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The culture of the
Russians , native_name_lang = ru , image = , caption = Wedding ceremony in the national Russian tradition. , population = 134 million , popplace = 117,319,000 , region1 = , pop1 = 7,170,00 ...

Russians
, along with the cultures of many other minority
ethnic groups An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups. Those attributes can include common sets of traditions, ances ...
in the country, has a long tradition of achievement in many fields, especially
architecture upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted), Plan of the second floor (attic storey) of the Hôtel de Brionne in Paris – 1734. Architecture (Latin ''archi ...
,
language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the ...
and
literature Literature broadly is any collection of Writing, written work, but it is also used more narrowly for writings specifically considered to be an art form, especially prose fiction, drama, and poetry. In recent centuries, the definition has expan ...
,
philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mind, and Philosophy of language, language. Such questio ...
,
classical music Classical music generally refers to the formal musical tradition of the Western world The Western world, also known as the West, refers to various s, s and , depending on the context, most often consisting of the majority of , , and ...
and
ballet Ballet () is a type of performance dance that originated during the Italian Renaissance in the fifteenth century and later developed into a concert dance form in France and Russia. It has since become a widespread and highly technical form of ...
, and the
visual arts The visual arts are Art#Forms, genres, media, and styles, art forms such as painting, drawing, printmaking, sculpture, ceramics (art), ceramics, photography, video, filmmaking, design, crafts and architecture. Many artistic disciplines such as p ...
. In all these areas Russia has had a considerable influence on global culture. Russia also has a rich
material culture Material culture is the aspect of social reality Social reality is distinct from biological reality Reality is the sum or aggregate of all that is real or existent within a system, as opposed to that which is only Object of the mind, imaginar ...

material culture
and a tradition in science and technology.


Language and literature

Russia's 160 ethnic groups speak some 100 languages. According to the 2002 census, 142.6 million people speak
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...
, followed by
Tatar The Tatars (; tt, , , , crh, tatarlar; otk, 𐱃𐱃𐰺, Tatar) is an umbrella term for different Turkic peoples, Turkic ethnic groups bearing the name "Tatar." Initially, the ethnonym ''Tatar'' possibly referred to the Tatar confederation ...
with 5.3 million and
Ukrainian Ukrainian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Ukraine * Something relating to Ukrainians an East Slavic people from Eastern Europe * Something relating to Demographics of Ukraine, in terms of demography: population of Ukraine * Somethi ...
with 1.8 million speakers. Russian is the only official state language, but the Constitution gives the individual
republics A republic ( la, res publica ''Res publica'' (also spelt as ''rēs pūblica'' to indicate vowel length In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived length of a vowel sound: the corresponding physical measurement is length (phonetics), du ...

republics
the right to make their native language co-official next to Russian. Despite its wide dispersal, the Russian language is homogeneous throughout Russia. Russian is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia and the most widely spoken
Slavic language The Slavic languages, also known as the Slavonic languages, are Indo-European languages The Indo-European languages are a language family native to western and southern Eurasia. It comprises most of the languages of Europe together with t ...

Slavic language
. Russian belongs to the
Indo-European language The Indo-European languages are a language family native to western and southern Eurasia. It comprises most of the languages of Europe together with those of the northern Indian subcontinent and the Iranian Plateau. A few of these languages, su ...
family and is one of the living members of the
East Slavic languages The East Slavic languages constitute one of the three regional subgroups of Slavic languages The Slavic languages, also known as the Slavonic languages, are Indo-European languages The Indo-European languages are a language family nativ ...
; the others being
Belarusian Belarusian may refer to: * Something of, or related to Belarus * Belarusians, people from Belarus, or of Belarusian descent * A citizen of Belarus, see Demographics of Belarus * Belarusian language * Belarusian culture * Belarusian cuisine * Byeloru ...
and
Ukrainian Ukrainian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Ukraine * Something relating to Ukrainians an East Slavic people from Eastern Europe * Something relating to Demographics of Ukraine, in terms of demography: population of Ukraine * Somethi ...
(and possibly Rusyn). Written examples of
Old East Slavic Old East Slavic (traditionally also: Old Russian, be, старажытнаруская мова; russian: древнерусский язык; uk, давньоруська мова) was a language used during the 10th–15th centuries by East ...
(''Old Russian'') are attested from the 10th century onwards. Over a quarter of the world's scientific literature is published in Russian. Russian is also applied as a means of coding and storage of universal knowledge—60–70% of all world information is published in the English and Russian languages. The language is one of the six
official languages An official language, also called state language, is a language given a special status in a particular jurisdiction (area), country, state, or other jurisdiction. Typically a country's official language refers to the language used in government (j ...

official languages
of the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization aiming to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harm ...

United Nations
.


Folklore

New Russian
folklore Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A belief is an attitude Attitude may refer to: Philosophy and psychology * Attitude (psycholog ...

folklore
takes its roots in the
pagan Paganism (from classical Latin Classical Latin is the form of Latin, Latin language recognized as a Literary language, literary standard language, standard by writers of the late Roman Republic and early Roman Empire. It was used from 75 BC ...

pagan
beliefs of ancient
Slavs Slavs are an ethno-linguistic group of people who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic language, Balto-Slavic linguistic group of the Indo-European languages. They are native to Eurasia, stretching from Central Europe, ...

Slavs
, which is nowadays still represented in the
Russian folklore Folklore of Russia is folklore of Russians , native_name_lang = ru , image = , caption = Wedding ceremony in the national Russian tradition. , population = 134 million , popplace = 117,319,000 , region ...
. Epic Russian
bylina A bylina ( rus, были́на, p=bɨˈlʲinə; plural, pl. ''byliny'') is an Russian literature, Old Russian oral literature, oral epic poetry, epic poem. Byliny songs are loosely based on historical fact, but greatly embellished with fantasy ...
s are also an important part of
Slavic mythology Slavic paganism or Slavic religion describes the religious Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, behaviors and practices, morality, morals, beliefs, worldviews, religious text, texts, shrine, ...
. The oldest bylinas of
Kiev Kyiv ( uk, Київ) or Kiev . is the capital and most populous city of Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in . It is the in Europe after , which it borders to the east and north-east. Ukraine also share ...

Kiev
an cycle were actually recorded mostly in the
Russian North Russian North (russian: Русский Север) is an ethnocultural region in the northern part of European Russia European Russia (russian: Европейская Россия), is the western and historical portion of Russia Russia ( ...
, especially in
Karelia Karelia (Karelian language, Karelian and fi, Karjala, ; rus, Каре́лия, links=y, r=Karélija, p=kɐˈrʲelʲɪjə, historically ''Korjela''; sv, Karelen), the land of the Karelians, Karelian people, is an area in Northern Europe of ...

Karelia
, where most of the
Finnish Finnish may refer to: * Something or someone from, or related to Finland * Finnish culture * Finnish people or Finns, the primary ethnic group in Finland * Finnish language, the national language of the Finnish people * Finnish cuisine See also

...
national epic
Kalevala The ''Kalevala'' ( fi, Kalevala, ) is a 19th-century work of epic poetry compiled by Elias Lönnrot from Karelian language, Karelian and Finnish language, Finnish oral folklore and Finnish mythology, mythology, telling an epic story about the Cre ...
was recorded as well. Many Russian fairy tales and bylinas were adapted for
Russian animationThe history of Russian animation is the visual art form produced by Russian animation makers. As most of Russia's production of animation for cinema and television were created during Soviet The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Soci ...
s, or for feature movies by famous directors like
Aleksandr Ptushko Aleksandr Lukich Ptushko (russian: Александр Лукич Птушко, – 6 March 1973) was a Soviet animation and fantasy film director, and a People's Artist of the USSR (1969). Ptushko is frequently (and somewhat misleadingly) referred ...
(''
Ilya Muromets Ilya Muromets (russian: Илья Муромец, uk, Ілля Муромець), or Ilya of Murom, sometimes Ilya Murometz, is one of the '' bogatyrs'' (epic knights) in Russian folklore. He is often featured alongside fellow bogatyrs Dobry ...
'', ''
Sadko Sadko (russian: Садко) is the principal character in an East Slavs, East Slavic epic ''bylina''. He was an adventurer, merchant, and ''gusli'' musician from Novgorod. Textual notes "Sadko" is a version of the tale translated by Arthur Ran ...
'') and Aleksandr Rou ('''', '' Vasilisa the Beautiful''). Some Russian poets, including Pyotr Yershov and
Leonid Filatov Leonid Alekseyevich Filatov ( rus, links=no, Леонид Алексеевич Филатов, p=lʲɪɐˈnʲit əlʲɪˈksʲejɪvʲɪtɕ fʲɪˈlatəf, a=Lyeonid Alyeksyeyevich Filatov.ru.vorb.oga; 24 December 1946 – 26 October 2003) was a ...
, created a number of well-known poetical interpretations of classical Russian fairy tales, and in some cases, like that of
Alexander Pushkin Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin (; rus, links=no, Алекса́ндр Серге́евич Пу́шкинIn Pushkin's day, his name was written ., r=Aleksándr Sergéyevich Púshkin, p=ɐlʲɪkˈsandr sʲɪrˈɡʲe(j)ɪvʲɪtɕ ˈpuʂkʲɪn, a=r ...
, also created fully original fairy tale poems that became very popular. Folklorists today consider the 1920s the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
's golden age of folklore. The struggling new government, which had to focus its efforts on establishing a new administrative system and building up the nation's backwards economy, could not be bothered with attempting to control literature, so studies of folklore thrived. There were two primary trends of folklore study during the decade: the formalist and
Finnish Finnish may refer to: * Something or someone from, or related to Finland * Finnish culture * Finnish people or Finns, the primary ethnic group in Finland * Finnish language, the national language of the Finnish people * Finnish cuisine See also

...

Finnish
schools. Formalism focused on the artistic form of ancient byliny and faerie tales, specifically their use of distinctive structures and poetic devices. The Finnish school was concerned with connections amongst related legends of various Eastern European regions. Finnish scholars collected comparable tales from multiple locales and analyzed their similarities and differences, hoping to trace these epic stories' migration paths.Oinas, "Folklore and Politics", 46. Once
Joseph Stalin ( – 5 March 1953) was a Georgians, Georgian revolutionary and Soviet political leader who governed the Soviet Union from 1924 until his death in 1953. He held power both as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1922–1952 ...
came to power and put his
first five-year plan The first five-year plan (russian: I пятилетний план, ) of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a list of economic goals, created by Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Communist Party General Secretary of the Communi ...
into motion in 1928, the Soviet government began to criticize and censor folklore studies. Stalin and the Soviet regime repressed folklore, believing that it supported the old tsarist system and a capitalist economy. They saw it as a reminder of the backward Russian society that the
Bolsheviks The Bolsheviks (Russian language, Russian: Большевики, from большинство ''bolshinstvo'', 'majority'),; derived from ''bol'shinstvo'' (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority". also know ...
were working to surpass. To keep folklore studies in check and prevent "inappropriate" ideas from spreading amongst the masses, the government created the RAPP – the
Russian Association of Proletarian WritersThe Russian Association of Proletarian Writers, also known under its transliterated abbreviation RAPP (russian: Российская ассоциация пролетарских писателей, РАПП) was an official Creative unions in the S ...
. The RAPP specifically focused on censoring fairy tales and children's literature, believing that fantasies and "bourgeois nonsense" harmed the development of upstanding Soviet citizens. Fairy tales were removed from bookshelves and children were encouraged to read books focusing on nature and science. RAPP eventually increased its levels of censorship and became the
Union of Soviet WritersUnion of Soviet Writers, USSR Union of Writers, or Soviet Union of Writers (russian: Союз писателей СССР, translit=Soyuz Sovetstikh Pisatelei) was a creative union of professional writers in the Soviet Union The Soviet Union, ...
in 1932. In order to continue researching and analyzing folklore, intellectuals needed to justify its worth to the Communist regime. Otherwise, collections of folklore, along with all other literature deemed useless for the purposes of Stalin's Five Year Plan, would be an unacceptable realm of study. In 1934,
Maksim Gorky Alexei Maximovich Peshkov (russian: link=no, Алексе́й Макси́мович Пешко́в or  – 18 June 1936), primarily known as Maxim Gorky (russian: Макси́м Го́рький, link=no), was a Russian and Soviet writer, ...
gave a speech to the Union of Soviet Writers arguing that folklore could, in fact, be consciously used to promote Communist values. Apart from expounding on the artistic value of folklore, he stressed that traditional legends and fairy tales showed ideal, community-oriented characters, which exemplified the model Soviet citizen. Folklore, with many of its conflicts based on the struggles of a labor-oriented lifestyle, was relevant to Communism as it could not have existed without the direct contribution of the working classes. Also, Gorky explained that folklore characters expressed high levels of optimism, and therefore could encourage readers to maintain a positive mindset, especially as their lives changed with the further development of Communism. Yuri Sokolov, the head of the folklore section of the Union of Soviet Writers also promoted the study of folklore by arguing that folklore had originally been the oral tradition of the working people, and consequently could be used to motivate and inspire collective projects amongst the present-day proletariat. Characters throughout traditional Russian folktales often found themselves on a journey of self-discovery, a process that led them to value themselves not as individuals, but rather as a necessary part of a common whole. The attitudes of such legendary characters paralleled the mindset that the Soviet government wished to instill in its citizens. He also pointed out the existence of many tales that showed members of the working class outsmarting their cruel masters, again working to prove folklore's value to Soviet ideology and the nation's society at large. Convinced by Gorky and Sokolov's arguments, the Soviet government and the Union of Soviet Writers began collecting and evaluating folklore from across the country. The Union handpicked and recorded particular stories that, in their eyes, sufficiently promoted the collectivist spirit and showed the Soviet regime's benefits and progress. It then proceeded to redistribute copies of approved stories throughout the population. Meanwhile, local folklore centers arose in all major cities. Responsible for advocating a sense of Soviet nationalism, these organizations ensured that the media published appropriate versions of Russian folktales in a systematic fashion. Apart from circulating government-approved fairy tales and byliny that already existed, during Stalin's rule authors parroting appropriate Soviet ideologies wrote Communist folktales and introduced them to the population. These contemporary folktales combined the structures and motifs of the old byliny with contemporary life in the Soviet Union. Called noviny, these new tales were considered the
renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in ...

renaissance
of the Russian epic. Folklorists were called upon to teach modern folksingers the conventional style and structure of the traditional byliny. They also explained to the performers the appropriate types of Communist ideology that should be represented in the new stories and songs As the performers of the day were often poorly educated, they needed to obtain a thorough understanding of
Marxist Marxism is a method of socioeconomic Socioeconomics (also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes. In general it analyzes how modern society, societies soci ...
ideology before they could be expected to impart folktales to the public in a manner that suited the Soviet government. Besides undergoing extensive education, many folk performers traveled throughout the nation in order to gain insight into the lives of the working class, and thus communicate their stories more effectively. Due to their crucial role in spreading Communist ideals throughout the Soviet Union, eventually some of these performers became highly valued members of Soviet society. A number of them, despite their illiteracy, were even elected as members of the Union of Soviet Writers. These new Soviet fairy tales and folk songs primarily focused on the contrasts between a miserable life in old tsarist Russia and an improved one under Stalin's leadership. Their characters represented identities for which Soviet citizens should strive, exemplifying the traits of the "
New Soviet Man The New Soviet man or New Soviet person (russian: новый советский человек ''novy sovetsky chelovek''), as postulated by the ideologists of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (C ...
". The heroes of Soviet tales were meant to portray a transformed and improved version of the average citizen, giving the reader a clear goal for an ideal community-oriented self that the future he or she was meant to become. These new folktales replaced
magic Magic or Magick may refer to: * Ceremonial magic, encompasses a wide variety of rituals of magic * Chaos magic#REDIRECT Chaos magic {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from miscapitalization {{R unprintworthy ..., a contemporary magical practic ...
with technology, and supernatural forces with Stalin. Instead of receiving essential advice from a mythical being, the protagonist would be given advice from omniscient Stalin. If the character followed Stalin's divine advice, he could be assured success in all his endeavors and a complete transformation into the "New Soviet Man". The villains of these contemporary fairy tales were the
Whites White is a racialized classification of people and a skin color Afghan children with fair skin Human skin color ranges from the darkest brown to the lightest hues. Differences in skin color among individuals is caused by variation in p ...
and their leader Idolisce, "the most monstrous idol", who was the equivalent of the tsar. Descriptions of the Whites in noviny mirrored those of the
Tartars Tartary ( la, Tartaria, french: Tartarie, german: Tartarei) was a blanket term used in Western Europe Western Europe is the region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identif ...
in byliny. In these new stories, the Whites were incompetent, stagnant capitalists, while the Soviet citizens became invincible heroes. Once Stalin died in March 1953, folklorists of the period quickly abandoned the new folktales. Written by individual authors and performers, noviny did not come from the oral traditions of the working class. Consequently, today they are considered pseudo-folklore, rather than genuine Soviet (or Russian) folklore.Oinas, "Political Uses and Themes", 172. Without any true connection to the masses, there was no reason noviny should be considered anything other than contemporary literature. Specialists decided that attempts to represent contemporary life through the structure and artistry of the ancient epics could not be considered genuine folklore. Stalin's name has been omitted from the few surviving pseudo-folktales of the period. Instead of considering folklore under Stalin a renaissance of the traditional Russian epic, today it is generally regarded as a period of restraint and falsehood.


Literature

Russian literature Russian literature refers to the literature of Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent ...
is considered to be among the most influential and developed in the world, with some of the most famous literary works belonging to it. Russia's literary history dates back to the 10th century; in the 18th century its development was boosted by the works of
Mikhail Lomonosov Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov (; russian: Михаил (Михайло) Васильевич Ломоносов, p=mʲɪxɐˈil vɐˈsʲilʲjɪvʲɪtɕ , a=Ru-Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov.ogg; – ) was a Russian polymath A polymath ( e ...

Mikhail Lomonosov
and
Denis Fonvizin Denis Ivanovich Fonvizin (russian: Денис Иванович Фонвизин; —) was a playwright and writer of the Russian Enlightenment, one of the founders of literary comedy in Russia. His main works are two satirical comedies, one of the ...

Denis Fonvizin
, and by the early 19th century a modern native tradition had emerged, producing some of the greatest writers of all time. This period and the
Golden Age of Russian PoetryGolden Age of Russian Poetry is the name traditionally applied by philologists to the first half of the 19th century. It is also called the Age of Pushkin, after its most significant poet (in Vladimir Nabokov, Nabokov's words, the greatest poet this ...
began with
Alexander Pushkin Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin (; rus, links=no, Алекса́ндр Серге́евич Пу́шкинIn Pushkin's day, his name was written ., r=Aleksándr Sergéyevich Púshkin, p=ɐlʲɪkˈsandr sʲɪrˈɡʲe(j)ɪvʲɪtɕ ˈpuʂkʲɪn, a=r ...
, considered to be the founder of modern Russian literature and often described as the ''"Russian Shakespeare" or the "Russian Goethe"''. It continued in the 19th century with the poetry of
Mikhail Lermontov Mikhail Yuryevich Lermontov (; rus, links=no, Михаил Юрьевич Лермонтов, p=mʲɪxɐˈil ˈjurʲjɪvʲɪtɕ ˈlʲɛrməntəf; – ) was a Russian Romanticism, Romantic writer, poet and painter, sometimes called "the poet o ...

Mikhail Lermontov
and
Nikolay Nekrasov Nikolay Alexeyevich Nekrasov ( rus, Никола́й Алексе́евич Некра́сов, p=nʲɪkɐˈlaj ɐlʲɪkˈsʲejɪvʲɪtɕ nʲɪˈkrasəf, a=Ru-Nikolay_Alexeyevich_Nekrasov.ogg, – ) was a Russia Russia (russian: link=no, ...

Nikolay Nekrasov
, dramas of
Aleksandr Ostrovsky Alexander Nikolayevich Ostrovsky (russian: Алекса́ндр Никола́евич Остро́вский; , in Moscow, Russian Empire, in Shchelykovo, Kostroma Governorate, Russian Empire) was a Russian playwright, generally considered the gre ...
and
Anton Chekhov Anton Pavlovich Chekhov ( rus, links=no, Антон Павлович ЧеховIn Chekhov's day, his name was written Антонъ Павловичъ Чеховъ. See, for instanceАнтонъ Павловичъ Чеховъ. 1898. ''Муж ...
, and the prose of
Nikolai Gogol Nikolai Vasilyevich Gogol (; rus, Никола́й Васи́льевич Го́голь, r=Nikolay Vasilyevich Gogol, p=nʲɪkɐˈlaj vɐˈsʲilʲjɪvʲɪtɕ ˈgogəlʲ; uk, link=no, Мико́ла Васи́льович Го́голь, trans ...

Nikolai Gogol
,
Ivan Turgenev Ivan Sergeyevich Turgenev (; rus, links=no, Ива́н Серге́евич Турге́невIn Turgenev's day, his name was written ., p=ɪˈvan sʲɪrˈɡʲe(j)ɪvʲɪtɕ tʊrˈɡʲenʲɪf; 3 September 1883) was a Russian novelist, short sto ...
,
Leo Tolstoy Count Lev Nikolayevich TolstoyTolstoy pronounced his first name as , which corresponds to the romanization ''Lyov''. () (; russian: link=no, Лев Николаевич Толстой,In Tolstoy's day, his name was written as in pre-reform ...

Leo Tolstoy
,
Fyodor Dostoyevsky Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky (, ; rus, Фёдор Михайлович Достоевский, Fyódor Mikháylovich Dostoyévskiy, p=ˈfʲɵdər mʲɪˈxajləvʲɪdʑ dəstɐˈjefskʲɪj, a=ru-Dostoevsky.ogg, links=yes; 11 November 18219 ...
,
Mikhail Saltykov-Shchedrin Mikhail Yevgrafovich Saltykov-Shchedrin ( rus, Михаи́л Евгра́фович Салтыко́в-Щедри́н, p=mʲɪxɐˈil jɪvˈɡrafəvʲɪtɕ səltɨˈkof ɕːɪˈdrʲin; – ), was a major Russian writer and satirist of the 19th ...
,
Ivan Goncharov Ivan Alexandrovich Goncharov (, also ; rus, Ива́н Алекса́ндрович Гончаро́в, r=Iván Aleksándrovich Goncharóv, p=ɪˈvan ɐlʲɪkˈsandrəvʲɪdʑ ɡənʲtɕɪˈrof; – ) was a Russian novelist best known for his ...

Ivan Goncharov
,
Aleksey Pisemsky Aleksey Feofilaktovich Pisemsky (russian: Алексе́й Феофила́ктович Пи́семский) () was a Russian novelist and dramatist who was regarded as an equal of Ivan Turgenev Ivan Sergeyevich Turgenev (; rus, links=no, Ив ...
and
Nikolai Leskov Nikolai Semyonovich Leskov (russian: Никола́й Семёнович Леско́в; – ) was a Russian novelist, short-story writer, playwright, and journalist, who also wrote under the pseudonym M. Stebnitsky. Praised for his unique wr ...
. Tolstoy and Dostoevsky in particular were titanic figures, to the point that many literary critics have described one or the other as the greatest novelist ever. By the 1880s Russian literature had begun to change. The age of the great novelists was over and short fiction and poetry became the dominant genres of Russian literature for the next several decades, which later became known as the Silver Age of Russian Poetry. Previously dominated by
realism Realism, Realistic, or Realists may refer to: In the arts *Realism (arts), the general attempt to depict subjects truthfully in different forms of the arts Arts movements related to realism include: *Classical Realism *Literary realism, a movem ...
, Russian literature came under strong influence of
symbolism Symbolism or symbolist may refer to: Arts * Symbolism (arts), a 19th-century movement rejecting Realism ** Symbolist movement in Romania, symbolist literature and visual arts in Romania during the late 19th and early 20th centuries ** Russian symb ...
in the years between 1893 and 1914. Leading writers of this age include
Valery Bryusov Valery Yakovlevich Bryusov ( rus, Вале́рий Я́ковлевич Брю́сов, p=vɐˈlʲerʲɪj ˈjakəvlʲɪvʲɪtɕ ˈbrʲusəf, a=Valyeriy Yakovlyevich Bryusov.ru.vorb.oga; – 9 October 1924) was a Russian poet, prose writer, dramatis ...
,
Andrei Bely Boris Nikolaevich Bugaev ( rus, Бори́с Никола́евич Буга́ев, p=bɐˈrʲis nʲɪkɐˈlajɪvʲɪtɕ bʊˈɡajɪf, a=Boris Nikolayevich Bugayev.ru.vorb.oga), better known by the pen name A pen name, also called a ''nom de p ...
, Vyacheslav Ivanov,
Aleksandr Blok Alexander Alexandrovich Blok ( rus, Алекса́ндр Алекса́ндрович Бло́к, p=ɐlʲɪˈksandr ɐlʲɪˈksandrəvʲɪtɕ ˈblok, a=Ru-Alyeksandr Alyeksandrovich Blok.oga; 7 August 1921) was a Russian lyrical poet, writer, publi ...
,
Nikolay Gumilev Nikolay Stepanovich Gumilyov ( rus, Никола́й Степа́нович Гумилёв, p=nʲɪkɐˈlaj sʲtʲɪˈpanəvʲɪtɕ ɡʊmʲɪˈlʲɵf, a=Nikolay Styepanovich Gumilyov.ru.vorb.oga; April 15 Adoption of the Gregorian calendar#Adop ...
,
Dmitry Merezhkovsky Dmitry Sergeyevich Merezhkovsky ( rus, Дми́трий Серге́евич Мережко́вский, p=ˈdmʲitrʲɪj sʲɪrˈɡʲejɪvʲɪtɕ mʲɪrʲɪˈʂkofskʲɪj; – December 9, 1941) was a Russian novelist, poet, religious thinker, ...
,
Fyodor Sologub Fyodor Sologub (russian: Фёдор Сологу́б, born Fyodor Kuzmich Teternikov, russian: Фёдор Кузьми́ч Тете́рников, also known as Theodor Sologub; – 5 December 1927) was a Russian Symbolist Symbolism was a late ...

Fyodor Sologub
,
Anna Akhmatova Anna Andreyevna Gorenko rus, А́нна Андре́евна Горе́нко, p=ˈanːə ɐnˈdrʲe(j)ɪvnə ɡɐˈrʲɛnkə, a=Anna Andreyevna Gorenko.ru.oga, links=yes; uk, А́нна Андрі́ївна Горе́нко, Ánna Andríyivna ...

Anna Akhmatova
,
Osip Mandelstam Osip Emilyevich Mandelstam ( rus, О́сип Эми́льевич Мандельшта́м, p=ˈosʲɪp ɨˈmʲilʲjɪvʲɪtɕ mənʲdʲɪlʲˈʂtam; – 27 December 1938) was a Russian Empire, Russian and Soviet Union, Soviet poet. He was the hus ...
,
Marina Tsvetaeva Marina Ivanovna Tsvetaeva (russian: Мари́на Ива́новна Цвета́ева, p=mɐˈrʲinə ɪˈvanəvnə tsvʲɪˈtaɪvə; 31 August 1941) was a Russian poet. Her work is considered among some of the greatest in twentieth century Rus ...

Marina Tsvetaeva
,
Leonid Andreyev Leonid Nikolaievich Andreyev (russian: Леони́д Никола́евич Андре́ев, – 12 September 1919) was a Russian playwright, novelist and short-story writer, who is considered to be a father of Expressionism Expressionism is a ...
,
Ivan Bunin Ivan Alekseyevich Bunin ( or ; rus, Ива́н Алексе́евич Бу́нин, p=ɪˈvan ɐlʲɪˈksʲejɪvʲɪtɕ ˈbunʲɪn, a=Ivan Alyeksyeyevich Bunin.ru.vorb.oga;  – 8 November 1953) was the first Russian writer awarded the ...
, and
Maxim Gorky Alexei Maximovich Peshkov (russian: link=no, Алексей Максимович Пешков  – 18 June 1936), popularly known as Maxim Gorky (russian: Максим Горький, link=no), was a Russian writer and political activist. ...

Maxim Gorky
. Following the
Russian Revolution of 1917 The Russian Revolution was a period of Political revolution, political and social revolution that took place in the former Russian Empire and began during the First World War. Commencing in 1917 with the fall of the House of Romanov and conc ...
and the ensuing
civil war A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine publis ...
, Russian cultural life was left in chaos. Some prominent writers, like
Ivan Bunin Ivan Alekseyevich Bunin ( or ; rus, Ива́н Алексе́евич Бу́нин, p=ɪˈvan ɐlʲɪˈksʲejɪvʲɪtɕ ˈbunʲɪn, a=Ivan Alyeksyeyevich Bunin.ru.vorb.oga;  – 8 November 1953) was the first Russian writer awarded the ...
and
Vladimir Nabokov Vladimir Vladimirovich Nabokov (russian: link=no, Влади́мир Влади́мирович Набо́ков ; 2 July 1977), also known by the pen name A pen name, also called a ''nom de plume'' () or a literary double, is a pseudonym ...
left the country, while a new generation of talented writers joined in different organizations with the aim of creating a new and distinctive
working-class culture Working-class culture is a range of culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found in human Society, societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, Social norm, customs, c ...
appropriate for the new state, the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
. Throughout the 1920s writers enjoyed broad tolerance. In the 1930s censorship over literature was tightened in line with Joseph Stalin's policy of
socialist realism Socialist realism is a style of idealized realistic art that was developed in the Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It ...
. After his death the restrictions on literature were eased, and by the 1970s and 1980s, writers were increasingly ignoring official guidelines. The leading authors of the Soviet era included Yevgeny Zamiatin,
Isaac Babel Isaac Emmanuilovich Babel ( rus, Исаак Эммануилович Бабель, p=ˈbabʲɪlʲ; – 27 January 1940) was a Russian writer, journalist, playwright, and literary translator. He is best known as the author of '' Red Cavalry'', ''St ...

Isaac Babel
,
Vladimir Mayakovsky Vladimir Vladimirovich Mayakovsky (, ; rus, Влади́мир Влади́мирович Маяко́вский, , vlɐˈdʲimʲɪr vlɐˈdʲimʲɪrəvʲɪtɕ məjɪˈkofskʲɪj, Ru-Vladimir Vladimirovich Mayakovsky.ogg, links=y; – 14 Apri ...

Vladimir Mayakovsky
,
Ilf and Petrov Ilya Ilf (Ilya Arnoldovich Feinsilberg) (russian: Илья Арнольдович Файнзильберг, 1897–1937) and Evgeny or Yevgeny Petrov (Yevgeniy Petrovich Kataev/Katayev or russian: Евгений Петрович Катаев, ...
,
Yury Olesha Yury Karlovich Olesha (russian: Ю́рий Ка́рлович Оле́ша, – May 10, 1960) was a Russian and USSR, Soviet novelist. He is considered one of the greatest Russian novelists of the 20th century, one of the few to have succeeded ...

Yury Olesha
,
Mikhail Bulgakov Mikhail Afanasyevich Bulgakov ( rus, links=no, Михаил Афанасьевич Булгаков, p=mʲɪxɐˈil ɐfɐˈnasʲjɪvʲɪtɕ bʊlˈɡakəf; – 10 March 1940) was a Russian writer, medical doctor and playwright active in the firs ...
,
Boris Pasternak Boris Leonidovich Pasternak (; rus, Бори́с Леони́дович Пастерна́к, p=bɐˈrʲis lʲɪɐˈnʲidəvʲɪtɕ pəstɨrˈnak; 30 May 1960) was a Russian poet, novelist, and literary translator. Composed in 1917, Pasternak's ...
,
Mikhail Sholokhov Mikhail Aleksandrovich Sholokhov ( rus, Михаил Александрович Шолохов, p=ˈʂoləxəf; – 21 February 1984) was a Russian novelist A novelist is an author or writer of novels, though often novelists also write in other ...
,
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn. (11 December 1918 – 3 August 2008) was a Russian novelist, philosopher, historian, short story writer and political prisoner. One of the most famous Soviet dissidents, Solzhenitsyn was an outspoken critic of ...
,
Yevgeny Yevtushenko Yevgeny Aleksándrovich Yevtushenko ( rus, links=no, 1=Евге́ний Алекса́ндрович Евтуше́нко; 18 July 1933 – 1 April 2017) was a Soviet and Russian poet. He was also a novelist, essayist, dramatist, screenwriter, ...
,
Vasily Grossman Vasily Semyonovich Grossman (russian: Васи́лий Семёнович Гро́ссман, uk, Василь Семенович Гроссман; 12 December (29 November, Julian calendar The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in , w ...
and Andrey Voznesensky. The Soviet era was also the golden age of Russian
science fiction Science fiction (sometimes shortened to sci-fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction which typically deals with imagination, imaginative and futuristic concepts such as advanced science and technology, space exploration, time travel, Parall ...

science fiction
, that was initially inspired by western authors and enthusiastically developed with the success of
Soviet space program The Soviet space program (russian: Космическая программа СССР, Kosmicheskaya programma SSSR) was the national space program of the Soviet Union, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), conducted in competition with ...
. Authors like
Arkady and Boris Strugatsky The brothers Arkady Natanovich Strugatsky (russian: Аркадий Натанович Стругацкий; 28 August 1925 – 12 October 1991) and Boris Natanovich Strugatsky (russian: Борис Натанович Стругацкий; 14 ...
,
Kir Bulychev Kir Bulychev (russian: Кир Булычёв ir Bulychyov 18 October 1934 – 5 September 2003) is a pen name of Igor Vsevolodovich Mozheiko (И́горь Все́володович Може́йко), a USSR, Soviet Russian science fiction writ ...
, Ivan Yefremov, Alexander Belyaev enjoyed mainstream popularity at the time. An important theme of Russian literature has always been the Russian soul.


Philosophy

Some Russian writers, like Tolstoy and Dostoyevsky, are known also as philosophers, while many more authors are known primarily for their philosophical works. Russian philosophy blossomed since the 19th century, when it was defined initially by the opposition of Westernizers, advocating Russia's following the Western political and economical models, and Slavophiles, insisting on developing Russia as a unique civilization. The latter group includes Nikolai Danilevsky and Konstantin Leontiev, the early founders of eurasianism. In its further developments, Russian philosophy was always marked by a deep connection to literature and interest in creativity, society, politics and nationalism; Russian cosmism, cosmos and religion were other primary subjects. Notable philosophers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries include Vladimir Solovyov (philosopher), Vladimir Solovyov, Sergei Bulgakov, Pavel Florensky, Nikolai Berdyaev, Vladimir Lossky and Vladimir Vernadsky. In the 20th century Russian philosophy became dominated by Marxism.


Humour

Russia owes much of its wit to the great flexibility and richness of the Russian language, allowing for puns and unexpected associations. As with any other nation, its vast scope ranges from lewd jokes and silly word play to political satire. Russian jokes, the most popular form of Russian humour, are short fictional stories or dialogues with a punch line. Russian joke culture features a series of categories with fixed and highly familiar settings and characters. Surprising effects are achieved by an endless variety of plots. Russians love jokes on topics found everywhere in the world, be it politics, spouse relations, or mother-in-law joke, mothers-in-law. Chastushka, a type of traditional Russian poetry, is a single quatrain in trochee, trochaic tetrameter with an "abab" or "abcb" rhyme scheme. Usually humorous, satire, satirical, or ironic in nature, chastushkas are often put to music as well, usually with balalaika or accordion accompaniment. The rigid, short structure (and to a lesser degree, the type of humor these use) parallels limerick (poetry), limericks. The name originates from the Russian word ''части́ть'', meaning "to speak fast".


Visual arts

Russian visual artworks are similar in style with the ones from other eastern Slavic countries like Ukraine or Belarus. As early as the 12th and 13th centuries Russia had its national masters who were free of all foreign influence, i. e. that of the Greeks on the one hand, and on the other hand that of the Lombard master-masons called in Andrei Georgievich to build the Uspensky (Assumption) Cathedral in the city of Vladimir. Russia's relations with the Greek world were hampered by the Mongol invasion, and it is to the isolation arising from this that we must attribute the originality of Slavo-Russian ornamentation, which has a character of its own, quite unlike the Byzantine art, Byzantine style and its derivative, the Romanesque art, Romanesque. Kremlin Tower Clock, 1913, House of Faberge, Russia, rhodonite, silver, enamel, emeralds, sapphires - Cleveland Museum of Art - DSC08964.JPG, Kremlin Tower Clock; 1913; rhodonite, silver, Vitreous enamel, enamel, emeralds, sapphires; by House of Fabergé; Cleveland Museum of Art Peter Carl Fabergé - Tea Set - 1966.500 - Cleveland Museum of Art.tif, Russian tea set; by Peter Carl Fabergé; made before 1896; silver gilt and opaque cloisonne enamel; Cleveland Museum of Art (USA) Fedor I. Rückert - Kovsh (Wine Vessel) - 1966.497 - Cleveland Museum of Art.tif, Kovsh (wine vessel); by Fedor I. Rückert; 1896–1906; overall: 8.3 x 20.4 x 12.7 cm; Cleveland Museum of Art Museum IMG 4286 St. Petersburg, Russia (39036215272).jpg, ''Lilies of the Valley (Fabergé egg), Lilies of the Valley'', a Fabergé egg; by Peter Carl Fabergé; 1898; enamel, gold, diamonds, rubies & pearls; 15.1 cm (5.9 in) when is closed; Fabergé Museum in Saint Petersburg, Russia, Fabergé Museum (Saint Petersburg, Russia)


Architecture

Russian architecture began with the woodcraft buildings of ancient
Slavs Slavs are an ethno-linguistic group of people who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic language, Balto-Slavic linguistic group of the Indo-European languages. They are native to Eurasia, stretching from Central Europe, ...

Slavs
. Some characteristics taken from the Slavic pagan temples are the exterior galleries and the plurality of towers. Since the Christianization of Kievan Rus', for several centuries Russian architecture was influenced predominantly by the Byzantine architecture, until the Fall of Constantinople. Apart from fortifications (Kremlin (fortification), kremlins), the main stone buildings of ancient Rus' were Eastern Orthodox, Orthodox Church (building), churches, with their many domes, often gilded or brightly painted. Aristotle Fioravanti and other Italian architects brought Renaissance trends into Russia. The 16th century saw the development of unique tent-like churches culminating in Saint Basil's Cathedral. By that time the onion dome design was also fully developed. In the 17th century, the "fiery style" of ornamentation flourished in Moscow and Yaroslavl, gradually paving the way for the Naryshkin baroque of the 1690s. After Reforms of Peter I of Russia, Peter the Great reforms had made Russia much closer to Western culture, the change of the architectural styles in the country generally followed that of Western Europe. The 18th-century taste for Rococo architecture led to the splendid works of Bartolomeo Rastrelli and his followers. During the reign of Catherine the Great and her grandson Alexander I of Russia, Alexander I, the city of Saint Petersburg was transformed into an outdoor museum of Neoclassical architecture. The second half of the 19th century was dominated by the Byzantine and Russian Revival style (this corresponds to Gothic Revival in Western Europe). Prevalent styles of the 20th century were the Art Nouveau (Fyodor Shekhtel), Constructivism (art), Constructivism (Moisei Ginzburg and Victor Vesnin), and the Stalinist architecture, Stalin Empire style (Boris Iofan). After Stalin's death a new Soviet leader, Nikita Khrushchev, condemned the "excesses" of the former architectural styles, and in the late Soviet era the architecture of the country was dominated by plain Functionalism (architecture), functionalism. This helped somewhat to resolve the housing problem, but created the large massives of buildings of low architectural quality, much in contrast with the previous bright architecture. After the end of the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
the situation improved. Many churches demolished in the Soviet times were rebuilt, and this process continues along with the restoration of various historical buildings destroyed in World War II. As for the original architecture, there is no more any common style in modern Russia, though International style (architecture), International style has a great influence. Some notable Russian buildings include: *Saint Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod , Golden Gate (Vladimir) , Cathedral of Christ the Saviour , Assumption Cathedral in Vladimir , Cathedral of the Annunciation, Moscow, Cathedral of the Annunciation , Cathedral of the Archangel , Cathedral of the Dormition , Church of the Savior on Blood , Saint Basil's Cathedral , Kazan Kremlin , Saint Isaac's Cathedral , Kazan Cathedral, St. Petersburg, Kazan Cathedral , Peter and Paul Cathedral , Sukharev Tower , Menshikov Tower , Moscow Manege , Narva Triumphal Gate , Kolomenskoye , Peterhof Palace , Gatchina , Troitse-Sergiyeva Lavra , Solovetsky Monastery , Kunstkamera , Russian Museum , Catherine Palace , Grand Kremlin Palace , Winter Palace , Simonov Monastery , Novodevichy Convent , Lenin's Mausoleum , Tatlin's Tower , Palace of the Soviets , Seven Sisters (Moscow) , All-Soviet Exhibition Centre , Ostankino Tower , Triumph-Palace , White House of Russia Кронштадт. Никольский собор на Якорной площади.jpg, Kronstadt Naval Cathedral in Saint Petersburg Moscow July 2011-7a.jpg, Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow Dormition Cathedral, Moscow.jpg, Dormition Cathedral, Moscow, Dormition Cathedral in Moscow Вид на Спасскую башню от Исторического музея.jpg, Spasskaya Tower from the Moscow Kremlin 1 Saint Basils Cathedral.jpg, Saint Basil's Cathedral in Moscow Saint Isaac's Cathedral in SPB.jpeg, Saint Isaac's Cathedral from Saint Petersburg Kaliningrad 05-2017 img04 Kant Island.jpg, Königsberg Cathedral in Kaliningrad Teatro Bolshói, Moscú, Rusia, 2016-10-03, DD 42-43 HDR.jpg, The Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow Auferstehungskirche (Sankt Petersburg).JPG, Church of the Savior on Blood in Saint Petersburg Winter Palace Panorama 4.jpg, The Winter Palace from Saint Petersburg GUM department store in Red Square (19778541460).jpg, GUM (department store), GUM in Moscow Peter & Paul fortress in SPB 03.jpg, Peter and Paul Fortress in Saint Petersburg Kazan Cathedral - panoramio (1).jpg, Kazan Cathedral, Saint Petersburg, Kazan Cathedral in Saint Petersburg Moscow State University crop.jpg, The main building of Moscow State University in Moscow Western Military District buildings Saint Petersburg arch.jpg, General Staff Building (Saint Petersburg), General Staff Building in Saint Petersburg Kunstkamera SPB.jpg, Kunstkamera in Saint Petersburg


Handicraft

Matryoshka doll is a Russian nesting doll. A set of Matryoshka dolls consist of a wooden figure which can be pulled apart to reveal another figure of the same sort but somewhat smaller inside. It has in turn another somewhat smaller figure inside, and so on. The number of nested figures is usually six or more. The shape is mostly cylindrical, rounded at the top for the head and tapered towards the bottom, but little else. The dolls have no extremities, (except those that are painted). The true artistry is in the painting of each doll, which can be extremely elaborate. The theme is usually peasant girls in traditional dress, but can be almost anything; for instance, fairy tales or Soviet leaders. Other forms of Russian handicraft include khokhloma, Dymkovo toy, Gzhel (ceramics), gzhel, Zhostovo painting, Filimonov toys, Pysanka, pisanka, Pavlovo Posad shawl, Rushnyk, and palekh miniature, palekh. Азарова1.jpg, A Gzhel samovar File:Poupées russes.JPG, Matryoshka dolls in a market File:Russian-Matroshka.jpg, Matryoshka doll Хохломская роспись на доске.jpg, A Khokhloma painting on a cutting board File:Дымковская игрушка в магазине г. Киров (Кировская область).JPG, Dymkovo toys in a store File:Podnos.jpg, A Zhostovo painting File:Toy of Filimonovo 02.jpg, Some Filimonovo toys File:Pyssanka1.jpg, Pysankas File:Russian lacquered box - Suzdal.png, Lacquered box with a Kholuy miniature, depicting the town of Suzdal Пермогорская роспись.jpg, A Permogorsk painting on wood File:Белгородские рушники.jpg, Rushnyk, old traditional Russian weaving style. The patterns vary between regions, and can be found across Russian history in textiles and Russian architecture


Icon painting

Russian icons are typically paintings on wood, often small, though some in churches and monasteries may be as large as a table top. Many religious homes in Russia have icons hanging on the wall in the ''krasny ugol'', the "red" or "beautiful" corner (see Icon Corner). There is a rich history and elaborate religious symbolism associated with icons. In Russian churches, the nave is typically separated from the sanctuary by an ''iconostasis'' (Russian ''ikonostás'') a wall of icons. Icon paintings in Russia attempted to help people with their prayers without idolizing the figure in the painting. The most comprehensive collection of Icon art is found at the Tretyakov Gallery. The use and making of icons entered Kievan Rus' following its conversion to Orthodox Christianity from the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire in 988 AD. As a general rule, these icons strictly followed models and formulas hallowed by usage, some of which had originated in Constantinople. As time passed, the Russians—notably Andrei Rublev and Dionisius—widened the vocabulary of iconic types and styles far beyond anything found elsewhere. The personal, improvisatory and creative traditions of Western European religious art are largely lacking in Russia before the seventeenth century, when Simon Ushakov's painting became strongly influenced by religious paintings and engravings from Protestant as well as Catholic Europe. In the mid-seventeenth century, changes in liturgy and practice instituted by Patriarch Nikon resulted in a split in the Russian Orthodox Church. The traditionalists, the persecuted "Old Ritualists" or "Old Believers", continued the traditional stylization of icons, while the State Church modified its practice. From that time icons began to be painted not only in the traditional stylized and nonrealistic mode, but also in a mixture of Russian stylization and Western European realism, and in a Western European manner very much like that of Catholic religious art of the time. The Stroganov School, Stroganov movement and the icons from Nevyansk rank among the last important schools of Russian icon-painting. Meister der Schule von Nowgorod 002.jpg, Icon of the Crucifixion of Jesus, Crucifixion; circa 1360; by the Novgorod School; Louvre (Paris) File:Angelsatmamre-trinity-rublev-1410.jpg, ''Trinity (Andrei Rublev), Holy Trinity, Hospitality of Abraham''; by Andrei Rublev; c. 1411; tempera on panel; 1.1 x 1.4 m (4 ft 8 in x 3 ft 8 in); Tretyakov Gallery (Moscow) Складень трехстворчатый c изображением «Благовещения», «Троицы» и «Сретения»..jpg, A three-leaved fold with the image of the "Annunciation", "Trinity" and "Presentation"; the end of the 17th century; temperaon wood; 13 x 7.3 cm; National Art Museum of Azerbaijan (Baku) Икона «Святитель Николай Чудотворец (Дворищенский)". Первая треть XVIII века, Новгород. Дерево, левкас, темпера..jpg, Icon of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker (Dvorischensky); 18th century; wood, gesso & tempera; Ryabushinsky Museum of Icons and Paintings (Moscow)


Lubok

A lubok (plural ''Lubki'', Cyrillic: russian: лубо́к, лубо́чная картинка) is a Russian popular print, characterized by simple graphics and narratives derived from literature, religious stories and popular tales. Lubki prints were used as decoration in houses and inns. Early examples from the late 17th and early 18th centuries were woodcuts, then engravings or etchings were typical, and from the mid-19th century lithography. They sometimes appeared in series, which might be regarded as predecessors of the modern comic strip. Cheap and simple books, similar to chapbooks, which mostly consisted of pictures, are called lubok literature or (Cyrillic: russian: лубочная литература). Both pictures and literature are commonly referred to simply as ''lubki''. The Russian word ''lubok'' derives from ''lub'' – a special type of board that pictures were printed on. File:Babayaga lubok.jpg, ''Baba Yaga riding a pig and fighting the infernal Crocodile''; 17th century File:Lubok zodiac.jpg, The sun, moon, seasons and 12 months in the form of signs of the zodiac; the end of the 17th-early 18th century File:Mice-burying-the-cat.jpg, ''The Mice are burying the Cat''; 18th century File:Farnos.jpg, ''Farnos the Red Nose'' (lubok depicting a pig-riding jester); 18th century


Classical painting

The Russian Academy of Arts was created in 1757 with the aim of giving Russian artists an international role and status. Notable portrait painters from the Academy include Ivan Argunov, Fyodor Rokotov, Dmitry Levitzky, and Vladimir Borovikovsky. In the early 19th century, when neoclassicism and romantism flourished, famous academic artists focused on mythological and Biblical themes, like Karl Briullov and Alexander Andreyevich Ivanov, Alexander Ivanov.


Realist painting

Realism (visual arts), Realism came into dominance in the 19th century. The realists captured Russian identity in landscapes of wide rivers, forests, and birch clearings, as well as vigorous genre scenes and robust portraits of their contemporaries. Other artists focused on social criticism, showing the conditions of the poor and caricaturing authority; Social realism, critical realism flourished under the reign of Alexander II of Russia, Alexander II, with some artists making the circle of human suffering their main theme. Others focused on depicting dramatic moments in Russian history. The ''Peredvizhniki'' (''wanderers'') group of artists broke with Russian Academy and initiated a school of art liberated from Academic restrictions. Leading realists include Ivan Shishkin, Arkhip Kuindzhi, Ivan Kramskoi, Vasily Polenov, Isaac Levitan, Vasily Surikov, Viktor Vasnetsov and Ilya Repin. By the turn of the 20th century and on, many Russian artists developed their own unique styles, neither realist nor avante-garde. These include Boris Kustodiev, Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin, Mikhail Vrubel and Nicholas Roerich. Many works by the Peredvizhniki group of artists have been highly sought after by collectors in recent years. Russian art auctions during Russian Art Week in London have increased in demand and works have been sold for record breaking prices.


Russian avant-garde

The Russian avant-garde is an umbrella term used to define the large, influential wave of modernist art that flourished in Russia from approximately 1890 to 1930. The term covers many separate, but inextricably related, art movements that occurred at the time; namely neo-primitivism, suprematism, Constructivism (art), constructivism, rayonism, and Russian Futurism, futurism. Notable artists from this era include El Lissitzky, Kazimir Malevich, Wassily Kandinsky, Vladimir Tatlin, Alexander Rodchenko, Pavel Filonov and Marc Chagall. The Russian avant-garde reached its creative and popular height in the period between the
Russian Revolution of 1917 The Russian Revolution was a period of Political revolution, political and social revolution that took place in the former Russian Empire and began during the First World War. Commencing in 1917 with the fall of the House of Romanov and conc ...
and 1932, at which point the revolutionary ideas of the avant-garde clashed with the newly emerged conservative direction of
socialist realism Socialist realism is a style of idealized realistic art that was developed in the Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It ...
. In the 20th century many Russian artists made their careers in Western Europe, forced to emigrate by the Revolution. Wassily Kandinsky, Marc Chagall, Naum Gabo and others spread their work, ideas, and the impact of Russian art globally. Glass (Larionov, 1912).jpg, ''The glass''; by Mikhail Larionov; 1912; oil on canvas; 104 × 97 cm (40.9 × 38.1 in.); Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum (New York City) Vassily Kandinsky, 1913 - Color Study, Squares with Concentric Circles.jpg, ''Squares with Concentric Circles''; by Wassily Kandinsky; 1913; watercolor, gouache and crayon on paper; height: 23.9 cm (9.4 in.), width: 31.6 cm (12.4 in.); Lenbachhaus (Munich, Germany) Cyclist (Goncharova, 1913).jpg, ''Cyclist (painting), Cyclist''; by Natalia Goncharova; 1913; oil on canvas; height: 78 cm (30.7 in.), width: 105 cm (41.3 in.); the Russian Museum, Russian State Museum (Saint Petersburg) Klinom Krasnim by El Lisitskiy (1920).jpg, ''Beat the Whites with the Red Wedge''; by El Lissitzky; 1919; poster (lithography)


Soviet art

During the October Revolution, Russian Revolution a movement was initiated to put all arts to service of the dictatorship of the proletariat. The instrument for this was created just days before the October Revolution, known as Proletkult, an abbreviation for "Proletarskie kulturno-prosvetitelnye organizatsii" (Proletarian Cultural and Enlightenment Organizations). A prominent theorist of this movement was Alexander Bogdanov. Initially, Narkompros (ministry of education), which was also in charge of the arts, supported Proletkult. Although Marxist in character, the Proletkult gained the disfavor of many party leaders, and by 1922 it had declined considerably. It was eventually disbanded by Stalin in 1932. ''De facto'' restrictions on what artists could paint were abandoned by the late 1980s. However, in the late Soviet era many artists combined innovation with
socialist realism Socialist realism is a style of idealized realistic art that was developed in the Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It ...
including Ernst Neizvestny, Ilya Kabakov, Mikhail Shemyakin, Igor Novikov (painter), Igor Novikov, Erik Bulatov, and Vera Mukhina. They employed techniques as varied as primitivism, hyperrealism, grotesque, and abstraction. Soviet artists produced works that were furiously patriotic and anti-fascist in the 1940s. After the Great Patriotic War Soviet sculptors made multiple monuments to the war dead, marked by a great restrained solemnity.


Performance arts


Russian folk music

Russians have distinctive traditions of Music of Russia#Folk music, folk music. Typical ethnic Russian musical instruments are gusli, balalaika, zhaleika, balalaika contrabass, bayan (accordion), bayan accordion, Gypsy guitar and garmoshka. Folk music had great influence on the Russian classical composers, and in modern times it is a source of inspiration for a number of popular folk bands, most prominent being Golden Ring (band), Golden Ring, Ural's Nation Choir, Lyudmila Zykina. Ethnic Russian music, Russian folk songs, as well as patriotic songs of the Music of the Soviet Union, Soviet era, constitute the bulk of repertoire of the world-renowned Alexandrov ensemble, Red Army choir and other popular Russian ensembles.


Russian folk dance

Russian folk dance (
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...
: Русский Народный Танец ) can generally be broken up into two main types of dances Khorovod (
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...
: Хоровод), a circular game type dance where the participants hold hands, sing, and the action generally happens in the middle of circle, and Plyaska (
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...
: Пляска or Плясовый), a circular dance for men and women that increases in diversity and tempo, according to Bob Renfield, considered to be the preeminent scholar on the topic. Other forms of Russian Folk Dance include Pereplyas (
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...
: Перепляс), an all-male competitive dance, Mass Dance (
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...
: Массовый пляс), an unpaired stage dance without restrictions on age or number of participants, Group Dance (
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...
: Групповая пляска) a type of mass dance employs simple round-dance passages, and improvisation, and types of Quadrilles (
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...
: Кадриль), originally a French dance brought to Russia in the 18th century. Ethnic Russian dances include khorovod (
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...
: Хоровод), barynya (
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...
: Барыня), kamarinskaya (
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...
: Камаринская), kazachok (
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...
: Казачок) and chechotka (
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...
: Чечётка) (a tap dance in bast shoes and with a bayan). Troika (dance), Troika (
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...
: Тройка) A dance with one man and two women, named after the traditional Russian carriage which is led by three horses. Bear Dance or dancing with bears (
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...
: Танец С Медведем) Dates back to 907 when Great Russian Prince Oleg, in celebration of his victory over the Greeks in Kiev, had as entertainment, 16 male dancers dress as bears and four bears dress as dancers . Dances with dancers dressed as bears are a recurring theme, as seen a recording of the Omsk Russian Folk Chorus. One of the main characteristics of Russian furious dances is the Squat dance, Russian squat dance elements.


Classical music

Until the 18th-century, music in Russia consisted mainly of church music and folk songs and dances.Excerpted from In the 19th-century, it was defined by the tension between classical composer Mikhail Glinka along with other members of The Mighty Handful, and the Russian Musical Society led by composers Anton Rubinstein, Anton and Nikolay Rubinstein. The later tradition of Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, one of the greatest composers of the Romantic music, Romantic era, was continued into the 20th century by Sergei Rachmaninoff, one of the last great champions of the Romantic style of European classical music. World-renowned composers of the 20th century include Alexander Scriabin, Alexander Glazunov, Igor Stravinsky, Sergei Prokofiev, Dmitri Shostakovich, Georgy Sviridov and Alfred Schnittke. Soviet and Russian conservatories have turned out generations of world-renowned soloists. Among the best known are violinists David Oistrakh and Gidon Kremer, cellist Mstislav Rostropovich, pianists Vladimir Horowitz, Sviatoslav Richter, and Emil Gilels, and vocalist Galina Vishnevskaya.


Ballet

The original purpose of the ballet in Russia was to entertain the imperial court. The first ballet company was the Imperial School of Ballet in St. Petersburg in the 1740s. The Ballets Russes was a ballet company founded in the 1909 by Sergey Diaghilev, an enormously important figure in the Russian ballet scene. Diaghilev and his Ballets Russes' travels abroad profoundly influenced the development of dance worldwide. The headquarters of his ballet company was located in Paris, France. A protégé of Diaghilev, George Balanchine, founded the New York City Ballet Company in 1948. During the early 20th century, Russian ballet dancers Anna Pavlova and Vaslav Nijinsky rose to fame. Soviet ballet preserved the perfected 19th century traditions, and the Soviet Union's choreography schools produced one internationally famous star after another, including Maya Plisetskaya, Rudolf Nureyev, and Mikhail Baryshnikov. The Bolshoi Theatre, Bolshoi Ballet in Moscow and the Mariinsky Ballet, Mariinsky in Saint Petersburg remain famous throughout the world.


Opera

The first known opera made in Russia was ''A Life for the Tsar'' by Mikhail Glinka in 1836. This was followed by several operas such as ''Ruslan and Lyudmila'' in 1842. Russian opera was originally a combination of Russian folk music and Italian opera. After the October revolution many opera composers left Russia. Russia's most popular operas include ''Boris Godunov (opera), Boris Godunov'', ''Eugene Onegin (opera), Eugene Onegin'', ''The Golden Cockerel'', ''Prince Igor'', and ''The Queen of Spades (opera), The Queen of Spades''.


Modern music

During the Soviet times, popular music also produced a number of renowned figures, such as the two Bard (Soviet Union), balladeers—Vladimir Vysotsky and Bulat Okudzhava, and performers such as Alla Pugacheva. Jazz, even with sanctions from Soviet authorities, flourished and evolved into one of the country's most popular musical forms. The Vyacheslav Ganelin, Ganelin Trio have been described by critics as the greatest ensemble of free-jazz in continental Europe. By the 1980s, Rock music in Russia, rock music became popular across Russia, and produced bands such as Aria (band), Aria, Aquarium (band), Aquarium, DDT (band), DDT, and Kino (band), Kino. Russian pop, Pop music in Russia has continued to flourish since the 1960s, with globally famous acts such as t.A.T.u.. In the recent times, Little Big (band), Little Big, a rave music, rave band, has gained popularity in Russia and across Europe.


Cinema

Russian and later Soviet cinema was a hotbed of invention, resulting in world-renowned films such as ''The Battleship Potemkin''. Soviet-era filmmakers, most notably Sergei Eisenstein and Andrei Tarkovsky, would go on to become among of the world's most innovative and influential directors. Eisenstein was a student of Lev Kuleshov, who developed the groundbreaking Soviet montage theory of film editing at the world's first film school, the Gerasimov Institute of Cinematography, All-Union Institute of Cinematography. Dziga Vertov's "Kino-Eye" theory had a huge impact on the development of documentary filmmaking and cinema realism. Many Soviet socialist realism films were artistically successful, including ''Chapaev (film), Chapaev'', ''The Cranes Are Flying'', and ''Ballad of a Soldier''. The 1960s and 1970s saw a greater variety of artistic styles in Soviet cinema. The comedies of Eldar Ryazanov and Leonid Gaidai of that time were immensely popular, with many of the catchphrases still in use today. In 1961–68 Sergey Bondarchuk directed an Academy Award, Oscar-winning War and Peace (film series), film adaptation of Leo Tolstoy's epic ''War and Peace'', which was the most expensive film made in the Soviet Union. In 1969, Vladimir Motyl's ''White Sun of the Desert'' was released, a very popular film in a genre of ostern; the film is traditionally watched by cosmonauts before any trip into space. In 2002, ''Russian Ark'' was the first feature film ever to be shot in a single take. Today, the Russian cinema industry continues to expand.


Animation

Russia also has a long and rich Russian animation, tradition of animation, which started already in the late Russian Empire times. Most of Russia's cartoon production for cinema and television was created during Soviet times, when Soyuzmultfilm studio was the largest animation producer. Soviet animators developed a great and unmatched variety of pioneering techniques and aesthetics, aesthetic styles, with prominent directors including Ivan Ivanov-Vano, Fyodor Khitruk and Aleksandr Tatarskiy. Soviet cartoons are still a source for many popular catch phrases, while such cartoon heroes as Russian-style Winnie-the-Pooh, cute little Cheburashka, Wolf and Hare from ''Nu, Pogodi!'' being iconic images in Russia and many surrounding countries. The traditions of Soviet animation were developed in the past decade by such directors as Aleksandr Petrov (animator), Aleksandr Petrov and studios like Melnitsa Animation Studio, Melnitsa, along with Ivan Maximov.


Science and technology


Radio and TV

Russia has almost 37 thousand media outlets, over 35 thousand newspapers, and 12 thousand magazines. The largest internationally operating news agencies in Russia are TASS, RIA Novosti, and Interfax. Television in Russia, Television is the most popular media in Russia, as 99% of the Russian population receives at least one television channel, and roughly 60% of Russians watch television on a daily basis. The most watched TV channels in Russia include the state-owned Russia-1, Channel One Russia, NTV (Russia), NTV, REN TV, and Russia Today. Popular nationwide radio stations in Russia include Radio Rossii, Echo of Moscow, Radio Mayak, Radio Yunost, and Russkoye Radio.


Internet

Originating from Russian :Science and technology in Russia, scientific community and Communications in Russia, telecommunication industries, a specific Russian culture of using the Internet has been established since the early 1990s. In the second half of the 1990s, the term ''Runet'' was coined to call the segment of Internet written or understood in the Russian language. Whereas the Internet "has no boundaries", "Russian Internet" (online communications in the Russian language) can not be localized solely to the users residing in the Russian Federation as it includes Russian-speaking people from all around the world. This segment includes millions of users in other Post-Soviet states, ex-USSR countries, Israel and others abroad diasporas. With the introduction of World Wide Web, the Web, many social and cultural events found reflections within the Russian Internet society. Various Virtual community, online communities formed, and the most popular one grew out of the Russian-speaking users of the California-based blogging platform LiveJournal (which was completely bought out in December 2007 by Russian firm SUP Fabrik). In January 2008 a LiveJournal blog of the "3rd statesman" Sergey Mironov had appeared and he was shortly followed by the new President Dmitry Medvedev who opened a personal video blog which was later also expanded with a LiveJournal version. As of late, there are scores of websites offering Russian language content including mass media, e-commerce, search engines and so on. Particularly notorious are the "Russian Hacker (computer security), Hackers". Russian web design studios, software and web-hosting enterprises offer a variety of services, and the results form a sort of national digital culture. E-commerce giants such as Google and Microsoft have their Russian branches. In September 2007, the national domain .ru passed the milestone of a million domain names. By the end of the 2000s, VKontakte social network became the most populated in the Runet.


Science and innovation

At the start of the 18th century the Reforms of Peter I of Russia, reforms of Peter the Great (the founder of Russian Academy of Sciences and Saint Petersburg State University) and the work of such champions as polymath
Mikhail Lomonosov Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov (; russian: Михаил (Михайло) Васильевич Ломоносов, p=mʲɪxɐˈil vɐˈsʲilʲjɪvʲɪtɕ , a=Ru-Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov.ogg; – ) was a Russian polymath A polymath ( e ...

Mikhail Lomonosov
(the founder of Moscow State University) gave a great boost for development of science, engineering and innovation in Russia. In the 19th and 20th centuries Russia produced a large number of great :Russian scientists, scientists and List of Russian inventors, inventors. Nikolai Lobachevsky, a ''Copernicus of Geometry'', developed the non-Euclidean geometry. Dmitry Mendeleev invented the Periodic table, the main framework of the modern chemistry. Nikolay Benardos introduced the arc welding, further developed by Nikolay Slavyanov, Konstantin Khrenov and other Russian engineers. Gleb Kotelnikov invented the knapsack parachute, while Evgeniy Chertovsky introduced the pressure suit. Pavel Yablochkov and Alexander Lodygin were great pioneers of electrical engineering and inventors of early electric lamps. Alexander Stepanovich Popov, Alexander Popov was among the invention of radio, inventors of radio, while Nikolai Basov and Alexander Prokhorov were co-inventors of lasers and masers. Igor Tamm, Andrei Sakharov and Lev Artsimovich developed the idea of tokamak for controlled nuclear fusion and created its first prototype, which finally led to the modern ITER project. Many famous Russian scientists and inventors were émigrés, like Igor Sikorsky and Vladimir Zworykin, and many foreign ones worked in Russia for a long time, like Leonard Euler and Alfred Nobel. The greatest Russian successes are in the field of space technology and space exploration. Konstantin Tsiolkovsky was the father of theoretical astronautics. His works had inspired leading Soviet Union, Soviet rocket engineers such as Sergei Korolev, Valentin Glushko, and many others that contributed to the success of the
Soviet space program The Soviet space program (russian: Космическая программа СССР, Kosmicheskaya programma SSSR) was the national space program of the Soviet Union, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), conducted in competition with ...
at early stages of the Space Race and beyond. In 1957 the first Earth-orbiting artificial satellite, ''Sputnik 1'', was launched; in 1961 on Cosmonautics Day, 12 April the first human trip into space was successfully made by Yury Gagarin; and many other Soviet and Russian Timeline of space exploration, space exploration records ensued, including the first spacewalk performed by Alexei Leonov, the first space exploration Rover (space exploration), rover ''Lunokhod programme, Lunokhod-1'' and the first space station ''Salyut program, Salyut 1''. Nowadays Russia is the largest satellite launcher and the only provider of transport for space tourism services. Other technologies, where Russia historically leads, include nuclear technology, aircraft production and arms industry. The creation of the first nuclear power plant along with the first nuclear reactor technology, nuclear reactors for submarines and Nuclear marine propulsion, surface ships was directed by Igor Kurchatov. Nuclear Ship, NS ''Lenin (nuclear icebreaker), Lenin'' was the world's first Nuclear marine propulsion, nuclear-powered surface ship as well as the first List of civilian nuclear ships, nuclear-powered civilian vessel, and Nuclear Ship, NS ''Arktika (1972 nuclear icebreaker), Arktika'' became the first surface ship to reach the North Pole. A number of prominent Soviet aerospace engineers, inspired by the theoretical works of Nikolay Yegorovich Zhukovsky, Nikolai Zhukovsky, supervised the creation of many dozens of models of military and civilian aircraft and founded a number of ''KBs'' (''Construction Bureaus'') that now constitute the bulk of Russian United Aircraft Corporation. Famous Russian airplanes include the first supersonic passenger jet Tupolev Tu-144 by Alexei Tupolev, MiG fighter aircraft series by Artem Mikoyan and Mikhail Gurevich (aircraft designer), Mikhail Gurevich, and Sukhoi, Su series by Pavel Sukhoi and his followers. Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15, MiG-15 is the world's List of most produced aircraft, most produced jet aircraft in history, while Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21, MiG-21 is most produced supersonic aircraft. During World War II era Bereznyak-Isayev BI-1 was introduced as the first rocket-powered aircraft, rocket-powered fighter aircraft, and Ilyushin Il-2 bomber became the List of most produced aircraft, most produced military aircraft in history. Polikarpov Po-2 ''Polikarpov Po-2, Kukuruznik'' is the world's most produced biplane, and Mil Mi-8 is the most produced helicopter. Famous Russian battle tanks include T-34, the best tank design of World War II, and further tanks of T-series, including T-54/55, the most produced tank in history, first fully gas turbine tank T-80 and the most modern Russian tank T-90. The AK-47 and AK-74 by Mikhail Kalashnikov constitute the most widely used type of assault rifle throughout the world – so much so that more AK-type rifles have been produced than all other assault rifles combined.Poyer, Joe. ''The AK-47 and AK-74 Kalashnikov Rifles and Their Variations''. North Cape Publications. 2004. With these and other weapons Russia for a long time has been among the world's List of countries by arms exports, top suppliers of arms.


Space exploration

Roscosmos is Russia's national space agency; while Russian achievements in the field of space technology and space exploration are traced back to Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, the father of theoretical astronautics. His works had inspired leading Soviet rocket engineers, such as Sergey Korolyov, Valentin Glushko, and many others who contributed to the success of the
Soviet space program The Soviet space program (russian: Космическая программа СССР, Kosmicheskaya programma SSSR) was the national space program of the Soviet Union, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), conducted in competition with ...
in the early stages of the Space Race and beyond. In 1957, the first Earth-orbiting artificial satellite, ''Sputnik 1'', was launched. In 1961, the first human trip into space was successfully made by Yuri Gagarin. Many other Soviet and Russian space exploration records ensued, including the first spacewalk performed by Alexei Leonov. Vostok 6 was the first human spaceflight to carry a woman into space (Valentina Tereshkova). Luna 9 was the first spacecraft to land on the Moon, Sputnik 2 was the first spacecraft to carry an animal (Laika), Zond 5 brought the first Earthlings (two tortoises and other life forms) to circumnavigate the Moon, Venera 7 was the first spacecraft to land on another planet (Venus), and Mars 3 was the first spacecraft to land on Mars. ''Lunokhod-1, Lunokhod 1'' was the first space exploration rover, and ''Salyut 1'' was the world's first space station. Russia is among the world's largest satellite launchers, and has completed the GLONASS satellite navigation system. It is developing its own fifth-generation jet fighter (Sukhoi Su-57), and has built the world's first Russian floating nuclear power station, floating nuclear power plant. Luna-Glob is a Russian Moon exploration programme, with its first mission scheduled to launch in October 2021 (Luna 25). To replace the ageing Soyuz (spacecraft), Soyuz, Roscosmos is also developing the Orel (spacecraft), Orel spacecraft, which could conduct its first crewed fight in 2025. In February 2019, it was announced that Russia is intending to conduct its first crewed mission to land on the Moon in 2031. In April 2021, Roscosmos declared that it is planning to quit the International Space Station, ISS, and will create its own space station with the aim of launching it into orbit by 2030. In June 2021, Roscosmos and China National Space Administration announced that they are jointly developing a International Lunar Research Station, lunar base, which is planned to be utilized from 2036.


Lifestyle


Ethnic dress of Russian people

Not only the minorities in Russia but the Russian culture as a whole has in the different regions of the country like in Northwest Russia, Central Russia, Southern Russia, Siberian Russia, Volga Russia, Ural Russia, Far East Russia and the Russian North Caucasus and their Oblasts own local traditions and characteristics which were developed over a long period of time through strong ethno-cultural interactions within the various groups and communities, like Slavs, Tatars and Finno-Ugrics. Traditional Russians, Russian clothes include kaftan, a cloth which Old Russia had in common with similar robes in the Ottoman Empire, Scandinavia and Iran, Persia. Kosovorotka, which was over a long time of period a traditional holidays blouse worn by men. Ushanka for men, which design was influenced in 17th century when in Central Russia, central and Russian North, northern Russia a hat with earflaps called treukh was worn. Sarafan which is connected to the Middle East region and were worn in Central- and Northern regions of Old Russia. In Southern Russia burka and papaha are connected to the Cossacks which, in turn, is culturally connected to the people of the North Caucasus, Northern Caucaus. Kokoshnik for women was primarily worn in the northern regions of Russia in the 16th to 19th centuries. Lapti and similar shoes were mostly worn by poorer members in Old Russia and northern regions where Slavs, Slavic, Baltic states, Baltic and Finno-Ugric languages, Finno-Ugric people lived. Valenki are traditional Russian shoes from 18th century designs which originally originated in the Great steppe, from Asian nomads. Russian traditional cloths and its elements still have a high priority in today's Russia, especially in pagan Slavic communities, folk festivals, Cossack communities, in modern fashion and Russian music ensembles.


Cuisine

Russian cuisine has been formed by climate, cultural and religious traditions, and the vast geography of the nation. It shares many similarities with cuisines of its neighbouring countries, and widely uses vegetables, fish, flour, cereals, Bread in Europe#Finland and Russia, bread, and berries. Crops of rye, wheat, barley, and millet provide the ingredients for various breads, pancakes and cereals, as well as for many drinks. Black bread is very popular in Russia. Flavourful soups and stews include shchi, borsch, ukha, solyanka and okroshka. Smetana (dairy product), Smetana (a heavy sour cream) is often added to soups and salads. Pirozhki, blini and syrniki are native types of pancakes. Beef Stroganoff, Chicken Kiev, pelmeni and shashlyk are popular meat dishes. Other meat dishes include stuffed cabbage rolls ''(golubtsy)'' usually filled with meat. Salads include Olivier salad, vinegret and dressed herring. Russia's List of national drinks, national non-alcoholic drink is Kvass, and the national alcoholic drink is vodka; its creation in the nation dates back to the 14th century. The country has the world's highest vodka consumption, but Beer in Russia, beer is the most popular alcoholic beverage in Russia. Russian wine, Wine has become popular in Russia in the last decade, and the country is becoming one of the world's largest wine producers.


Traditions


Holidays

There are eight public holidays in Russia. The New Year is the first in calendar and in popularity. Russian New Year traditions resemble those of the Western Christmas, with New Year Trees and gifts, and Ded Moroz (Father Frost) playing the same role as Santa Claus. Rozhdestvo (Orthodox Christmas) falls on 7 January, because Russian Orthodox Church still follows the Julian calendar, Julian (old style) calendar and all Orthodox holidays are 13 days after Catholic ones. Another two major Christian holidays are Easter, Paskha (Easter) and Trinity Sunday, Troitsa (Trinity Sunday, Trinity), but there is no need to recognize them as public holidays since they are always celebrated on Sunday. Further Russian public holidays include Defender of the Fatherland Day (23 February), which honors Russian men, especially those serving in the army; International Women's Day (8 March), which combines the traditions of Mother's Day and Valentine's Day; International Workers' Day (1 May), now renamed ''Spring and Labor Day''; Victory Day (9 May); Russia Day (12 June); and Unity Day (Russia), Unity Day (4 November), commemorating the popular uprising which expelled the Poland, Polish-Lithuanian occupation force from Moscow in 1612. The latter is a replacement for the old Soviet holiday celebrating October Revolution of 1917 (again, it was falling on November because of the difference of calendars). Fireworks and outdoor concerts are common features of all Russian public holidays. Victory Day (9 May), Victory Day is the second popular holiday in Russia, it commemorates the victory over Nazi Germany in World War II and is widely celebrated throughout Russia. A huge military parade, hosted by the President of the Russian Federation, is annually organized in Moscow on Red Square. Similar parades are organized in all major Russian cities and the cities with the status ''Hero city'' or ''City of Military Glory''. Other popular holidays, which are not public, include Old New Year (New Year according to Julian Calendar on 1 January), Tatiana Day (day of Russian students on 25 January), Maslenitsa (an old pagan holiday a week before the Great Lent), Cosmonautics Day (a day of Yury Gagarin's first ever human trip into space on 12 April), Ivan Kupala Day (another pagan Slavic peoples, Slavic holiday on 7 July) and The Tale of Peter and Fevronia, Peter and Fevronia Day (taking place on 8 July and being the Russian analogue of Valentine's Day, which focuses, however, on the family love and fidelity). On different days in June there are major celebrations of the end of the school year, when graduates from schools and universities traditionally swim in the city fountains; the local varieties of these public events include Scarlet Sails (tradition), Scarlet Sails tradition in Saint Petersburg.


Religion

Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, and Judaism are Russia's traditional religions, deemed part of Russia's "historical heritage" in a law passed in 1997. Estimates of believers widely fluctuate among sources, and some reports put the number of non-believers in Russia as high as 16–48% of the population. Russian Orthodox Church, Russian Orthodoxy is the dominant religion in Russia. 95% of the registered Orthodox parishes belong to the Russian Orthodox Church while there are a number of Religion in Russia#Registered religious organizations, smaller Orthodox Churches. However, the vast majority of Orthodox believers do not attend church on a regular basis. Nonetheless, the church is widely respected by both believers and nonbelievers, who see it as a symbol of Russian heritage and culture. Smaller Christian denominations such as Roman Catholics, Armenian Apostolic Church, Armenian Gregorians, and various Protestantism, Protestants exist. The ancestors of many of today's Russians Christianization of Kievan Rus', adopted Orthodox Christianity in the 10th century. The 2007 International Religious Freedom Report published by the US Department of State said that approximately 100 million citizens consider themselves Russian Orthodox Christians. According to a poll by the VCIOM, Russian Public Opinion Research Center, 63% of respondents considered themselves Russian Orthodox, 6% of respondents considered themselves Muslim and less than 1% considered themselves either Buddhist, Catholic, Protestant or Jewish. Another 12% said they believe in God, but did not practice any religion, and 16% said they are non-believers.


Cossack culture in Russia

The steppe culture of the Russian Cossacks originated from nomadic steppe people which merged with Eastern Slavic people groups into large communities. The early Cossack communities emerged in the 14th century, the first, among others, were the Don Cossacks. Other Cossack communities that have played an important role in Russia's history and culture are the Ural Cossacks, Terek Cossacks, Kuban Cossacks, Orenburg Cossacks, Volga Cossacks, Astrakhan Cossacks, Siberian Cossacks, Baikal Cossacks, Transbaikal Cossacks, Amur Cossacks, Ussuri Cossacks. Cossacks defended the Russian borders and expanded Russia's territory. The regions of the large Cossack communities enjoyed many freedoms in Tsardom of Russia, Tsarist Russia. The culture of the Cossacks became an important part of Russian culture, many Russian songs and various elements in dances and Russia's culture in general were much shaped by the Cossack communities.


Russian forest culture

The forest plays a very important role in Russia's more than 1000-year-old culture and history. The forest had a great influence on the characteristics of Russian people and their cultural creations. Many myths of Russian culture are closely intertwined with the forest. Various of the early Slavs, Slavic and other tribes built their houses out of wood so that the forest influenced the style of Russian architecture significantly. The handcraft Khokhloma, Hohloma which originated in the Volga region is made out of wood and depicts numerous plants of the forest, like the berry Viburnum opulus (Russian: Калина, Kalina), flowers and leaves. Many Russian Fairy Tales, Russian fairy tales play in the forest and fictional characters like Baba Yaga are strongly connected to Russian wood culture. The forest is also an important subject of many Russian traditional music, Russian folk songs.


More elements of Russian society and culture

Russian walking culture Strolling or walking (
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...
: гулять, ''gulyat''') is very common in the Russian society. In contrast to many western countries strolling is very common among young people in Russia. Young people often arrange just to go for a walk. Besides the verb, the experience itself, which describes the time span of the walk, is called ''progulka'' (Russian: прогулка). Walking is so important in Russian culture that ''gulyat''' is also a synonym for "to party". Mushroom hunting and berry picking Activities in the forest where people pick mushrooms and berries are very common in Russia. Mushrooms (Russian: грибы, ''griby)'' have been an important part of Russian folk culture at least since the 10th century and an essential part of Russian meals. There are more than 200 kinds of edible mushrooms in Russia. Mushrooms were always considered magical and so they play a prominent role in Russian Fairy Tales, Russian fairy tales. The ability to identify and prepare edible mushrooms is often passed on from generation to generation. The mushroom hunting tradition is especially common in Slavic languages, Slavic-speaking and Baltic states, Baltic countries. The berry (Russian: ягода, ''yagoda'') also plays an important role in Russian folk culture and is often part of Russian craftsmanship, folk songs and national costumes. The cranberry was known in Europe for centuries as the "Russian berry". To pick mushrooms and berries in forests is a kind of meditation in Russia.


Sports

Historically, Russia at the Olympics, Russian athletes have been one of the most successful contenders in the Olympic Games, ranking second in an All-time Olympic Games medal table, all-time Olympic Games medal count. Russia is the leading nation in rhythmic gymnastics; and Russian synchronized swimming is considered to be the world's best. Figure skating is another popular sport in Russia, especially pair skating and ice dancing. Russia has produced a number of famous tennis players. Chess is also a widely popular pastime in the nation, with many of the world's top chess players being Russian for decades. The 1980 Summer Olympic Games were held in Moscow, and the 2014 Winter Olympics and the 2014 Winter Paralympics were hosted in Sochi.


Basketball

As the Soviet Union, Russia was traditionally very strong in basketball, winning Basketball at the Summer Olympics, Olympic tournaments, FIBA World Championship, World Championships and Eurobasket. As of 2009 they have various players in the NBA, notably Utah Jazz forward Andrei Kirilenko (basketball), Andrei Kirilenko, and are considered as a worldwide basketball force. In 2007, Russia defeated world champions Spain to win Eurobasket 2007. Russian basketball clubs such as PBC CSKA Moscow (numerous Euroleague Champions) have also had great success in European competitions such as the Euroleague and the ULEB Cup.


Ice hockey

Although ice hockey was only introduced during the Soviet era, the Soviet Union national ice hockey team, national team soon dominated the sport internationally, winning gold at seven of the nine Ice hockey at the Olympic Games, Olympics and 19 of the 30 Ice Hockey World Championships, World Championships they contested between 1954 and 1991. Russian players Valeri Kharlamov, Sergei Makarov (ice hockey), Sergei Makarov, Viacheslav Fetisov and Vladislav Tretiak hold four of the six positions on the IIHF Team of the Century. As with some other sports, the Russian ice hockey programme suffered after the breakup of the Soviet Union, with Russia enduring a 15-year gold medal drought. At that time many prominent Russian players made their careers in the National Hockey League (NHL). In recent years Russia has reemerged as a hockey power, winning back to back gold medals in the 2008 IIHF World Championships, 2008 and 2009 IIHF World Championship, 2009 World Championships, and overtaking Canada men's national ice hockey team, Team Canada as the 2009 IIHF World Ranking, top ranked ice hockey team in the world, but then lost to Canada in the quarter-finals of the 2010 Olympics and 2010 World Junior Championship. The Kontinental Hockey League (KHL) was founded in 2008 as a rival of the NHL.


Bandy

Bandy, known in Russian as "hockey with a ball" and sometimes informally as "Russian hockey" (as opposed to "Canadian hockey", an informal name for ice hockey), is another traditionally popular ice sport, with national league games averaging around 3,500 spectators. It's considered a national sport. The Soviet Union national bandy team won all the Bandy World Championships from 1957 to 1979. Russia national bandy team, The Russian team is the reigning world champion since 2014 Bandy World Championship, the 2014 tournament, having defended the title in 2015 Bandy World Championship, 2015.


Football

Association football, Football is the most popular sport in Russia. The Soviet Union national football team became the first European champions by winning Euro 1960, and reached the finals of Euro 1988. In 1956 and 1988, the Soviet Union won gold at the Football at the Summer Olympics#Men's results, Olympic football tournament. Russian clubs PFC CSKA Moscow, CSKA Moscow and Zenit Saint Petersburg won the UEFA Cup in 2005 and 2008. The Russian national football team reached the semi-finals of Euro 2008. Russia was the host nation for the 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup, and the 2018 FIFA World Cup.


Martial arts

Russia has an extensive history of martial arts. Some of its best-known forms include the Russian fist fighting, fistfight, Sambo(martial art), Sambo, and Systema with its derivatives Ryabko's Systema and Retuinskih's System ROSS. Undefeated lightweight UFC champion Khabib Nurmagomedov is from Makhachkala and was called by President Vladimir Putin following his victory over Conor McGregor.


National symbols


State symbols

State symbols of Russia include the Byzantine double-headed eagle, combined with Coat of arms of Moscow, St. George of Moscow in the Russian coat of arms; these symbols date from the time of the Grand Duchy of Moscow. The Russian flag appeared in the late Tsardom of Russia period and became widely used during the era of the Russian Empire. The current Russian national anthem shares its music with the Soviet Anthem, though not the lyrics (many Russians of older generations don't know the new lyrics and sing the old ones). The Russian Empire, Russian imperial motto ''God is with us'' and the Soviet Union, Soviet motto ''Proletarians of all countries, unite!'' are now obsolete and no new motto has been officially introduced to replace them. The Hammer and sickle and the full Soviet coat of arms are still widely seen in Russian cities as a part of old architectural decorations. Soviet Red Stars are also encountered, often on military equipment and war memorials. The Soviet Red Banner is still honored, especially the Banner of Victory of 1945.


Unofficial symbols

The Matryoshka doll is a recognizable symbol of Russia, while the towers of Moscow Kremlin and Saint Basil's Cathedral in Moscow are main Russia's architectural symbols. Cheburashka is a mascot of Russia at the Olympics, Russian national Olympic team. Saint Mary, Mary, Saint Nicholas, Saint Andrew, Saint George, Saint Alexander Nevsky, Saint Sergius of Radonezh, Saint Seraphim of Sarov are Russia's patron saints. Chamomile is a flower that Russians often associate with their Motherland, while birch is a national tree. The Russian bear is an animal often associated with Russia, though this image has Western origins and Russians themselves do not consider it as a special symbol. The native Russian national personification is "Родина мать" Mother Motherland (the statue of it located on the Mamay hill "Мамаев курган" in Volgograd /former Stalingrad/), called Mother Russia at the West.


Tourism

Tourism in Russia has seen rapid growth since the late Soviet times, first inner tourism and then international tourism as well. Rich cultural heritage and great natural variety place Russia among the World Tourism rankings, most popular tourist destinations in the world. The country List of World Heritage Sites in Russia, contains 29 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, while many more are on UNESCO's tentative lists. Major tourist routes in Russia include a travel around the Golden Ring of ancient cities, cruises on the big rivers like Volga, and long journeys on the famous Trans-Siberian Railway. Diverse regions and ethnic cultures of Russia offer many different food and souvenirs, and show a great variety of traditions, like Russian banya (sauna), banya, Tatar Sabantuy, or Siberian shamanist rituals.


Cultural tourism

Most popular tourist destinations in Russia are Moscow and Saint Petersburg, the current and the former capitals of the country and great cultural centers, recognized as World Cities. Moscow and Saint Petersburg feature such world-renowned museums as Tretyakov Gallery and Hermitage Museum, Hermitage, famous theaters like Bolshoi Theater, Bolshoi and Mariinsky Theater, Mariinsky, ornate churches like Saint Basil's Cathedral, Cathedral of Christ the Saviour, Saint Isaac's Cathedral and Church of the Savior on Blood, impressive fortifications like Moscow Kremlin and Peter and Paul Fortress, beautiful squares like Red Square and Palace Square, and streets like Tverskaya Street, Tverskaya and Nevsky Prospect. Rich palaces and parks of extreme beauty are found in the former Template:Imperial palaces in Russia, imperial residences in suburbs of Moscow (Kolomenskoye, Tsaritsyno Park, Tsaritsyno) and Saint Petersburg (Petergof, Peterhof, Strelna, Oranienbaum, Russia, Oranienbaum, Gatchina Palace, Gatchina, Pavlovsk Palace, Tsarskoye Selo). Moscow contains a great variety of impressive Soviet-era buildings along with Moscow International Business Center, modern skyscrapers, while Saint Petersburg, nicknamed ''Venice of the North'', boasts of its classical architecture, many rivers, channels and Bridges in Saint Petersburg, bridges. Kazan, the capital of Tatarstan, shows a unique mix of Christian Russians, Russian and Muslim Tatars, Tatar cultures. The city has registered a brand ''The Third Capital of Russia'', though a number of other major Russian cities compete for this status, like Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod, all being major cultural centers with rich history and prominent architecture. Veliky Novgorod, Pskov and the cities of Golden Ring (Vladimir (city), Vladimir, Yaroslavl, Kostroma and others) have at best preserved the architecture and the spirit of ancient and medieval Rus (name), Rus', and also are among the main tourist destinations. Many List of castles in Russia, old fortifications (typically Kremlins), List of Russian Orthodox monasteries, monasteries and Russian Orthodox Church, churches are scattered throughout Russia, forming its unique cultural landscape both in big cities and in remote areas.


Resorts and nature tourism

The warm subtropical Black Sea coast of Russia is the site for a number of popular sea resorts, like Sochi, known for its beaches and wonderful nature. At the same time Sochi can boast a number of major ski resorts, like Krasnaya Polyana; the city is the host of 2014 Winter Olympics and the 2014 Winter Paralympics. The mountains of the Northern Caucasus contain many other popular ski resorts, like Dombay, Karachay–Cherkess Republic, Dombay in Karachay–Cherkessia. The most famous natural tourist destination in Russia is Lake Baikal, named ''the Blue Eye of Siberia''. This unique lake, oldest and deepest in the world, has crystal-clean waters and is surrounded by taiga-covered mountains. Other popular natural destinations include Kamchatka with its volcanoes and geysers,
Karelia Karelia (Karelian language, Karelian and fi, Karjala, ; rus, Каре́лия, links=y, r=Karélija, p=kɐˈrʲelʲɪjə, historically ''Korjela''; sv, Karelen), the land of the Karelians, Karelian people, is an area in Northern Europe of ...

Karelia
with its many lakes and granite rocks, Altai Mountains, Altai with its snowy mountains and Tyva with its wild steppes.


See also

*
Slavs Slavs are an ethno-linguistic group of people who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic language, Balto-Slavic linguistic group of the Indo-European languages. They are native to Eurasia, stretching from Central Europe, ...

Slavs
: East Slavs * Cultural icons of Russia * Material culture in Russia * List of Russian people * List of museums in Russia * List of Russian-language poets * List of Russian-language novelists * List of Russian-language playwrights * Culture of the Soviet Union * Culture of Tatarstan * Culture of the Russian Armed Forces


References


External links


Russian Film Hub
{{Culture of Europe Russian culture, Slavic culture