EtymologyThe name "Shoshone" comes from ''Sosoni'', a Shoshone word for high-growing grasses. Some neighboring tribes call the Shoshone "Grass House People," based on their traditional homes made from ''sosoni''. Shoshones call themselves ''Newe'', meaning "People."Loether, Christopher
LanguageThe Shoshoni language is spoken by approximately 1,000 people today. It belongs to the Central Numic languages, Central Numic branch of the Uto-Aztecan languages, Uto-Aztecan language family. Speakers are scattered from central Nevada to central Wyoming. The largest numbers of Shoshoni speakers live on the federally recognized Duck Valley Indian Reservation, located on the border of Nevada and Idaho; and Goshute Reservation in Utah. Idaho State University also offers Shoshoni-language classes.
HistoryThe Shoshone are a indigenous peoples of the Great Basin, Native American tribe, who originated in the western Great Basin and spread north and east into present-day Idaho and Wyoming. By 1500, some Eastern Shoshone had crossed the Rocky Mountains into the Great Plains. After 1750, warfare and pressure from the Blackfoot, Crow Nation, Crow, Lakota people, Lakota, Cheyenne, and Arapaho pushed Eastern Shoshone south and westward. Some of them moved as far south as Texas, emerging as the Comanche Nation, Comanche by 1700. As more European-American settlers migrated west, tensions rose with the indigenous people over competition for territory and resources. Wars occurred throughout the second half of the 19th century. The Northern Shoshone, led by Chief Pocatello, fought during the 1860s against settlers in Idaho (where the city Pocatello was named for him). As more settlers encroached on Shoshone hunting territory, the natives raided farms and ranches for food and attacked immigrants. The warfare resulted in the Bear River Massacre (1863) when US forces attacked and killed an estimated 410 Northwestern Shoshone, who were at their winter encampment. A large number of the dead were non-combatants, including children, deliberately killed by the soldiers. This was the highest number of deaths which the Shoshone suffered at the hands of United States forces. During the American Civil War travelers continued to migrate westward along the Westward Expansion Trails. When the Shoshone, along with the Ute people, Utes participated in attacks on the mail route that ran west out of Fort Laramie, the mail route had to be relocated south of the trail through Eastern Shoshone (known as "Sheepeaters") became involved in the Sheepeater Indian War. It was the last American Indian Wars, Indian war fought in the Pacific Northwest region of the present-day United States. In 1911 a small group of Bannock under a leader named Mike Daggett, also known as "Shoshone Mike," killed four ranchers in Washoe County, Nevada. The settlers formed a Posse comitatus (common law), posse and went out after the Native Americans. They caught up with the Bannock band on February 26, 1911 and killed eight. They lost one man of the posse, Ed Hogle. The posse captured three children and a woman. A rancher donated the partial remains of three adult males, two adult females, two adolescent males, and three children (believed to be Shoshone Mike and his family, according to contemporary accounts) to the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC for study. In 1994, the institution repatriated the remains to the Fort Hall Indian Reservation, Fort Hall Idaho Shoshone-Bannock Tribe.NMNH – Repatriation Office – Reports – Great Basin – Nevada
Historical populationIn 1845 the estimated population of Northern and Western Shoshone was 4,500, much reduced after they had suffered infectious disease epidemics and warfare. The completion of the First Transcontinental Railroad in 1869 was followed by European-American immigrants arriving in unprecedented numbers in the territory. In 1937 the Bureau of Indian Affairs counted 3,650 Northern Shoshone and 1,201 Western Shoshone. As of the 2000 United States Census, 2000 census, some 12,000 persons identified as Shoshone.
BandsShoshone people are divided into traditional bands based both on their homelands and primary food sources. These include: * Eastern Shoshone people: :* Guchundeka', Kuccuntikka, Buffalo EatersShimkin 335 :* Tukudeka, Tukkutikka, Tukudeka, Mountain Sheep Eaters, joined the Northern Shoshone :* Boho'inee', Pohoini, Pohogwe, Sage Grass people, Sagebrush Butte People * Northern Shoshone people: :* Lemhi Shoshone, Agaideka, Salmon Eaters, Lemhi, Snake River and Lemhi River ValleyMurphy and Murphy 306 :* Doyahinee', Mountain people :* Kammedeka, Kammitikka, Jack Rabbit Eaters, Snake River, Great Salt Lake :* Hukundüka, Porcupine Grass Seed Eaters, Wild Wheat Eaters, possibly synonymous with Kammitikka :* Tukudeka, Tukudeka, Dukundeka', Sheep Eaters (Mountain Sheep Eaters), Sawtooth Range, Idaho :* Yahandeka, Yakandika, Groundhog Eaters, lower Boise, Payette, and Wiser RiversMurphy and Murphy 287 * Western Shoshone people: :*Goshute, Kusiutta, Goshute (Gosiute), Great Salt Desert and Great Salt Lake, Utah ::*Cedar Valley Goshute ::*Deep Creek Goshute ::*Rush Valley Goshute ::*Skull Valley Goshute, Wipayutta, Weber Ute ::*Tooele Valley Goshute ::*Trout Creek Goshute :*Kuyatikka, Kuyudikka, Bitterroot Eaters, Halleck, Mary's River, Clover Valley, Smith Creek Valley, Nevada :*Mahaguadüka, Mentzelia Seed Eaters, Ruby Valley, Nevada :*Painkwitikka, Penkwitikka, Fish Eaters, Cache Valley, Idaho and Utah :*Pasiatikka, Redtop Grass Eaters, Deep Creek Gosiute, Deep Creek Valley, Antelope Valley :*Tipatikka, Pinenut Eaters, northernmost band :*Tsaiduka, Tule Eaters, Railroad Valley, Nevada :*Tsogwiyuyugi, Elko, Nevada :*Waitikka, Ricegrass Eaters, Ione Valley, Nevada :*Watatikka, Ryegrass Seed Eaters, Ruby Valley, Nevada :*Wiyimpihtikka, Buffalo Berry EatersThomas, Pendleton, and Cappannari 280–283
Reservations and Indian colonies*Battle Mountain Reservation, Lander County, Nevada. Current reservation population is 165 and total tribal enrollment is 516. *Big Pine Reservation, central Owens Valley, Inyo County, California; Mono people, Owens Valley Paiute Shoshone *Paiute-Shoshone Indians of the Bishop Community of the Bishop Colony, Bishop Community of the Bishop Colony, northern Owens Valley, Inyo County, California; *Indian Village, California, Death Valley Indian Community, Furnace Creek, California, Furnace Creek, Death Valley National Park, California; Timbisha, Timbisha Shoshone *Duck Valley Indian Reservation, southern Idaho/northern Nevada, (Western) Shoshone-Paiute Tribes *Duckwater Indian Reservation, located in Duckwater, Nevada, approximately from Ely. *Elko Indian Colony, Elko County, Nevada *Ely Shoshone Indian Reservation in Ely, Nevada, 111 acres (0.45 km²), 500 members *Fallon Paiute-Shoshone Reservation near Fallon, Nevada, 8,200 acres (33 km²), 991 members, Western Shoshone and Paiute *Fort Hall Indian Reservation, 544,000 acres (2,201 km²) in , Lemhi Shoshone with the Bannock Indians, a Northern Paiute, Paiute band with which they have merged *Fort McDermitt Indian Reservation, Nevada and Oregon, Fort McDermitt Paiute and Shoshone Tribe *Goshute Indian Reservation, 111,000 acres (449 km²) in Nevada and Utah, Western Shoshone *Lemhi Indian Reservation (1875–1907) in Idaho, Lemhi Shoshone, removed to Fort Hall Reservation *Paiute-Shoshone Indians of the Lone Pine Community of the Lone Pine Reservation, Lone Pine Community of the Lone Pine Reservation, lower Owens Valley, Inyo County, California; Mono people, Owens Valley Paiute Shoshone * Northwestern Shoshone Indian Reservation, Utah, Northwestern Band of Shoshone Nation of Utah (Washakie)
Notable Shoshone people* Sacagawea (1788–1812), Lemhi Shoshone guide of the Lewis and Clark Expedition * Jean Baptiste Charbonneau (1805–1866) son of Sacagawea, explorer, guide, military scout * Cameahwait, chief in the early 19th century * Bear Hunter (d. 1863), war chief * Old Toby * Ned Blackhawk (b. ca. 1970), historian and professor at Yale * Mary Dann and Carrie Dann * Randy'L He-dow Teton * Chief Washakie * Chief Pocatello * Lolly Vegas, lead singer of Redbone (band) * Taboo (rapper), member of the Black Eyed Peas (Shoshone grandmother)
See also* Battle of Kelley Creek * ''United States v. Shoshone Tribe of Indians'' * Western Shoshone traditional narratives
References* Murphy, Robert A., and Yolanda Murphy. "Northern Shoshone and Bannock." Warren L. d'Azevedo, volume editor. ''Handbook of North American Indians: Great Basin, Volume 11.'' Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1986: 284–307. . * Shimkin, Demitri B. "Eastern Shoshone." Warren L. d'Azevedo, volume editor. ''Handbook of North American Indians: Great Basin, Volume 11.'' Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1986: 308–335. . * Thomas, David H., Lorann S.A. Pendleton, and Stephen C. Cappannari. "Western Shoshone." Warren L. d'Azevedo, volume editor. ''Handbook of North American Indians: Great Basin, Volume 11.'' Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1986: 262–283. .
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