagine not doing what I do." He is also often asked why he writes such terrifying stories and he answers with another question: "Why do you assume I have a choice?" King usually begins the story creation process by imagining a "what if" scenario, such as what would happen if a Misery (novel), writer is kidnapped by a sadistic nurse in Colorado.Jenna Blum, 2013, ''The Modern Scholar'' published by Recorded Books, ''The Author at Work: The Art of Writing Fiction'', Disk 1, Track 11, King often uses authors as characters, or includes mention of fictional books in his stories, novellas and novels, such as Paul Sheldon, who is the main character in ''Misery (novel), Misery'', adult Bill Denbrough in '' It'', Ben Mears in '' 'Salem's Lot'', and Jack Torrance in '' The Shining''. He has extended this to breaking the fourth wall by including ''himself'' as a character in The Dark Tower (series), ''The Dark Tower'' series from ''The Dark Tower V: Wolves of the Calla'' onwards. In September 2009 it was announced he would serve as a writer for ''Fangoria''.


Influences

King has called Richard Matheson "the author who influenced me most as a writer". In a current edition of Matheson's ''The Shrinking Man'', King is quoted as saying, "A horror story if there ever was one...a great adventure story—it is certainly one of that select handful that I have given to people, envying them the experience of the first reading." Other acknowledged influences include
H. P. Lovecraft Howard Phillips Lovecraft (; August 20, 1890 – March 15, 1937) was an American writer of weird and horror fiction Horror is a genre of speculative fiction which is intended to frighten, scare, or disgust. Literary historian J. A. Cuddon ...
, Arthur Machen,King, Stephen,
Self-Interview
", 10:50 am, September 4, 2008. StephenKing.com. Retrieved April 24, 2017.
Ray Bradbury, Joseph Payne Brennan, Elmore Leonard, John D. MacDonald, and Don Robertson (author), Don Robertson. King's ''The Shining'' is immersed in Gothic literature, gothic influences, including "The Masque of the Red Death" by Edgar Allan Poe (which was directly influenced by the first gothic novel, Horace Walpole's ''The Castle of Otranto''). The Overlook Hotel acts as a replacement for the traditional gothic castle, and Jack Torrance is a tragic villain seeking redemption."The Castle of Otranto: The creepy tale that launched gothic fiction"
. BBC News. Retrieved October 11, 2017
King's favorite books are (in order): ''The Golden Argosy''; ''Adventures of Huckleberry Finn''; ''The Satanic Verses''; ''McTeague''; ''Lord of the Flies''; ''Bleak House''; ''Nineteen Eighty-Four''; ''The Raj Quartet''; ''Light in August''; and ''Blood Meridian''.


Critical response

Science fiction editors John Clute and Peter Nicholls (writer), Peter Nicholls offer a largely favorable appraisal of King, noting his "pungent prose, sharp ear for dialogue, disarmingly laid-back, frank style, along with his passionately fierce denunciation of human stupidity and cruelty (especially to children) [all of which rank] him among the more distinguished 'popular' writers." In his book ''The Philosophy of Horror'' (1990), Noël Carroll discusses King's work as an exemplar of modern horror fiction. Analyzing both the narrative structure of King's fiction and King's non-fiction ruminations on the art and craft of writing, Carroll writes that for King, "the horror story is always a contest between the normal and the abnormal such that the normal is reinstated and, therefore, affirmed." In his analysis of post–World War II horror fiction, ''The Modern Weird Tale'' (2001), critic S. T. Joshi devotes a chapter to King's work. Joshi argues that King's best-known works (his supernatural novels) are his worst, describing them as mostly bloated, illogical, maudlin and prone to ''deus ex machina'' endings. Despite these criticisms, Joshi argues that since ''Gerald's Game'' (1993), King has been tempering the worst of his writing faults, producing books that are leaner, more believable and generally better written. In 1996, King won an O. Henry Award for his short story "The Man in the Black Suit". In his short story collection ''A Century of Great Suspense Stories'', editor Jeffery Deaver noted that King "singlehandedly made popular fiction grow up. While there were many good best-selling writers before him, King, more than anybody since John D. MacDonald, brought reality to genre novels. He has often remarked that '' 'Salem's Lot'' was "''Peyton Place (novel), Peyton Place'' meets ''Dracula''. And so it was. The rich characterization, the careful and caring social eye, the interplay of story line and character development announced that writers could take worn themes such as vampirism and make them fresh again. Before King, many popular writers found their efforts to make their books serious blue-penciled by their editors. 'Stuff like that gets in the way of the story,' they were told. Well, it's stuff like that that has made King so popular, and helped free the popular name from the shackles of simple genre writing. He is a master of masters." In 2003, King was honored by the National Book Awards with a lifetime achievement award, the Medal of Distinguished Contribution to American Letters. Some in the literary community expressed disapproval of the award: Richard E. Snyder, the former CEO of Simon & Schuster, described King's work as "non-literature" and critic Harold Bloom denounced the choice:
The decision to give the National Book Foundation's annual award for "distinguished contribution" to Stephen King is extraordinary, another low in the shocking process of dumbing down our cultural life. I've described King in the past as a writer of penny dreadfuls, but perhaps even that is too kind. He shares nothing with Edgar Allan Poe. What he is is an immensely inadequate writer on a sentence-by-sentence, paragraph-by-paragraph, book-by-book basis.
Orson Scott Card responded:
Let me assure you that King's work most definitely is literature, because it was written to be published and is read with admiration. What Snyder really means is that it is not the literature preferred by the academic-literary elite.
In 2008, King's book ''On Writing'' was ranked 21st on ''Entertainment Weekly''s list of "The New Classics: The 100 Best Reads from 1983 to 2008".


Political views and activism

In 1984, King endorsed Gary Hart's presidential campaign. In April 2008, King spoke out against HB 1423, a bill pending in the Massachusetts state legislature that would restrict or ban the sale of Video game controversies, violent video games to anyone under the age of 18. King argued that such laws allow legislators to ignore the economic divide between the rich and poor and the easy availability of guns, which he believed were the actual causes of violence. During the 2008 presidential election, King voiced his support for Democratic candidate Barack Obama. King was quoted as calling conservative commentator Glenn Beck "Satan's mentally challenged younger brother". On March 8, 2011, King spoke at a political rally in Sarasota, Florida, Sarasota aimed against Governor Rick Scott (R-FL), voicing his opposition to the Tea Party movement.Bershad, Jon
"Stephen King Speaks At Budget Cut Protest, Says Florida Governor Should Star In His Next Horror Novel"
, Mediaite, March 9, 2011
On April 30, 2012, King published an article in ''The Daily Beast'' calling for rich Americans, including himself, to pay more taxes, citing it as "a practical necessity and moral imperative that those who have received much should be obligated to pay ... in the same proportion". On January 25, 2013, King published an essay titled "Guns (essay), Guns" via Amazon.com's Kindle single feature, which discusses the Gun politics in the United States, gun debate in the wake of the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting. King called for gun owners to support a ban on automatic and semi-automatic weapons, writing, "Autos and semi-autos are weapons of mass destruction...When lunatics want to make war on the unarmed and unprepared, these are the weapons they use." The essay became the fifth-bestselling non-fiction title for the Kindle. King has criticized Donald Trump and Rep. Steve King, deeming them racists. In June 2018, King called for the release of the Ukrainian filmmaker Oleg Sentsov, who was jailed in Russia. In the 2020 Democratic Party presidential primaries, King endorsed Elizabeth Warren's Elizabeth Warren 2020 presidential campaign, campaign. Warren eventually suspended her campaign, and King later endorsed Joe Biden's Joe Biden 2020 presidential campaign, campaign in the 2020 United States presidential election, 2020 general election.


Maine politics

King endorsed Shenna Bellows in the 2014 United States Senate election in Maine, 2014 U.S. Senate election for the seat held by Maine Republican Party, Republican Susan Collins. King publicly criticized Paul LePage during LePage's tenure as Governor of Maine, referring to him as one of The Three Stooges (with then-Governor of Florida, Florida Governor Rick Scott and then-Governor of Wisconsin, Wisconsin Governor Scott Walker (politician), Scott Walker being the other two). He was critical of LePage for incorrectly suggesting in a 2015 radio address that King avoided paying Maine income taxes by living out of state for part of the year. The statement was later corrected by the Governor's office, but no apology was issued. King said LePage was "full of the stuff that makes the grass grow green" and demanded that LePage "man up and apologize". LePage declined to apologize to King, stating, "I never said Stephen King did not pay income taxes. What I said was, Stephen King's not in Maine right now. That's what I said." The attention garnered by the LePage criticism led to efforts to encourage King to run for Governor of Maine in 2018 Maine gubernatorial election, 2018. King said he would not run or serve. King sent a tweet on June 30, 2015, calling LePage "a terrible embarrassment to the state I live in and love. If he won't govern, he should resign." He later clarified that he was not calling on LePage to resign, but to "go to work or go back home". On August 27, 2016, King called LePage "a bigot, a homophobe, and a racist".


Philanthropy

King has stated that he donates approximately $4 million per year "to libraries, local fire departments that need updated lifesaving equipment (Jaws of Life tools are always a popular request), schools, and a scattering of organisations that underwrite the arts." The Stephen and Tabitha King Foundation, chaired by King and his wife, ranks sixth among Maine charities in terms of average annual giving with over $2.8 million in grants per year, according to The Grantsmanship Center. In November 2011, the STK Foundation donated $70,000 in matched funding via his radio station to help pay the heating bills for families in need in his home town of Bangor, Maine, during the winter.


Personal life

King married Tabitha Spruce on January 2, 1971. She too is a novelist and philanthropic activist. They own and divide their time between three houses: one in Bangor, Maine, one in Lovell, Maine, and for the winter a waterfront mansion located off the Gulf of Mexico in Sarasota, Florida. King's home in Bangor has been described as an unofficial tourist attraction, and , the couple plan to convert it into a facility housing his archives, as well as a writers' retreat. The Kings have three children—a daughter and two sons—and four grandchildren. Their daughter Naomi is a Unitarian Universalism, Unitarian Universalist Church minister in Plantation, Florida, with her partner, Thandeka (minister), Rev. Dr. Thandeka. Both of the Kings' sons are authors: Owen King published his first collection of stories, ''We're All in This Together: A Novella and Stories'', in 2005. Joe Hill (writer), Joseph Hillström King, who writes as Joe Hill, published a collection of short stories, ''20th Century Ghosts'', in 2005. His debut novel, ''Heart-Shaped Box (novel), Heart-Shaped Box'' (2007), was optioned by Warner Bros. In the early 1970s, King developed a drinking problem which would plague him for more than a decade. Soon after ''Carrie''s release in 1974, King's mother died of uterine cancer; King has written of his severe drinking problem at this time, stating that he was drunk while delivering the eulogy at his mother's funeral. King's addictions to alcohol and other drugs were so serious during the 1980s that, as he acknowledged in ''On Writing'' in 2000, he can barely remember writing ''Cujo''. Shortly after the novel's publication, King's family and friends staged an intervention, dumping on the rug in front of him evidence of his addictions taken from his office, including beer cans, cigarette butts, grams of cocaine, Alprazolam, Xanax, Valium, NyQuil, Cold medicine, Robitussin, and mouthwash. As King related in his memoir, he then sought help, quit all drugs (including alcohol) in the late 1980s, and has remained sober since. The first novel he wrote after becoming sober was ''Needful Things''. King and his wife Tabitha own Zone Radio Corp, a radio station group consisting of WZON/620 AM, WKIT/100.3 & WZLO/103.1. In sports, King is a longtime fan of Major League Baseball team Boston Red Sox, his nonfiction book ''Faithful (book), Faithful'' published in 2004, co-written with his friend and fellow author Stewart O'Nan, chronicles the exchanges between King and O'Nan (also a longtime fan of the Red Sox) about the historic 2004 Boston Red Sox season that culminated with the Red Sox winning the 2004 World Series, ending an 86-year championship drought.


Car accident and aftermath

On June 19, 1999, at about 4:30 p.m., King was walking on the shoulder of Maine State Route 5, in Lovell, Maine. Driver Bryan Edwin Smith, distracted by an unrestrained dog moving in the back of his minivan, struck King, who landed in a depression in the ground about 14 feet (four meters) from the pavement of Route 5. Early reports at the time from Oxford County Sheriff deputy Matt Baker, claimed King was hit from behind and some witnesses said the driver was not speeding, reckless, or drinking. However, Smith was later arrested and charged with Reckless driving#Maine, driving to endanger and aggravated assault. He pleaded guilty to the lesser charge of driving to endanger and was sentenced to six months in county jail (suspended), and had his driving license suspended for a year. In his book ''On Writing'', King states he was heading north, walking against the traffic. Shortly before the accident took place, a woman in a car, also northbound, passed King first and then the light-blue Dodge Ram van, Dodge van. The van was looping from one side of the road to the other, and the woman told her passenger she hoped "that guy in the van doesn't hit him." King was conscious enough to give the deputy phone numbers to contact his family but was in considerable pain. He was transported to Northern Cumberland Hospital in Bridgton and then flown by air ambulance to Central Maine Medical Center (CMMC) in Lewiston, Maine, Lewiston. His injuries—a collapsed right lung, multiple fractures of his right leg, scalp laceration and a broken hip—kept him at CMMC until July 9. His leg bones were so shattered that doctors initially considered amputating his leg but stabilized the bones in the leg with an external fixator. After five operations in 10 days and physical therapy, King resumed work on ''On Writing'' in July, though his hip was still shattered and he could sit for only about 40 minutes before the pain became unbearable. King's lawyer and two others purchased Smith's van for $1,500, reportedly to prevent it from appearing on eBay. The van was later crushed at a junkyard, to King's disappointment, as he had fantasized about smashing it.


Awards

* Alex Awards 2009: ''Just After Sunset'' * American Library Association Best Books for Young Adults ** 1978: '' 'Salem's Lot'' ** 1981: ''Firestarter (novel), Firestarter'' * Balrog Awards 1980: '' Night Shift'' * Black Quill Awards 2009: ''Duma Key'' *
Bram Stoker AwardThe Bram Stoker Award is a recognition presented annually by the Horror Writers Association (HWA) for "superior achievement" in dark fantasy and horror fiction, horror writing. History The Awards were established in 1987 and have been presented annu ...
** 1987: ''Misery (novel), Misery''Bram Stoker Awards
, Horror Writer's Association. Retrieved April 13, 2011.
** 1990: ''Four Past Midnight'' ** 1995: "Lunch at the Gotham Café" ** 1996: ''The Green Mile (novel), The Green Mile'' ** 1998: ''Bag of Bones'' ** 2000: ''On Writing'' ** 2000: "Riding the Bullet" ** 2002: Bram Stoker Award for Lifetime Achievement, Lifetime Achievement Award ** 2003: ''The Dark Tower V: Wolves of the Calla'' ** 2006: ''Lisey's Story'' ** 2008: ''Duma Key'' ** 2008: ''Just After Sunset'' ** 2010: ''Full Dark, No Stars'' ** 2011: "Herman Wouk Is Still Alive" ** 2013: ''Doctor Sleep (novel), Doctor Sleep'' * British Fantasy Award ** 1981: Special AwardBritish Fantasy Society Awards
, Fantastic Fiction. Retrieved March 11, 2011.
** 1982: ''Cujo'' ** 1983: "The Breathing Method" ** 1987: '' It'' ** 1999: ''Bag of Bones'' ** 2005: ''The Dark Tower VII: The Dark Tower'' * Deutscher Phantastik Preis ** 2000: ''Hearts in Atlantis'' ** 2001: ''The Green Mile (novel), The Green Mile'' ** 2003: ''Black House (novel), Black House'' ** 2004: International Author of the Year ** 2005: ''The Dark Tower VII: The Dark Tower'' * Edgar Award for Best Novel ** 2015: ''Mr. Mercedes'' * Horror Guild ** 1997: '' Desperation'' ** 2001: ''Riding the Bullet'' ** 2001: ''On Writing'' ** 2002: ''Black House'' ** 2003: ''From a Buick 8'' ** 2003: ''Everything's Eventual'' * Hugo Award 1982: ''
Danse Macabre The ''Danse Macabre'' (; ) (from the French language French ( or ) is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, ...
'' * International Horror Guild Awards ** 1999: ''Storm of the Century''International Horror Guild Awards
, International Horror Guild. Retrieved April 13, 2011.
** 2003: Living Legend * Kono Mystery ga Sugoi! (The Best Translated Mystery Fiction of the Year in Japan) ** 2014: ''11/22/63'' * Los Angeles Times Book Prize ** 2011: ''11/22/63'' * Locus Awards ** 1982: ''Danse Macabre''Locus Awards
, ''Locus Magazine''. Retrieved April 13, 2011.
** 1986: ''Skeleton Crew'' ** 1997: '' Desperation'' ** 1999: ''Bag of Bones'' ** 2001: ''On Writing'' *
Mystery Writers of America Mystery Writers of America (MWA) is an organization of mystery and crime writers, based in New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from , or NYC for short, is the in the United States. With a 2020 population o ...
2007: MWA Grand Master Award, Grand Master Award * National Book Award 2003: Medal of Distinguished Contribution to American Letters * National Magazine Awards ** 2004: "Rest Stop (short story), Rest Stop" ** 2013: "Batman and Robin Have an Altercation" * New York Public Library Books for the Teen Age 1982: ''Firestarter'' * O. Henry Award 1996: "The Man in the Black Suit" * Quill Award 2005: ''Faithful (book), Faithful'' * Shirley Jackson Award 2009: "Morality (short story), Morality" * Spokane Public Library Golden Pen Award 1986: Golden Pen Award *
University of Maine The University of Maine (UMaine or Maine or formerly UMO) is a Public university, public Land-grant university, land-grant research university in Orono, Maine. It was established in 1865 as the land-grant college of Maine and is the Flagship uni ...
1980: Alumni Career Award * ''Us'' Magazine 1982: Best Fiction Writer of the Year *
World Fantasy Award The World Fantasy Awards are a set of awards given each year for the best fantasy fiction published during the previous calendar year. Organized and overseen by the World Fantasy Convention, the awards are given each year at the eponymous annua ...
** 1980: World Fantasy Convention Award, Convention Award ** 1982: "Do the Dead Sing?" ** 1995: "The Man in the Black Suit" ** 2004: World Fantasy Award for Life Achievement, Lifetime Achievement * World Horror Convention 1992: World Horror Grandmaster


Bibliography


Audiobooks

* 2000: ''On Writing: A Memoir of the Craft'' (read by Stephen King), Simon & Schuster Audio, * 2004: ''Salem's Lot'' (introduction), Simon & Schuster Audio, * 2005 (Audible (store), Audible: 2000): ''Bag of Bones'' (read by Stephen King), Simon & Schuster Audio, * 2008: ''Needful Things'' (read by Stephen King), HIGHBRIDGE AUDIO, * 2012: ''The Wind Through The Keyhole – A Dark Tower Novel'' (read by Stephen King), Simon & Schuster Audio, * 2016: ''Desperation'' (read by Stephen King), Simon & Schuster Audio, * 2018: ''Elevation'' (read by Stephen King), Simon & Schuster Audio,


Filmography


See also

* List of adaptations of works by Stephen King * Castle Rock (Stephen King) * Charles Scribner's Sons (aka Scribner) * Derry (Stephen King) * Dollar Baby * ''Origins of a Story'' * Jerusalem's Lot (Stephen King) * ''Haven (TV series), Haven''


References


Further reading

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


External links

*
Stephen King on Twitter

Working with the King – Shotsmag Ezine Interview with Philippa Pride, King's UK editor
* * * * * *
"I try to create sympathy for my characters and then turn the monsters loose."
- Stephen King and one of his key approaches to writing horror stories. {{DEFAULTSORT:King, Stephen Stephen King, 1947 births 20th-century American essayists 20th-century American male writers 20th-century American novelists 20th-century American poets 20th-century American short story writers 21st-century American essayists 21st-century American male writers 21st-century American non-fiction writers 21st-century American novelists 21st-century American poets 21st-century American short story writers American activists American crime writers American cultural critics American fantasy writers American film directors American gun control activists American horror novelists American male essayists American male film actors American male non-fiction writers American male novelists American male poets American male screenwriters American male short story writers American mystery writers American philanthropists American psychological fiction writers American science fiction writers American screenwriters American short story writers American social commentators American thriller writers Former Methodists Critics of neoconservatism Cthulhu Mythos writers Dark fantasy writers Edgar Award winners Florida Democrats Ghost story writers Hugo Award-winning writers Living people The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction people Maine Democrats Male feminists Mythopoeic writers National Book Award winners Novelists from Florida Novelists from Maine O. Henry Award winners American opinion journalists People from Lisbon, Maine People from Lovell, Maine People from Scarborough, Maine People from Sarasota, Florida Philanthropists from Maine Rock Bottom Remainders members Schoolteachers from Maine Science fiction critics Science fiction fans Social critics Teachers of English United States National Medal of Arts recipients University of Maine alumni Weird fiction writers World Fantasy Award-winning writers Writers about activism and social change Writers from Bangor, Maine Writers from Portland, Maine Writers of books about writing fiction Writers of Gothic fiction 20th-century pseudonymous writers 21st-century pseudonymous writers