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Solomon Islands is a
sovereign country A sovereign state is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of Institutionalisation, institutionalized social relation, social relation ...
consisting of six major islands and over 900 smaller islands in
Oceania Oceania (, , ) is a geographic region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth ...

Oceania
, to the east of
Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea (PNG; , ; tpi, Papua Niugini; ho, Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea ( tpi, Independen Stet bilong Papua Niugini; ho, Independen Stet bilong Papua Niu Gini), is a country in Oceania ...

Papua New Guinea
and northwest of
Vanuatu Vanuatu ( or ; ), officially the Republic of Vanuatu (french: link=no, République de Vanuatu; Bislama: ''Ripablik blong Vanuatu''), is an island country located in the South Pacific Ocean. The archipelago, which is of volcanic origin, is ea ...

Vanuatu
. It has a land area of , and a population of 652,858. Its capital,
Honiara Honiara () is the capital and largest city of Solomon Islands, situated on the northwestern coast of Guadalcanal. , it had a population of 84,520 people. The city is served by Honiara International Airport and the seaport of Point Cruz, and ...

Honiara
, is located on the largest island,
Guadalcanal Guadalcanal (; indigenous name: ''Isatabu'') is the principal island in Guadalcanal Province of the Solomon Islands, located in the Western Pacific Ocean, south-western Pacific, northeast of Australia. It is the largest island in the Solomon Isl ...

Guadalcanal
. The country takes its name from the Solomon Islands archipelago, which is a collection of
Melanesia Melanesia (, ) is a subregion of Oceania in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. It extends from the island of New Guinea in the west to Tonga in the east, and includes the Arafura Sea. The region includes the four independent countries of Fiji, V ...

Melanesia
n islands that also includes the
North Solomon Islands The Northern Solomons were the more northerly group of islands in the Solomon Islands archipelago over which Germany declared a protectorate A protectorate is a state that is controlled and protected by another sovereign state. It is a dep ...
(a part of
Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea (PNG; , ; tpi, Papua Niugini; ho, Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea ( tpi, Independen Stet bilong Papua Niugini; ho, Independen Stet bilong Papua Niu Gini), is a country in Oceania ...

Papua New Guinea
), but excludes outlying islands, such as the
Santa Cruz Islands The Santa Cruz Islands are a group of islands in the Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean (or, depending on definitio ...
and Rennell and Bellona. The islands have been settled since at least some time between 30,000 and 28,800 BC, with later waves of migrants, notably the
Lapita The Lapita culture is the name given to a prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, also known as world history, is the description of humanity's past. It is informed by ...
people, mixing and producing the modern indigenous Solomon Islanders population. In 1568, the Spanish navigator Álvaro de Mendaña was the first European to visit them, naming them the ''Islas Salomón''. Mendaña returned decades later, in 1595, and another Spanish expedition, led by Portuguese navigator
Pedro Fernandes de Queirós Pedro Fernandes de Queirós ( es, Pedro Fernández de Quirós) (1563–1614) was a Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal Portugal (), officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt ...
, visited the Solomons in 1606. Britain defined its area of interest in the Solomon Islands archipelago in June 1893, when Captain Gibson R.N., of , declared the southern Solomon Islands a British protectorate. During
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, the
Solomon Islands campaign The Solomon Islands campaign was a major military campaign, campaign of the Pacific War of World War II. The campaign began with Empire of Japan, Japanese landings and occupation of several areas in the British Solomon Islands and Bougainville I ...

Solomon Islands campaign
(1942–1945) saw fierce fighting between the United States, Commonwealth forces and the
Empire of Japan The was a historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 until the enactment of the post-World War II Constitution of Japan, 1947 constitution and subsequent formation of modern Japan. It encomp ...

Empire of Japan
, including the
Battle of Guadalcanal The Guadalcanal campaign, also known as the Battle of Guadalcanal and codenamed Operation Watchtower by American forces, was a military campaign fought between 7 August 1942 and 9 February 1943 on and around the island of Guadalcanal Gua ...
. The official name of the then-British administration was changed from the
British Solomon Islands Protectorate The British Solomon Islands Protectorate was first declared over the southern Solomons in 1893, when Captain Gibson R.N., of , declared the southern islands a British protectorate. Other islands were subsequently declared to form part of th ...
to the Solomon Islands in 1975, and self-government was achieved the following year. Independence was obtained, and the name changed to just "Solomon Islands" (without the
definite article An article is any member of a class of dedicated words that are used with noun phrases to mark the identifiability of the referents of the noun phrases. The category of articles constitutes a part of speech In traditional grammar, a part of spee ...
), in 1978. At independence, Solomon Islands became a
constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy, parliamentary monarchy, or democratic monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch exercises his authority in accordance with a constitution and is not alone in deciding. Constitutional monarchies differ from ...
. The Queen of Solomon Islands is
Elizabeth II Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy A constitutional mo ...

Elizabeth II
, represented by the Governor-General.


Name

In 1568, the Spanish navigator Álvaro de Mendaña was the first European to visit the Solomon Islands archipelago, naming it ''Islas Salomón'' ("Solomon Islands") after the wealthy
biblical The Bible (from Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the koiné language, common supra-regional form of Greek ...

biblical
King Solomon of the King of the Romans (variant used in the early modern period) File:Nezahualpiltzintli.jpg, Aztec King Nezahualpiltzintli of Texcoco (altepetl), Texcoco King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female eq ...

King Solomon
. It is said that they were given this name in the mistaken assumption that they contained great riches, and he believed them to be the Bible-mentioned city of
Ophir Ophir (; ) is a port or region mentioned in the Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was ...
. During most of the colonial period, the territory's official name was "British Solomon Islands Protectorate" until 1975, when it was changed to "Solomon Islands". The definite article, "the", is not part of the country's official name but is sometimes used, both within and outside the country. Colloquially the islands are referred to simply as "the Solomons".


History


Prehistory

The Solomons were first colonised by people coming from the
Bismarck Islands The Bismarck Archipelago is a group of islands off the northeastern coast of New Guinea in the western Pacific Ocean and is part of the Islands Region of Papua New Guinea. Its area is about 50,000 square km. History The first inhabitants of the a ...
and
New Guinea New Guinea (; Hiri Motu Hiri Motu, also known as Police Motu, Pidgin Motu, or just Hiri, is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign ...

New Guinea
during the
Pleistocene The Pleistocene ( , often referred to as the ''Ice Age'') is the geological Epoch (geology), epoch that lasted from about 2,580,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the earth’s most recent period of repeated glaciations. Before a change finally ...
era c. 30,000–28,000 BCE, based on archaeological evidence found at
Kilu Cave Kilu Cave is a paleoanthropological site located on Buka Island in the Autonomous Region of Bougainville, Papua New Guinea. Kilu Cave is located at the base of a limestone cliff, from the modern coastline. With evidence for human occupation datin ...
on
Buka Island Buka Island is the second largest island in the Autonomous Region of Bougainville Bougainville ( ; Tok Pisin: ''Bogenvil''), officially the Autonomous Region of Bougainville, is an autonomous region An autonomous administrative divisi ...

Buka Island
in the
Autonomous Region of Bougainville Bougainville ( ; Tok Pisin Tok Pisin (,Laurie Bauer, 2007, ''The Linguistics Student’s Handbook'', Edinburgh Tok Pisin ), often referred to by English speakers as "New Guinea Pidgin" or simply "Pidgin", is a creole language Creole may ref ...
,
Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea (PNG; , ; tpi, Papua Niugini; ho, Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea ( tpi, Independen Stet bilong Papua Niugini; ho, Independen Stet bilong Papua Niu Gini), is a country in Oceania ...

Papua New Guinea
. At this point sea levels were lower and Buka and Bougainville were physically joined to the southern Solomons in one landmass ("Greater Bougainville"), though it is unclear precisely how far south these early settlers spread as no other archaeological sites from this period have been found. As sea levels rose as the
Ice Age An ice age is a long period of reduction in the temperature of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents an ...
ended c. 4000–3500 BCE, the Greater Bougainville landmass split into the numerous islands that exist today. Evidence of later human settlements dating to c. 4500–2500 BCE have been found at Poha Cave and Vatuluma Posovi Cave on
Guadalcanal Guadalcanal (; indigenous name: ''Isatabu'') is the principal island in Guadalcanal Province of the Solomon Islands, located in the Western Pacific Ocean, south-western Pacific, northeast of Australia. It is the largest island in the Solomon Isl ...

Guadalcanal
. The ethnic identity of these early peoples is unclear, though it is thought that the speakers of the Central Solomon languages (a self-contained language family unrelated to other languages spoken in the Solomons) likely represent the descendants of these earlier settlers. From c. 1200–800 BCE
Austronesian Austronesian may refer to: *The Austronesian languages *The historical Austronesian peoples who carried Austronesian languages on their migrations {{disambiguation ...
Lapita The Lapita culture is the name given to a prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, also known as world history, is the description of humanity's past. It is informed by ...
people began arriving from the Bismarcks with their characteristic
ceramic A ceramic is any of the various hard, brittle, heat-resistant and corrosion-resistant Corrosion is a Erosion, natural process that converts a refined metal into a more chemically stable form such as oxide, hydroxide, carbonate or sulfide. ...

ceramic
s. Evidence for their presence has been across the Solomon archipelago, as well at the
Santa Cruz Islands The Santa Cruz Islands are a group of islands in the Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean (or, depending on definitio ...
in the south-east, with different islands being settled at different times. Linguistic and genetic evidence suggests that the Lapita people "leap-frogged" the already inhabited main Solomon Islands and settled first on the Santa Cruz group, with later back-migrations bringing their culture to the main group. These peoples mixed with the native Solomon Islanders and over time their languages became dominant, with most of the 60–70 languages spoken there belonging to the
Oceanic Oceanic may refer to: *Of or relating to the ocean *Of or relating to Oceania **Oceanic climate **Oceanic languages **Oceanic person or people, also called "Pacific Islander(s)" Places *Oceanic, British Columbia, a settlement on Smith Island, Br ...

Oceanic
branch of the
Austronesian language family The Austronesian languages (, , , ) are a language family, widely spoken throughout Maritime Southeast Asia, Madagascar, the islands of the Pacific Ocean and Taiwan (by Taiwanese aborigines). There are also a number of speakers in Asia, continent ...
. Then as now communities tended to exist in small villages practising subsistence agriculture, though extensive inter-island trade networks existed. Numerous ancient burial sites and other evidence of permanent settlements have been found from the period 1000–1500 CE throughout the islands, one of the most prominent examples being the Roviana cultural complex centred on the islands off the southern coast of
New Georgia New Georgia, with an area of , is the largest of the islands in Western Province, Solomon Islands Solomon Islands is a sovereign country A sovereign state is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any g ...
, where a large number of megalithic shrines and other structures were constructed in the 13th century.


Arrival of Europeans (1568–1886)

The first European to visit the islands was the Spanish navigator
Álvaro de Mendaña de Neira Álvaro de Mendaña y Neira (or Neyra) (October 1, 1542 – October 18, 1595) was a Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de Espa ...
, sailing from
Peru , , image_flag = Flag_of_Peru.svg , image_coat = Escudo_nacional_del_Perú.svg , other_symbol = Great Seal of the State , other_symbol_type = Seal (device), National seal , national_mott ...
in 1568. Landing on Santa Isabel on 7 February, Mendaña explored several of the other islands including
Makira The island of Makira (also known as San Cristobal and San Cristóbal) is the largest island of Makira-Ulawa Province Makira-Ulawa Province is one of the nine provinces of Solomon Islands. Geography The main part of the province is Makira Isl ...
, Guadalcanal and
Malaita Malaita is the primary island of Malaita Province in Solomon Islands Solomon Islands is a sovereign state consisting of six major islands and over 900 smaller islands in Oceania, to the east of Papua New Guinea and northwest of Vanuatu. I ...

Malaita
. Relations with the native Solomon Islanders were initially cordial, although they often soured as time went by. As a result, Mendaña returned to Peru in August 1568. He returned to the Solomons with a larger crew on a second voyage in 1595, aiming to colonise the islands. They landed on Nendö in the Santa Cruz Islands and established a small settlement at Gracioso Bay. However the settlement failed due to poor relations with the native peoples and epidemics of disease amongst the Spanish which caused numerous deaths, with Mendaña himself dying in October. The new commander
Pedro Fernandes de Queirós Pedro Fernandes de Queirós ( es, Pedro Fernández de Quirós) (1563–1614) was a Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal Portugal (), officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt ...
thus decided to abandon the settlement and they sailed north to the Spanish territory of the
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republ ...

Philippines
. Queirós later returned to the area in 1606, where he sighted
Tikopia Tikopia is a high island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean (or, depending on definition, to Antarc ...
and Taumako, though this voyage was primarily to Vanuatu in the search of
Terra Australis Terra Australis (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be ...
. Save for
Abel Tasman Abel Janszoon Tasman (; 160310 October 1659) was a Dutch seafarer A sailor, seaman, mariner, or seafarer is a person who works aboard a watercraft as part of its crew, and may work in any one of a number of different fields that are relate ...

Abel Tasman
's sighting of the remote
Ontong Java Atoll Ontong Java Atoll or Luangiua is one of the largest atoll An atoll (), sometimes known as a coral atoll, is a ring-shaped coral reef A coral reef is an underwater ecosystems, ecosystem characterized by reef-building corals. Reefs are ...
in 1648, no European sailed to the Solomons again until 1767, when the British explorer
Philip Carteret Philip Carteret, Lord, Seigneur of Trinity, Jersey, Trinity (22 January 1733, Trinity Manor, Jersey – 21 July 1796, Southampton) was a Kingdom of Great Britain, British naval officer and List of explorers, explorer who participated in two of th ...

Philip Carteret
sailed by the Santa Cruz Islands, Malaita and, continuing further north, Bougainville and the Bismarck Islands. French explorers also reached the Solomons, with
Louis Antoine de Bougainville Louis-Antoine, Comte de Bougainville (, , ; 12 November 1729 – August 1811) was a French admiral and exploration, explorer. A contemporary of the British explorer James Cook, he took part in the Seven Years' War in North America and the America ...
naming Choiseul in 1768 and exploring the islands in 1769. In 1788
John Shortland John Shortland (1769–1810) was a naval officer, the eldest son of John Shortland (Royal Navy officer), John Shortland.Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
n colony at
Botany Bay Botany Bay (Aboriginal Aborigine, aborigine or aboriginal may refer to: * Indigenous peoples, ethnic groups who are the original or earliest known inhabitants of an area **List of indigenous peoples, including: ***Aboriginal Australians ****A ...
, sighted the
Treasury A treasury is either *A government department related to finance and taxation, a Finance minister, finance ministry. *A place or location where treasure, such as currency or precious items are kept. These can be State ownership, state or roy ...

Treasury
and
Shortland IslandsThe Shortland Islands archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea containing a small number of scattered islands. Indonesian Archipelago, ...
. That same year the French explorer Jean-François de La Pérouse was wrecked on
Vanikoro Vanikoro (sometimes wrongly named ''Vanikolo'') is an island in the Santa Cruz Islands, Santa Cruz group, located to the Southeast of the main Santa Cruz group. It is part of the Temotu Province of the Solomon Islands. The name ''Vanikoro'' is a ...

Vanikoro
; a rescue expedition led by
Bruni d'Entrecasteaux Antoine Raymond Joseph de Bruni, chevalier d'Entrecasteaux () (8 November 1737 – 21 July 1793) was a French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the Fre ...
sailed to Vanikoro but found no trace of La Pérouse. The fate of La Pérouse was not confirmed until 1826, when the English merchant
Peter Dillon Peter Dillon (15 June 1788 – 9 February 1847) was a ship's captain engaged in the merchant trade, explorer and writer. Dillon discovered in 1826–27 the fate of the Jean-François de Galaup, comte de La Pérouse, La Pérouse expedition. Early c ...
visited Tikopia and discovered items belonging to La Pérouse in the possession of the local people, confirmed by the subsequent voyage of
Jules Dumont d'Urville Jules Sébastien César Dumont d'Urville (; 23 May 1790 – 8 May 1842) was a French List of explorers, explorer and French Navy, naval officer who explored the south and western Pacific Ocean, Pacific, Australia, New Zealand, and Antarctica. ...
in 1828. Some of the earliest regular foreign visitors to the islands were
whaling Whaling is the process of hunting of whales for their usable products such as Whale meat, meat and blubber, which can be turned into Whale oil, a type of oil that became increasingly important in the Industrial Revolution. It was practiced as ...

whaling
vessels from Britain, the United States and Australia. They came for food, wood and water from late in the 18th century, establishing a trading relationship with the Solomon Islanders and later taking aboard islanders to serve as crewmen on their ships. Relations between the islanders and visiting seamen was not always good and sometimes there was bloodshed. A knock-on effect of the greater European contact was the spread of diseases to which local peoples had no immunity, as well a shift in the balance of power between coastal groups, who had access to European weapons and technology, and inland groups who did not. In the second half of the 1800s more traders arrived seeking turtleshells,
sea cucumbers Sea cucumbers are echinoderm An echinoderm is any member of the phylum In biology, a phylum (; plural The plural (sometimes list of glossing abbreviations, abbreviated ), in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical nu ...
,
copra Copra ( > ) refers to the dried coconut The coconut tree (''Cocos nucifera'') is a member of the palm tree family (biology), family (Arecaceae) and the only living species of the genus ''Cocos''. The term "coconut" (or the archaic "coc ...

copra
and
sandalwood Sandalwood is a class of woods from trees in the genus ''Santalum''. The woods are heavy, yellow, and fine-grained, and, unlike many other aromatic woods, they retain their fragrance for decades. Sandalwood oil is extracted from the woods for us ...

sandalwood
, occasionally establishing semi-permanent trading stations. However initial attempts at more long-term settlement, such as
Benjamin Boyd Benjamin Boyd (21 August 180115 October 1851) was a Scottish entrepreneur who became a major shipowner, banker, grazier, politician and slaver, exploiting South Sea Islander labour in the colony of New South Wales New South Wales (abbre ...
's colony on Guadalcanal in 1851, were unsuccessful. Beginning in the 1840s, and accelerating in the 1860s, islanders began to be recruited (or often kidnapped) as labourers for the colonies in Australia, Fiji and Samoa in a process known as "
blackbirding Blackbirding involves the coercion of people through deception or kidnapping to work as slaves or poorly paid labourers in countries distant to their native land. The term has been most commonly applied to the large-scale taking of people indig ...
". Conditions for workers were often poor and exploitative, and local islanders often violently attacked any Europeans who appeared on their island. The blackbird trade was chronicled by prominent Western writers, such as Joe Melvin and
Jack London John Griffith London (born John Griffith Chaney; January 12, 1876 – November 22, 1916) was an American novelist, journalist and social activist. A pioneer of commercial fiction and American magazines, he was one of the first American authors ...
. Christian missionaries also began visiting the Solomons from the 1840s, beginning with an attempt by French Catholics under Jean-Baptiste Epalle to establish a mission on Santa Isabel, which was abandoned after Epalle was killed by islanders in 1845. Anglican missionaries began arriving from the 1850s, followed by other denominations, over time gaining a large number of converts.


Colonial period (1886–1978)


Establishment of colonial rule

In 1884
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inh ...
annexed north-east New Guinea and the Bismarck Archipelago, and in 1886 they extended their rule over the
North Solomon Islands The Northern Solomons were the more northerly group of islands in the Solomon Islands archipelago over which Germany declared a protectorate A protectorate is a state that is controlled and protected by another sovereign state. It is a dep ...
, covering Bougainville, Buka, Choiseul, Santa Isabel, the Shortlands and Ontong Java atoll. In 1886 Germany and Britain confirmed this arrangement, with Britain gaining a "sphere of influence" over the southern Solomons. Germany paid little attention to the islands, with German authorities based in New Guinea not even visiting the area until 1888. The German presence, along with pressure from the missionaries to rein in the excesses of the blackbirding system, prompted the British to declare a protectorate over the southern Solomons in March 1893, initially encompassing New Georgia, Malaita, Guadalcanal, Makira, Mono Island and the central Nggela Islands. In April 1896
Charles Morris Woodford Charles is a masculine given name A given name (also known as a first name or forename) is the part of a quoted in that identifies a person, potentially with a as well, and differentiates that person from the other members of a gr ...
was appointed as the British Acting Deputy Commissioner and confirmed in post the following year. Woodford set up an administrative headquarters on the small island of
Tulagi Tulagi, less commonly known as Tulaghi, is a small island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on ...
, and in 1898 and 1899 the Rennell and Bellona Islands,
Sikaiana Sikaiana (formerly called the Stewart Islands) is a small atoll An atoll (), sometimes known as a coral atoll, is a ring-shaped coral reef A coral reef is an underwater ecosystem An ecosystem is a community (ecology), community of ...
, the Santa Cruz Islands and outlying islands such as Anuta, Fataka, Temotu and Tikopia were added to the protectorate. In 1900, under the terms of the Tripartite Convention of 1899, Germany ceded the Northern Solomon to Britain, minus Buka and Bougainville, the latter becoming part of
German New Guinea German New Guinea (german: link=no, Deutsch-Neuguinea) consisted of the northeastern part of the island of New Guinea New Guinea (; Hiri Motu: ''Niu Gini''; id, Papua, historically ) is the List of islands by area, world's second-larges ...

German New Guinea
despite geographically belonging to the Solomons archipelago. Woodford's underfunded administration struggled to maintain law and order on the remote colony. In the 1890s/early 1900s there were numerous cases of European settlers being killed by islanders, with the British often retaliating via collective punishment of guilty villages, often by indiscriminately shelling coastal areas from gunboats. The British attempted to encourage plantation settlements, however by 1902 there were only about 80 European settlers in the islands. Attempts at economic development met with mixed results, though Levers Pacific Plantations Ltd., a subsidiary of
Lever Brothers Lever Brothers was a British manufacturing company founded in 1885 by two brothers: William Hesketh Lever, 1st Viscount Leverhulme (1851–1925), and James Darcy Lever (1854–1916). They invested in and successfully promoted a new soap-making proc ...
, managed to establish a profitable copra plantation industry which employed many islanders. Small scale mining and logging industries were also developed. However the colony remained something of backwater, with education, medical and other social services being the preserve of the missionaries. Violence also continued, most notably with the
murder Murder is the unlawful killing of another human without justification (jurisprudence), justification or valid excuse (legal), excuse, especially the unlawful killing of another human with malice aforethought. ("The killing of another person w ...
of colonial administrator William R. Bell by Basiana of the Kwaio people on Malaita in 1927, as Bell attempted to enforce an unpopular head tax. Several Kwaio were killed in a retaliatory raid, and Basiana and his accomplices executed.


World War II

From 1942 until the end of 1943, the Solomon Islands were the scene of several major land, sea and air battles between the Allies and the
Japanese Empire The was a historical nation-state that existed from the Meiji Restoration The , referred to at the time as the , and also known as the Meiji Renovation, Revolution, Reform, or Renewal, was a political event that restored practical imp ...

Japanese Empire
's armed forces. Following the Japanese
attack on Pearl Harbor The Attack on Pearl HarborAlso known as the Battle of Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike In the United States Armed Forces, military of the United States, strikes and raids are a group of military operations that, alongside quite ...

attack on Pearl Harbor
in 1941 war was declared between Japan and the Allied Powers, and the Japanese, seeking to protect their southern flank, invaded South-East Asia and New Guinea. In May 1942 the Japanese launched
Operation Mo or the Port Moresby Operation was a Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , ...
, occupying Tulagi and most of the western Solomon Islands, including Guadalcanal where they began work on an airstrip. The British administration had already relocated to
Auki Auki is the provincial capital of Malaita Province Malaita Province is the most populous and one of the largest of the nine provinces of Solomon Islands. It is named after its largest island, Malaita (also known as "Big Malaita" or "Maramapaina ...

Auki
, Malaita and most of the European population had been evacuated to Australia. The Allies counter-invaded Guadalcanal in August 1942, followed by the
New Georgia campaign The New Georgia campaign was a series of land and naval battles of the Pacific campaign of World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a World war, global war that lasted from 1939 to 194 ...
in 1943, both of which were turning points in the
Pacific War The Pacific War, sometimes called the Asia–Pacific War, was the theater Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of performing art that uses live performers, usually actors or actresses, to present the experience of a real or i ...
, stopping and then countering the Japanese advance. The conflict resulted in thousands of Allied, Japanese and civilian deaths, as well an immense destruction across the islands.
Coastwatchers The Coastwatchers, also known as the Coast Watch Organisation, Combined Field Intelligence Service or Section C, Allied Intelligence Bureau, were Allies of World War II, Allied military intelligence operatives stationed on remote Pacific islands ...
from the Solomon Islands played a major role in providing intelligence and rescuing other Allied servicemen. U.S. Admiral
William Halsey William Frederick Halsey Jr. (October 30, 1882 – August 16, 1959) was a fleet admiral An admiral of the fleet or fleet admiral (equivalent rank to admiral of the navy or grand admiral) is a military naval A navy, naval force, or mari ...
, the commander of Allied forces during the Battle for Guadalcanal, recognised the coastwatchers' contributions by stating "The coastwatchers saved Guadalcanal and Guadalcanal saved the South Pacific." In addition around 3,200 men served in the Solomon Islands Labour Corps and some 6,000 enlisted in the British Solomon Islands Protectorate Defence Force, with their exposure to the Americans leading to several social and political transformations. For example, the Americans had extensively developed
Honiara Honiara () is the capital and largest city of Solomon Islands, situated on the northwestern coast of Guadalcanal. , it had a population of 84,520 people. The city is served by Honiara International Airport and the seaport of Point Cruz, and ...

Honiara
, with the capital shifting there from Tulagi in 1952, and the
Pijin language Pijin (Solomons Pidgin or Neo-Solomonic) is a language spoken in the Solomon Islands. It is closely related to Tok Pisin of Papua New Guinea and Bislama of Vanuatu; these might be considered dialects of a single language. It is also related to ...
was heavily influenced by the communication between Americans and the Islands inhabitants. The relatively easy-going, friendly attitude of the Americans also contrasted sharply with the subservience expected by the British colonial rulers, and profoundly changed Solomons Islanders' attitude to the colonial regime. File:USS Enterprise (CV-6) under attack and burning during the Battle of the Eastern Solomons on 24 August 1942 (NH 97778).jpg, The aircraft carrier under aerial attack during the
Battle of the Eastern Solomons The naval Battle of the Eastern Solomons (also known as the Battle of the Stewart Islands and, in Japanese sources, as the Second Battle of the Solomon Sea) took place on 24–25 August 1942, and was the third Aircraft carrier, carrier battle of ...
With the outbreak of the Second World War most planters and traders were evacuated to Australia and most cultivation ceased. Some of the most intense fighting of the war occurred in the Solomons. The most significant of the Allied Forces' operations against the Japanese Imperial Forces was launched on 7 August 1942, with simultaneous naval bombardments and amphibious landings on the
Florida Islands The Nggela Islands, also known as the Florida Islands, are a small island group in the Central Province of Solomon Islands Solomon Islands is a sovereign state consisting of six major islands and over 900 smaller islands in Oceania, to ...
at
Tulagi Tulagi, less commonly known as Tulaghi, is a small island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on ...
and Red Beach on
Guadalcanal Guadalcanal (; indigenous name: ''Isatabu'') is the principal island in Guadalcanal Province of the Solomon Islands, located in the Western Pacific Ocean, south-western Pacific, northeast of Australia. It is the largest island in the Solomon Isl ...

Guadalcanal
. The
Battle of Guadalcanal The Guadalcanal campaign, also known as the Battle of Guadalcanal and codenamed Operation Watchtower by American forces, was a military campaign fought between 7 August 1942 and 9 February 1943 on and around the island of Guadalcanal Gua ...
became an important and bloody campaign fought in the Pacific War as the Allies began to repulse the Japanese expansion. Of strategic importance during the war were the
coastwatchers The Coastwatchers, also known as the Coast Watch Organisation, Combined Field Intelligence Service or Section C, Allied Intelligence Bureau, were Allies of World War II, Allied military intelligence operatives stationed on remote Pacific islands ...
operating in remote locations, often on Japanese held islands, providing early warning and intelligence of Japanese naval, army and aircraft movements during the campaign. File:Marines rest in the field on Guadalcanal.jpg, American Marines rest during the 1942
Guadalcanal Campaign The Guadalcanal campaign, also known as the Battle of Guadalcanal and Code name, codenamed Operation Watchtower by American forces, was a military campaign fought between 7 August 1942 and 9 February 1943 on and around the island of Guadalca ...
. Islanders Biuku Gasa and Eroni Kumana were the first to find the shipwrecked
John F. Kennedy John Fitzgerald Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), often referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the ...

John F. Kennedy
and his crew of the
PT-109 ''PT-109'' was an 80' Electric Launch Company, Elco PT boat (patrol torpedo boat) last commanded by Lieutenant (junior grade) John F. Kennedy, future United States president, in the Pacific Ocean theater of World War II, Pacific theater during W ...
. They suggested writing a rescue message on a coconut, and delivered the coconut by paddling a dugout canoe. The coconut was later kept on Kennedy's desk when he became
President of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of ...

President of the United States
. File:American forces landing at Rendova Island.JPEG, American forces landing at Rendova Island. File:Cactus Air Force aircraft at Henderson Field, Guadalcanal, circa in 1942 (74250534).gif, The
Cactus Air Force Cactus Air Force refers to the ensemble of Allied air power assigned to the island of Guadalcanal Guadalcanal (; indigenous name: ''Isatabu'') is the principal island in Guadalcanal Province of the Solomon Islands, located in the Western Pac ...
at Henderson Field, Guadalcanal in October 1942. File:Vousa.gif, The coastwatcher
Jacob C. Vouza Sir Jacob Charles Vouza, (c. 1892 – 15 March 1984) was a native police officer of the British Solomon Islands Protectorate, who served with the United States Marine Corps The United States Marine Corps (USMC), also referred to as the U ...
on Guadalcanal. File:GuadCoastwatcher.gif, Members of the British Solomon Islands Protectorate Defence Force in 1943.


Post-war period and the lead-up to independence

In 1943–44 the Malaita-based chief Aliki Nono'ohimae had founded the Maasina Rule movement (aka the Native Council Movement, literally "Brotherhood Rule"), and was later joined by another chief, Hoasihau. Their aims were to improve the economic well-being of native Solomon Islanders, gain greater autonomy and to act as a liaison between Islanders and the colonial administration. The movement was especially popular with ex-Labour Corp members and after the war its numbers swelled, with the movement spreading to other islands. Alarmed at the growth of the movement, the British launched "Operation De-Louse" in 1947-8 and arrested most of the Maasina leaders. Malaitans then organised a campaign of civil disobedience, prompting mass arrests. In 1950 a new Resident Commissioner, Henry Gregory-Smith, arrived and released the leaders of the movement, though the disobedience campaign continued. In 1952 new High Commissioner (later Governor) Robert Stanley met with leaders of the movement and agreed to the creation of an island council. In late 1952 Stanley formally moved the capital of the territory to Honiara. In the early 1950s the possibility of transferring sovereignty of the islands to Australia was discussed by the British and Australian governments, however the Australians were reluctant to accept the financial burden of administering the territory and the idea was shelved. With decolonisation sweeping the colonial world, and Britain no longer willing (or able) to bear the financial burdens of the Empire, the colonial authorities sought to prepare the Solomons for self-governance. Appointed Executive and Legislative Council of the Solomon Islands, Legislative Councils were established in 1960, with a degree of elected Solomon Islander representation introduced in 1964 and then extended in 1967. A new constitution was drawn up in 1970 which merged the two Councils into one Governing Council of the Solomon Islands, Governing Council, though the British Governor still retained extensive powers. Discontent with this prompted the creation of a new constitution in 1974 which reduced much of the Governor's remaining powers and created the post of Chief Minister, first held by Solomon Mamaloni. Full self-government for the territory was achieved in 1976, a year after the independence of neighbouring Papua New Guinea from Australia. Meanwhile, discontent grew in the Western islands, with many fearing marginalisation in future a Honiara- or Malaita-dominated state, prompting the formation of the Western Breakaway Movement. A conference held in London in 1977 agreed that the Solomons would gain full independence the following year. Under the terms of the Solomon Islands Act 1978 the country was annexed to dominion, Her Majesty's dominions and granted independence on 7 July 1978. The first Prime Minister was Sir Peter Kenilorea of the Solomon Islands United Party (SIUP), with Queen Elizabeth II becoming Queen of Solomon Islands, represented locally by a Governor-General of Solomon Islands, Governor General. File:I was present for the Solomon Islands Independence Ceremony on 7 July 1978.jpg, The Solomon Islands Independence Ceremony on 7 July 1978 File:The Five Dollar Proof Coin.jpg, The Five Dollar Proof Coin File:The Five Dollar Proof Coin of the Solomon Islands 24 October 1977.jpg, The Five Dollar Proof Coin of the Solomon Islands 24 October 1977


Independence era (1978-present)


Early post-independence years

Peter Kenilorea went on to win the 1980 Solomon Islands general election, serving as PM until 1981, when he was replaced by Solomon Mamaloni of the People's Alliance Party (Solomon Islands), People's Alliance Party (PAP) after a no confidence vote. Mamaloni created the Central Bank and national airline, and pushed for greater autonomy for individual islands of the country. Kenilorea returned to power after winning the 1984 Solomon Islands general election, 1984 election, though his second term lasted only two years before he was replaced by Ezekiel Alebua following allegations of misuse of French aid money. In 1986 the Solomons helped found the Melanesian Spearhead Group, aimed at fostering cooperation and trade in the region. After winning the 1989 election Mamaloni and the PAP returned to power, with Mamaloni dominating Solomon Islands politics from the early to mid 1990s (save for the one year Premiership of Francis Billy Hilly). Mamaloni made efforts to make the Solomons a republic, however these were unsuccessful. He also had to deal with the effects of the Bougainville Civil War, conflict in neighbouring Bougainville which broke out in 1988, causing many refugees to flee to the Solomons. Tensions arose with Papua New Guinea as PNG forces frequently entered Solomons territory in the pursuit of rebels. The situation calmed down and relations improved following the end of the conflict in 1998. Meanwhile, the country's financial situation continued to deteriorate, with much of the budget coming from the logging industry, often conducted at an unsustainable rate, not helped by Mamaloni's creation of a 'discretionary fund' for use by politicians, which fostered fraud and corruption. Discontent with his rule led to a split in the PAP, and Mamaloni lost the 1993 Solomon Islands general election, 1993 election to Billy Hilly, though Hilly was later sacked by the Governor-General after a number of defections caused him to lose his majority, allowing Mamloni to return to power in 1994, where he remained until 1997. Excessive logging, government corruption and unsustainable levels of public spending continued to grow, and public discontent caused Mamaloni to lose the 1997 Solomon Islands general election, 1997 election. The new Prime Minister, Bartholomew Ulufa'alu of the Solomon Islands Liberal Party, attempted to enact economic reforms, however his Premiership soon became engulfed in a serious ethnic conflict known as 'The Tensions'.


Ethnic violence (1998-2003)

Commonly referred to as ''the tensions'' or ''the ethnic tension'', the initial civil unrest was mainly characterised by fighting between the Isatabu Freedom Movement (IFM, also known as the Guadalcanal Revolutionary Army and the Isatabu Freedom Fighters) and the Malaita Eagle Force (as well as the Marau Eagle Force). For many years people from the island of Malaita had been migrating to Honiara and Guadalcanal, attracted primarily by the greater economic opportunities available there. The large influx caused tensions with native Guadalcanal islanders (known as Guales), and in late 1998 the IFM was formed and began a campaign of intimidation and violence towards Malaitan settlers. Thousands of Malaitans subsequently fled back to Malaita or to Honiara, and in mid-1999 the Malaita Eagle Force (MEF) was established to protect Malaitans on Guadalcanal. In late 1999, after several failed attempts at brokering a peace deal, Prime Minister Bartholomew Ulufa'alu declared a four-month state of emergency, and also requested assistance from Australia and New Zealand, but his appeal was rejected. Meanwhile, law and order on Guadalcanal collapsed, with an ethnically divided police unable to assert authority and many of their weapons depots being raided by the militias; by this point the MEF controlled Honiara with the IFM controlling the rest of Guadalacanal. On 5 June 2000 Ulufa'alu was kidnapped by the MEF who felt that, although he was a Malaitan, he was not doing enough to protect their interests. Ulufa'alu subsequently resigned in exchange for his release. Manasseh Sogavare, who had earlier been Finance Minister in Ulufa'alu's government but had subsequently joined the opposition, was elected as Prime Minister by 23–21 over the Rev. Leslie Boseto. However, Sogavare's election was immediately shrouded in controversy because six MPs (thought to be supporters of Boseto) were unable to attend parliament for the crucial vote. On 15 October 2000 the Townsville Peace Agreement was signed by the MEF, elements of the IFM, and the Solomon Islands Government. This was closely followed by the Marau Peace agreement in February 2001, signed by the Marau Eagle Force, the IFM, the Guadalcanal Provincial Government, and the Solomon Islands Government. However, a key Guale militant leader, Harold Keke, refused to sign the agreement, causing a split with the Guale groups. Subsequently, Guale signatories to the agreement led by Andrew Te'e joined with the Malaitan-dominated police to form the 'Joint Operations Force'. During the next two years the conflict moved to the remote Weathercoast region of southern Guadalcanal as the Joint Operations unsuccessfully attempted to capture Keke and his group. By early 2001 the economy had collapsed and the government was bankrupt. New 2001 Solomon Islands general election, elections in December 2001 brought Allan Kemakeza into the Prime Minister's chair, with the support of his People's Alliance Party and the Association of Independent Members. Law and order deteriorated as the nature of the conflict shifted: there was continuing violence on the Weathercoast, whilst militants in Honiara increasingly turned their attention to crime, extortion and banditry. The Department of Finance would often be surrounded by armed men when funding was due to arrive. In December 2002, Finance Minister Laurie Chan resigned after being forced at gunpoint to sign a cheque made out to some of the militants. Conflict also broke out in Western Province between locals and Malaitan settlers. Renegade members of the Bougainville Revolutionary Army (BRA) were invited in as a protection force but ended up causing as much trouble as they prevented. The prevailing atmosphere of lawlessness, widespread extortion, and ineffective police prompted a formal request by the Solomon Islands Government for outside help, a request was unanimously supported in Parliament. In July 2003, Australian and Pacific Islands police and troops arrived in Solomon Islands under the auspices of the Australian-led Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands (RAMSI). A sizeable international security contingent of 2,200 police and troops, led by Australia and New Zealand, and with representatives from about 15 other Pacific nations, began arriving the next month under Operation Helpem Fren. The situation improved dramatically, with violence ending and Harold Keke surrendering to the force. Some 200 people had been killed in the conflict. Since this time some commentators have considered the country a failed state, with the nation having failed to build an inclusive national identity capable of overriding local island and ethnic loyalties. However, other academics argue that rather than being a 'failed state', it is an unformed state: a state that never consolidated even after decades of independence. Furthermore, some scholars, such Kabutaulaka (2001) and Dinnen (2002) argue that the 'ethnic conflict' label is an oversimplification.


Post-conflict era

Kemakeza remained in office until April 2006, when he lost the 2006 Solomon Islands general election and Snyder Rini became PM. However allegations that Rini had used bribes from Chinese businessmen to buy the votes of members of Parliament led to mass rioting in the capital
Honiara Honiara () is the capital and largest city of Solomon Islands, situated on the northwestern coast of Guadalcanal. , it had a population of 84,520 people. The city is served by Honiara International Airport and the seaport of Point Cruz, and ...

Honiara
, concentrated on the city's Chinatown area. A deep underlying resentment against the minority Han Chinese, Chinese business community led to much of Chinatown in the city being destroyed. Tensions were also increased by the belief that large sums of money were being exported to China. China sent chartered aircraft to evacuate hundreds of Chinese who fled to avoid the riots. Evacuation of Australian and British citizens was on a much smaller scale. Additional Australian, New Zealand and Fijian police and troops were dispatched to try to quell the unrest. Rini eventually resigned before facing a motion of no-confidence in Parliament, and Parliament elected Manasseh Sogavare as Prime Minister. Sogavare struggled to assert his authority and was also hostile to the Australian presence in the country; after one failed attempt, he was removed in no confidence vote in 2007 and replaced by Derek Sikua of the Solomon Islands Liberal Party. In 2008 a Truth and Reconciliation Commission (Solomon Islands), Truth and Reconciliation Commission was established to examine and help heal the wounds of the 'tension' years. Sikua lost the 2010 Solomon Islands general election to Danny Philip, though after a vote of no confidence in him following allegations of corruption, Philip was ousted and replaced by Gordon Darcy Lilo. Sogavare returned to power after the 2014 Solomon Islands general election, 2014 election, and oversaw the withdrawal of RAMSI forces from the country in 2017. Sogavare was ousted in a no confidence vote in 2017, which saw Rick Houenipwela come to power, however Sogavare returned to the Prime Ministership after winning the 2019 Solomon Islands general election, 2019 election, sparking rioting in Honiara. In 2019 Sogavare announced that the Solomons would be switching recognition from Taiwan to China. In 2021 Solomon Islands unrest, November 2021 there was mass rioting and unrest, which led to the deployment of Australian Federal Police and Australian Defence Force, Defence Forces.


Politics

Solomon Islands is a
constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy, parliamentary monarchy, or democratic monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch exercises his authority in accordance with a constitution and is not alone in deciding. Constitutional monarchies differ from ...
and has a parliamentary system of government. As Queen of Solomon Islands,
Elizabeth II Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy A constitutional mo ...

Elizabeth II
is head of state; she is represented by the Governor-General who is chosen by the Parliament for a five-year term. There is a unicameral parliament of 50 members, elected for four-year terms. However, Parliament may be dissolved by majority vote of its members before the completion of its term. Parliamentary representation is based on single-member constituencies. Suffrage is universal for citizens over age 21. The head of government is the Prime Minister of Solomon Islands, Prime Minister, who is elected by Parliament and chooses the Cabinet of Solomon Islands, cabinet. Each ministry is headed by a cabinet member, who is assisted by a permanent secretary, a career public servant who directs the staff of the ministry. Solomon Islands governments are characterised by weak political parties (see List of political parties in Solomon Islands) and highly unstable parliamentary coalitions. They are subject to frequent votes of no confidence, leading to frequent changes in government leadership and cabinet appointments. Land ownership is reserved for Solomon Islanders. The law provides that resident expatriates, such as the Chinese and Kiribati, may obtain Solomon Islands passport, citizenship through naturalisation. Land generally is still held on a family or village basis and may be inheritance, handed down from mother or father according to local custom. The islanders are reluctant to provide land for nontraditional economic undertakings, and this has resulted in continual disputes over land ownership. No military forces are maintained by Solomon Islands although a Royal Solomon Islands Police Force, police force of nearly 500 includes a border protection unit. The police also are responsible for fire service, disaster relief, and Royal Solomon Islands Police Force#Maritime Department, maritime surveillance. The police force is headed by a Police commissioner, commissioner, appointed by the Governor-General of Solomon Islands, governor-general and responsible to the Prime Minister of Solomon Islands, prime minister. On 27 December 2006, the Solomon Islands government took steps to prevent the country's Australian police ranks, Australian police chief from returning to the Pacific nation. On 12 January 2007,
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
replaced its top diplomat expelled from Solomon Islands for political interference in a conciliatory move aimed at easing a four-month dispute between the two countries. On 13 December 2007, Prime Minister Manasseh Sogavare was toppled by a vote of no confidence in Parliament, following the defection of five ministers to the opposition. It was the first time a prime minister had lost office in this way in Solomon Islands. On 20 December, the National Parliament of Solomon Islands, parliament elected the opposition's candidate (and former Minister for Education) Derek Sikua as Prime Minister, in a vote of 32 to 15.


Judiciary

The Governor General appoints the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court on the advice of the Prime Minister and the Leader of the Opposition. The Governor General appoints the other justices with the advice of a judicial commission. The current Chief Justice is Sir Albert Palmer. Since March 2014 Justice Edwin Goldsbrough has served as the President of the Court of Appeal for Solomon Islands. Justice Goldsbrough has previously served a five-year term as a Judge of the High Court of Solomon Islands (2006–2011). Justice Edwin Goldsbrough then served as the Chief Justice of the Turks and Caicos Islands.


Foreign relations

Solomon Islands is a member of the United Nations, Interpol, Commonwealth of Nations, British Commonwealth, Pacific Islands Forum, Pacific Community, International Monetary Fund, and the ACP countries, African, Caribbean, and Pacific (ACP) countries (ACP) (Lomé Convention). Until September 2019, it was one of the few countries to recognise the Taiwan, Republic of China (Taiwan) and maintain formal diplomatic relations with the latter. Relations with Papua New Guinea, which had become strained because of an influx of refugees from the Bougainville Island, Bougainville rebellion and attacks on the northern islands of Solomon Islands by elements pursuing Bougainville Civil War, Bougainvillean rebels, have been repaired. A 1998 peace accord on Bougainville removed the armed threat, and the two nations regularised border operations in a 2004 agreement. In March 2017, at the 34th regular session of the UN Human Rights Council,
Vanuatu Vanuatu ( or ; ), officially the Republic of Vanuatu (french: link=no, République de Vanuatu; Bislama: ''Ripablik blong Vanuatu''), is an island country located in the South Pacific Ocean. The archipelago, which is of volcanic origin, is ea ...

Vanuatu
made a joint statement on behalf of Solomon Islands and some other Pacific nations raising human rights violations in the Western New Guinea, which claimed by International Parliamentarians for West Papua (IPWP) that West Papua has been occupied by Indonesia since 1963, and requested that the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights produce a report. Indonesia rejected Vanuatu's allegations, and giving answer that Vanuatu not presenting the people of Papua and stop fantasizing about being one More than 100,000 Papuans have died during a 50-year Papua conflict. In September 2017, at the Seventy-second session of the United Nations General Assembly, 72nd Session of the UN General Assembly, the Prime Ministers of the Solomon Islands, Tuvalu and Vanuatu once again raised human rights abuses in Indonesian-occupied West Papua.


Military

Although the locally recruited British Solomon Islands Protectorate Defence Force was part of Allies of World War II, Allied Forces taking part in fighting in the Solomons during the Second World War, the country has not had any regular military forces since independence. The various paramilitary elements of the Royal Solomon Islands Police Force (RSIPF) were disbanded and disarmed in 2003 following the intervention of the Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands (RAMSI). RAMSI has a small military detachment headed by an Australian commander with responsibilities for assisting the police element of RAMSI in internal and external security. The RSIPF still operates two Pacific class patrol boats (RSIPV ''Auki'' and RSIPV ''Lata''), which constitute the de facto navy of Solomon Islands. In the long term, it is anticipated that the RSIPF will resume the defence role of the country. The police force is headed by a commissioner, appointed by the governor general and responsible to the Minister of Police, National Security & Correctional Services. The police budget of Solomon Islands has been strained due to a four-year civil war. Following Cyclone Zoe's strike on the islands of
Tikopia Tikopia is a high island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean (or, depending on definition, to Antarc ...
and Anuta in December 2002, Australia had to provide the Solomon Islands government with 200,000 Solomon dollars ($50,000 Australian) for fuel and supplies for the patrol boat ''Lata'' to sail with relief supplies. (Part of the work of RAMSI includes assisting the Solomon Islands government to stabilise its budget.)


Administrative divisions

For local government, the country is divided into ten administrative areas, of which nine are provinces administered by elected provincial assemblies and the tenth is the capital Honiara, administered by the Honiara Town Council. [1] excluding the Capital Territory of Honiara


Human rights

There are human rights concerns and issues in regards to education, water, sanitation, gender equality, and domestic violence. LGBT rights in Solomon Islands, Homosexuality is illegal in Solomon Islands.


Geography

Solomon Islands is an island nation that lies east of Papua New Guinea and consists of List of islands of Solomon Islands, six major islands and over 900 smaller islands. The major part of the nation of Solomon Islands covers many of the mountainous high islands of the Solomon Islands (archipelago), Solomon Islands archipelago, which includes Choiseul island, Choiseul, the
Shortland IslandsThe Shortland Islands archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea containing a small number of scattered islands. Indonesian Archipelago, ...
, the New Georgia Islands, Santa Isabel, the Russell Islands, the
Florida Islands The Nggela Islands, also known as the Florida Islands, are a small island group in the Central Province of Solomon Islands Solomon Islands is a sovereign state consisting of six major islands and over 900 smaller islands in Oceania, to ...
,
Tulagi Tulagi, less commonly known as Tulaghi, is a small island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on ...
,
Malaita Malaita is the primary island of Malaita Province in Solomon Islands Solomon Islands is a sovereign state consisting of six major islands and over 900 smaller islands in Oceania, to the east of Papua New Guinea and northwest of Vanuatu. I ...

Malaita
, South Malaita Island, Maramasike, Ulawa Island, Ulawa, Owaraha (Santa Ana),
Makira The island of Makira (also known as San Cristobal and San Cristóbal) is the largest island of Makira-Ulawa Province Makira-Ulawa Province is one of the nine provinces of Solomon Islands. Geography The main part of the province is Makira Isl ...
(San Cristobal), and the main island of
Guadalcanal Guadalcanal (; indigenous name: ''Isatabu'') is the principal island in Guadalcanal Province of the Solomon Islands, located in the Western Pacific Ocean, south-western Pacific, northeast of Australia. It is the largest island in the Solomon Isl ...

Guadalcanal
. Solomon Islands also includes smaller, isolated low atolls and high islands such as
Sikaiana Sikaiana (formerly called the Stewart Islands) is a small atoll An atoll (), sometimes known as a coral atoll, is a ring-shaped coral reef A coral reef is an underwater ecosystem An ecosystem is a community (ecology), community of ...
, Rennell Island, Bellona Island, the
Santa Cruz Islands The Santa Cruz Islands are a group of islands in the Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean (or, depending on definitio ...
and tiny outliers such as
Tikopia Tikopia is a high island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean (or, depending on definition, to Antarc ...
, Anuta, and Fatutaka. Although Bougainville Island, Bougainville is the largest island in the Solomon Islands archipelago it is politically an autonomous region of
Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea (PNG; , ; tpi, Papua Niugini; ho, Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea ( tpi, Independen Stet bilong Papua Niugini; ho, Independen Stet bilong Papua Niu Gini), is a country in Oceania ...

Papua New Guinea
and does not form part of the nation of Solomon Islands. The country's islands lie between latitudes 5th parallel south, 5° and 13th parallel south, 13°S, and longitudes 155th meridian east, 155° and 169th meridian east, 169°E. The distance between the westernmost and easternmost islands is about . The Santa Cruz Islands (of which Tikopia is part) are situated north of
Vanuatu Vanuatu ( or ; ), officially the Republic of Vanuatu (french: link=no, République de Vanuatu; Bislama: ''Ripablik blong Vanuatu''), is an island country located in the South Pacific Ocean. The archipelago, which is of volcanic origin, is ea ...

Vanuatu
and are especially isolated at more than from the other islands.


Climate

The islands' ocean-equatorial climate is extremely humid throughout the year, with a mean temperature of and few extremes of temperature or weather. June through August is the cooler period. Though seasons are not pronounced, the northwesterly winds of November through April bring more frequent rainfall and occasional squalls or cyclones. The annual rainfall is about .


Ecology

The Solomon Islands archipelago is part of two distinct terrestrial ecoregions. Most of the islands are part of the Solomon Islands rain forests ecoregion, which also includes the islands of Bougainville and Buka; these forests have come under pressure from forestry activities. The Santa Cruz Islands are part of the Vanuatu rain forests ecoregion, together with the neighbouring archipelago of Vanuatu. The country had a 2019 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 7.19/10, ranking it 48th globally out of 172 countries. Soil quality ranges from extremely rich volcanic (there are volcanoes with varying degrees of activity on some of the larger islands) to relatively infertile limestone. More than 230 varieties of orchids and other tropical flowers brighten the landscape. Mammals are scarce on the islands, with the only terrestrial mammals being bats and small rodents. Birds and reptiles, however, are abundant. The islands contain several active and dormant volcanoes. The Tinakula and Kavachi volcanoes are the most active. On the southern side of Vangunu Island, the forests around the tiny community of Zaira are unique, providing habitat for at least three vulnerable species of animals. The 200 human inhabitants of the area have been trying to get the forests declared a protected area, so that logging and mining cannot disturb and pollute the pristine forests and coastline. The baseline survey of marine biodiversity in the Solomon Islands that was carried out in 2004, found 474 species of corals in the Solomons as well as nine species which could be new to science. This is the second highest diversity of corals in the World, second only to the Raja Ampat Islands in eastern Indonesia.


Water and sanitation

Scarcity of fresh water sources and lack of sanitation has been a constant challenge facing Solomon Islands. Reducing the number of those living without access to fresh water and sanitation by half was one of the 2015 Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) implemented by the United Nations through Goal 7, to ensure environmental sustainability. Though the islands generally have access to fresh water sources, it is typically only available in the state's capital of Honiara, and it is not guaranteed all year long. According to a UNICEF report, even the capital's poorest communities do not have access to adequate places to relieve their waste, and an estimated 70% Solomon Island schools have no access to safe and clean water for drinking, washing and relieving of waste. Lack of safe drinking water in school-age children results in high risks of contracting fatal diseases such as cholera and typhoid. The number of Solomon Islanders living with piped drinking water has been decreasing since 2011, while those living with non-piped water increased between 2000 and 2010. Nevertheless, one improvement is that those living with non-piped water has been decreasing consistently since 2011. In addition, the Solomon Islands Second Rural Development Program, enacted in 2014 and active until 2020, has been working to deliver competent infrastructure and other vital services to rural areas and villages of the Solomon Islands, which suffer the most from lack of safe drinking water and proper sanitation. Through improved infrastructure, services and resources, the program has also encouraged farmers and other agricultural sectors, through community-driven efforts, to connect them to the market, thus promoting economic growth. Rural villages such as Bolava, found in the Western Province of Solomon Islands, have benefited greatly from the program, with the implementation of water tanks and rain catchment and water storage systems. Not only has the improved infrastructure increased the quality of life in Solomon Islands, the services are also operated and developed by the community, thus creating a sense of communal pride and achievement among those previously living in hazardous conditions. The program is funded by various international development actors such as the World Bank, European Union, International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), and the Australian and Solomon Islands governments.


Earthquakes

On 2 April 2007 at 07:39:56 local time (UTC+11) an earthquake with magnitude 8.1 on the scale occurred at hypocentre S8.453 E156.957, northwest of the island's capital,
Honiara Honiara () is the capital and largest city of Solomon Islands, situated on the northwestern coast of Guadalcanal. , it had a population of 84,520 people. The city is served by Honiara International Airport and the seaport of Point Cruz, and ...

Honiara
and south-east of the capital of Western Province (Solomon Islands), Western Province, Gizo, Solomon Islands, Gizo, at a depth of 10 km (6.2 miles). More than 44 aftershocks with magnitude 5.0 or greater occurred up until 22:00:00 UTC, Wednesday, 4 April 2007. A tsunami followed killing at least 52 people, destroying more than 900 homes and leaving thousands of people homeless. Land upthrust extended the shoreline of one island, Ranongga, by up to exposing many once pristine coral reefs. On 6 February 2013, an earthquake with magnitude of 8.0 occurred at epicentre S10.80 E165.11 in the Santa Cruz Islands followed by a tsunami up to 1.5 metres. At least nine people were killed and many houses demolished. The main quake was preceded by a sequence of earthquakes with a magnitude of up to 6.0.


Economy

Solomon Islands' per-capita GDP of $600 ranks it as a lesser developed nation, and more than 75% of its labour force is engaged in subsistence agriculture and fishing. Most manufactured goods and petroleum products must be imported. Only 3.9% of the area of the islands are used for agriculture, and 78.1% are covered by forests making the Solomon Islands the 103rd ranked country covered by forests worldwide. Export Until 1998, when world prices for tropical timber fell steeply, timber was Solomon Islands' main export product, and, in recent years, Solomon Islands forests were dangerously Deforestation, overexploited. In the wake of the ethnic violence in June 2000, exports of palm oil and gold ceased while exports of timber fell. Recently, Solomon Islands courts have re-approved the export of live dolphins for profit, most recently to Dubai, United Arab Emirates. This practice was originally stopped by the government in 2004 after international uproar over a shipment of 28 live dolphins to Mexico. The move resulted in criticism from both
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
and New Zealand as well as several conservation organisations. As of 2019, rough wood still makes up two-thirds of export. Agriculture Other important cash crops and exports include
copra Copra ( > ) refers to the dried coconut The coconut tree (''Cocos nucifera'') is a member of the palm tree family (biology), family (Arecaceae) and the only living species of the genus ''Cocos''. The term "coconut" (or the archaic "coc ...

copra
, Cocoa bean, cacao and palm oil. In 2017 317,682 tons of coconuts were harvested making the country the 18th ranked producer of coconuts worldwide, and 24% of the exports corresponded to copra. Cocoa beans are mainly grown on the islands Guadalcanal, Makira and Malaita. In 2017 4,940 tons of cocoa beans were harvested making the Solomon Islands the 27th ranked producer of cocoa worldwide. Growth of production and export of copra and cacao, however, is hampered by old age of most coconut and cacao trees. In 2017 285,721 tons of palm oil were produced, making Solomon Islands the 24th ranked producer of palm oil worldwide. The agriculture on the Solomon Islands is hampered by a very severe lack of agricultural machines. For the local market but not for export many families grow taro (2017: 45,901 tons), rice (2017: 2,789 tons), yam (vegetable), yams (2017: 44,940 tons) and bananas (2017: 313 tons). Tobacco (2017: 118 tons) and spices (2017: 217 tons). are grown for the local market as well. Mining In 1998 gold mining began at Gold Ridge (mine), Gold Ridge on Guadalcanal. Minerals exploration in other areas continued. The islands are rich in undeveloped mineral resources such as lead, zinc, nickel, and gold. Negotiations are underway that may lead to the eventual reopening of the Gold Ridge mine which was closed after the riots in 2006. Fisheries Solomon Islands' fisheries also offer prospects for export and domestic economic expansion. A Japanese joint venture, Solomon Taiyo Ltd., which operated the only fish cannery in the country, closed in mid-2000 as a result of the ethnic disturbances. Though the plant has reopened under local management, the export of tuna has not resumed. Tourism Tourism, particularly diving, could become an important service industry for Solomon Islands. Tourism growth, however, is hampered by lack of infrastructure and transportation limitations. In 2017 the Solomon Islands were visited by 26,000 tourists making the country one of the least frequently-visited countries of the world. The Government hopes to increase the number of tourists up to 30,000 by the end of 2019 and up to 60,000 tourists per year by the end of 2025. Currency The Solomon Islands dollar (ISO 4217 code: ''SBD'') was introduced in 1977, replacing the Australian dollar at par. Its symbol is "SI$", but the "SI" prefix may be omitted if there is no confusion with other currencies also using the dollar sign "$". It is subdivided into 100 Cent (currency), cents. Local shell money is still important for traditional and ceremonial purposes in certain provinces and, in some remote parts of the country, for trade. Shell money was a widely used traditional currency in the Pacific Islands, in Solomon Islands, it is mostly manufactured in
Malaita Malaita is the primary island of Malaita Province in Solomon Islands Solomon Islands is a sovereign state consisting of six major islands and over 900 smaller islands in Oceania, to the east of Papua New Guinea and northwest of Vanuatu. I ...

Malaita
and
Guadalcanal Guadalcanal (; indigenous name: ''Isatabu'') is the principal island in Guadalcanal Province of the Solomon Islands, located in the Western Pacific Ocean, south-western Pacific, northeast of Australia. It is the largest island in the Solomon Isl ...

Guadalcanal
but can be bought elsewhere, such as the Honiara Central Market. The barter system often replaces money of any kind in remote areas. The Solomon Islands Government was insolvent by 2002. Since the Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands, RAMSI intervention in 2003, the government has recast its budget. It has consolidated and renegotiated its domestic debt and with Australian backing, is now seeking to renegotiate its foreign obligations. Principal aid donors are Australia, New Zealand, the European Union, Japan and Taiwan.


Energy

A team of renewable energy developers working for the South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission (SOPAC) and funded by the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership (REEEP), have developed a scheme that allows local communities to access renewable energy, such as solar, water and wind power, without the need to raise substantial sums of cash. Under the scheme, islanders who are unable to pay for solar lanterns in cash may pay instead in kind with crops.


Infrastructure


Flight connections

Solomon Airlines connects Honiara to Nadi in Fiji, Port Vila in
Vanuatu Vanuatu ( or ; ), officially the Republic of Vanuatu (french: link=no, République de Vanuatu; Bislama: ''Ripablik blong Vanuatu''), is an island country located in the South Pacific Ocean. The archipelago, which is of volcanic origin, is ea ...

Vanuatu
and Brisbane in
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
as well as to more than 20 domestic airports in each province of the country. To promote tourism Solomon Airlines introduced a weekly direct flight connection between Brisbane and Munda, Solomon Islands, Munda in 2019. Virgin Australia connects Honiara to Brisbane twice a week. Most of the domestic airports are accessible to small planes only as they have short, grass runways.


Roads

The road system in Solomon Islands is insufficient and there are no railways. The most important roads connect Honiara to Lambi (58 km; 36 miles) in the western part of Guadalcanal and to Aola (75 km; 47 miles) in the eastern part. There are few buses and these do not circulate according to a fixed timetable. In Honiara there is no bus terminus. The most important bus stop is in front of the Central Market.


Ferries

Most of the islands can be reached by ferry from Honiara. There is a daily connection from Honiara to Auki via Tulagi by a high speed catamaran.


Demographics

, there were  people in Solomon Islands.


Ethnic groups

The majority of Solomon Islanders are ethnically Melanesians, Melanesian (95.3%). Polynesians, Polynesian (3.1%) and Micronesian people, Micronesian (1.2%) are the two other significant groups.CIA World Factbook
Country profile: Solomon Islands
Retrieved 21 October 2006.
There are a few thousand ethnic Overseas Chinese, Chinese.Spiller, Penny:
Riots highlight Chinese tensions
, BBC News, Friday, 21 April 2006, 18:57 GMT


Languages

While English is the official language, only 1–2% of the population are able to communicate fluently in English. However, an English creole, Solomons Pijin, is a ''de facto'' lingua franca of the country spoken by the majority of the population, along with local indigenous languages. Pijin is closely related to Tok Pisin spoken in Papua New Guinea. The number of local languages listed for Solomon Islands is 74, of which 70 are living languages and 4 are extinct, according to ''Ethnologue, Languages of the World''. Western Oceanic languages (predominantly of the Southeast Solomonic languages, Southeast Solomonic group) are spoken on the central islands. Polynesian languages are spoken on Rennell Island, Rennell and Bellona Island, Bellona to the south,
Tikopia Tikopia is a high island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean (or, depending on definition, to Antarc ...
, Anuta and Fatutaka to the far east,
Sikaiana Sikaiana (formerly called the Stewart Islands) is a small atoll An atoll (), sometimes known as a coral atoll, is a ring-shaped coral reef A coral reef is an underwater ecosystem An ecosystem is a community (ecology), community of ...
to the north east, and Luaniua to the north (
Ontong Java Atoll Ontong Java Atoll or Luangiua is one of the largest atoll An atoll (), sometimes known as a coral atoll, is a ring-shaped coral reef A coral reef is an underwater ecosystems, ecosystem characterized by reef-building corals. Reefs are ...
, also known as Lord Howe Atoll). The immigrant population from Kiribati (the i-Kiribati) speak Gilbertese language, Gilbertese.


Religion

The religion of Solomon Islands is mainly Christian (comprising about 92% of the population). The main Christian denominations are: the Anglican Church of the Province of Melanesia, Church of Melanesia (35%), Catholic Church in Solomon Islands, Catholic Church (19%), South Seas Evangelical Church (17%), United Church in Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands (11%) and Seventh-day Adventist Church, Seventh-day Adventist (10%). Other Christian denominations are Jehovah's Witnesses, New Apostolic Church (80 churches) and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). Another 5% adhere to aboriginal beliefs. The remaining adhere to Islam or the Baháʼí Faith. According to the most recent reports, Islam in Solomon Islands is made up of approximately 350 Muslims, including members of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community.


Health

Female life expectancy at birth was at 66.7 years and male life expectancy at birth at 64.9 in 2007.Human Development Report 2009 – Solomon Islands
. Hdrstats.undp.org. Retrieved 24 September 2010.
1990–1995 fertility rate was at 5.5 births per woman. Government expenditure on health per capita was at US$99 (PPP). Healthy life expectancy at birth is at 60 years. Blond hair occurs in 10% of the population in the islands. After years of questions, studies have resulted in the better understanding of the blond gene. The findings show that the blond hair trait is due to an amino acid change of protein TYRP1. This accounts for the highest occurrence of blond hair outside of European influence in the world. While 10% of Solomon Islanders display the blond phenotype, about 26% of the population carry the recessive trait for it as well.


Communicable diseases

About 35% deaths occurred in 2008 due to communicable diseases and maternal, perinatal, and nutritional conditions. Solomon Islands had 13 cumulative HIV cases from 1994 to 2009 and between 2000 and 2011 confirmed malaria cases decreased steadily. In 2017 lower respiratory infections accounted for 11.18%, neonatal disorders for 3.59%, STI (excluding HIV) for 2.9% of total deaths.


Noncommunicable diseases

Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are prime causes of deaths in Pacific islands, and responsible for 60% deaths in Solomon Islands. Premature mortality from NCDs was 1900 in 2016. Ischemic heart disease, stroke and diabetes were the main causes of mortality due to NCDs in 2017.


= Sustainable development goals and Solomon Islands

= Over last two decades Solomon Islands has achieved many goals in health outcomes and moving towards fulfilling universal health coverage. Identifying and treating NCDs, addressing manpower shortage in health sector, improving the availability of treatment facilities in all health care centers are the new priorities of Solomon Islands.


Education

Education in Solomon Islands is not compulsory, and only 60 percent of school-age children have access to primary education."Solomon Islands"
. ''2001 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor''. Bureau of International Labor Affairs, United States Department of Labor (2002). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
There are kindergartens in various places, including the capital, but they are not free. From 1990 to 1994, the gross primary school enrolment rose from 84.5 percent to 96.6 percent. Primary school attendance rates were unavailable for Solomon Islands as of 2001. While enrolment rates indicate a level of commitment to education, they do not always reflect children's participation in school. The Department of Education and Human Resource Development efforts and plans to expand educational facilities and increase enrolment. However, these actions have been hindered by a lack of government funding, misguided teacher training programs, poor co-ordination of programs, and a failure of the government to pay teachers. The percentage of the government's budget allocated to education was 9.7 percent in 1998, down from 13.2 percent in 1990. Male educational attainment tends to be higher than female educational attainment. The University of the South Pacific, which has campuses in 12 Pacific island nations, has a campus at
Guadalcanal Guadalcanal (; indigenous name: ''Isatabu'') is the principal island in Guadalcanal Province of the Solomon Islands, located in the Western Pacific Ocean, south-western Pacific, northeast of Australia. It is the largest island in the Solomon Isl ...

Guadalcanal
. The literacy rate of the adult population amounted to 84.1% in 2015 (men 88.9%, women 79.23%).


Culture

The culture of Solomon Islands reflects the extent of the differentiation and diversity among the groups living within the Solomon Islands (archipelago), Solomon Islands archipelago, which lies within
Melanesia Melanesia (, ) is a subregion of Oceania in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. It extends from the island of New Guinea in the west to Tonga in the east, and includes the Arafura Sea. The region includes the four independent countries of Fiji, V ...

Melanesia
in the Pacific Ocean, with the peoples distinguished by island, language, topography, and geography. The cultural area includes the nation state of Solomon Islands and the Bougainville Island, which is a part of
Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea (PNG; , ; tpi, Papua Niugini; ho, Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea ( tpi, Independen Stet bilong Papua Niugini; ho, Independen Stet bilong Papua Niu Gini), is a country in Oceania ...

Papua New Guinea
. Solomon Islands includes some Polynesian culture, culturally Polynesian societies which lie outside the main region of Polynesian influence, known as the Polynesian Triangle. There are seven Polynesian outliers within the Solomon Islands: Anuta, Bellona Island, Bellona, Ontong Java, Rennell Island, Rennell,
Sikaiana Sikaiana (formerly called the Stewart Islands) is a small atoll An atoll (), sometimes known as a coral atoll, is a ring-shaped coral reef A coral reef is an underwater ecosystem An ecosystem is a community (ecology), community of ...
,
Tikopia Tikopia is a high island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean (or, depending on definition, to Antarc ...
, and Vaeakau-Taumako. Solomon Islands arts and crafts cover a wide range of woven objects, carved wood, stone and shell artefacts in styles specific to different provinces. : File:Laundry Basket.jpg, Laundry basket File:Carved fish.jpg, Carved fish File:Bukhaware trays.jpg, Bukhaware trays File:Carved dish inlaid with mother-of-pearl.jpg, Carved dish inlaid with mother-of-pearl File:Carved Longboat.jpg, Carved longboat File:Gnusu Gnusu Heads.jpg, Gnusu gnusu heads File:Salad Bowl and serving spoon and fork.jpg, Salad bowl and serving spoon and fork File:Statue of the Bishop, All Saints Church, Honiara.jpg, Wooden religious objects in front of All Saints' Church, Honiara Malaitan shell-money, manufactured in the Langa Langa Lagoon, is the traditional currency used in
Malaita Malaita is the primary island of Malaita Province in Solomon Islands Solomon Islands is a sovereign state consisting of six major islands and over 900 smaller islands in Oceania, to the east of Papua New Guinea and northwest of Vanuatu. I ...

Malaita
and throughout the Solomon Islands. The money consists of small polished shell disks which are drilled and placed on strings. In the Solomons ''Tectus niloticus'' is harvested, which was traditionally made into items such as pearl buttons and jewellery.


Gender inequality and domestic violence

Solomon Islands has one of the highest rates of family and sexual violence (FSV) in the world, with 64% of women aged 15–49 having reported physical and/or sexual abuse by a partner. As per a World Health Organization (WHO) report issued in 2011, "the causes of Gender Based Violence (GBV) are multiple, but it primarily stems from gender inequality and its manifestations." The report stated: :"In Solomon Islands, GBV has been largely normalized: 73% of men and 73% of women believe violence against women is justifiable, especially for infidelity and 'disobedience,' as when women do 'not live up to the gender roles that society imposes.' For example, women who believed they could occasionally refuse sex were four times more likely to experience GBV from an intimate partner. Men cited acceptability of violence and gender inequality as two main reasons for GBV, and almost all of them reported hitting their female partners as a 'form of discipline,' suggesting that women could improve the situation by '[learning] to obey [them].'" Another manifestation and driver of gender inequality in Solomon Islands is the traditional practice of Bride price#Solomon Islands, bride price. Although specific customs vary between communities, paying a bride price is considered similar to a property title, giving men ownership over women. Gender norms of masculinity tend to encourage men to "control" their wives, often through violence, while women felt that bride prices prevented them from leaving men. Another report issued by the WHO in 2013 painted a similarly grim picture. In 2014, Solomon Islands officially launched the Family Protection Act 2014, which was aimed at curbing domestic violence in the country. While numerous other interventions are being developed and implemented in the healthcare system as well as the criminal justice system, these interventions are still in their infancy and have largely stemmed from Western protocols. Therefore, for these models to be effective, time and commitment is needed to change the cultural perception of domestic violence in Solomon Islands.


Literature

Writers from Solomon Islands include the novelists Rexford Orotaloa and John Saunana and the poet Jully Makini.


Media

;Newspapers There is one daily newspaper, the ''Solomon Star'', one daily online news website, ''Solomon Times Online'' (www.solomontimes.com), two weekly papers, ''Solomons Voice'' and ''Solomon Times'', and two monthly papers, ''Agrikalsa Nius'' and the ''Citizen's Press''. ;Radio Radio is the most influential type of media in Solomon Islands due to language differences, illiteracy, and the difficulty of receiving television signals in some parts of the country. The Solomon Islands Broadcasting Corporation (SIBC) operates public radio services, including the national stations Radio Happy Isles 1037 on the dial and Wantok FM 96.3, and the provincial stations Radio Happy Lagoon and, formerly, Radio Temotu. There are two commercial FM stations, Z FM at 99.5 in Honiara but receivable over a large majority of island out from Honiara, and, PAOA FM at 97.7 in Honiara (also broadcasting on 107.5 in Auki), and, one community FM radio station, Gold Ridge FM on 88.7. ;Television There are no TV services that cover the entire Solomon Islands but are available in six main centres in four of the nine Provinces. Satellite TV stations can be received. In Honiara, there is a free-to-air HD digital, analogue TV and online service called Telekom Television Limited, operated by Solomon Telekom Co. Ltd.. and rebroadcast a number of regional and international TV services including ABC Australia (Southeast Asian TV channel), ABC Australia and BBC World News. Residents can also subscribe to SATSOL, a digital pay TV service, re-transmitting satellite television.


Music

Traditional music of Melanesia, Melanesian music in Solomon Islands includes both group and solo vocals, slit-drum and panpipe ensembles. Bamboo musical instruments, Bamboo music gained a following in the 1920s. In the 1950s Edwin Nanau Sitori composed the song "Walkabout long Chinatown", which has been referred to by the government as the unofficial "national song" of the Solomon Islands. Modern Solomon Islander popular music includes various kinds of rock and reggae as well as ''island music''.


Sport

Rugby union in Solomon Islands, Rugby union: The Solomon Islands national rugby union team has played internationals since 1969. It took part in the Oceania qualifying tournament for the 2003 and 2007 Rugby World Cups, but did not qualify on either occasion. Association football: The Solomon Islands national football team has proved among the most successful in Oceania and is part of the OFC confederation in FIFA. They are currently ranked 141st out of 210 teams in the FIFA World Rankings. The team became the first team to beat New Zealand in qualifying for a play-off spot against Australia for qualification to the World Cup 2006. They were defeated 7–0 in Australia and 2–1 at home. Futsal: Closely related to Association Football. On 14 June 2008, the Solomon Islands national futsal team, the Kurukuru, won the Oceania Futsal Championship in Fiji to qualify them for the 2008 FIFA Futsal World Cup, which was held in Brazil from 30 September to 19 October 2008. Solomon Islands is the futsal defending champions in the Oceania region. In 2008 and 2009 the Kurukuru won the Oceania Futsal Championship in Fiji. In 2009 they defeated the host nation Fiji 8–0 to claim the title. The Kurukuru currently hold the world record for the fastest ever goal scored in an official futsal match. It was set by Kurukuru captain Elliot Ragomo, who scored against New Caledonia national futsal team, New Caledonia three seconds into the game in July 2009. They also, however, hold the less enviable record for the worst defeat in the history of the FIFA Futsal World Cup, Futsal World Cup, when in 2008 they were beaten by Russia national futsal team, Russia with two goals to thirty-one. Beach soccer: The Solomon Islands national beach soccer team, the Bilikiki Boys, are statistically the most successful team in Oceania. They have won all three FIFA Beach Soccer World Cup qualification (OFC), regional championships to date, thereby qualifying on each occasion for the FIFA Beach Soccer World Cup. The Bilikiki Boys are ranked fourteenth in the world , higher than any other team from Oceania."Bilikiki ranked fourteenth in the world"
, ''Solomon Star'', 29 January 2010


See also

* Outline of Solomon Islands


References


External links


Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet

Solomon Islands
''The World Factbook''. Central Intelligence Agency. *
Latest Earthquakes
– United States Geological Survey
Solomon Islands Act 1978 (25 May 1978): "to make provision for, and in connection with, the attainment by Solomon Islands of independence within the Commonwealth."
{{Authority control Solomon Islands, 1978 establishments in the Solomon Islands British Western Pacific Territories Countries in Melanesia English-speaking countries and territories Island countries Least developed countries Member states of the Commonwealth of Nations Member states of the United Nations Small Island Developing States Solomon Islands (archipelago) States and territories established in 1978 Volcanic arc islands Countries in Oceania