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South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
in the southern central part of
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
. It covers some of the most
arid A region is arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or preventing the growth and development Development or developing may refer to: Arts *Development hell, when a project is stuck in d ...

arid
parts of the country. With a total land area of , it is the fourth-largest of Australia's states and territories by area, and fifth-largest by population. It has a total of 1.77 million people, and its population is the second most highly centralised in Australia, after
Western Australia Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...

Western Australia
, with more than 77 percent of South Australians living in the capital,
Adelaide Adelaide ( ) is the capital city A capital or capital city is the municipality holding primary status in a Department (country subdivision), department, country, Constituent state, state, province, or other administrative region, usually ...

Adelaide
, or its environs. Other population centres in the state are relatively small;
Mount Gambier Mount is often used as part of the name of specific mountain A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust, generally with steep sides that show significant exposed bedrock. A mountain differs from a plateau in having a limited summi ...
, the second-largest centre, has a population of 28,684. South Australia shares borders with all of the other mainland states, as well as the
Northern Territory The Northern Territory (NT; formally the Northern Territory of Australia) is an Australian territory in the central and central northern regions of Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, ...
; it is bordered to the west by
Western Australia Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...

Western Australia
, to the north by the Northern Territory, to the north-east by
Queensland Queensland ( ) is a state situated in northeastern Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the ...

Queensland
, to the east by
New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...
, to the south-east by
Victoria Victoria most commonly refers to: * Victoria (Australia), a state of the Commonwealth of Australia * Victoria, British Columbia, provincial capital of British Columbia, Canada * Victoria (mythology), Roman goddess of Victory * Victoria, Seychelles ...
, and to the south by the
Great Australian Bight The Great Australian Bight is a large ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approximately 71% of the surface of the Earth.
Great Australian Bight
.Most Australians describe the body of water south of the continent as the
Southern Ocean The Southern Ocean, also known as the Antarctic Ocean, comprises the southernmost waters of the World Ocean, generally taken to be south of 60° S latitude and encircling Antarctica. As such, it is regarded as the second-smallest of t ...

Southern Ocean
, rather than the
Indian Ocean The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world's five ocean The ocean (also the or the world ocean) is the body of that covers approximately 70.8% of the surface of and contains 97% of . Another definition is "any of the large ...

Indian Ocean
as officially defined by the
International Hydrographic Organization The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) is an intergovernmental organisation representing hydrography. As of December 2021 the IHO comprised 96 Member States. A principal aim of the IHO is to ensure that the world's seas, oceans and ...
(IHO). In the year 2000, a vote of IHO member nations defined the term "Southern Ocean" as applying only to the waters between
Antarctica Antarctica ( or ) is Earth's southernmost continent. It contains the geographic South Pole and is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Oc ...

Antarctica
and 60 degrees south latitude.
The state comprises less than 8 percent of the Australian population and ranks fifth in population among the six states and two territories. The majority of its people reside in greater Metropolitan Adelaide. Most of the remainder are settled in fertile areas along the south-eastern coast and
River Murray The Murray River (in South Australia: River Murray) ( Ngarrindjeri: ''Millewa'', Yorta Yorta: ''Tongala'') is a river in south-eastern Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign ...

River Murray
. The state's colonial origins are unique in Australia as a freely settled, planned British province, rather than as a
convict A convict is "a person found guilty Guilty or The Guilty may refer to: * Guilt (emotion), an experience that occurs when a person believes they have violated a moral standard Law *Culpability, the degree to which an agent can be held respons ...
settlement. Colonial government commenced on 28 December 1836, when the members of the council were sworn in near the Old Gum Tree. As with the rest of the continent, the region has a long history of human occupation by numerous tribes and languages. The
South Australian Company The South Australian Company, also referred to as the South Australia Company, was formed in London on 9 October 1835, after the ''South Australia Act 1834, South Australia (Foundation) Act 1834'' had established the new British Province of South ...
established a temporary settlement at Kingscote,
Kangaroo Island Kangaroo Island, also known as Karta Pintingga (literally 'Island of the Dead' in the language of the Kaurna people), is Australia's third-largest island, after Tasmania and Melville Island, Northern Territory, Melville Island. It lies in the s ...

Kangaroo Island
, on 26 July 1836, five months before Adelaide was founded. The guiding principle behind settlement was that of ''systematic colonisation'', a theory espoused by
Edward Gibbon Wakefield Edward Gibbon Wakefield (20 March 179616 May 1862) is considered a key figure in the establishment of the colonies of European settlement of South Australia, South Australia and History of New Zealand#Colonial period, New Zealand (where he later ...

Edward Gibbon Wakefield
that was later employed by the
New Zealand Company The New Zealand Company, chartered in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for ...
. The goal was to establish the province as a centre of civilisation for free immigrants, promising civil liberties and religious tolerance. Although its history is marked by economic hardship, South Australia has remained politically innovative and culturally vibrant. Today, it is known for its fine wine and numerous cultural festivals. The state's economy is dominated by the agricultural, manufacturing and mining industries.


History

Evidence of human activity in South Australia dates back as far as 20,000 years, with
flint Flint is a sedimentary Sedimentary rocks are types of rock (geology), rock that are formed by the accumulation or deposition of mineral or organic matter, organic particles at Earth#Surface, Earth's surface, followed by cementation (geology ...

flint
mining activity and rock art in the Koonalda Cave on the
Nullarbor Plain The Nullarbor Plain ( ; Latin: feminine of , 'no', and , 'tree') is part of the area of flat, almost treeless, arid or semi-arid country of southern Australia, located on the Great Australian Bight coast with the Great Victoria Desert to its ...

Nullarbor Plain
. In addition wooden spears and tools were made in an area now covered in
peat Peat (), also known as turf (), is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation Vegetation is an assemblage of species and the they provide. It is a general term, without specific reference to particular , life forms, structure, ...
bog A bog or bogland is a wetland A wetland is a distinct ecosystem that is flooded by water, either permanently (for years or decades) or seasonally (for weeks or months). Flooding results in oxygen-free (Anoxic waters, anoxic) processes ...

bog
in the South East.
Kangaroo Island Kangaroo Island, also known as Karta Pintingga (literally 'Island of the Dead' in the language of the Kaurna people), is Australia's third-largest island, after Tasmania and Melville Island, Northern Territory, Melville Island. It lies in the s ...

Kangaroo Island
was inhabited long before the island was cut off by
rising sea levels Tide gauge measurements show that the current global sea level rise began at the start of the 20th century. Between 1900 and 2017, the globally averaged sea level Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average In colloquia ...

rising sea levels
. According to
mitochondrial DNA Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid (; DNA) is a molecule File:Pentacene on Ni(111) STM.jpg, A scanning tunneling microscopy image of pentacene molecules, which consist of linear chains of five car ...

mitochondrial DNA
research, Aboriginal people reached
Eyre Peninsula The Eyre Peninsula is a triangular peninsula in South Australia. It is bounded on the east by Spencer Gulf, the west by the Great Australian Bight, and the north by the Gawler Ranges. Originally called Eyre’s Peninsula, it was named after ex ...
49,000-45,000 years ago from both the east (clockwise, along the coast, from northern Australia) and the west (anti-clockwise). The first recorded European sighting of the South Australian coast was in 1627 when the Dutch ship the ''Gulden Zeepaert'', captained by François Thijssen, examined and mapped a section of the coastline as far east as the
Nuyts Archipelago The Nuyts Archipelago is an island group located in South Australia in the Great Australian Bight to the south of the town of Ceduna, South Australia, Ceduna on the west coast of the Eyre Peninsula. It consisting of mostly granite, graniti ...
. Thijssen named the whole of the country eastward of the Leeuwin "Nuyts Land", after a distinguished passenger on board; the Hon. Pieter Nuyts, one of the Councillors of India. The coastline of South Australia was first mapped by
Matthew Flinders Captain (Royal Navy), Captain Matthew Flinders (16 March 1774 – 19 July 1814) was a British navigator and cartographer who led the first littoral zone, inshore circumnavigate, circumnavigation of the landmass that is now known as Australia. ...

Matthew Flinders
and
Nicolas Baudin Nicolas Thomas Baudin (; 17 February 1754 – 16 September 1803) was a French explorer, cartographer, naturalist and hydrographer. Biography Early career Born a commoner in Saint-Martin-de-Ré on the Île de Ré on 17 February 1754, Nic ...
in 1802, excepting the inlet later named the Port Adelaide River which was first discovered in 1831 by Captain
Collet Barker Collet Barker (31 December 1784 – 30 April 1831) was a British military officer and explorer. He explored areas of South Australia, Western Australia and Cobourg Peninsula, Northern Territory. History Barker was born in Hackney (parish), Ha ...
and later accurately charted in 1836–37 by Colonel
William Light William Light (27 April 1786 – 6 October 1839), also known as Colonel Light, was a British- Malayan naval and army officer. He was the first Surveyor-General of the new British Province of South Australia, known for choosing the site o ...
, leader of the South Australian Colonization Commissioners' 'First Expedition' and first Surveyor-General of South Australia. The land which now forms the state of South Australia was claimed for Britain in 1788 as part of the colony of
New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...
. Although the new colony included almost two-thirds of the continent, early settlements were all on the eastern coast and only a few intrepid explorers ventured this far west. It took more than forty years before any serious proposal to establish settlements in the south-western portion of New South Wales were put forward. On 15 August 1834, the British Parliament passed the
South Australia Act 1834 The ''South Australia Act 1834'', or ''Foundation Act 1834'', List of Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, 1820–1839, 4 & 5 Wm. IV, c. 95, are short titles of an Act of Parliament, Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, passed ...
(''Foundation Act''), which empowered His Majesty to erect and establish a province or provinces in southern Australia. The act stated that the land between 132° and 141° east longitude and from 26° south latitude to the southern ocean would be allotted to the colony, and it would be convict-free. In contrast to the rest of Australia, ''
terra nullius ''Terra nullius'' (, plural ''terrae nullius'') is a Latin expression meaning "no man's land, nobody's land". It was a principle sometimes used in international law to justify claims that territory may be acquired by a state's Acquisition of ...
'' did not apply to the new province. The
Letters Patent Letters patent ( la, litterae patentes) ( always in the plural) are a type of legal instrument ''Legal instrument'' is a legal Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act acco ...
, which used the enabling provisions of the South Australia Act 1834 to fix the boundaries of the Province of South Australia, provided that "nothing in those our Letters Patent shall affect or be construed to affect the rights of any Aboriginal Natives of the said Province to the actual occupation and enjoyment in their own Persons or in the Persons of their Descendants of any Lands therein now actually occupied or enjoyed by such Natives." Although the patent guaranteed land rights under force of law for the indigenous inhabitants, it was ignored by the South Australian Company authorities and squatters. Despite strong reference to the rights of the native population in the initial proclamation by the Governor, there were many conflicts and deaths in the
Australian Frontier Wars "Australian frontier wars" is a term applied by some historians to violent conflicts between Indigenous Australians (including both Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders) and non-Indigenous settlers during the History of Australia ...
in South Australia. Survey was required before settlement of the province, and the Colonization Commissioners for South Australia appointed William Light as the leader of its 'First Expedition', tasked with examining 1500 miles of the South Australian coastline and selecting the best site for the capital, and with then planning and surveying the site of the city into one-acre Town Sections and its surrounds into 134-acre Country Sections. Eager to commence the establishment of their whale and seal fisheries, the South Australian Company sought, and obtained, the Commissioners' permission to send Company ships to South Australia, in advance of the surveys and ahead of the Commissioners' colonists. The company's settlement of seven vessels and 636 people was temporarily made at Kingscote on Kangaroo Island, until the official site of the capital was selected by William Light, where the City of Adelaide is currently located. The first
immigrants Immigration is the international movement of people to a destination country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective ident ...
arrived at
Holdfast Bay The Holdfast Bay is a small bay in Gulf St Vincent, next to Adelaide Adelaide ( ) is the List of Australian capital cities, capital city of the state of South Australia, and the List of cities in Australia by population, fifth-most populous ...
(near the present day Glenelg) in November 1836. The commencement of colonial government was proclaimed on 28 December 1836, now known as
Proclamation Day Proclamation Day is the name of official or unofficial holiday A holiday is a day set aside by Norm (social), custom or by law on which normal activities, especially business or work including school, are suspended or reduced. Generally, holidays ...
. South Australia is the only Australian state to have never received British convicts. Another free settlement,
Swan River colony The Swan River Colony, also known as the Swan River Settlement, or just Swan River, was a British colony established in 1829 on the Swan River, in Western Australia Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a States and territories of Austra ...
was established in 1829 but
Western Australia Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...

Western Australia
later sought convict labour, and in 1849 Western Australia was formally constituted as a penal colony. Although South Australia was constituted such that convicts could never be transported to the Province, some emancipated or escaped convicts or expirees made their own way there, both prior to 1836, or later, and may have constituted 1–2% of the early population. The plan for the province was that it would be an experiment in reform, addressing the problems perceived in British society. There was to be religious freedom and no established religion. Sales of land to colonists created an Emigration Fund to pay the costs of transferring a poor young labouring population to South Australia. In early 1838 the colonists became concerned after it was reported that convicts who had escaped from the eastern states may make their way to South Australia. The
South Australia Police The South Australia Police (SAPOL) is the police force The police are a constituted body of persons empowered by a state, with the aim to enforce the law, to ensure the safety, health and possessions of citizens, and to prevent crim ...
was formed in April 1838 to protect the community and enforce government regulations. Their principal role was to run the first temporary gaol, a two-room hut. The current
flag of South Australia The current state flag of South Australia, was officially adopted by the government of South Australia South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a States and territories of Australia, state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers so ...

flag of South Australia
was adopted on 13 January 1904, and is a British blue ensign defaced with the state badge. The badge is described as a
piping shrikeImage:Flag of South Australia.svg, 250px, Flag of South Australia featuring the piping shrike The piping shrike is the emblematic bird that appears on South Australia's flag of South Australia, flag, State Badge and Coat of arms of South Australia, ...
with wings outstretched on a yellow disc. The state badge is believed to have been designed by Robert Craig of Adelaide's School of Design.


Geography

The terrain consists largely of arid and semi-arid rangelands, with several low
mountain range A mountain range is a series of mountains ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form, structure, and alignment that have arisen from the same cause, us ...

mountain range
s. The most important (but not tallest) is the
Mount Lofty Mount Lofty (, elevation AHD) is the highest point in the southern Mount Lofty Ranges The Mount Lofty Ranges are a range Range may refer to: Geography * Range (geographic)A range, in geography, is a chain of hill A hill is a lan ...
-
Flinders Ranges The Flinders Ranges are the largest mountain range in South Australia, which starts about north of Adelaide. The discontinuous ranges stretch for over from Port Pirie to Lake Callabonna. The Adnyamathanha, Adnyamathanha people are the Aborigina ...

Flinders Ranges
system, which extends north about from
Cape Jervis Cape Jervis is a town in the Australian state of South Australia located near the western tip of Fleurieu Peninsula on the southern end of the South Road, Adelaide, Main South Road approximately south of the state capital of Adelaide city centr ...
to the northern end of
Lake Torrens Lake Torrens is a large ephemeral Ephemerality (from the Greek language, Greek word , meaning 'lasting only one day') is the concept of things being transitory, existing only briefly. Typically the term ephemeral is used to describe object ...
. The highest point in the state is not in those ranges;
Mount Woodroffe Mount Woodroffe (dual-named as "Ngarutjaranya/Mount Woodroofe") is a mountain in the Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continen ...
() is in the
Musgrave Ranges Musgrave Ranges is a mountain range in Central Australia Central Australia, also known as the Alice Springs Region ( aer, Mparntwe Ampere), is one of the five regions in the Northern Territory of Australia Australia, officially the ...
in the extreme northwest of the state. The south-western portion of the state consists of the sparsely inhabited
Nullarbor Plain The Nullarbor Plain ( ; Latin: feminine of , 'no', and , 'tree') is part of the area of flat, almost treeless, arid or semi-arid country of southern Australia, located on the Great Australian Bight coast with the Great Victoria Desert to its ...

Nullarbor Plain
, fronted by the cliffs of the
Great Australian Bight The Great Australian Bight is a large ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approximately 71% of the surface of the Earth.
Great Australian Bight
. Features of the coast include
Spencer Gulf The Spencer Gulf is the westernmost and larger of two large inlets (the other being Gulf St Vincent) on the southern coast of Australia, in the state of South Australia, facing the Great Australian Bight. It spans from the Cape Catastrophe and ...

Spencer Gulf
and the Eyre and Yorke Peninsulas that surround it. The principal industries and exports of South Australia are wheat, wine and wool. More than half of Australia's wines are produced in the South Australian wine regions which principally include
Barossa Valley The Barossa Valley is a valley in South Australia South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a States and territories of Australia, state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers some of the most arid parts of the country. With a t ...
,
Clare Valley The Clare Valley is a valley A valley is an elongated low area often running between hills or mountains, which will typically contain a river or stream running from one end to the other. Most valleys are formed by erosion of the land s ...
,
McLaren Vale McLaren Vale is a wine region in the Australian state of South Australia South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a States and territories of Australia, state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers some of the most arid parts o ...

McLaren Vale
, Coonawarra, the
Riverland The Riverland is a region of South Australia South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a States and territories of Australia, state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers some of the most arid parts of the country. With a total la ...
and the
Adelaide Hills The Adelaide Hills region is located in the southern Mount Lofty Ranges The Mount Lofty Ranges are a mountain range, range of mountains in the Australian state of South Australia which for a small part of its length borders the east of A ...
. ''See
South Australian wine The South Australian wine industry is responsible for more than half the production of all Australian wine The Australian wine industry is one of the world's largest exporters of wine, with approximately 800 million out of the 1.2 to 1.3 bi ...
.''


South Australian boundaries

South Australia has boundaries with every other Australian mainland state and territory except the
Australian Capital Territory The Australian Capital Territory (ACT), known as the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) until 1938, is a federal territory A federal territory is an area under the direct and usually exclusive jurisdiction of a federation's central or national ...
and the
Jervis Bay Territory The Jervis Bay Territory () is an internal territory of Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continen ...
. The
Western Australia border The land border of the State of Western Australia Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a States and territories of Australia, state occupying the western percent of the land area of Australia excluding external territories. It is bound ...
has a history involving the South Australian government astronomer, G.F. Dodwell, and the Western Australian Government Astronomer, H.B. Curlewis, marking the border on the ground in the 1920s. In 1863, that part of New South Wales to the north of South Australia was annexed to South Australia, by letters patent, as the "Northern Territory of South Australia", which became shortened to the Northern Territory ( 6 July 1863). The Northern Territory was handed to the federal government in 1911 and became a separate territory. According to Australian maps, South Australia's south coast is flanked by the
Southern Ocean The Southern Ocean, also known as the Antarctic Ocean, comprises the southernmost waters of the World Ocean, generally taken to be south of 60° S latitude and encircling Antarctica. As such, it is regarded as the second-smallest of t ...

Southern Ocean
, but official international consensus defines the Southern Ocean as extending north from the pole only to 60°S or 55°S, at least 17 degrees of latitude further south than the most southern point of South Australia. Thus the south coast is officially adjacent to the south-most portion of the Indian Ocean. ''See Southern Ocean: Existence and definitions''.


Climate

The southern part of the state has a
Mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by dry summers and mild, wet winters. The climate Climate is the long-term pattern of weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the degre ...
, while the rest of the state has either an
arid A region is arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or preventing the growth and development Development or developing may refer to: Arts *Development hell, when a project is stuck in d ...
or
semi-arid climate A semi-arid climate, semi-desert climate, or steppe climate is the climate Climate is the long-term pattern of weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the degree to which it is hot or cold, wet or dry, c ...
. South Australia's main temperature range is in January and in July. The highest maximum temperature was recorded as at
Oodnadatta Oodnadatta is a small, remote outback town and locality in the Australian state of South Australia, located about north of the state capital of Adelaide city centre, Adelaide (over by road) and 112 m above sea level. The name is probabl ...
on 2 January 1960, which is also the highest official temperature recorded in Australia. The lowest minimum temperature was at Yongala on 20 July 1976.


Economy

South Australia's average annual employment for 2009–10 was 800,600 persons, 18% higher than for 2000–01.
For the corresponding period, national average annual employment rose by 22%. South Australia's largest employment sector is health care and social assistance, surpassing manufacturing in SA as the largest employer since 2006–07. In 2009–10, manufacturing in SA had average annual employment of 83,700 persons compared with 103,300 for health care and social assistance. Health care and social assistance represented nearly 13% of the state average annual employment. The retail trade is the second largest employer in SA (2009–10), with 91,900 jobs, and 12 per cent of the state workforce. The manufacturing industry plays an important role in South Australia's economy, generating 11.7% of the state's
gross state product Gross regional domestic product (GRDP), gross domestic product of region (GDPR), or gross state product (GSP) is a statistic that measures the size of a region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( ...
(GSP) and playing a large part in exports. The manufacturing industry consists of automotive (44% of total Australian production, 2006) and component manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, defence technology (2.1% of GSP, 2002–03) and electronic systems (3.0% of GSP in 2006). South Australia's economy relies on exports more than any other state in Australia. State export earnings stood at $10 billion per year and grew by 8.8% from 2002 to 2003. Production of South Australian food and drink (including agriculture, horticulture, aquaculture, fisheries and manufacturing) is a $10 billion industry. South Australia's
credit rating A credit rating is an evaluation of the credit risk A credit risk is risk of default Default may refer to: Law * Default (law), the failure to do something required by law ** Default (finance) In finance Finance is the study of financ ...

credit rating
was upgraded to AAA by
Standard & Poor's S&P Global Ratings (previously Standard & Poor's and informally known as S&P) is an American credit rating agency A credit rating agency (CRA, also called a ratings service) is a company that assigns credit ratings, which rate a debtor's abilit ...

Standard & Poor's
in September 2004 and to AAA by
Moody's Moody's Investors Service, often referred to as Moody's, is the bond credit rating In investment To invest is to allocate money Image:National-Debt-Gillray.jpeg, In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, the plentiful money bags handed to Kin ...
in November 2004, the highest credit ratings achievable by any company or sovereign. The state had previously lost these ratings in the State Bank collapse. However, in 2012 Standard & Poor's downgraded the state's credit rating to AA+ due to declining revenues, new spending initiatives and a weaker than expected budgetary outlook. South Australia's Gross State Product was $48.9 billion starting 2004, making it $32,996 per capita. Exports for 2006 were valued at $9.0bn with imports at $6.2bn. Private Residential Building Approvals experienced 80% growth over the year of 2006. South Australia's economy includes the following major industries: meat and meat preparations, wheat, wine, wool and sheepskins, machinery, metal and metal manufactures, fish and crustaceans, road vehicles and parts, and petroleum products. Other industries, such as education and defence technology, are of growing importance. South Australia receives the least amount of federal funding for its local road network of all states on a per capita and a per kilometre basis. In 2013, South Australia was named by
CommSec CommSec is Australia's largest online stockbroking firm. It is a subsidiary of the Commonwealth Bank The Commonwealth Bank of Australia (CBA), or CommBank, is an Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a So ...
as the second lowest performing economy in Australia. While some sources have pointed at weak retail spending and capital investment, others have attributed poor performance to declines in public spending. During 2019-20: South Australia's gross state product (GSP) fell 1.4% in chain volume (real) terms (nationally, gross domestic product (GDP) fell 0.3%).


Energy

South Australia has the lead over other Australian states for its commercialisation and commitment to
renewable energy Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resource File:Global Vegetation.jpg, Global vegetation A renewable resource, also known as a flow resource, is a natural resource which will replenish to replace the portion resou ...
. It is now the leading producer of
wind power Wind power or wind energy is the use of wind turbine A wind turbine is a device that converts Religious conversion is the adoption of a set of beliefs identified with one particular religious denomination A religious denomination ...
in Australia. Renewable energy is a growing source of electricity in South Australia, and there is potential for growth from this particular industry of the state's economy. The
Hornsdale Power Reserve Hornsdale Power Reserve is a 150MW/194MWh grid-connected energy storage system owned by Neoen co-located with the Hornsdale Wind Farm in the Mid North region of South Australia, also owned by Neoen. The original installation in 2017 was the Batt ...
is a bank of grid-connected batteries adjacent to the Hornsdale Wind Farm in South Australia's Mid-North region. At the time of construction in late 2017, it was billed as the largest lithium-ion battery in the world.


Olympic Dam

The Olympic Dam mine near Roxby Downs in northern South Australia is the largest deposit of
uranium Uranium is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemical elem ...

uranium
in the world, possessing more than a third of the world's low-cost recoverable reserves and 70% of Australia's. The mine, owned and operated by
BHP BHP, formerly known as BHP Billiton, is the trading entity of BHP Group Limited and BHP Group plc, an Anglo-Australian multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple coun ...
, presently accounts for 9% of global uranium production. The Olympic Dam mine is also the world's fourth-largest remaining copper deposit, and the world's fifth largest gold deposit. There was a proposal to vastly expand the operations of the mine, making it the largest open-cut mine in the world, but in 2012 the BHP Billiton board decided not to go ahead with it at that time due to then lower commodity prices.


Crown land

Crown land Crown land (sometimes spelled crownland), also known as royal domain, is a territorial area belonging to the monarch, who personifies . It is the equivalent of an and passes with the monarchy, being inseparable from it. Today, in s such as Cana ...

Crown land
held in right of South Australia is managed under the Crown Land Management Act 2009.


Government

South Australia is a
constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy, parliamentary monarchy, or democratic monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch exercises his authority in accordance with a constitution and is not alone in deciding. Constitutional monarchies differ from ...
with the
Queen of Australia The monarchy of Australia refers to the institution in which a person serves as Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent) ...
as sovereign, and the
Governor of South Australia The governor of South Australia is the representative in the Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian contin ...
as her representative. It is a state of the
Commonwealth of Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French ''souverain'', which is ultimately derived from ...
. The
bicameral Bicameralism is the practice of having a legislature A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) ...
Parliament of South Australia The Parliament of South Australia is the bicameral legislature of the Australian state of South Australia. It consists of the 47-seat South Australian House of Assembly, House of Assembly (lower house) and the 22-seat South Australian Legislativ ...
consists of the
lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Township, Ontario United States: *Chambers County, Alabama *Chambers, Arizona, an unincorporated community in Apache County *Chambers, Nebraska *Chambers, We ...
known as the
House of Assembly House of Assembly is a name given to the legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, political entity such as a Sovereign state, country or city. They are often contrasted w ...
and the upper house known as the
Legislative Council A legislative council is the legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, political entity such as a Sovereign state, country or city. They are often contrasted with the Ex ...
.
General elections A general election is a political voting election where generally all or most members of a given political body are chosen. These are usually held for a nation, state, or territory's primary legislative body, and are different from by-elections (o ...
are held every four years, the last being the 2018 election. Initially, the
Governor of South Australia The governor of South Australia is the representative in the Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian contin ...
held almost total power, derived from the letters patent of the imperial government to create the colony. He was accountable only to the British
Colonial Office The Colonial Office was a government department Ministry or department, also less commonly used secretariat, office, or directorate are designations used by a first-level Executive (government), executive bodies in the Machinery of governmen ...
, and thus democracy did not exist in the colony. A new body was created to advise the governor on the administration of South Australia in 1843 called the Legislative Council. It consisted of three representatives of the British Government and four colonists appointed by the governor. The governor retained total executive power. In 1851, the Imperial Parliament enacted the
Australian Colonies Government Act The Australian Constitutions Act 1850, or Australian Colonies Government Act, formally known as the Act for the Better Government of Her Majesty's Australian Colonies (1850) (13 and 14 Vict. c. 59 of 1850), was legislation enacted by the British P ...
, which allowed for the election of representatives to each of the colonial legislatures and the drafting of a constitution to properly create representative and responsible government in South Australia. Later that year, propertied male colonists were allowed to vote for 16 members on a new 24 seat Legislative Council. Eight members continued to be appointed by the governor. The main responsibility of this body was to draft a constitution for South Australia. The body drafted the most democratic constitution ever seen in the British Empire and provided for universal manhood
suffrage Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise, is the right to vote in public, political elections (although the term is sometimes used for any right to vote). In some languages, and occasionally in English, the right to vote is called a ...

suffrage
. It created the bicameral
Parliament of South Australia The Parliament of South Australia is the bicameral legislature of the Australian state of South Australia. It consists of the 47-seat South Australian House of Assembly, House of Assembly (lower house) and the 22-seat South Australian Legislativ ...
. For the first time in the colony, the executive was elected by the people, and the colony used the
Westminster system The Westminster system or Westminster model is a type of parliamentary A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democratic Democrat, Democrats, or Democratic may refer to: *A proponent of democracy Democracy ...
, where the government is the party or coalition that exerts a majority in the House of Assembly. The Legislative Council remained a predominantly conservative chamber elected by property owners.
Women's suffrage in Australia 140px, Edith Cowan (1861–1932) was elected to the Western Australian Legislative Assembly in 1921 and was the first woman elected to any Australian Parliament. Women's suffrage in Australia was one of the earliest objectives of the movement ...
took a leap forward – enacted in 1895 and taking effect from the 1896 colonial election, South Australia was the first in Australia and only the second in the world after
New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ''Aotearoa'' (; commonly pronounced by English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon Engl ...

New Zealand
to allow women to vote, and the first in the world to allow women to stand for election. In 1897
Catherine Helen Spence Catherine Helen Spence (31 October 1825 – 3 April 1910) was a Scottish-born Australian author, teacher, journalist, politician, leading suffragist, and Georgist Georgism, also called in modern times geoism and known historically as the sin ...

Catherine Helen Spence
was the first woman in Australia to be a candidate for political office when she was nominated to be one of South Australia's delegates to the conventions that drafted the constitution. South Australia became an original state of the Commonwealth of Australia on 1 January 1901. Although the lower house had universal suffrage, the upper house, the Legislative Council, remained the exclusive domain of property owners until the
Labor Labour or labor may refer to: * Childbirth, the delivery of a baby * Labour (human activity), or work ** Manual labour, physical work ** Wage labour, a socioeconomic relationship between a worker and an employer Literature * Labor (journal), ''L ...
government of
Don Dunstan Donald Allan Dunstan (21 September 1926 – 6 February 1999) was an Australian politician. He entered politics as the Member for Norwood in 1953 at age 26, became leader of the South Australian Branch of the Australian Labor Party in 1967, an ...
managed to achieve reform of the chamber in 1973. Property qualifications were removed and the Council became a body elected via
proportional representation#REDIRECT Proportional representation Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems in which divisions in an electorate are reflected proportionately in the elected body. The concept applies mainly to geographical, and to ideolog ...

proportional representation
by a single state-wide electorate. Since the following 1975 South Australian state election, no one party has had control of the state's upper house with the balance of power controlled by a variety of minor parties and independents.


Local government

South Australia is divided into 74
local government areas A local government area (LGA) is an administrative division of a country that a local government is responsible for. The size of an LGA varies by country but it is generally a subdivision of a State (administrative division), state, province, divis ...
. Local councils are responsible for functions delegated by the South Australian parliament, such as road infrastructure and waste management. Council revenue comes mostly from property taxes and government grants.


Demographics

As at March 2018 the population of South Australia was 1,733,500. A majority of the state's population lives within
Greater Adelaide Adelaide ( ) is the List of Australian capital cities, capital city of the state of South Australia, and the List of cities in Australia by population, fifth-most populous city of Australia. The demonym is used to denote the city and the resid ...
's metropolitan area which had an estimated population of 1,333,927 in June 2017. Estimated resident population, 30 June 2017. Other significant population centres include
Mount Gambier Mount is often used as part of the name of specific mountain A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust, generally with steep sides that show significant exposed bedrock. A mountain differs from a plateau in having a limited sum ...
(29,505), Estimated resident population, 30 June 2017. Victor Harbor- Goolwa (26,334),
Whyalla Whyalla was founded as "Hummocks Hill", and was known by that name until 1916. It is the fourth most populous city in the Australian state of South Australia South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a States and territories of Australia, st ...
(21,976), Murray Bridge (18,452),
Port Lincoln The Porticciolo del Cedas port in Barcola The thumb is the first digit of the hand, next to the index finger. When a person is standing in the medical anatomical position (where the palm is facing to the front), the thumb is the outermost digit ...
(16,281),
Port Pirie Port Pirie is a city on the east coast of the Spencer Gulf The Spencer Gulf is the westernmost and larger of two large inlets (the other being Gulf St Vincent) on the southern coast of Australia, in the state of South Australia, facing the ...
(14,267), and
Port Augusta Port Augusta is a small city in South Australia. Formerly a port, seaport, it is now a road traffic and Junction (rail), railway junction city mainly located on the east coast of the Spencer Gulf immediately south of the gulf's head and about ...
(13,957).


Ancestry and immigration

At the 2016 census, the most commonly nominated ancestries were: 28.9% of the population was born overseas at the 2016 census. The five largest groups of overseas-born were from
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. E ...

England
(5.8%), India (1.6%), China (1.5%), Italy (1.1%) and
Vietnam Vietnam ( vi, Việt Nam, ), officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam,, group="n" is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the ...

Vietnam
(0.9%). 2% of the population, or 34,184 people, identified as
Indigenous Australians Indigenous Australians are people with familial heritage to groups that lived in Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continen ...
(
Aboriginal Australians Aboriginal Australians are the various Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as first peoples, first nations, aboriginal peoples, native peoples (with these terms often capitalized when referred to relating to specific ...
and
Torres Strait Islanders Torres Strait Islanders () are the Indigenous peoples of the Torres Strait Islands, which are part of the state of Queensland, Australia. Ethnically distinct from the Aboriginal Australians, Aboriginal people of the rest of Australia, they are ...
) in 2016.


Language

At the 2016 census, 78.2% of the population spoke only
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...
at home. The other languages most commonly spoken at home were
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, regional variants of the ...

Italian
(1.7%),
Standard Mandarin Standard Chinese (), in linguistics known as Standard Northern Mandarin, Standard Beijing Mandarin or simply Mandarin, is a dialect of Mandarin that emerged as the lingua franca A lingua franca (; ; for plurals see ), also known as a bri ...
(1.7%), Greek (1.4%)
Vietnamese Vietnamese may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Vietnam, a country in Southeast Asia ** A citizen of Vietnam. See Demographics of Vietnam. * Vietnamese people, or Kinh people, a Southeast Asian ethnic group native to Vietnam ** Oversea ...

Vietnamese
(1.1%), and
Cantonese Cantonese ( zh, t=廣東話, s=广东话, first=t; Yale Yale University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, Brit ...

Cantonese
(0.6%).


Religion

At the
2016 census Sixteen or 16 may refer to: *16 (number), the natural number following 15 and preceding 17 *one of the years 16 BC, AD 16, 1916, 2016 Films * ''Pathinaaru'' or ''Sixteen'', a 2010 Tamil film * Sixteen (1943 film), ''Sixteen'' (1943 film), a 1943 ...
, overall 53.9% of responses identified some variant of
Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of ...

Christianity
. 9% of respondents chose not to state a religion. The most commonly nominated responses were (35.4%),
Catholicism The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian r ...

Catholicism
(18%),
Anglicanism Anglicanism is a Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western Junction, Tasmania, a locality in Australia * ...

Anglicanism
(10%) and
Uniting Church The Uniting Church in Australia (UCA) was founded on 22 June 1977, when most Wiktionary:congregation, congregations of the Methodist Church of Australasia, about two-thirds of the Presbyterian Church of Australia and almost all the churches of th ...
(7.1%).


Education


Primary and secondary

On 1 January 2009, the school leaving age was raised to 17 (having previously been 15 and then 16). Education is compulsory for all children until age 17, unless they are working or undergoing other training. The majority of students stay on to complete their
South Australian Certificate of Education The South Australian Certificate of Education (SACE) is awarded to students who have successfully completed their senior secondary schooling in the state of South Australia South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a States and territories of Au ...
(SACE). School education is the responsibility of the South Australian government, but the public and private education systems are funded jointly by it and the
Commonwealth Government The Australian Government, also known as the Commonwealth Government, is the national government of Australia, a federalism, federal parliamentary system, parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Like other Westminster system, Westminster-style ...
. The South Australian Government provides, to schools on a per student basis, 89 percent of the total Government funding while the Commonwealth contributes 11 percent. Since the early 1970s it has been an ongoing controversy that 68 percent of Commonwealth funding (increasing to 75% by 2008) goes to private schools that are attended by 32% of the states students. Private schools often refute this by saying that they receive less State Government funding than public schools, and in 2004 the main private school funding came from the Australian government, not the state government. On 14 June 2013, South Australia became the third Australian state to sign up to the Australian Federal Government's . This will see funding for primary and secondary education to South Australia increased by $1.1 billion before 2019.


Tertiary

There are three public and four private universities in South Australia. The three public universities are the
University of Adelaide The University of Adelaide (informally Adelaide University) is a public university A public university or public college is a university or college that is in state ownership or receives significant Government spending, public funds through a ...

University of Adelaide
(established 1874, third oldest in Australia),
Flinders University Flinders University is a in , . Founded in 1966, it was named in honour of British navigator , who explored and surveyed the South Australian coastline in the early 19th century. Flinders is a and a member of the (IRU) Group. Academically, ...
(est. 1966) and the
University of South Australia The University of South Australia (UniSA) is a public research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertia ...
(est. 1991). The four private universities are Torrens University Australia (est. 2013), Carnegie Mellon University - Australia (est. 2006),
University College London University College London, which Trade name, operates as UCL, is a major public university , public research university located in London, United Kingdom. UCL is a Member institutions of the University of London, member institution of the Federa ...
's School of Energy and Resources (Australia), and
Cranfield University , mottoeng = After clouds light , established = 1946 - College of Aeronautics 1969 - Cranfield Institute of Technology (gained university status by royal charter A royal charter is a formal grant issued by a monarch under royal prerogati ...

Cranfield University
. All six have their main campus in the Adelaide metropolitan area: Adelaide and UniSA on
North Terrace 300px, Adelaide in 1839 as viewed south-east from the western end of North Terrace, including Holy Trinity Church. (The church tower lost its "peaked cap" in 1844.) North Terrace is one of the four terraces that bound the central busines ...

North Terrace
in the
city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be defined as a ...

city
; CMU, UCL and Cranfield are co-located on Victoria Square in the city, and Flinders at Bedford Park.


Vocational education

Tertiary vocational education is provided by a range of Registered Training Organisations (RTOs) which are regulated at Commonwealth level. The range of RTOs delivering education include public, private and 'enterprise' providers i.e. employing organisations who run an RTO for their own employees or members. The largest public provider of vocational education is TAFE South Australia which is made up of colleges throughout the state, many of these in rural areas, providing tertiary education to as many people as possible. In South Australia, TAFE is funded by the
state government A state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The ...
and run by the South Australian
Department of Further Education, Employment, Science and Technology Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, division of a larger organization into parts with specific responsibility Government and military *Department (administrative division), a geographical and administrative division within a country, ...
(DFEEST). Each TAFE SA campus provides a range of courses with its own specialisation.


Transport


Historical transport in South Australia

After settlement, the major form of transport in South Australia was ocean transport. Limited land transport was provided by horses and bullocks. In the mid 19th century, the state began to develop a widespread rail network, although a coastal shipping network continued until the post war period. Roads began to improve with the introduction of motor transport. By the late 19th century, road transport dominated internal transport in South Australia.


Railway

South Australia has four interstate rail connections, to
Perth Perth () is the list of Australian capital cities, capital and largest city of the Australian state of Western Australia (WA). It is Australia's list of cities in Australia by population, fourth-most populous city, with a population of 2.1 mi ...

Perth
via the Nullarbor Plain, to
Darwin Darwin most often refers to: * Charles Darwin (1809–1882), English naturalist and writer, best known as the originator of the theory of biological evolution by natural selection * Darwin, Northern Territory, a capital city in Australia * Darwin ( ...
through the centre of the continent, to New South Wales through
Broken Hill Broken Hill is an inland mining Mining is the extraction of valuable mineral In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and ...
, and to
Melbourne Melbourne ( ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller ...

Melbourne
–which is the closest capital city to Adelaide. Rail transport is important for many mines in the north of the state. The capital Adelaide has a commuter rail network made of electric and diesel electric powered multiple units, with 6 lines between them.


Roads

South Australia has extensive road networks linking towns and other states. Roads are also the most common form of transport within the major metropolitan areas with car transport predominating. Public transport in Adelaide is mostly provided by buses and trams with regular services throughout the day.


Air transport

Adelaide Airport Adelaide Airport , also known as Adelaide International Airport, is the principal airport An airport is an aerodrome An aerodrome (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a West Germanic lang ...
provides regular flights to other capitals, major South Australian towns and many international locations. The airport also has daily flights to several Asian hub airports. Adelaide Metro buses J1 and J1X connect to the city (approx. 30 minutes travel time). Standard fares apply and tickets may be purchased from the driver. Maximum charge (September 2016) for Metroticket is $5.30; off-peak and seniors discounts may apply.


River transport

The
River Murray The Murray River (in South Australia: River Murray) (Ngarrindjeri The Ngarrindjeri people are the traditional Aboriginal Australian Aboriginal Australians are the various Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referr ...
was formerly an important trade route for South Australia, with
paddle steamers A paddle steamer is a steamship or steamboat powered by a steam engine from Stott Park Bobbin Mill, Cumbria, England A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid. The steam engine uses ...
linking inland areas and the ocean at Goolwa.


Sea transport

South Australia has a container port at
Port Adelaide Port Adelaide is a port-side region of Adelaide, approximately northwest of the Adelaide city centre, Adelaide CBD. It is also the namesake of the City of Port Adelaide Enfield council, a suburb, a federal and state electoral division and is th ...

Port Adelaide
. There are also numerous important ports along the coast for minerals and grains. The passenger terminal at Port Adelaide periodically sees cruise liners. Kangaroo Island is dependent on the Sea Link ferry service between
Cape Jervis Cape Jervis is a town in the Australian state of South Australia located near the western tip of Fleurieu Peninsula on the southern end of the South Road, Adelaide, Main South Road approximately south of the state capital of Adelaide city centr ...
and
Penneshaw For Pennshaw in the UK, see Penshaw Penneshaw is a township in the Australian state of South Australia located on the northeast coast of the Dudley Peninsula on Kangaroo Island about south of the state capital of Adelaide city centre, Adelaide. ...
.


Cultural life

South Australia has been known as "the Festival State" for many years, for its abundance of arts and
gastronomic Image:Produits régionaux - photo CPPR.jpg, 200px, Fine food, the principal study of gastronomy Gastronomy is a compound word that derives from the ancient Greek words γαστήρ -τρός "stomach" and -νομία "-rule". It is the study of th ...
festivals. While much of the arts scene is concentrated in Adelaide, the state government has supported regional arts actively since the 1990s. One of the manifestations of this was the creation of
Country Arts SA Country Arts SA is statutory corporation created by the Government of South Australia, South Australian government under the provisions of the ''South Australian Country Arts Trust Act (1992)'', for the purpose of delivering arts to regional South ...
, created in 1992. Diana Laidlaw did much to further the arts in South Australia during her term as Arts Minister from 1993 to 2002, and after Mike Rann assumed government in 2002, he created a strategic plan in 2004 (updated 2007) which included furthering and promoting the arts in South Australia under the topic heading "Objective 4: Fostering Creativity and Innovation". In September 2019, with the arts portfolio now subsumed within the Department of the Premier and Cabinet (South Australia), Department of the Premier and Cabinet (DPC) after the election of Steven Marshall as Premier, and the 2004 strategic plan having been deleted from the website in 2018, the "''Arts and Culture Plan, South Australia 2019–2024''" was created by the department. Marshall said when launching the plan: “The arts sector in South Australia is already very strong but it’s been operating without a plan for 20 years”. However the plan does not signal any new government support, even after the government's cuts to arts funding when Arts South Australia was absorbed into DPC in 2018. Specific proposals within the plan include an “Adelaide in 100 Objects” walking tour, a new shared ticketing system for small to medium arts bodies, a five-year-plan to revitalise regional art centres, creation of an arts-focussed high school, and a new venue for the Adelaide Symphony Orchestra.


Sport


Australian rules football

Australian rules football is the most popular spectator sport in South Australia, with South Australians having the highest attendance rate in Australia. South Australia fields two teams in the Australian Football League (AFL) national competition: the Adelaide Crows, Adelaide Football Club and Port Adelaide Football Club. As of 2015 the two clubs were in the top five in terms of membership numbers, with both clubs' membership figures reaching over 60,000. Both teams have used the Adelaide Oval as their home ground since 2014, having previously used Football Park (AAMI Stadium). The South Australian National Football League (SANFL), which was the premier league in the state before the advent of the Australian Football League, is a popular local league comprising ten teams: Sturt, Port Adelaide, Adelaide, West Adelaide, South Adelaide, North Adelaide, Norwood, Woodville/West Torrens, Glenelg and Central District. The South Australian Amateur Football League comprises 68 member clubs playing over 110 matches per week across ten senior divisions and three junior divisions. The SAAFL is one of Australia's largest and strongest Australian rules football associations.


Cricket

Cricket is the most popular summer sport in South Australia and attracts big crowds. South Australia has a cricket team, the South Australia cricket team, West End Redbacks, who play at Adelaide Oval in the Adelaide Park Lands during the summer; they won their first title since 1996 in the 2010–11 KFC Twenty20 Big Bash, summer of 2010–11. Many international matches have been played at the Adelaide Oval; it was one of the host cities of 2015 Cricket World Cup, and for many years it hosted the Australia Day One Day International. South Australia is also home to the Adelaide Strikers, an Australian men's professional Twenty20 cricket team, that competes in Australia's domestic Twenty20 cricket competition, the Big Bash League.


Association football

Adelaide United FC, Adelaide United represents South Australia in soccer in the men's A-League and women's W-League (Australia), W-League. The club's home ground is Hindmarsh Stadium (Coopers Stadium), but occasionally plays games at the Adelaide Oval. The club was founded in 2003 and are the 2015–16 A-League, 2015–16 season champions of the A-League. The club was also premier in the inaugural 2005–06 A-League season, finishing 7 points clear of the rest of the competition, before finishing 3rd in the finals. Adelaide United was also a Grand Finalist in the 2006–07 and 2008–09 seasons. Adelaide is the only A-League club to have progressed past the group stages of the Asian Champions League on more than one occasion. Adelaide City FC, Adelaide City remains South Australia's most successful club, having won three National Soccer League titles and three NSL Cups. City was the first side from South Australia to ever win a continental title when it claimed the 1987 Oceania Club Championship and it has also won a record 17 National Premier Leagues South Australia, South Australian championships and 17 FFSA Federation Cup, Federation Cups. West Adelaide SC, West Adelaide became the first South Australian club to be crowned Australian champion when it won the 1978 National Soccer League title. Like City, it now competes in the National Premier Leagues South Australia and the two clubs contest the Adelaide derby.


Basketball

Basketball also has a big following in South Australia, with the Adelaide 36ers playing in the Adelaide Entertainment Centre. The 36ers have won four championships in the last 20 years in the National Basketball League (Australia), National Basketball League. The Adelaide Entertainment Centre, located in Hindmarsh, South Australia, Hindmarsh, is the home of basketball in the state. Mount Gambier also has a national basketball team – the Mount Gambier Pioneers. The Pioneers play at the Icehouse (Mount Gambier Basketball Stadium) which seats over 1,000 people and is also home to the Mount Gambier Basketball Association. The Pioneers won the South Conference in 2003 and the Final in 2003; this team was rated second in the top five teams to have ever played in the league. In 2012, the club entered its 25th season, with a roster of 10 senior players (two imports) and three development squad players.


Motor sport

Australia's premier motor sport series, the Supercars Championship, has visited South Australia each year since 1999. South Australia's Supercars event, the Adelaide 500, is staged on the Adelaide Street Circuit, a temporary track laid out through the streets and parklands to the east of the Adelaide city centre. Attendance for the 2010 event totalled 277,800. An earlier version of the Adelaide Street Circuit played host to the Australian Grand Prix, a round of the FIA Formula One World Championship, each year from 1985 to 1995. Mallala Motor Sport Park, a permanent circuit located near the town of Mallala, South Australia, Mallala, 58 km north of Adelaide, caters for both state and national level motor sport throughout the year. The Bend Motorsport Park, is another permanent circuit, located just outside of Tailem Bend, South Australia, Tailem Bend.


Other sports

Sixty-three percent of South Australian children took part in organised sports in 2002–2003. The ATP Adelaide was a tennis tournament held from 1972 to 2008 that then moved to Brisbane and was replaced with The World Tennis Challenge a Professional Exhibition Tournament that is part of the Australian Open Series. Also, the Royal Adelaide Golf Club has hosted nine editions of the Australian Open (golf), Australian Open, with the most recent being in 1998. The state has hosted the Tour Down Under cycle race since 1999.


Places


Crime

Crime in South Australia is managed by the
South Australia Police The South Australia Police (SAPOL) is the police force The police are a constituted body of persons empowered by a state, with the aim to enforce the law, to ensure the safety, health and possessions of citizens, and to prevent crim ...
(SAPOL), various state and federal courts in the Judiciary of Australia, criminal justice system and the state Department for Correctional Services (South Australia), Department for Correctional Services, which administers the Punishment in Australia, prisons and remand centre. Crime statistics for all categories of offence in the state are provided on the SAPOL website, in the form of rolling 12-month totals. Crime statistics from the 2017–18 national Australian Bureau of Statistics, ABS Crime Victimisation Survey show that between the years 2008–09 and 2017–18, the rate of victimisation in South Australia declined for assault and most household crime types. In 2013
Adelaide Adelaide ( ) is the capital city A capital or capital city is the municipality holding primary status in a Department (country subdivision), department, country, Constituent state, state, province, or other administrative region, usually ...

Adelaide
was ranked the safest capital city in Australia.


See also

*
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
* Outline of Australia * Index of Australia-related articles * *
Adelaide Adelaide ( ) is the capital city A capital or capital city is the municipality holding primary status in a Department (country subdivision), department, country, Constituent state, state, province, or other administrative region, usually ...

Adelaide
* Country Fire Service *
Proclamation Day Proclamation Day is the name of official or unofficial holiday A holiday is a day set aside by Norm (social), custom or by law on which normal activities, especially business or work including school, are suspended or reduced. Generally, holidays ...
: 28 December 1836 * South Australian Ambulance Service * South Australian English * Symbols of South Australia


Food and drink

* Farmers Union Iced Coffee * Pie floater * South Australian food and drink *
South Australian wine The South Australian wine industry is responsible for more than half the production of all Australian wine The Australian wine industry is one of the world's largest exporters of wine, with approximately 800 million out of the 1.2 to 1.3 bi ...


Lists

* List of amphibians of South Australia * List of cities and towns in South Australia *List of festivals in Australia#South Australia * List of films shot in Adelaide * List of highways in South Australia * List of people from Adelaide * Local Government Areas of South Australia * List of public art in South Australia * :Tourist attractions in South Australia, Tourist attractions in South Australia


Notes


Footnotes


Further reading

* * * * * * * * Pike, Douglas. (1967) ''Paradise of Dissent: South Australia 1829-1857'' (Melbourne UP, 2nd edition) * * Dorothy Jauncey, Bardi Grubs and Frog Cakes – South Australian Words, Oxford University Press (2004) * *


External links

* * *
sa.gov.au

Official Insignia and Emblems Page

University of South Australia

South Australia's greenhouse (climate change) strategy (2007–2020)


Community resources {{Use dmy dates, date=January 2021 South Australia, States and territories of Australia States and territories established in 1836 Former British colonies and protectorates in Oceania 1836 establishments in Australia