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The South Bronx is an area of the
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, official use of the term varies widely. History ...
of
the Bronx The Bronx () is a borough of New York City New York City is composed of five boroughs: The Bronx, Brooklyn, Manhattan, Queens, and Staten Island. Each borough is coextensive with a respective Administrative divisions of New York (state)#Count ...
. As the name implies, the area comprises neighborhoods in the southern part of the Bronx, such as
Concourse A concourse is a place where pathways or road A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two Location (geography), places that has been Pavement (material), paved or otherwise improved to allow travel by foot or by some form of wi ...
,
Mott Haven Mott Haven is a primarily residential neighborhood in the southwestern section of the New York City New York City (NYC), often simply called New York, is the List of United States cities by population, most populous city in the United State ...
, Melrose, and Port Morris. In the early 1900s, the South Bronx was originally known as the Manor of Morrisania, as it was the manor of
Lewis Morris Lewis Morris (April 8, 1726 – January 22, 1798) was an American Founding Fathers of the United States, Founding Father, landowner, and developer from Morrisania, Bronx, Morrisania, New York, presently part of Bronx County. He signed the U.S. ...
. As the Morris family continued to expand on the land, an influx of German and Irish immigrants started to populate the area, leading the Bronx to be considered the "Jewish Borough" in the 1930s. This soon changed as World War II caused rent to increase in many apartments, pushing people out. By the end of the 1950s, the South Bronx was two-thirds black or Hispanic. The South Bronx is known for its
hip hop culture Hip hop or hip-hop is a culture and art movement that was created by African Americans, Latino Americans and Caribbean Americans in the Bronx, New York City. The origin of the name is often disputed. It is also argued as to whether hip hop star ...

hip hop culture
and
graffiti Graffiti (both singular and plural; the singular ''graffito'' is rarely used except in archeology) is a type of art genre that means writing or drawings made on a wall or other surface, usually without permission and within public view. Graf ...

graffiti
. Graffiti became popular in the Bronx in the early 1970s, spreading through the
New York City Subway The New York City Subway is a rapid transit system owned by the New York City, City of New York and leased to the New York City Transit Authority, an affiliate agency of the state-run Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA). Opened on Octobe ...

New York City Subway
system. The South Bronx then became musically notable as hip-hop music,
rap Rapping (also rhyming, spitting, emceeing or MCing) is a musical form of vocal delivery that incorporates "rhyme, rhythmic speech, and street vernacular", which is performed or chanted in a variety of ways, usually over a backing beat or mus ...
, and other creative components started becoming common within the borough.


Boundaries

The geographic definitions of the South Bronx have evolved and are disputed but certainly include the neighborhoods of
Mott Haven Mott Haven is a primarily residential neighborhood in the southwestern section of the New York City New York City (NYC), often simply called New York, is the List of United States cities by population, most populous city in the United State ...
, Melrose and Port Morris. Originally referring to the industrial area below East 138th Street, the name "South Bronx" symbolically has had its northern boundary shift northward to East 149th Street,
East 161st Street 161st Street is a short, major thoroughfare in the southern portion of the Bronx. The road is long and is a much used access to Yankee Stadium on its north side. The Yankee Stadium (1923), 20th-century Yankee Stadium was on the south side of th ...
, the
Cross Bronx Expressway The Cross Bronx Expressway is a major freeway in the New York City borough of the Bronx. It is mainly designated as part of Interstate 95 in New York, Interstate 95 (I-95), but also includes portions of Interstate 295 (New York), I-295 and U.S ...

Cross Bronx Expressway
, and
Fordham Road Fordham Road is a major thoroughfare in the Bronx, New York City, that runs west-east from the Harlem River to Bronx Park. Fordham Road houses the borough's largest and most diverse shopping district. It geographically separates the North Bron ...
over the years. The neighborhoods of Belmont, Castle Hill, Crotona Park East, Highbridge, Hunts Point, Longwood,
Morrisania Morrisania ( ) is a residential neighborhood in the southwestern Bronx, New York City, New York (state), New York. Its boundaries are the Cross-Bronx Expressway to the north, Crotona-Prospect Avenue to the east, East 161st Street to the south, and ...
and
Soundview Soundview is a neighborhood on the Clason Point, Bronx, Clason Point peninsula, on the southern section of the Borough (New York City), borough of the Bronx in New York City. Its boundaries, starting from the north and moving clockwise, are the Cr ...

Soundview
are sometimes considered part of the South Bronx. The South Bronx is part of New York's 15th Congressional District. The South Bronx is served by the
NYPD The New York City Police Department (NYPD), officially the City of New York Police Department, is the primary law enforcement File:CBP female officers going aboard a ship.jpg, upU.S. Customs and Border Protection officers boarding a ship ' ...
's 40th, 41st, 42nd, 44th, and 48th Precincts.


History

The South Bronx was originally called the Manor of Morrisania, and later
Morrisania Morrisania ( ) is a residential neighborhood in the southwestern Bronx, New York City, New York (state), New York. Its boundaries are the Cross-Bronx Expressway to the north, Crotona-Prospect Avenue to the east, East 161st Street to the south, and ...
. It was the private domain of the powerful and aristocratic Morris family, which includes
Lewis Morris Lewis Morris (April 8, 1726 – January 22, 1798) was an American Founding Father The following list of national founding figures is a record, by country, of people who were credited with establishing a state. National founders are typic ...

Lewis Morris
, signer of the
Declaration of Independence#REDIRECT Declaration of independence {{Redirect category shell, {{R from other capitalisation ...

Declaration of Independence
, and
Gouverneur Morris Gouverneur Morris ( ; January 31, 1752 – November 6, 1816) was an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States ...

Gouverneur Morris
, the penman of the
United States Constitution The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity, organisation An organization, or orga ...

United States Constitution
. The Morris memorial is at St. Ann's Church of Morrisania. Morris' descendants own land in the South Bronx to this day. As the Morrises developed their landholdings, an influx of German and Irish immigrants populated the area. Later, the Bronx was considered the "
Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and nation originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is ...

Jewish
Borough," and at its peak in 1930 was 49% Jewish. Jews in the South Bronx numbered 364,000 or 57.1% of the total population in the area. The term was first coined in the 1940s by a group of
social worker Social work is an academic discipline and practice-based profession A Profession is a disciplined group of individuals who adhere to ethical standards and who hold themselves out as, and are accepted by the public as possessing special kn ...

social worker
s who identified the Bronx's first pocket of
poverty Poverty is the state of having little material possessions or income In microeconomics, income is the Consumption (economics), consumption and saving opportunity gained by an entity within a specified timeframe, which is generally expresse ...

poverty
, in the Port Morris section, the southernmost section of the Bronx.


1950s: Demographic shift

After
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, as
white flight White flight or white exodus is the sudden or gradual large-scale migration of white people White is a of people and a specifier, generally used for people of origin; although the definition can vary depending on context, nationality, ...
accelerated and migration of ethnic and racial minorities continued, the South Bronx went from being two-thirds non-Hispanic white in 1950 to being two-thirds black or Puerto Rican in 1960. Originally denoting only
Mott Haven Mott Haven is a primarily residential neighborhood in the southwestern section of the New York City New York City (NYC), often simply called New York, is the List of United States cities by population, most populous city in the United State ...
and Melrose, the South Bronx extended up to the Cross Bronx Expressway by the 1960s, encompassing Hunts Point,
Morrisania Morrisania ( ) is a residential neighborhood in the southwestern Bronx, New York City, New York (state), New York. Its boundaries are the Cross-Bronx Expressway to the north, Crotona-Prospect Avenue to the east, East 161st Street to the south, and ...
, and Highbridge.


1960s: Start of decay

The South Bronx was populated largely by working-class families. Its image as a poverty-ridden area developed in the latter part of the 20th century. There were several factors contributing to the decay of the South Bronx:
white flight White flight or white exodus is the sudden or gradual large-scale migration of white people White is a of people and a specifier, generally used for people of origin; although the definition can vary depending on context, nationality, ...
,
landlord A landlord is the owner of a house A house is a single-unit residential building A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house or factory. Buildings come in a ...
abandonment, economic changes, crime, demographics and also the construction of the
Cross Bronx Expressway The Cross Bronx Expressway is a major freeway in the New York City borough of the Bronx. It is mainly designated as part of Interstate 95 in New York, Interstate 95 (I-95), but also includes portions of Interstate 295 (New York), I-295 and U.S ...

Cross Bronx Expressway
. The
Cross Bronx Expressway The Cross Bronx Expressway is a major freeway in the New York City borough of the Bronx. It is mainly designated as part of Interstate 95 in New York, Interstate 95 (I-95), but also includes portions of Interstate 295 (New York), I-295 and U.S ...

Cross Bronx Expressway
, completed in 1963, was a part of
Robert Moses Robert Moses (December 18, 1888 – July 29, 1981) was an American public official who worked mainly in the New York metropolitan area The New York metropolitan area, also commonly referred to as the Tri-State area, is the largest metropo ...
’s urban renewal project for New York City. The expressway is now known to have been a factor in the extreme urban decay seen by the borough in the 1970s and 1980s. Cutting through the heart of the South Bronx, the highway displaced thousands of residents from their homes, as well as several local businesses. The neighborhood of East Tremont, in particular, was completely destroyed by the Expressway. Others have argued that the construction of such highways has not harmed communities. The already poor and working-class neighborhoods were further disadvantaged by the decreasing property value, in combination with increasing vacancy rates. Racially-charged tensions (coinciding with the contemporaneous
Civil Rights Movement The 1954–1968 civil rights movement in the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North ...
) further contributed to middle-class flight and the decline of many South Bronx neighborhoods. Following the implementation of
desegregation busing Race-integration busing in the United States (also known as simply busing or by its critics as forced busing) was the practice of assigning and transporting students to schools within or outside their local school districts in an effort to divers ...
policies, parents who worried about their children attending the demographically-adjusted schools began to relocate to the suburbs, where ''de facto'' segregation often persisted via restrictive housing covenants, selective lending and
redlining Redlining is the systematic denial of various services or goods by governments or the private sector either directly or through the selective raising of prices. The word itself is rooted back to the early 1930's after the color correlating prope ...
. As early as the late 1960s, some neighborhoods were considered undesirable by homeowners, precipitating a population decline. Postwar
rent control Rent regulation is a system of law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by i ...
policies have also been proposed by one author as a contributing factor; in this milieu, building owners had little motivation to keep up their properties. However,
New York City Mayor The mayor of New York City, officially Mayor of the City of New York, is head of the executive branch of the Government of New York City A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a s ...
John Lindsay John Vliet Lindsay (; November 24, 1921 – December 19, 2000) was an American politician and lawyer. During his political career, Lindsay was a U.S. congressman, mayor of New York City, and candidate for U.S. president. He was also a regular gue ...

John Lindsay
(who served from 1966 to 1973) suggested that socioeconomic factors (including low educational attainment and high unemployment) limited housing options for the remaining low-income tenants, prompting the reduced upkeep by landlords. In either case, while desirable housing options were scarce, vacancies further increased. In the late 1960s, by the time the city decided to consolidate welfare households in the South Bronx, its vacancy rate was already the highest of any place in the city.


1970s: "The Bronx is burning"

By the 1970s, significant poverty reached as far north as
Fordham Road Fordham Road is a major thoroughfare in the Bronx, New York City, that runs west-east from the Harlem River to Bronx Park. Fordham Road houses the borough's largest and most diverse shopping district. It geographically separates the North Bron ...
. Around this time, the Bronx experienced some of its worst instances of
urban decay Urban decay (also known as urban rot, urban death and urban blight) is the sociological process by which a previously functioning city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. Londo ...
, with the loss of 300,000 residents and the destruction of entire city blocks' worth of buildings. The media attention brought the South Bronx into common parlance nationwide.Purdy, Matthew
"Left to Die, the South Bronx Rises From Decades of Decay"
''
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
'', November 13, 1994. Accessed September 27, 2018.
The phrase "The Bronx is burning," attributed to
Howard Cosell Howard William Cosell (; Cohen; March 25, 1918 – April 23, 1995) was an American sports journalist Sports journalism is a form of writing Writing is a medium of human communication that involves the representation of a language with ...
during Game 2 of the
1977 World Series The 1977 World Series was the championship series of Major League Baseball Major League Baseball (MLB) is a professional baseball Professional baseball is organized baseball in which players are selected for their talents and are paid to p ...

1977 World Series
featuring the
New York Yankees The New York Yankees are an American professional baseball Baseball is a bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two opposing teams who take turns batting (baseball), batting and fielding. The game proceeds when a pl ...
and
Los Angeles Dodgers The Los Angeles Dodgers are an American professional baseball team based in Los Angeles. The Dodgers compete in Major League Baseball (MLB) as a member club of the National League (NL) National League West, West division. Established in 1883 i ...
, refers to the arson epidemic caused by the total economic collapse of the South Bronx during the 1970s. During the game, as ABC switched to a generic helicopter shot of the exterior of
Yankee Stadium Yankee Stadium is a baseball park A baseball park, also known as a ballpark or diamond, is a stadium, venue where baseball is played. A baseball park consists of the baseball field, playing field and the surrounding spectator seating. While ...
, an uncontrolled fire could clearly be seen burning in the ravaged South Bronx surrounding the park. Many believe Cosell intoned, "There it is, ladies and gentlemen, the Bronx is burning." However, review of the game footage shows he never in fact said this. According to the ''
New York Post The ''New York Post'' (''NY Post'') is a conservative Conservatism is an aesthetic Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of beauty and taste (sociology), taste, as well as the philosophy ...

New York Post
'', the words used by the two broadcasters during the game were later "spun by credulous journalists" into the now ubiquitous phrase "Ladies and gentlemen, the Bronx is burning" without either of the two announcers actually having phrased it that way. The early 1970s saw South Bronx property values continue to plummet to record lows. A progressively
vicious cycle The terms virtuous circle and vicious circle, also known respectively as virtuous cycle and vicious cycle, refer to complex chains of events that reinforce themselves through a feedback loop Feedback occurs when outputs of a system are rout ...

vicious cycle
began where large numbers of tenements and multi-story, multi-family apartment buildings (left vacant by white flight) sat abandoned and unsaleable for long periods of time, which, coupled with a stagnant economy and an extremely high unemployment rate, produced a strong attraction for criminal elements such as
street gangs A gang is a group A group is a number A number is a mathematical object used to counting, count, measurement, measure, and nominal number, label. The original examples are the natural numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, and so forth. Numbers can be repre ...
, which were exploding in number and beginning to support themselves with large-scale
drug dealing The illegal drug trade or drug trafficking is a global black market Barcelona 2015 A black market, underground economy or shadow economy, is a clandestine ''The ClanDestine'' (also known simply as ''ClanDestine'') is an appellation ...
in the area. The abandoned property also attracted large numbers of
squatters Squatting is the action of occupying an abandoned or unoccupied area of land or a building, usually residential, that the squatter does not Land ownership and tenure, own, rent or otherwise have lawful permission to use. The United Nations estim ...
such as the poor and marginalized,
drug addicts Addiction is a biopsychosocial disorder characterized by repeated use of drugs, or repetitive engagement in a behavior such as gambling, despite harm to self and others. According to the "brain disease model of addiction," while a number ...
and the
mentally ill A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning. Such features may be persistent, relapsing and remitting, or oc ...
, who further lowered the borough's quality of living. As the crisis deepened, the nearly bankrupt city government of
Abraham Beame Abraham David Beame (March 20, 1906 – February 10, 2001) was the 104th Mayor of New York City from 1974 to 1977. As mayor, he presided over the city during its fiscal crisis of the mid-1970s, when the city was almost forced to declare bankruptcy ...
placed most of the blame on unreasonably high rents levied by landlords, and began demanding they convert their rapidly emptying buildings into
Section 8 housing Section 8 of the Housing Act of 1937 The Housing Act of 1937 (), formally the "United States Housing Act of 1937" and sometimes called the Wagner–Steagall Act, provided for subsidies to be paid from the U.S. government to local public housing ...
, which paid a per capita stipend for low-income or indigent tenants from Federal
HUD Hud or HUD may refer to: Entertainment * Hud (1963 film), ''Hud'' (1963 film), a 1963 film starring Paul Newman * Hud (1986 film), ''Hud'' (1986 film), a 1986 Norwegian film * HUD (TV program), ''HUD'' (TV program), or ''Heads Up Daily'', a Canadia ...
funds rather than from the cash-strapped city coffers. However, the HUD rate was not based on the property's actual value and was set so low by the city it left little opportunity or incentive for honest landlords to maintain or improve their buildings while still making a profit. HUD regulations also made it virtually impossible to evict tenants engaging in destructive or illegal behavior. The result was a disastrous acceleration of both the speed and northward spread of the cycle of decay in the South Bronx as formerly desirable and well-maintained middle-to-upper class apartments in midtown (most notably along the Grand Concourse) were progressively vacated by white flight and either abandoned altogether or converted into federally funded single room occupancy "" run by absentee
slumlordA slumlord (or slum A slum is usually a highly populated urban residential area consisting mostly of closely packed, decrepit housing units in a situation of deteriorated or incomplete infrastructure, inhabited primarily by impoverished persons.Ca ...
s to house predominantly single-parent Section 8 families and young, unemployed, recently immigrated
Hispanic The term ''Hispanic'' ( es, hispano) refers to people, cultures Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior Social behavior is behavior Behavior (American English) or behaviour (British English; American and ...
males. The massive citywide spending cuts also left the few remaining building inspectors and fire marshals unable to enforce living standards or punish code violations. This encouraged slumlords and absentee landlords to neglect and ignore their property and allowed for gangs to set up protected enclaves and lay claim to entire buildings, which then spread crime and fear of crime to nearby unaffected apartments in a
domino effect A domino effect or chain reaction is the cumulative effect produced when one event sets off a chain of similar events. This term is best known as a mechanical effect and is used as an analogy to a falling row of dominoes Dominoes is a family ...

domino effect
. Police statistics show that as the crime wave moved north across the Bronx, the remaining white tenants in the South Bronx (mostly elderly Jews) were preferentially targeted for violent crime by the influx of young, minority criminals because they were seen as easy prey; this became so common that the street slang terms "crib job" (meaning how elderly residents were as helpless as infants) and "push in" (meaning what would now be called a home invasion robbery) were coined specifically in reference to them. Property owners who had waited too long to try to sell their buildings found that almost all of the property in the South Bronx had already been redlined by the banks and insurance companies. Unable to sell their property at any price and facing
default Default may refer to: Law * Default (law), the failure to do something required by law ** Default (finance) In finance Finance is the study of financial institutions, financial markets and how they operate within the financial system. It ...
on back property taxes and mortgages, landlords began to burn their buildings for their insurance value. A type of sophisticated white collar criminal known as a "fixer" sprung up during this period, specializing in a form of
insurance fraud Insurance fraud is any act committed to defraud In law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded ...
that began with buying out the property of redlined landlords at or below cost, then selling and reselling the buildings multiple times on paper between several different fictitious
shell companies A shell corporation is a company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personality, legal entity representing an association of people, whether Natural person, natural, Legal person, legal or a mixture of both, with a specific objec ...
under the fixer's control, artificially driving up the value incrementally each time. Fraudulent "no questions asked" fire insurance policies would then be taken out on the overvalued buildings and the property stripped and burnt for the payoff. This scheme became so common that local gangs were hired by fixers for their expertise at the process of stripping buildings of wiring, plumbing, metal fixtures, and anything else of value and then effectively burning it down with gasoline. Many finishers became extremely rich buying properties from struggling landlords, artificially driving up the value, insuring them and then burning them; often, the properties were still occupied by subsidized tenants or squatters at the time, who were given short or no warning before the building was burnt down, and they were forced to move to another slum building, where the process would usually repeat itself. The rate of unsolved fatalities due to fire multiplied sevenfold in the South Bronx during the 1970s, with many residents reporting being burnt out of numerous apartment blocks one after the other. Local South Bronx residents themselves also burned down vacant properties in their own neighborhoods. Much of this was reportedly done by those who had already worked stripping and burning buildings for pay: the ashes of burned down properties could be sifted for salable scrap metal. Other fires were caused by unsafe electrical wiring, fires set indoors for heating, and random vandalism associated with the general crime situation. Flawed HUD and city policies also encouraged local South Bronx residents to burn down their own buildings. Under the regulations, Section 8 tenants who were burned out of their current housing were granted immediate priority status for another apartment, potentially in a better part of the city. After the establishment of the (then) state-of-the-art
Co-op City Co-op City (short for Cooperative City) is a cooperative housing development located in the northeast section of the borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ...
, there was a spike in fires as tenants began burning down their Section 8 housing in an attempt to jump to the front of the 2–3 year long waiting list for the new units. HUD regulations also authorized lump-sum aid payments of up to $1000 to those who could prove they had lost property due to a fire in their Section 8 housing; although these payments were supposed to be investigated for fraud by a HUD employee before being signed off on, very little investigation was done and some HUD employees and social services workers were accused of turning a blind eye to suspicious fires or even advising tenants on the best way to take advantage of the HUD policies. On multiple occasions, firefighters were reported to have shown up to tenement fires only to find all the residents at an address waiting calmly with their possessions already on the curb. By the time of Cosell's 1977 commentary, dozens of buildings were being burnt in the South Bronx every day, sometimes whole blocks at a time and usually far more than the fire department could keep up with, leaving the area perpetually blanketed in a pall of smoke. Firefighters from the period reported responding to as many as 7 fully involved structure fires in a single shift, too many to even bother returning to the station house between calls ( ''Report from Engine Company 82''). The local police precincts—already struggling and failing to contain the massive wave of drug and gang crime invading the Bronx—had long since stopped bothering to investigate the fires, as there were simply too many to track. During this period, the NYPD's 41st Precinct station house at 1086 Simpson Street became famously known as "Fort Apache, The Bronx" as it struggled to deal with the overwhelming surge of violent crime, which for the entirety of the 1970s and 1980s made South Bronx the murder, rape, robbery, aggravated assault and arson capital of America. By 1980, the 41st Precinct was renamed the "
Little House on the Prairie ''The "Little House" Books'' is a series of American children's novels written by Laura Ingalls Wilder, based on her childhood and adolescence in the Midwestern United States, American Midwest (Wisconsin, Kansas, Minnesota, South Dakota, and Mis ...
", as fully of the 94,000 residents originally served by the precinct had fled, leaving the fortified building as one of the few structures in the neighborhood (and the sole building on Simpson Street) that had not been abandoned or burnt out. In total, over 40% of the South Bronx was burned or abandoned between 1970 and 1980, with 44 census tracts losing more than 50% and seven more than 97% of their buildings to arson, abandonment, or both. The appearance was frequently compared to that of a bombed-out and evacuated European city following
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
. On October 5, 1977, U.S. President
Jimmy Carter James Earl Carter Jr. (born October 1, 1924) is an American politician, businessman, and philanthropist who served as the 39th president of the United States from 1977 to 1981. A member of the Democratic Party (United States), Democratic Par ...

Jimmy Carter
paid an unscheduled visit to Charlotte Street while in New York City for a conference at the
headquarters of the United Nations zh, 联合国总部大楼french: Siège des Nations uniesrussian: Штаб-квартира Организации Объединённых Наций es, Sede de las Naciones Unidas , image = UN HQ 2724390955 bfc562c6a9 (cropped).jpg , image ...

headquarters of the United Nations
. Charlotte Street at the time was a three-block devastated area of vacant lots and burned-out and abandoned buildings. The street had been so ravaged that part of it had been taken off official city maps in 1974. Carter instructed
Patricia Roberts Harris Patricia Roberts Harris (May 31, 1924March 23, 1985) was an American government official and diplomat who served under President President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, compa ...
, head of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, to take steps to salvage the area. Progress did not come quickly; three years later, in 1980, presidential candidate
Ronald Reagan Ronald Wilson Reagan ( ; February 6, 1911June 5, 2004) was an American politician who served as the 40th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the and of the . The president directs the of ...

Ronald Reagan
paid a visit to Charlotte Street, declaring that he had not "seen anything that looked like this since
London London is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowerc ...

London
after
the Blitz The Blitz was a German bombing campaign against the United Kingdom in 1940 and 1941, during the . The term was first used by the British press and originated from the term , the German word for 'lightning war'. The Germans conducted mass ai ...
". The 1987 novel ''
The Bonfire of the Vanities ''The Bonfire of the Vanities'' is a 1987 satirical novel by Tom Wolfe. The story is a drama about ambition, racism, social class, politics, and greed in 1980s New York City, and centers on three main characters: White Anglo-Saxon Protestant, WAS ...
'', by the American writer
Tom Wolfe Thomas Kennerly Wolfe Jr. (March 2, 1930 – May 14, 2018)Some sources say 1931; ''The New York Times'' and Reuters both initially reported 1931 in their obituaries before changing to 1930. See and was an American author and journalist widely ...
, presented the South Bronx as a nightmare world, not to be entered by middle or upper-class whites.


Revitalization and current concerns

Beginning in the late 1980s, parts of the South Bronx started to experience
urban renewal Urban renewal (also called urban regeneration in the United Kingdom and urban redevelopment in the United States) is a program of land redevelopment often used to address urban decay in cities. Urban renewal is the clearing out of blighted area ...
with rehabilitated and new residential structures, including subsidized multifamily townhomes and apartment buildings. Between 1986 and 1994 over $1 billion were spent on rebuilding the area, with 19,000 apartments refurbished and more than 4,500 new houses built for the working class. More than fifty abandoned apartment buildings on the
Major Deegan Expressway Interstate 87 (I-87) is a north–south Interstate Highway The Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways, commonly known as the Interstate Highway System, is a network of controlled-access highways that ...
and the
Cross Bronx Expressway The Cross Bronx Expressway is a major freeway in the New York City borough of the Bronx. It is mainly designated as part of Interstate 95 in New York, Interstate 95 (I-95), but also includes portions of Interstate 295 (New York), I-295 and U.S ...

Cross Bronx Expressway
were renovated for residential use. Over 26,500 people moved into the area. On Charlotte Street, prefabricated ranch-style houses were built in the area in 1985, and the area changed so significantly that a Bronx borough historian ( Lloyd Ultan) could not locate where Carter had stopped to survey the scene. As of 2004, houses on the street were worth up to a million dollars. The
Bronx County Courthouse The Bronx County Courthouse, also known as the Mario Merola Building, is a historic courthouse building located in the Concourse, Bronx, Concourse and Melrose, Bronx, Melrose neighborhoods of the Bronx in New York City. It was designed in 1931 an ...

Bronx County Courthouse
has secured landmark status, and efforts are underway to do the same for much of the Grand Concourse, in recognition of the area's
Art Deco Art Deco, sometimes referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts, architecture and design that first appeared in France just before World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Gr ...

Art Deco
architecture. In June 2010, the city Landmarks Preservation Commission gave consideration to the establishment of a historic district on the Grand Concourse from 153rd to 167th Street. A final decision was expected in the coming months. Construction of the new
Yankee Stadium Yankee Stadium is a baseball park A baseball park, also known as a ballpark or diamond, is a stadium, venue where baseball is played. A baseball park consists of the baseball field, playing field and the surrounding spectator seating. While ...

Yankee Stadium
has stirred controversy over plans which, along with the new billion-dollar field, include new athletic fields, tennis courts, bicycle and walking paths, stores, restaurants, and a new
Metro-North Railroad Metro-North Railroad , trading as MTA Metro-North, is a service run by the (MTA), a of the of and under contract with the . Metro-North runs service between and its northern suburbs in New York and , including , , , , , , , and in New ...

Metro-North Railroad
station at East 153rd Street. During baseball season, the station helps ease overcrowding on the subway.
There is hope that these developments also will help to generate residential construction. However, the new park came at a price: a total of in Macombs Dam and John Mullaly Parks were used to build it. In April 2012, Heritage Field, a $50.8 million ballpark, was built atop the grounds of the original Yankee Stadium. The population of the South Bronx is currently increasing. However, one out of two residents lives in poverty, and drug trafficking, gang activity, and prostitution are all still common throughout the South Bronx. Its precincts have recorded high violent crime rates and are all considered to be
New York City Police Department The New York City Police Department (NYPD), officially the City of New York Police Department, is the primary law enforcement 'Law enforcement'' is the activity of some members of government who act in an organized manner to enforce the ...
"impact zones."


Arts and culture

Since the late 1970s, the South Bronx has been home to a renewed grassroots art scene. The arts scene that sprouted at the
Fashion Moda Fashion 时装 Moda МОДА, whose name comes from “fashion” in English, Chinese, Spanish and Russian, colloquially referred to as Fashion Moda, started as a cultural concept guided by the idea that art can be made by anyone, anywhere. Fashion ...
Gallery, founded by a
Viennese Viennese may refer to: * Vienna Vienna ( ; german: Wien ; bar, Wean, label=Bavarian language, Austro-Bavarian ) is the Capital city, national capital, largest city, and one of States of Austria, nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's List of ...

Viennese
artist, Stefan Eins, helped ignite the careers of artists like
Keith Haring Keith Allen Haring (May 4, 1958 – February 16, 1990) was an American artist whose pop art emerged from the New York City graffiti subculture of the 1980s. His animated imagery has "become a widely recognized visual language". Much of his work ...
and
Jenny Holzer Jenny Holzer (born July 29, 1950) is an American neo-conceptual artist, based in Hoosick, New York New York most commonly refers to: * New York City, the most populous city in the United States, located in the state of New York * New York (sta ...
, and 1980s break dancers like the
Rock Steady Crew Rock Steady Crew is an American breakdance, breaking and hip hop group which has become a franchise name for multiple groups in other locations. The group's 1983 international hit song "(Hey You) The Rock Steady Crew" (from the group's first studio ...
. It generated enough enthusiasm in the mainstream media for a short while to draw the art world's attention. The
Bronx Academy of Arts and Dance Bronx Academy of Arts and Dance, also referred to as BAAD!, is a New York performing and visual art workshop space and performance venue located in The Bronx. The Academy is home to the Arthur Aviles Typical Theatre and The Bronx Dance Coalition. ...

Bronx Academy of Arts and Dance
was located in the
American Bank Note Company Building The American Bank Note Company Building is a five-story building at 70 Broad Street (Manhattan), Broad Street in the Financial District, Manhattan, Financial District of Manhattan in New York City. The building was designed by architects Kirby, ...
in the South Bronx neighborhood of Hunts Point before relocating to St. Peter's Episcopal Church in Westchester Square. Modern
graffiti Graffiti (both singular and plural; the singular ''graffito'' is rarely used except in archeology) is a type of art genre that means writing or drawings made on a wall or other surface, usually without permission and within public view. Graf ...

graffiti
is prominent in the South Bronx, and is home to many of the fathers of graffiti art such as Tats Cru. The Bronx has a very strong graffiti scene despite the city's crackdown on illegal graffiti. However, graffiti in the Bronx began to occur in the early 1970s and managed to travel to different boroughs via the
New York City Subway The New York City Subway is a rapid transit system owned by the New York City, City of New York and leased to the New York City Transit Authority, an affiliate agency of the state-run Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA). Opened on Octobe ...

New York City Subway
system. The rise of
hip-hop music Hip hop music or hip-hop music, also known as rap music, is a genre of popular music Popular music is music Music is the of arranging s in time through the of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the aspects of all ...
,
rap Rapping (also rhyming, spitting, emceeing or MCing) is a musical form of vocal delivery that incorporates "rhyme, rhythmic speech, and street vernacular", which is performed or chanted in a variety of ways, usually over a backing beat or mus ...

rap
,
breakdancing Breakdancing, also called breaking or b-boying/b-girling, is an athletic style of street dance A street dance is a dance style that evolved outside dance studios in any available open space. This includes streets, dance parties, block par ...

breakdancing
, and
disc jockey A disc jockey, more commonly abbreviated as DJ, is a person who plays recorded music for an audience. Types of DJs include radio DJs (who host programs on music radio Music radio is a radio format in which music is the main broadcast conte ...
ing helped put the South Bronx on the musical map in the late 1970s. The South Bronx is also known worldwide as the birthplace of
hip-hop culture Hip hop or hip-hop is a culture and art movement that was created by African Americans, Latino Americans and Caribbean Americans in the Bronx, New York City. The origin of the name is often disputed. It is also argued as to whether hip hop st ...
.Allatson, Paul. ''Key Terms in Latino/a Cultural and Literary Studies''. Malden, MA: John Wiley & Sons, 2007, 199.Schloss, Joseph G. ''Foundation: B-boys, B-girls and Hip-Hop Culture in New York''. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009, 125.''From Mambo to Hip Hop''. Dir. Henry Chalfant. Thirteen / WNET, 2006, film In addition, the
Bronx Museum of the Arts The Bronx Museum of the Arts (BxMA), also called the Bronx Museum of Art or simply the Bronx Museum, is an American cultural institution located in Concourse A concourse is a place where pathways or road A road is a thoroughfare, route, or ...
is located on the Grand Concourse.


Hip hop's birthplace

Hip hop Hip hop or hip-hop is a culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found in human Society, societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, Social norm, customs, capabil ...

Hip hop
is a broad conglomerate of
artistic Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and intelligence allowing the use ...
forms that originated as a specific street
subculture A subculture is a group of people within a culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found in human Society, societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, Social norm, ...
within South Bronx communities during the 1970s in
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
. Hip hop as music and culture formed during the 1970s when
block parties A block party or street party is a party in which many members of a single community congregate, either to observe an event of some importance or simply for mutual solidarity and enjoyment. The name comes from the form of the party, which often ...
became increasingly popular in New York City, particularly among
African American African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being t ...

African American
and
Latin Americans Latin Americans ( es, Latinoamericanos; pt, Latino-americanos; ) are the citizens Citizenship is a relationship between an individual and a state to which the individual owes allegiance and in turn is entitled to its protection. Each state ...
residing in
the Bronx The Bronx () is a borough of New York City New York City is composed of five boroughs: The Bronx, Brooklyn, Manhattan, Queens, and Staten Island. Each borough is coextensive with a respective Administrative divisions of New York (state)#Count ...
. Block parties incorporated
DJs A disc jockey, more commonly abbreviated as DJ, is a person who plays recorded music for an audience. Types of DJs include radio DJs (who host programs on music radio Music radio is a radio format in which music is the main broadcast cont ...
who played popular
genre Genre () is any form or type of communication in any mode (written, spoken, digital, artistic, etc.) with socially-agreed-upon conventions developed over time. In popular usage, it normally describes a Category of being, category of literature, ...

genre
s of music, especially
funk Funk is a music genre A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from ''musical form'' and musical style, although in pra ...
and
soul music Soul music (often referred to simply as soul) is a popular music genre A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time to produce a composition through the ...

soul music
. For example, many DJs played music by the artist
James Brown James Joseph Brown (May 3, 1933 – December 25, 2006) was an American singer, dancer, musician, record producer, and bandleader. The central progenitor of funk music and a major figure of 20th century music, he is often referred to by the Hono ...

James Brown
. Some songs played at these South Bronx house parties included "Give it Up or Turn it Loose" by James Brown and "Get Ready" by Rare Earth. Due to the positive reception, DJs began isolating the
percussive A percussion instrument is a musical instrument that is sounded by being struck or scraped by a beater (percussion), beater including attached or enclosed beaters or Rattle (percussion beater), rattles struck, scraped or rubbed by hand or ...

percussive
breaks, or small portions of a song, often without vocals, which were easy to dance to, of popular songs.
DJ Kool Herc Clive Campbell (born April 16, 1955), better known by his stage name DJ Kool Herc, is a Jamaican-American DJ who is credited for originating hip hop music Hip hop music or hip-hop music, also known as rap music, is a genre of popular m ...
is known for generating the technique to produce these percussive breaks, which is known as merry-go-rounding. Merry-go-rounding when DJs would "use the two turntables in a typical DJ setup not as a way to make a smooth transition between two records, but as a way to switch back and forth repeatedly between two copies of the same record." The technique of percussive breaks was then common in Jamaican
dub music Dub is a genre of electronic music Electronic music is music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time through the elements of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the universal cultural aspects of all human societ ...
, and was largely introduced into New York by immigrants from Jamaica and elsewhere in the Caribbean, including
DJ Kool Herc Clive Campbell (born April 16, 1955), better known by his stage name DJ Kool Herc, is a Jamaican-American DJ who is credited for originating hip hop music Hip hop music or hip-hop music, also known as rap music, is a genre of popular m ...
, who is generally considered the father of hip-hop. Upon this, a technique known as Jamaican toasting, or the act of speaking over a beat which later became rapping, was introduced by DJ Kool Herc in the South Bronx at this point of time as well. 1520 Sedgwick Avenue, an
apartment building An apartment (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, Americ ...

apartment building
in Morris Heights, is a long-time "haven for working-class families"; in 2010, ''
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
'' reported that it is the "accepted birthplace of
hip hop Hip hop or hip-hop is a culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found in human Society, societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, Social norm, customs, capabil ...
." As hip-hop grew from throughout the Bronx, 1520 was a starting point where Clive Campbell, later known as
DJ Kool Herc Clive Campbell (born April 16, 1955), better known by his stage name DJ Kool Herc, is a Jamaican-American DJ who is credited for originating hip hop music Hip hop music or hip-hop music, also known as rap music, is a genre of popular m ...
, presided over parties in the community room at a pivotal point in the genre's history. DJ Kool Herc is credited with helping to start hip hop and rap music at a house concert at 1520 Sedgwick Avenue on August 11, 1973. At the concert he was DJing and emceeing in the :recreation room of 1520 Sedgwick Avenue.Tukufu Zuberi ("detective"), ''BIRTHPLACE OF HIP HOP'', History Detectives, Season 6, Episode 11, New York City, found a
PBS official website
Accessed February 24, 2009.
Sources have noted that while 1520 Sedgwick Avenue was not the actual birthplace of hip-hop—the genre developed slowly in several places in the 1970s—it was verified to be the place where ''one of'' the pivotal and formative events occurred that spurred hip hop culture forward. During a rally to save the building, DJ Kool Herc said, "1520 Sedgwick is the Bethlehem of Hip-Hop culture." Many dwellings in the South Bronx during the early 1970s lived in poverty or were part of gangs. One example of this is Afrika Bambaataa, a former member of the street gang, The Black Spades, who is now deemed as the god-father of hip-hop. As an effort to end the street violence within the South Bronx, Bambaataa created the Universal Zulu Nation, Zulu Nation, which is a group founded on the concepts of "Peace, Love, Unity, Having Fun" instead of partaking in gang violence and unlawful activity. Jeff Chang (journalist), Jeff Chang quotes Bambaataa in his text ''Can't Stop Won't Stop (book), Can't Stop Won't Stop: A History of the Hip-Hop Generation'' in a section where Chang is discussing why the Zulu Nation formed. The quote by Bambaataa on page 105 of the text states "we had to come up with something to get the order back." As seen within the film ''The Hip Hop Years: Part 1'', hip-hop aided in keeping violence from forming on the streets of the South Bronx and eased tensions with the police within the area. People were creating art such as hip-hop music and dances at the block parties within the South Bronx, so the police did not have issues with it. Not only was music a major component of hip-hop culture being formulated within the South Bronx during the 1970s, a break dancing or Breakdancing, B-boying movement was being generated as well. After DJ Kool Herc and other DJs kept utilizing the break beat within their music, an abundance of people who were dancing normally, eventually hit the floor and began what is known as breakdancing. According to the documentary, ''The Freshest Kids: The History of the B-Boy'', break dancing occurred "spontaneously" and consisted of more "sporadic" dance moves. Additionally, a Zulu king and hip-hop historian stated that the dance consisted of "bouncing around, pivoting, turning, twists frontsweeps...". Many who participated in this form of dance were members of Dance crew, crews, such as the
Rock Steady Crew Rock Steady Crew is an American breakdance, breaking and hip hop group which has become a franchise name for multiple groups in other locations. The group's 1983 international hit song "(Hey You) The Rock Steady Crew" (from the group's first studio ...
, the New York City Breakers and the Magnificent Force. On July 5, 2007, 1520 Sedgwick Avenue was recognized by the New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation as the "Birthplace of Hip-Hop."(July 23, 2007
"An Effort to Honor the Birthplace of Hip-Hop"
''New York Times.'' Retrieved 9/3/10.
(July 23, 2007
"1520 Sedgwick Avenue Honored as a Hip-Hop Landmark Today"
, ''XXL Magazine''. Retrieved 9/3/10.


Education

The New York City Department of Education operates district public schools. Community School Districts 7, 8, 9, and 12 are located in the South Bronx. Among the public schools are charter schools. Success Academies Bronx 1, 2, and 3 are part of Success Academy Charter Schools. An elementary charter school, Academic Leadership Charter School, opened on 141st Street and Cypress Avenue. Area private schools include Cardinal Hayes High School, located at 650 Grand Concourse and All Hallows High School, located at 111 East 164th Street. Among the institutions of higher education, Hostos Community College of the City University of New York is located in Grand Concourse and 149th Street, ten blocks from Yankee Stadium. The South Bronx is also home to both for-profit and nonprofit organizations that offer a range of professional training and other educational programs. East Side House Settlement has been in the Mott Haven neighborhood since 1963, serving families and children. Their mission is to use education as a means of economic empowerment. Per Scholas, for example, is a nonprofit organization that offers free professional certification training directed towards successfully passing CompTIA A+ and Network+ certification exams as a route to securing jobs and building careers. Per Scholas also works with a growing number of Title One South Bronx middle schools, their students, and their families to provide computer training and access.


Transportation

Major highways include the
Major Deegan Expressway Interstate 87 (I-87) is a north–south Interstate Highway The Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways, commonly known as the Interstate Highway System, is a network of controlled-access highways that ...
(Interstate 87 (New York), I-87);
Cross Bronx Expressway The Cross Bronx Expressway is a major freeway in the New York City borough of the Bronx. It is mainly designated as part of Interstate 95 in New York, Interstate 95 (I-95), but also includes portions of Interstate 295 (New York), I-295 and U.S ...

Cross Bronx Expressway
(Interstate 95 in New York, I-95); Bruckner Expressway (I-278); Triborough Bridge; Grand Concourse. A variety of
New York City Subway The New York City Subway is a rapid transit system owned by the New York City, City of New York and leased to the New York City Transit Authority, an affiliate agency of the state-run Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA). Opened on Octobe ...

New York City Subway
services run through the South Bronx. This includes the on the IRT Pelham Line, on the IRT White Plains Road Line, on the IRT Jerome Avenue Line, and on the IND Concourse Line. A South Bronx Greenway currently connects the South Bronx over the Bronx Kill to Randalls and Wards Islands, Randalls Island on a bike and pedestrian pathway known as the Bronx Connector. In 2000, 77.3% of all households in New York's 15th congressional district, covering the South Bronx, did not own automobiles. Citywide, the percentage is only 55%.


Notable natives

* Danny Aiello (1933–2019), actor * Nate Archibald (born 1948), retired professional basketball player who spent 14 years playing in the NBA and was inducted into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame * Aventura (band), Aventura, Dominican-American Bachata (music), bachata music group * Afrika Bambaataa (born 1957), disc jockey, singer-songwriter and producer * Swizz Beatz (born 1978), rapper, DJ and record producer * John Benitez, Jellybean Benitez (born 1957), songwriter, DJ, remixer and music producer *A Boogie wit da Hoodie, rapper, raised in Highbridge, Bronx * Cardi B, rapper, raised in Highbridge, Bronx * Canibus, rapper * Majora Carter, raised in Hunts Point, current resident of Hunts Point * Willie Colón, salsa musician * Bobby Darin, singer, musician, actor * Dion DiMucci & the Belmonts * Don DeLillo, novelist * Rebel Diaz, rap group * Ruben Diaz, Jr. * Tim Dog, rapper * Fr. Stan Fortuna, ordained as a priest in the Bronx in 1990 * Harry Gibson * Hank Greenberg, Hall of Fame baseball player * Marcus Jansen renowned Urban/expressionist painter resided on Boynton Avenue near Soundview Park in the Boynton Apartments * Carlos Henriquez jazz bassist *
DJ Kool Herc Clive Campbell (born April 16, 1955), better known by his stage name DJ Kool Herc, is a Jamaican-American DJ who is credited for originating hip hop music Hip hop music or hip-hop music, also known as rap music, is a genre of popular m ...
, DJ, raised in the West Bronx * Ralph Lauren, fashion designer * Tom Leykis, radio personality * Cuban Link, rapper, born in Cuba, raised in
Morrisania Morrisania ( ) is a residential neighborhood in the southwestern Bronx, New York City, New York (state), New York. Its boundaries are the Cross-Bronx Expressway to the north, Crotona-Prospect Avenue to the east, East 161st Street to the south, and ...
* Jennifer Lopez, raised in Castle Hill * Bernard McGuirk, grew up in the South Bronx * Drag-On, rapper, raised in
Soundview Soundview is a neighborhood on the Clason Point, Bronx, Clason Point peninsula, on the southern section of the Borough (New York City), borough of the Bronx in New York City. Its boundaries, starting from the north and moving clockwise, are the Cr ...

Soundview
* Fat Joe, rapper, raised in
Morrisania Morrisania ( ) is a residential neighborhood in the southwestern Bronx, New York City, New York (state), New York. Its boundaries are the Cross-Bronx Expressway to the north, Crotona-Prospect Avenue to the east, East 161st Street to the south, and ...
* Grandmaster Flash, DJ, born in Barbados, raised in
Morrisania Morrisania ( ) is a residential neighborhood in the southwestern Bronx, New York City, New York (state), New York. Its boundaries are the Cross-Bronx Expressway to the north, Crotona-Prospect Avenue to the east, East 161st Street to the south, and ...
* KRS-One, rapper, originally from Brooklyn, raised in both
Mott Haven Mott Haven is a primarily residential neighborhood in the southwestern section of the New York City New York City (NYC), often simply called New York, is the List of United States cities by population, most populous city in the United State ...
and
Soundview Soundview is a neighborhood on the Clason Point, Bronx, Clason Point peninsula, on the southern section of the Borough (New York City), borough of the Bronx in New York City. Its boundaries, starting from the north and moving clockwise, are the Cr ...

Soundview
* T La Rock, rapper * Scott La Rock * Remy Ma, rapper, raised in Castle Hill * Sonia Manzano, actress, screenwriter, author, speaker and singer-songwriter * French Montana, rapper, born in Morocco, raised in Tremont, Bronx, Tremont * Richard A. Muller, physicist * Wes Moore, author * Nine (rapper), Nine, rapper * Al Pacino, born in East Harlem, raised in the South Bronx * Murray Perahia, concert pianist and conductor * Colin Powell, raised in Longwood * Big Pun, rapper, born in
Soundview Soundview is a neighborhood on the Clason Point, Bronx, Clason Point peninsula, on the southern section of the Borough (New York City), borough of the Bronx in New York City. Its boundaries, starting from the north and moving clockwise, are the Cr ...

Soundview
, raised in Highbridge * Alex Ramos, professional boxer * Charles Nelson Reilly actor, comedian, director and drama teacher * Hell Rell, rapper raised in Tremont, Bronx, Tremont * Bobby Sanabria (born 1957), Multi-Grammy nominated Latin and jazz drummer, percussionist, composer and arranger"Bobby Sanabria's Latin Jazz Hybrid"
NPR, August 11, 2007. Accessed September 27, 2018. "Growing up in the South Bronx, Bobby Sanabria was exposed to a wide range of music: Latin, Afro-Cuban, blues, jazz, funk, rock. He became a fan of Tito Puente, Dizzy Gillespie, Buddy Rich, James Brown and Mario Bauzá, among others."
* Dolph Schayes, 12x All Star basketball player * Richie Scheinblum (1942–2021), Major League Baseball All Star outfielder * Sonia Sotomayor, associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States * Tony Sunshine, R&B singer, raised in
Soundview Soundview is a neighborhood on the Clason Point, Bronx, Clason Point peninsula, on the southern section of the Borough (New York City), borough of the Bronx in New York City. Its boundaries, starting from the north and moving clockwise, are the Cr ...

Soundview
* Leonard Susskind, theoretical physicist * Neil deGrasse Tyson, astrophysicist, physical cosmologist, science communicator/educator * Kemba Walker, NBA player, raised in
Soundview Soundview is a neighborhood on the Clason Point, Bronx, Clason Point peninsula, on the southern section of the Borough (New York City), borough of the Bronx in New York City. Its boundaries, starting from the north and moving clockwise, are the Cr ...

Soundview
* Kerry Washington, actress * Steven Weinberg (1933–2021), theoretical physicist * Barry Wellman (born 1942), sociologist


In popular culture


Movies

* ''Tenement (film), Tenement'', 1985 * ''Rumble in the Bronx'', 1995 * ''1990: The Bronx Warriors'', 1982 * ''Gloria (1980 film), Gloria'', 1980 * ''Willie Dynamite'', 1974 * ''Fort Apache, The Bronx'', 1981 * ''Wanderers, The'', 1979 * ''Wolfen (film), Wolfen'', 1981 * ''Wild Style'', 1983 * ''Beat Street'', 1984 * ''South Bronx Heroes'', 1985 * ''A Bronx Tale'', 1993 * ''Marty'', 1955


Music

* "South Bronx (song), South Bronx" by Boogie Down Productions * "Jenny from the Block" by Jennifer Lopez featuring Styles P & Jadakiss


Television

* ''The Get Down'', 2016- Netflix series


Literature

* ''Dropsie Avenue'' (1995), by Will Eisner. ''Dropsie Avenue'' is the third story in the ''A Contract With God'' trilogy of graphic novels set in a fictional South Bronx neighborhood. * Amazing Grace: The Lives of Children and the Conscience of a Nation. (1995), by Jonathan Kozol. Awarded the Anisfield-Wolf Book Award in 1996.


See also

* ''80 Blocks From Tiffany's''


References


Notes


Further reading

* Kozol, Jonathan (1995); ''Amazing Grace''; Crown Publishers. * * * * * * *


Pictorial works

* * (Pictorial work on historical social life and customs in the South Bronx)


External links


Walking tour of the Grand Concourse Boulevard-Cross Bronx Expy area
{{Coord, 40.81621, -73.91735, type:landmark_region:US-NY, display=title Neighborhoods in the Bronx History of hip hop History of the Bronx