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The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP; french: Gendarmerie royale du Canada; french: GRC, label=none), often known as the Mounties, are the federal and national police service of Canada, providing law enforcement at the federal level. The RCMP also provide provincial policing in eight of Canada's provinces (all except Ontario and Quebec) and local policing on a contract basis in the three territories (
Northwest Territories The Northwest Territories (commonly abbreviated as NT or NWT; french: Territoires du Nord-Ouest) is a federal provinces and territories of Canada, territory of Canada. At a land area of approximately and a 2016 census population of 41,790, it ...

Northwest Territories
,
Nunavut Nunavut ( ) ( iu, ᓄᓇᕗᑦ) is the newest, largest, and northernmost territory of Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and three territories exten ...
, and
Yukon Yukon ( ; ; formerly called Yukon Territory and sometimes referred to as The Yukon) is the smallest and westernmost of Provinces and territories of Canada, Canada's three territories. It also is the least populated province or territory in Cana ...

Yukon
) and more than 150 municipalities, 600
Indigenous Indigenous may refer to: *Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous people, are culturally distinct ethnic groups who are native to a particular place. The term ' ...
communities, and three international airports. The RCMP do not provide active provincial or municipal policing in
Ontario , Label_map = yes , image_map = Ontario in Canada 2.svg , map_alt = Map showing Ontario's location east/central of Canada. , coordinates = , capital = Toronto , larges ...

Ontario
or
Quebec ) , image_shield=Armoiries du Québec.svg , image_flag=Flag of Quebec.svg , coordinates= , AdmittanceDate=July 1, 1867 , AdmittanceOrder=1st, with New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , ...

Quebec
. However, all members of the RCMP have jurisdiction as a
peace officer A law enforcement officer (LEO), or peace officer in North American English, is a public-sector The public sector (also called the state sector) is the part of the economy composed of both public services and public enterprises. Public sectors ...
in all
provinces and territories of Canada The provinces and territories of Canada () are sub-national divisions within the geographical areas of Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and three ter ...
. Despite the name, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police are no longer an actual
mounted police Mounted police are police The police are a constituted body of persons A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason Reason is the capacity of consciously applying logi ...
service, with horses only being used at ceremonial events. As Canada's national police service, the RCMP are primarily responsible for enforcing federal laws throughout Canada, whereas general law and order including the enforcement of the ''Criminal Code'' and applicable provincial legislation is constitutionally the responsibility of the provinces and territories. Larger cities may form their own municipal police departments. The two most populous provinces, Ontario and Quebec, maintain provincial forces: the
Ontario Provincial Police The Ontario Provincial Police (OPP; ) is the provincial police The police are a Law enforcement organization, constituted body of Law enforcement officer, persons empowered by a State (polity), state, with the aim to law enforcement, enforc ...
and the
Sûreté du Québec The Sûreté du Québec (, en, Quebec Security), abbreviated SQ, is the Law enforcement in Canada, provincial police service for the Canadian Provinces and territories of Canada, province of Quebec. No official English name exists, but the agency ...
. The other eight provinces contract policing responsibilities to the RCMP, which provides front-line policing in those provinces under the direction of the provincial governments. When
Newfoundland Newfoundland and Labrador (, ) is the easternmost provinces and territories of Canada, province of Canada, in the country's Atlantic Canada, Atlantic region. It is composed of the island of Newfoundland (island), Newfoundland and the continental ...

Newfoundland
joined the confederation in 1949, the RCMP entered the province and absorbed the Newfoundland Ranger Force, which patrolled most of Newfoundland's rural areas. The
Royal Newfoundland Constabulary The Royal Newfoundland Constabulary (RNC) is the state police#Canada, provincial police service for the Provinces and territories of Canada, province of Newfoundland and Labrador. The primary function of the RNC is to enforce provincial laws, the ...

Royal Newfoundland Constabulary
patrols urban areas of the province. In the territories, the RCMP is the sole
territorial police force A territorial police force is a police service that is responsible for an area defined by sub-national boundaries, distinguished from other police services which deal with the entire country or a type of crime. In countries organized as federations, ...
. Many municipalities throughout Canada contract to the RCMP. Thus, the RCMP polices at the federal, provincial, and municipal level. In some areas of Canada, it is the only police force. The RCMP is responsible for much of Canada security and policing. Under their federal mandate, the RCMP police throughout Canada, including Ontario and Quebec (albeit on smaller scales there). Federal operations include: enforcing federal laws including commercial crime, counterfeiting, drug trafficking, border integrity (excluding border control responsibilities exercised by the
Canada Border Services Agency The Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA; french: Agence des services frontaliers du Canada, ''ASFC'') is a federal law enforcement agency A law enforcement agency (LEA), in American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), so ...
), organized crime, and other related matters; providing counter-terrorism and domestic security; providing protection services for the
Canadian monarch The monarchy of Canada is at the core of Canada's constitutional Canadian federalism, federal structure and Westminster system, Westminster-style Parliamentary system, parliamentary democracy. The monarchy is the foundation of the Executive (gover ...
, governor general,
prime minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpar ...
, their families and residences, and other
ministers of the Crown Minister of the Crown is a formal constitutional term used in Commonwealth realms to describe a minister of the reigning sovereign or viceroy A viceroy () is an official who runs a polity in the name of and as the representative of the mo ...
, visiting dignitaries, and diplomatic missions; and participating in various international policing efforts. Under provincial and municipal contracts the RCMP provides front-line policing in all areas outside of Ontario and Quebec that do not have an established local police force. There are detachments located in small villages in the , remote
First Nations The First Nations (french: Premières Nations ) are groups of Canadian indigenous peoples, who are classified as distinct from the Inuit Inuit (; iu, ᐃᓄᐃᑦ 'the people', singular: Inuk, , dual: Inuuk, ) are a group of culturally s ...
reserves Reserve or reserves may refer to: Places * Reserve, Kansas, a US city * Reserve, Louisiana, a census-designated place in St. John the Baptist Parish * Reserve, Montana, a census-designated place in Sheridan County * Reserve, New Mexico, a US vil ...
, and rural towns, but also larger cities such as
Surrey, British Columbia Surrey is a city in the province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, a ...
(population 468,251). There, support units investigate for their own detachments as well as smaller municipal police forces. Investigations include major crimes, homicides, forensic identification, collision forensics, police dogs, emergency response teams, explosives disposal, and undercover operations. Under its National Police Services branch the RCMP supports all police forces in Canada via the
Canadian Police Information CentreThe Canadian Police Information Centre (CPIC; french: Centre d'information de la police canadienne, ''CIPC'') is the central police database where Canada's law enforcement agencies can access information on a number of matters. It is Canada's only n ...
,
Criminal Intelligence Service CanadaCriminal Intelligence Service Canada (CISC; french: Service canadien de renseignements criminels) is an inter-agency organization in Canada designed to coordinate and share criminal intelligence amongst member police forces. Established in 1970, the ...
, Forensic Science and Identification Services,
Canadian Firearms Program Canadian Firearms Program (CFP; french: Programme canadien des armes à feu, ''PCAF''), formerly Canada Firearms Centre is a Canadian government program within the Royal Canadian Mounted Police Policing Support Services, responsible for licensing ...
, and the Canadian Police College.


History


Founding

After Canada purchased
Rupert's Land Rupert's Land (french: Terre de Rupert), or Prince Rupert's Land, was a territory in British North America comprising the Hudson Bay drainage basin, a territory in which a commercial monopoly was operated by the Hudson's Bay Company for 200 ...
and the
North-Western Territory The North-Western Territory was a region of British North America extant until 1870 and named for where it lay in relation to Rupert's Land. Due to the lack of development, exploration, and cartographic limits of the time, the exact boundarie ...
from the
Hudson's Bay Company The Hudson's Bay Company (HBC; french: Compagnie de la Baie d'Hudson) is a Canadian, now American-owned, retail Retail is the sale of goods In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with va ...
in 1870, Prime Minister
John A. Macdonald Sir John Alexander Macdonald (10 or 11 January 1815 – 6 June 1891) was the first prime minister of Canada The prime minister of Canada (french: premier ministre du Canada, link=no) is the First minister, first minister of the minist ...

John A. Macdonald
began planning a permanent force to patrol the territory. Reports from army officers surveying the territory led to the recommendation that a mounted force of between 100 to 150 mounted riflemen could maintain law and order. The prime minister first announced the force as the "North West Mounted Rifles". Macdonald received his inspiration for the creation of the force from the
Royal Irish Constabulary The Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC, ga, Constáblacht Ríoga na hÉireann; simply called the Irish Constabulary 1836–67) was the police force in Ireland from 1822 until 1922, when the country was part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and ...
, a
quasi-military File:Camo_urban.png, Paramilitary forces usually tend to wear similar but different uniforms to the military, for instance gray "urban camouflage". A paramilitary organization (also listed as quasi military) is a semi-militarized force whose ...
colonial British occupation force of Ireland from 1822 to 1922. The force was renamed the
North-West Mounted Police The North-West Mounted Police (NWMP) was a Canadian armed police force, established in 1873, to maintain order in the new Canadian North-West Territories following the 1870 transfer of Rupert’s Land and North-Western Territory to Canada fr ...
(NWMP) when formed in 1873, following the passage of the ''Mounted Police Act'' in
Parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government. Generally, a modern parliament has three functions: Representation (politics), representing the Election#Suffrage, electorate, making laws and overseeing the ...

Parliament
. The forerunner of the RCMP, the North West Mounted Police from the outset enforced territorial acquisitions of Canada's westward expansion, and served alongside British imperial forces internationally. Officials in the United States raised concerns that an armed force along the border was a prelude to a military buildup. The force added "royal" to its name in 1904, after having been awarded the title for military service in the Second Boer War. It merged with the
Dominion Police The Dominion Police Force was the Law enforcement agency#fedpol, federal police force of Canada between 1868 and 1920, and was one of the predecessors of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. It was the first federal police force in Canada, formed t ...
, the main police force for all points east of Manitoba, in 1920 and was renamed the "Royal Canadian Mounted Police". The new organization was charged with federal law enforcement in all the provinces and territories, and immediately established its modern role as protector of Canadian national security, as well as assuming responsibility for national
counterintelligence Counterintelligence is an activity aimed at protecting an agency's intelligence program from an opposition's intelligence service. It includes gathering information and conducting activities to prevent espionage Espionage or spying is the ...
. As part of its national security and intelligence functions, the RCMP infiltrated ethnic or political groups considered to be dangerous to Canada. This included the
Communist Party of Canada The Communist Party of Canada (french: Parti communiste du Canada) is a communist party A communist party is a left-wing political party that seeks to realize the social and economic goals of communism. The term ''communist party'' was popu ...
, but also a variety of Indigenous, minority cultural and nationalist groups. The force was also deeply involved in immigration matters, and especially deportations of suspected radicals. They were especially concerned with
Ukrainian Ukrainian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Ukraine * Something relating to Ukrainians an East Slavic people from Eastern Europe * Something relating to Demographics of Ukraine, in terms of demography: population of Ukraine * Somethi ...
groups, both nationalist and socialist. The
Chinese community Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China * Chinese people, people of Chinese nationality, citizenship, or ethnicity **''Zhonghua minzu'', the supra-ethnic Chinese nationality ** Han Chinese, the majority ethnic group in Mainland China, ...
was also targeted because of disproportionate links to
opium den An opium den was an establishment in which opium was sold and smoked. Opium dens were prevalent in many parts of the world in the 19th century, most notably China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East ...

opium den
s. Historians estimate fully two percent of the Chinese community was deported between 1923 and 1932, largely under the provisions of the ''Opium and Narcotics Drugs Act''. Besides the RCMP's new responsibilities in intelligence, drugs enforcement, and immigration, the force also assisted numerous other federal agencies with tasks such as enforcing attendance of Indigenous children at schools within the
Canadian Indian residential school system In Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, Pacific and northward int ...
schools, designed to assimilate them into the dominant Canadian culture. In 1935, the RCMP, collaborating with the Regina Police Service, crushed the
On-to-Ottawa Trek Strikers from unemployment relief camps climbing on boxcars in Kamloops, British Columbia The On-to-Ottawa Trek was a result of the unrest of unemployed single men in federal relief camps. Federal relief camps were brought in under Prime Minist ...
by sparking the Regina Riot, in which one city police officer and one protester were killed. The Trek, which had been organized to call attention to the abysmal conditions in relief camps, therefore failed to reach Ottawa, but nevertheless had profound political reverberations. The RCMP also had four officers killed in Saskatchewan and Alberta that year in what became the 1935 Royal Canadian Mounted Police Killings. The RCMP employed
special constable A special constable or special police constable (SC or SPC) is generally an auxiliary or part-time law enforcement officer. Many police departments are complemented by a Special Constabulary The Special Constabulary is the part-time volunteer se ...

special constable
s to assist with
strikebreaking agents escort strikebreakers in Buchtel, Ohio, 1884 A strikebreaker (sometimes called a scab, blackleg, or knobstick) is a person who works despite an ongoing strike action, strike. Strikebreakers are usually individuals who were not employed by t ...
in the interwar period. For a brief period in the late 1930s, a volunteer militia group, the
Legion of Frontiersmen The Legion of Frontiersmen is a civilian organisation formed in United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Britain in 1905 by Roger Pocock, a former constable with the North-West Mounted Police and Boer War veteran. Prompted by fears of an impen ...
, were affiliated with the RCMP. Many members of the RCMP belonged to this organization, which was prepared to serve as an auxiliary force. In later years, special constables performed duties such as policing airports and, in some Canadian provinces, the courthouses. 1932 saw the men, vehicles and vessels of the Customs Preventive Service, National Revenue, absorbed by the RCMP. This created the Marine Section and the Excise Section. The acquisition of the RCMP
schooner A schooner () is a type of defined by its rig: on all of two or more masts and, in the case of a two-masted schooner, the foremast generally being shorter than the mainmast. A common variant, the topsail schooner also has a square topsail on th ...

schooner
''
St. Roch Roch or Rocco (lived c. 1348 – 15/16 August 1376/79 (traditionally c. 1295 – 16 August 1327) is a Catholic saint, a confessor whose death is commemorated on 16 August and 9 September in Italy; he is especially invoked against the plague ...
'' facilitated the first effective patrol of Canada's
Arctic The Arctic ( or ) is a polar regions of Earth, polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth. The Arctic consists of the Arctic Ocean, adjacent seas, and parts of Alaska (United States), Canada, Finland, Greenland (Danish Realm, ...

Arctic
territory. It was the first vessel to navigate the
Northwest Passage File:The Arctic Regions, showing the North-West Passage as determined by Cap. R. McClure and other Arctic Voyagers. 1856. CTASC.jpg, Two maps of arctic regions published in 1856 on a single sheet as part of ''The Royal Illustrated Atlas of Moder ...

Northwest Passage
from west to east (1940–1942), the first to navigate the passage in one season (from Halifax to Vancouver in 1944), the first to sail either way through the passage in one season, and the first to circumnavigate North America (1950). Counterintelligence work was moved from the RCMP's
Criminal Investigation Department In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to ...
to a specialized intelligence branch, the
RCMP Security ServiceThe RCMP Security Service (RCMP SS) is the former branch of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police which had responsibilities of domestic Domestic may refer to: In the home * Anything relating to the human home A home, or domicile, is a space ...
, in 1939.


Post-war

On April 1, 1949, Newfoundland joined in full confederation with Canada and the Newfoundland Ranger Force amalgamated with the RCMP. Following the 1945 defection of
Soviet The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a socialist state A socialist state, socialist republic, or socialist country, sometimes referred to as a workers' state or workers' republic, is a sovere ...
cipher clerk,
Igor Gouzenko Igor Sergeyevich Gouzenko (russian: Игорь Сергеевич Гузенко ; January 26, 1919 – June 25, 1982) was a cipher In cryptography, a cipher (or cypher) is an algorithm for performing encryption or decryption—a series o ...
, and his revelations of espionage, the
RCMP Security ServiceThe RCMP Security Service (RCMP SS) is the former branch of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police which had responsibilities of domestic Domestic may refer to: In the home * Anything relating to the human home A home, or domicile, is a space ...
implemented measures to screen out "subversive" elements from the public sector. In June 1953, the RCMP became a full member of the
International Criminal Police Organisation The International Criminal Police Organization (official abbreviation ICPO; french: link=no, Organisation internationale de police criminelle), commonly known as INTERPOL ( , ), is an international organization that facilitates worldwide pol ...
(Interpol). Queen
Elizabeth II Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy A constitutional mo ...

Elizabeth II
approved in
Regina, Saskatchewan Regina () is the capital city of the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Saskatchewan. The city is the second-largest in the province, after Saskatoon and is a commercial centre for southern Saskatchewan. As of the Canada ...
, on July 4, 1973, a new badge for the RCMP, in recognition of which the force presented the sovereign with a tapestry rendering of the new design.


RCMP Security Service

The RCMP Security Service was a specialized political intelligence and counterintelligence branch with national security responsibilities, replaced by the
Canadian Security Intelligence Service The Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS, ; french: Service canadien du renseignement de sécurité, ''SCRS'') is Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinc ...
(CSIS) in 1984, following revelations of illegal
covert operation A covert operation is a military operation intended to conceal the identity of (or allow plausible denial ''Plausible Denial: Was the CIA Involved in the Assassination of JFK?'' is a 1991 book by American attorney, Mark Lane (author), Mark Lane ...
s relating to the
Quebec separatist movement The Quebec sovereignty movement (french: Mouvement souverainiste du Québec) is a political movement whose objective is to achieve the sovereignty of Quebec, a province of Canada since 1867, including in all matters related to any provision of Q ...
. CSIS is not part of the RCMP, but is its own entity. In the late 1970s, revelations surfaced that the RCMP Security Service force had in the course of their intelligence duties engaged in crimes such as burning a barn and stealing documents from the separatist
Parti Québécois The Parti Québécois (; ; PQ) is a sovereignist and social democratic Social democracy is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or o ...
, and other abuses. This led to the Royal Commission of Inquiry into Certain Activities of the RCMP, better known as the "McDonald Commission", named for the presiding judge, Justice David Cargill McDonald. The commission recommended that the force's intelligence duties be removed in favour of the creation of a separate intelligence agency, the Canadian Security Intelligence Service. The RCMP and CSIS nonetheless continue to share responsibility for some law enforcement activities in the contemporary era, particularly in the anti-terrorism context.


Modern era

In 1993, the Special Emergency Response Team (SERT), were transferred to the
Canadian Forces The Canadian Armed Forces (CAF; french: Forces armées canadiennes; ''FAC'') is the unified military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare ...
(CF), creating a new unit called
Joint Task Force 2 Joint Task Force 2 (JTF 2; french: links=no, Force opérationnelle interarmées 2, FOI 2) is an elite special operations force of the Canadian Armed Forces, serving under the Canadian Special Operations Forces Command. JTF 2 works alongside many o ...
(JTF2). JTF2 inherited some equipment and SERT's former training base near
Ottawa Ottawa (, ; Canadian Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, legal, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, many (or all) of these connections exist and are ...

Ottawa
. In 2006, the
United States Coast Guard The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is the maritime security, search and rescue, and maritime law enforcement, law enforcement military branch, service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the country's eight Uniformed services ...
's Ninth District and the RCMP began a program called "Shiprider", in which 12 Mounties from the RCMP detachment at Windsor and 16 US Coast Guard boarding officers from stations in Michigan ride in each other's vessels. The intent is to allow for seamless enforcement of the international border. On December 6, 2006,
RCMP Commissioner Commissioner is the highest rank of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) and of its predecessor agencies, the North-West Mounted Police (1873 to 1904) and the Royal Northwest Mounted Police (1904 to February 1, 1920). The Commissioner reports d ...
resigned after admitting that his earlier testimony about the
Maher Arar Maher Arar ( ar, ماهر عرار) (born 1970) is a telecommunications engineer with dual Syrian Syrians ( ar, سوريون, ''Sūriyyūn''), also known as the Syrian people ( ar, الشعب السوري, ALA-LC: ''al-sha‘ab al-Sūrī''; sy ...
terrorist case was inaccurate. The RCMP's actions were scrutinized by the Commission of Inquiry into the Actions of Canadian Officials in Relation to Maher Arar. In the aftermath of the Arar affair, the Commission of Inquiry recommended that the RCMP be subject to greater oversight from a review board with investigative and information-sharing capacities. Following the Commission of Inquiry's recommendations, the Harper government tabled amendments to the ''RCMP Act'' to create the Civilian Review and Complaints Commission. Two officers were found guilty of perjury and sentenced to jail for their actions in the 2007 Robert Dziekański Taser incident in Vancouver. In 2007, the RCMP was named Newsmaker of the Year by
The Canadian Press The Canadian Press (CP; french: La Presse canadienne, ) is a Canadian national news agency A news agency is an organization that gathers news reports and sells them to subscribing news organizations, such as newspapers, magazines and All- ...
. On June 3, 2013, the RCMP renamed its 'A' Division to National Division and tasked it with handling corruption cases "at home and abroad". The RCMP also has an aviation security division, the
Sky Marshal A sky marshal (also known as air marshal, flight marshal) is a covert law enforcement or counter-terrorist agent on board a commercial aircraft to counter aircraft hijackings. Sky marshals may be provided by airlines such as El Al (who provide sky ...
s.


Notable cases

* The American stagecoach robber
Bill Miner Ezra Allen Miner (c.1847 – September 2, 1913), more popularly known as Bill Miner, was a noted American bandito, originally from Bowling Green, Kentucky Bowling Green is a Home rule in the United States, home rule-class city and the county ...

Bill Miner
was captured by the RCMP in 1906. * Albert Johnson, known as the Mad Trapper of Rat River, was killed in a shoot-out with the RCMP in 1932. * RCMP officers in Saskatchewan arrested the perpetrator of the Shell Lake murders in 1967. * Anarchist militants known as the
Squamish Five The Squamish Five (sometimes referred to as the Vancouver Five) were a group of self-styled "urban guerrillas" active in Canada during the early 1980s. Their chosen name was Direct Action. The five were Ann Hansen, Brent Taylor, Juliet Carolin ...
were arrested by the RCMP in 1983. * The suspected driver of the reconnaissance vehicle involved in the 1996
Khobar Towers bombing ) The Khobar Towers bombing was a Terrorism, terrorist attack on part of a housing complex in the city of Khobar, Saudi Arabia, near the national oil company (Saudi Aramco) headquarters of Dhahran and nearby King Abdulaziz Air Base on 25 June 1996 ...
fled to Canada where he was arrested by the RCMP in the winter of 1997 and was extradited to the United States. * Four RCMP officers were fatally shot during an operation in Alberta in March 2005: the
Mayerthorpe tragedy The Mayerthorpe tragedy occurred on March 3, 2005, on the farm of James Roszko, approximately north of Rochfort Bridge, Alberta, Rochfort Bridge near the town of Mayerthorpe in the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Albe ...
was the single worst multiple killing of RCMP officers since the killing of 3 officers in Kamloops British Columbia by a mentally ill assailant in June 1962. Prior to that the RCMP had not felt such a loss since the
North-West Rebellion The North-West Rebellion of 1885 (french: Rébellion du Nord-Ouest) was a rebellion Rebellion, uprising, or insurrection is a refusal of obedience or order. It refers to the open resistance against the orders of an established authority ...
.CBC
* In July 2007, two RCMP officers were shot and succumbed to their injuries in the
Spiritwood Incident The Spiritwood Incident was a shooting that occurred on 7 July 2006 during a police pursuit A car chase is the vehicular overland chase of one party by another, involving at least one automobile or other wheeled motor vehicle in pursuit -- com ...
near
Mildred, Saskatchewan The Rural Municipality of Spiritwood No. 496 (Canada 2016 Census, 2016 population: ) is a List of rural municipalities in Saskatchewan, rural municipality (RM) in the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Saskatchewan within D ...
. * Three RCMP officers were murdered during the
Moncton shooting The Moncton shootings were a string of shootings that took place on June 4, 2014, in Moncton, in the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of New Brunswick. Justin Bourque, a 24-year-old Moncton resident, shot five officers from ...
in New Brunswick in June 2014. * The perpetrator of the
2014 shootings at Parliament Hill, Ottawa The 2014 shootings at Parliament Hill were a series of shootings that occurred on October 22, 2014, at Parliament Hill Parliament Hill (french: Colline du Parlement), colloquially known as The Hill, is an area of Crown land on the southern ban ...
was shot and killed at the scene by the RCMP. * RCMP Constable Heidi Stevenson was killed while responding to a
mass shooting There is a lack of consensus on how to define a mass shooting. Most terms define a minimum of three or four deaths due to gun violence Gun-related violence is violence committed with the use of a gun (firearm A firearm is any type of gun ...
that left over 20 people dead in
Nova Scotia ) , image_map = Nova Scotia in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English (''de facto'') , RegionalLang = French, Scots Gaelic , capital ...

Nova Scotia
in April 2020.


History of the RCMP uniform

The RCMP are famous for their distinctive dress uniform, or "review order", popularly known as the "Red Serge." It has a high collared scarlet tunic,
midnight blue Midnight blue is a dark shade of blue Blue is one of the three primary colours of pigments in painting and traditional colour theory In the visual arts The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is the prac ...
breeches 200px, Breeches as worn in the United States in the late 18th century: ''Elijah Boardman'' by Ralph Earl, 1789. Breeches ( ) are an article of clothing covering the body from the waist down, with separate coverings for each human leg, leg, usuall ...

breeches
with yellow leg stripe,
Sam Browne belt wearing a Sam Browne belt The Sam Browne belt is a wide belt, usually leather, supported by a narrower strap passing diagonally over the right shoulder (although Royal Canadian Mounted Police non-commissioned members wear theirs over the left shou ...
with white sidearm
lanyard A lanyard is a cord or strap worn around the neck, shoulder, or wrist to carry such items as keys or identification cards."lanyard lan-yrd." Merriam-Webster's Collegiate(R) Dictionary. Springfield: Merriam-Webster, 2004. Credo Reference. Web. 1 O ...

lanyard
,
oxblood Oxblood or ox-blood, also known as temptress, is a color that is a dark shade of red. It resembles burgundy (color), burgundy, but has less purple and more dark brown hues. The French term sang-de-bœuf, or sang de bœuf, with the same meaning ...

oxblood
(possibly with spurs), brown felt
campaign hat A campaign hat, sometimes called campaign cover, is a broad-brimmed felt or straw hat, with a high crown, pinched symmetrically at the four corners. The hat is most commonly worn as part of a uniform, by such organizations as the Royal Canadian M ...

campaign hat
(wide, flat brimmed) with the characteristic "Montana crease", and brown gloves (with brown leather gauntlets for riders). Members wear the review order during the Musical Ride, an equestrian drill in which mounted members show their riding skills and handling of the cavalry lance. On normal duties, the RCMP uses standard police methods, equipment, and uniforms. The RCMP uses horses for ceremonial operations such as escorting the governor general's open
landau Landau ( pfl, Landach), officially Landau in der Pfalz, is an autonomous (''kreisfrei'') town surrounded by the Südliche Weinstraße Südliche Weinstraße ( pfl, Siedlischi Woischdrooß; en, "Southern Wine Route") is a district (''Kreis'') in ...
to the opening of Parliament.


Tunic

The Red Serge tunic that identified the NWMP and later the RNWMP and RCMP, is the standard British military pattern. In the original version, worn from 1873 to 1876, it was based on the civilian
Norfolk jacket A Norfolk jacket is a loose, belted, single-breasted A single-breasted garment is a coat, jacket, vest, or similar item having one column of buttons and a narrow overlap of fabric. In contrast, a double-breasted coat has a wider overlap and two ...
.North-West Mounted Police Uniform - Royal Canadian Mounted Police
. Rcmp-grc.gc.ca (2011-08-12). Retrieved on 2014-04-12.
Originally kitted from
militia A militia () is generally an army An army (from Latin ''arma'' "arms, weapons" via Old French ''armée'', "armed" eminine, ground force or land force is a fighting force that fights primarily on land. In the broadest sense, it is the land-b ...
stores, the NWMP later adopted a standard style that emphasized the force's British heritage and differentiated it from the blue American military uniforms. In 1904, dark blue shoulder straps and collars replaced the uniform's scarlet facings when King Edward VII granted the force "Royal" status for its service in the
Second Boer War The Second Boer War ( af, Tweede Vryheidsoorlog, lit. "Second Freedom War", 11 October 189931 May 1902), also known as the Boer War, the Anglo–Boer War, or the South African War, was a conflict fought between the British Empire and the two B ...
. Today, RCMP personnel under the rank of inspector wear blue "
gorget A gorget , from the French ' meaning throat In vertebrate anatomy, the throat is the front part of the neck, positioned in front of the vertebra. It contains the Human pharynx, pharynx and larynx. An important section of it is the epiglotti ...

gorget
" patches on the collar, while officers from inspector to commissioner wear solid blue collars and blue pointed-sleeve cuffs. Members once wore a white
haversack A haversack or small pack is a bag with a single shoulder strap. Although similar to a backpack A backpack—also called knapsack, rucksack, rucksac, pack, sackpack, booksack, bookbag or backsack—is, in its simplest frameless form, a ...
on top of this jacket and white gauntlets, which contrasted with the red tunic. The modern dress uniform replaces these easily dirtied items with brown leather riding gloves and carrying pouches on the belt.


Hat

Although the NWMP contingent at
Queen Victoria Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of En ...

Queen Victoria
's
Diamond Jubilee A diamond Diamond is a Allotropes of carbon, solid form of the element carbon with its atoms arranged in a crystal structure called diamond cubic. At Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, room temperature and pressure, another ...

Diamond Jubilee
wore the campaign hat, it became official only in 1904. A campaign hat is a broad-brimmed
felt Felt is a textile material that is produced by matting, condensing and pressing fibers together. Felt can be made of natural fibers such as wool Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and other animals, including Cashmere wool, ca ...
or straw hat, with a high crown, pinched symmetrically at the four corners (Montana crown). The hat is most commonly worn as part of a uniform by such agencies as the RCMP, the
New Zealand Army , image = New Zealand Army Logo.png , image_size = 175px , caption = , start_date = , country = , branch = ...

New Zealand Army
, United States Park Rangers, and Scouts. The RCMP did not adopt it until about 1904. The original primary summer headdress was the white British foreign service helmet, also known as a
pith helmet The pith helmet also known as the safari helmet, sun helmet, topee, sola topee, topi, or salacot (also spelled salacco), is a lightweight cloth-covered helmet made of sholapith. The pith helmet is an adaptation of the native ''salakot'' headgear ...

pith helmet
. This was an impractical choice for the
Canadian west Western Canada, also referred to as the Western provinces and more commonly known as the West, is a list of regions of Canada, region of Canada that includes the four provinces and territories of Canada, provinces of Alberta, British Columbia, Man ...
, and RCMP members wore a Stetson type hat on patrol and around camp.
Sam Steele Major General Sir Samuel Benfield Steele (5 January 1848 – 30 January 1919) was a distinguished Canadian soldier and police official. He was an officer of the North-West Mounted Police, most famously as head of the Yukon detachment during th ...
is often credited with introducing the Stetson-type hat, and when he left the force to command
Strathcona's Horse Lord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians) (LdSH C is a regular armoured regiment A regiment is a military unit. Its role and size varies markedly, depending on the country, military service, service and/or a administrative corps, speciali ...

Strathcona's Horse
in South Africa, his unit adopted the Stetson. During winter, members wore a
Canadian military fur wedge cap The Canadian military fur wedge cap, "envelope busby", or colloquially "The Astrakhan"CBC Newsworld, Live coverage of the National Act of Remembrance, Ottawa, November 11, 2008: as reported by Maj. George Pearce Ret'de-Veritas, July 24, 2016, Hea ...
or Busby (military headdress), busby.


Breeches

The NWMP wore buff (colour), buff or steel grey breeches until they adopted dark blue breeches with yellow-gold strapping (stripes) in 1876. Members often exchanged kit with U.S. cavalry units, and while some believe this was the source for the breeches, the NWMP considered adopting blue breeches with a white strap. Dark blue with yellow-gold strapping is a British cavalry tradition, and most cavalry (later armoured) regiments' dress uniforms feature yellow stripes.


Boots

Black riding boots changed to the modern brown style called "Strathcona boots" or informally as "high browns" and the original crossbelts changed to the brown Sam Browne type. The brown colour of the boots and belt the RCMP wear with the Red Serge are from members who applied coats of polish, often during training at Depot Division.


Spurs

The RCMP's original spurs, known as "long shank spurs", were solid nickel. Their owners occasionally had their regimental number engraved on the inside, and some replaced the rowel with a US buffalo nickel to complement the Mounted Police capbadge and avoid using a Canadian coin that would deface the monarch. The RCMP last issued long shank spurs in 1968.


Sidearms

Sidearms are standard now, but were often not worn in the early years.


Operational uniform

The operational uniform is a grey shirt, dark blue trousers with gold stripping, regular patrol boots called "ankle boots", regular duty equipment, and a peaked cap, regular policeman's style cap. Members on operational duty wear a blue Gore-Tex open-collar jacket (patrol jacket), while Sergeant-major, sergeants major and certain non-commissioned officers (NCOs) involved in recruit training or media relations wear a dark blue jacket (blue serge). Depending on their duties, officers wear white shirts and the patrol jacket or blue serge. During the summer, officers wear a short-sleeved shirt. Winter dress is a long-sleeved shirt. A tie is worn on occasion for events such as testifying in court. In colder weather, members may wear heavier boots, winter coats (storm coats) and a muskrat fur cap or wool toque. In 1990, Baltej Singh Dhillon became the RCMP's first Sikh officer to be allowed to wear a turban instead of the traditional Campaign hat#Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Stetson. On March 15, the federal government, despite protests, decided they would allow Sikhs to wear Dastar, their religious headgear while on duty as RCMP officers, as had been the practice for Sikh members of
Canadian Forces The Canadian Armed Forces (CAF; french: Forces armées canadiennes; ''FAC'') is the unified military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare ...
for decades.


Decorations

The monarch awards the Royal Canadian Mounted Police Long Service Medal to members who have completed 20 years' service. A clasp is awarded for each successive 5 years to 40 years. Members also receive a service badge star for each five years' service, which is worn on the left sleeve. There are specialist insignia for positions such as first aid instructor and dog handler, and pilot's wings are worn by aviators. Sharpshooter badges for proficiency in pistol or rifle shooting are each awarded in two grades.


Women in the RCMP

In the 1920s, Saskatchewan provincial pathologist Frances Gertrude McGill began providing forensic assistance to the RCMP in their investigations. She helped establish the first RCMP forensic laboratory in 1937, and later served as its director for several years. In addition to her forensic work, McGill also provided training to new RCMP and police recruits in forensic detection methods. Upon her retirement in 1946, McGill was appointed honorary surgeon to the RCMP, and continued to act as a dedicated consultant for the force up until her death in 1959. On May 23, 1974, RCMP Commissioner Maurice Nadon announced that the RCMP would accept applications from women as regular members of the force. Troop 17 was the first group of 32 women at RCMP Academy, Depot Division, Depot in Regina on September 18 and 19, 1974 for regular training. This first all-female troop graduated from Depot on March 3, 1975. After initially wearing different uniforms, female officers were finally issued the standard RCMP uniforms. Now all officers are identically attired, with two exceptions. The ceremonial dress uniform, or "walking-out order", for female members has a long, blue skirt and higher-heeled slip-on pumps plus small black clutch purse (however, in 2012 the RCMP began to allow women to wear trousers and boots with all their formal uniforms.) The second exception is the official maternity uniform for pregnant female officers assigned to administrative duties. The following years saw the first women attain certain positions. * 1981: corporal, musical ride * 1987: foreign post * 1990: detachment commander * 1992: commissioned officer * 1998: assistant commissioner * 2000: deputy commissioner *2006: interim commissioner * 2018: permanent commissioner


Military status

Although the RCMP is a civilian police force, in 1921, following the service of many of its members during the World War I, First World War, King George V awarded the force the status of a regiment of dragoons, entitling it to display the battle honours it had been awarded.


Service in wartime

During the Second Boer War, members of the North-West Mounted Police were given Leave of absence, leaves of absence to join the 2nd Battalion, Canadian Mounted Rifles (CMR) and
Strathcona's Horse Lord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians) (LdSH C is a regular armoured regiment A regiment is a military unit. Its role and size varies markedly, depending on the country, military service, service and/or a administrative corps, speciali ...

Strathcona's Horse
. The force raised the Canadian Mounted Rifles, mostly from NWMP members, for service in South Africa. For the CMR's distinguished service there, King Edward VII honoured the NWMP by changing the name to the "Royal Northwest Mounted Police" (RNWMP) on June 24, 1904. During the First World War, the Royal Northwest Mounted Police (RNWMP) conducted Border#Jurisdictional borders, border patrols, surveillance of enemy Alien (law), aliens, and enforcement of national security regulations within Canada. However, RNWMP officers also served overseas. On August 6, 1914, a Squadron (army), squadron of volunteers from the RNWMP was formed to serve with the Canadian Light Horse in France. In 1918, two more squadrons were raised, A Squadron for service in France and Flanders and B Squadron for service in the Canadian Siberian Expeditionary Force. In September 1939, at the outset of the Second World War, the Canadian Army had no military police. Five days after war was declared the Royal Canadian Mounted Police received permission to form a provost company of force volunteers. It was designated "No. 1 Provost Company (RCMP)", and became the Canadian Provost Corps. Six months after war was declared its members were overseas in Europe and served throughout the World War II, Second World War as Canadian Forces Military Police, military police.


Honours

The Royal Canadian Mounted Police were accorded the status of a regiment of dragoons in 1921. As a cavalry regiment, the RCMP was entitled to wear battle honours for its war service as well as carry a Colours, standards and guidons, guidon, with its first guidon presented in 1935. The RCMP mounted the Queen's Guard, King's Life Guard at Horse Guards Parade in 1937 leading up to the Coronation of the British monarch, coronation of King George VI. The RCMP mounted the Queen's Life Guard in May 2012 during celebrations of Diamond Jubilee of Elizabeth II, Queen Elizabeth II's Diamond Jubilee. Battle honours * North West Canada 1885 * South Africa 1900–1902 * The Great War: France and Flanders 1918, Siberia 1918–19 * The Second World War: Europe, 1939–1945 Honorary distinction: * The badge of the Canadian Provost Corps (Military Police), presented September 21, 1957, at a Parliament Hill ceremony for contributions to the corps during the Second World War


Legacy

In 1975, the RCMP dedicated a memorial beside the Fred Light Museum in Battleford, Saskatchewan, consisting of a cemetery with gate, cairn and list of honour plaque to the members of the
North-West Mounted Police The North-West Mounted Police (NWMP) was a Canadian armed police force, established in 1873, to maintain order in the new Canadian North-West Territories following the 1870 transfer of Rupert’s Land and North-Western Territory to Canada fr ...
(1873–1904) and the RCMP.


Organization


International

The RCMP International Operations Branch (IOB) assists the Liaison Officer (LO) Program to deter international crime relating to Canadian criminal laws. The IOB is a section of the International Policing, which is part of the RCMP Federal and International Operations Directorate. Thirty-seven Liaison Officers are placed in 23 other countries and are responsible for organizing Canadian investigations in other countries, developing and maintaining the exchange of criminal intelligence, especially national security with other countries, to provide assistance in investigations that directly affect Canada, to coordinate and assist RCMP officers on foreign business and to represent the RCMP at international meetings. Liaison Officers are located in: *Africa & Middle East: ** Rabat, Morocco ** Pretoria, South Africa ** Amman, Jordan ** Dubai, U.A.E. *Asia-Pacific: ** New Delhi, India ** Islamabad, Pakistan ** Bangkok, Thailand ** Hong Kong SAR ** Beijing, China ** Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia ** Colombo, Sri Lanka * Europe: ** London, United Kingdom ** Paris, France ** Berlin, Germany ** The Hague, Netherlands ** Gdynia, Poland ** Rome, Italy *The Americas: ** Kingston, Jamaica ** Mexico City, Mexico ** Bogotá, Colombia ** Caracas, Venezuela ** Brasília, Brazil ** Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic ** Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago ** : *** Miami, Florida *** City *** Seattle, Washington *** The RCMP was a member agency in the Afghan Threat Finance Cell, and RCMP officers were embedded with military units in Afghanistan.


National

The RCMP is organized under the authority of the ''Royal Canadian Mounted Police Act'' (''RCMP Act''), an act of the Parliament of Canada. Pursuant to sections 3 and 4 of the ''RCMP Act'', the RCMP is a police force for Canada—namely, a federal police force. However, section 20 of the ''RCMP Act'' provides that the RCMP may be used for law enforcement in provinces or municipalities if certain conditions are met. As explained by Justice Ivan Rand of the Supreme Court of Canada, "what is set up is a police force for the whole of Canada to be used in the enforcement of the laws of the Dominion, but at the same time available for the enforcement of law generally in such provinces as may desire to employ its services." Pursuant to section 5 of the ''RCMP Act'', the agency is headed by the List of Royal Canadian Mounted Police commissioners, commissioner of the RCMP, who, under the direction of the Minister of Public Safety (Canada), minister of public safety and emergency preparedness, has the control and management of the force and all matters connected therewith. The RCMP is provided with a senior executive committee (SEC) which The commissioner is assisted by deputy commissioners in charge of: * Federal and international policing * Specialized policing services ** National police services * Contract and Indigenous policing * Human resources * East ** National Division (Formerly "A" Division) ** National headquarters ** Newfoundland and Labrador ("B" Division) ** New Brunswick ("J" Division) ** Nova Scotia ("H" Division) ** Ontario ("O" Division) ** Prince Edward Island ("L" Division) ** Quebec (The Royal Canadian Mounted Police in Quebec, "C" Division) * West ** Alberta ("K" Division) ** British Columbia (RCMP "E" Division, "E" Division) ** Manitoba ("D" Division) ** Northwest Territories ("G" Division) ** Nunavut ("V" Division) ** Saskatchewan ("F" Division) ** Yukon ("M" Division)


Divisions

The RCMP divides the country into police division, divisions for command purposes. In general, each division is coterminous with a province (for example, C Division is Quebec). The province of Ontario, however, is divided into two divisions: National Division (Ottawa) and O Division (rest of the province). There is one additional division Depot Division, which is the RCMP Academy at Regina, Saskatchewan, and the Police Dog Service Training Centre at Innisfail, Alberta. The RCMP headquarters are located in Ottawa, Ontario. * National Division (formerly A Division): National Capital Region (Canada), National Capital Region (Ottawa, Ontario, and Gatineau, Quebec) * B Division: Newfoundland and Labrador * The Royal Canadian Mounted Police in Quebec, C Division: Quebec * D Division: Manitoba * RCMP "E" Division, E Division: British Columbia * F Division: Saskatchewan * G Division: Northwest Territories * H Division: Nova Scotia * J Division: New Brunswick * K Division: Alberta * L Division: Prince Edward Island * M Division: Yukon * O Division: Ontario * V Division: Nunavut * Depot Division at Regina and the Police Dog Service Training Centre at Innisfail.


Detachments

A detachment is a section of the RCMP which polices a local area. Detachments vary greatly in size. The largest single RCMP detachment is in the city of Surrey in British Columbia, with over a thousand employees. Surrey has contracted with the RCMP for policing services since 1951. The second-largest RCMP detachment is in Burnaby, also in British Columbia. Conversely, detachments in small, isolated rural communities have as few as three officers. The RCMP formerly had many single-officer detachments in these areas,B.C.'s single-officer RCMP detachments to be closed
CBC News (September 28, 2012).
but in 2012 the RCMP announced that it was introducing a requirement that detachments should have at least three officers.


Personal Protection Group

The Personal Protection Group or PPG is a 180-member group responsible for security details for VIPs, the prime minister, and the governor general. It was created after the André Dallaire#The break-in, 1995 incident at 24 Sussex Drive. Units under the PPG consists of: *Prime Minister Protective Detail provides bodyguards to protect the Prime Minister of Canada, prime minister of Canada in Canada and abroad. This unit is based in
Ottawa Ottawa (, ; Canadian Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, legal, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, many (or all) of these connections exist and are ...

Ottawa
with operations at 24 Sussex Drive and Harrington Lake near Chelsea, Quebec. *Governor General's Protection Detail provides bodyguards to protect the Governor General of Canada, governor general of Canada in Canada and abroad. This unit is based in Ottawa with operations at Rideau Hall. *Very Important Persons Security Section (VIPSS) provides security details to VIP (including the Chief Justice of Canada, chief justice of Canada, federal ministers, and diplomats) and others under the direction of the minister of public safety.


Personnel

, the RCMP employed 30,196 men and women, including police officers, civilian members, and Public Service of Canada, public service employees. Actual personnel strength by ranks: * Commissioners: 1 * Deputy commissioners: 6 * Assistant commissioners: 28 * Chief superintendents: 57 * Superintendents: 187 * Inspectors: 322 * Corps sergeants major: 1 * Sergeants major: 8 * Staff sergeants major: 9 * Staff sergeants: 838 * Sergeants: 2,018 * Corporals: 3,599 * Constables: 11,913 * Special constables: 122 * Civilian members: 7,695 * Public servants: 3,403 * Total: 30,196


Regular members

The term ''regular member'', or RM, originates from the ''RCMP Act'' and refers to the 18,988 regular RCMP officers who are trained and sworn as Law enforcement officer, peace officers, and include all the ranks from constable to commissioner. They are the police officers of the RCMP and are responsible for investigating crime and have the authority to make arrests. RMs operate in over 750 detachments, including 200 municipalities and more than 600 Indigenous communities. RMs are normally assigned to general policing duties at an RCMP detachment for a minimum of three years. These duties allow them to experience a broad range of assignments and experiences, such as responding to Emergency telephone number, emergency (9-1-1) calls, foot patrol, bicycle patrol, traffic enforcement, collecting evidence at crime scenes, testifying in court, apprehending criminals and plain clothes duties. Regular members also serve in over 150 different types of operational and administrative opportunities available within the RCMP, these include: major crime investigations, emergency response, forensic identification, Vehicular accident reconstruction, forensic collision reconstruction, international peacekeeping, bike or marine patrol, explosives disposal and police dog services. Also included are administrative roles including human resources, corporate planning, policy analysis and public affairs.


Auxiliary constables and other staff

Besides the regular RCMP officers, several types of designations exist which give them assorted powers and responsibilities over policing issues. Currently, there are: * Community constables: Varies across Canada * Reserve constables : Varies across Canada * Auxiliary constables: Varies across Canada * Special constables: 122 * Civilian members: 7,590 * Public servants: 3,497 ;Community constables (CC):A designation introduced in 2014 as a replacement for the community safety officers and Indigenous community constables pilot programs. Community constables are armed, paid members holding the rank of special constables, with peace officer power. They are to provide a bridge between the local citizens and the RCMP using their local and cultural knowledge They are mostly focused on crime prevention, liaisons with the community, and providing resources in the event of a large-scale event. ;Reserve constables (R/Cst.):A program reinstated in 2004 in British Columbia, it was later expanded to cover all of Canada in order to allow for retired, regular RCMP members and other provincially trained officers to provide extra manpower when shortages are identified. R/Cst. are appointed under Section 11 of the ''Royal Canadian Mounted Police Act'' as paid part-time, armed officers with the same powers as regular members. However, they are not allowed to carry force-issued sidearms and use of force options unless they are called upon to duty. They generally carry out community policing roles but may also be called upon if an emergency occurs. ;Auxiliary Constable#Royal Canadian Mounted Police Auxiliary, Auxiliary constables (A/Cst.):Volunteers within their own community, appointed under provincial police acts. They are not police officers and can not identify themselves as such. However, they are given peace officer powers when on duty with a regular member (RM). Their duties consist mainly of assisting RMs in routine events, for example cordoning off crime scene areas, crowd control, participating in Neighborhood watch, community policing, assistance during situations where regular members might be overwhelmed with their duties (e.g., keeping watch of a backseat detainee while an RM interviews a victim). They are identified by the wording of "RCMP Auxiliary" on cars, jackets and shoulder flashes ;Special Constable#Canada, Special constables (S/Cst.): Employees of the RCMP have varied duties depending on where they are deployed, but are often given this designation because of an expertise they possess which needs to be applied in a certain area. For example, an Indigenous person might be appointed a special constable in order to assist regular members as they police an Indigenous community where English is not well understood, and where the special constable speaks the language well. They still perform this role today in many isolated northern communities and the RCMP has 122 special constables who are active in the RCMP today, and they are drawn almost entirely from the same Indigenous communities that they serve. :From the early years of policing in northern Canada, and well into the 1950s, local Indigenous peoples were hired by the RCMP as special constables and were employed as guides and to obtain and care for sled dog teams. Many of these former special constables still reside in the north to this day and are still involved in regimental functions of the RCMP. ;Civilian members of the RCMP: While not delegated the powers of police officers, they are instead hired for their specialized scientific, technological, communications and administrative skills. Since the RCMP is a multi-faceted law enforcement organization with responsibilities for federal, provincial and municipal policing duties, it offers employment opportunities for civilian members as professional partners within Canada's national police force. Civilian members represent approximately 14% of the total RCMP employee population, and are employed within RCMP establishments in most geographical areas of Canada. The following is a list of the most common categories of employment that may be available to interested and qualified individuals. *Operations ** Telecommunications operator (dispatcher) * Scientific ** Toxicology ** Chemistry ** Biology – DNA ** Law *Technical ** Forensic identification services ** Instrument technology ** questioned document examination, Document examination ** Counterfeit analysis ** Firearms technology ** Electronics technology ** Information technology ** Communications ** Computer systems development ** Telecommunications ** Information services/public affairs * Administration of business, Administrative ** Policy development and analysis ** Staff development and training ** Human resource management ** Translation ** Police Records Information Management Environment (PRIME-BC) ;Public service employees: Also referred to as public servants, PSes or PSEs, they provide much of the administrative support for the RCMP in the form of detachment clerks and other administrative support at the headquarters level. They are not police officers, do not wear a uniform, have no police authority and are not bound by the ''RCMP Act''. ;Municipal employees: Abbreviated as "ME" they are found in RCMP detachments where a contract exists with a municipality to provide front-line policing. MEs are not actually employees of the RCMP, but are instead employed by the local municipality to work in the RCMP detachment. They conduct the same duties that a PSE would and are required to meet the same reliability and security clearance to do so. Many detachment buildings house a combination of municipally and provincially funded detachments, and therefore there are often PSEs and MEs found working together in them.


Ranks

The rank system of the RCMP is partly a result of their origin as a paramilitary force. Upon its founding, the RCMP adopted the rank insignias of the Canadian Army (which in turn came from the British Army). Like in a military, the RCMP also has a distinction between commissioned and non-commissioned officers. The non-commissioned ranks are mostly based on military ranks (apart from constable). Non-commissioned officer ranks above staff sergeant resemble those that formerly existed in the Canadian Army, but have since been replaced by warrant officers. The commissioned officer ranks, by contrast, use a set of non-military titles that are often used in Commonwealth police services. The number of higher ranks like chief superintendent and deputy commissioner have been added on and increased since the formation of the force, while the lower commissioned rank of sub-inspector has been dropped. The numbers are current as of April 1, 2019: These are the official abbreviations for the commissioned and non-commissioned officers in the RCMP. The ranks of inspector and higher are commissioned ranks and are appointed by the Queen-in-Council, Governor-in-Council. Depending on the dress, badges are worn on the shoulder as slip-ons, on shoulder boards, or directly on the epaulettes. The lower ranks are non-commissioned officers and the insignia continues to be based on pre-1968 Canadian Army patterns. Since 1990, the non-commissioned officers' rank insignia has been embroidered on the epaulette slip-ons. Non-commissioned rank badges are worn on the right sleeve of the scarlet/blue tunic and blue jacket. The constables wear no rank insignia. There are also 122 special constables, as well as a varying number of reserve constables, auxiliary constables, and students who wear identifying insignia. The Bath star, star, or "pip", used in the insignia of commissioned officers represents the military Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath. The order's motto (, "three joined in one", referring to the holy trinity) is inscribed in a band in the middle of it. The three crowns inset in the centre not only represent the Christian Trinity, but also the three former kingdoms that became the United Kingdom. The RCMP formerly had subaltern (junior officer) ranks that were indicated by one "pip" for a sub-inspector (equivalent to an army second lieutenant) to three "pips" for an inspector (equivalent to an army captain). A reorganization in 1960 changed the insignia to three "pips" for sub-inspectors and a crown for inspectors, making the latter a field officer rank. The rank of sub-inspector was abolished in 1990, leaving the RCMP with no subaltern ranks. A royal crown is used in the regimental cap badge and the insignia of senior commissioned officers. In 1955 St. Edward's Crown replaced the Tudor Crown (heraldry), Tudor Crown. Although Queen Elizabeth II had adopted the redesign of the heraldic crown in 1953, it took some time to design, approve, and manufacture the new insignia. The crossed Mameluke Kilij, sabre and Baton (military), baton is the insignia for general officers. In the RCMP it designates the commissioner (equivalent to an army general) and their subordinate deputy commissioners (equivalent to army lieutenant-generals). The assistant commissioners use the crown-over-three-pips insignia of an army Brigadier#British tradition, brigadier. The brass shoulder title pin on the epaulettes was changed from "RCMP" to "GRC-RCMP" in 1968. ( stands for , the RCMP's French-language title). This was due to a 1968 ruling stating that all statutes had to be published bilingually in both English and French. As a law enforcement agency, the RCMP had to use ranks and titles in both languages. This was later reinforced by the Official Languages Act (Canada), ''Official Languages Act''.


Honorary positions

Various members of the Canadian royal family have been granted honorary titles by the RCMP. Queen Elizabeth II, initially appointed honorary commissioner in 1953 was made commissioner-in-chief in celebration of her Diamond Jubilee in 2012. Upon her new appointment, her son, Charles, Prince of Wales was made an honorary commissioner. Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex was made an honorary commissioner during a royal visit in 2009. Anne, Princess Royal was made honorary deputy commissioner during a visit to Canada in 2014.


Equipment and vehicles


Land fleet

The RCMP Land Transport Fleet inventory includes: * Police car, Cars: 5,330 * Unmarked vehicles: 2,811 * Light Police truck, trucks: 2,090 * Heavy trucks: 123 * SUVs: 616 * Police motorcycle, Motorcycles: 34 * Small snowmobiles: 481 * All-terrain vehicles: 181 * Gas railway cars: 1 * Tractors: 27 * Police bus, Buses: 3 * Total: 11,697


Marine craft

The RCMP polices Canadian Internal Waters, including the Territorial waters, territorial sea and contiguous zone as well as the Great Lakes and Saint Lawrence Seaway; such operations are provided by the RCMP's Federal Services Directorate and includes enforcing Canada's environment, fisheries, customs and immigration laws. In provinces and municipalities where the RCMP performs contract policing, the force polices freshwater lakes and rivers. To meet these challenges, the RCMP operates the Marine Division, with five Robert Allan Ltd.–designed high-speed catamaran Police watercraft, patrol vessels; ''Inkster'' and the ''Commissioner''-class ''Nadon'', ''Higgitt'', ''Lindsay'' and ''Simmonds'', based on all three coasts and manned by officers specially trained in maritime enforcement. ''Inkster'' is based in Prince Rupert, BC, ''Simmonds'' is stationed on Newfoundland's south coast, and the rest are on the Pacific Coast. ''Simmonds''' livery is unique, in that it sports the RCMP badge, but is otherwise painted with Canadian Coast Guard colours and the marking ''Coast Guard Police''. The other four vessels are painted with blue and white RCMP colours. The RCMP operates 377 smaller boats, defined as vessels less than long, at locations across Canada. This category ranges from canoes and car toppers to rigid-hulled inflatables and stable, commercially built, inboard-outboard vessels. Individual detachments often have smaller high-speed rigid-hulled inflatable boats and other purpose-built vessels for inland waters, some of which can be hauled by road to the nearest launching point.


Aircraft fleet

As of December 2018 the RCMP had 34 Police aviation, aircraft (8 helicopters and 26 fixed-wing aircraft) registered with Transport Canada. The new Airbus H145 is still currently registered to Airbus. All aircraft are operated and maintained by the Air Services Branch.


Weapons and intervention options

* Smith & Wesson Model 5906, Smith & Wesson Model 5946 (1992–present) – Standard full-sized service sidearm. It is stainless-steel, double-action only, with a barrel and a double-column 15-round magazine. Emergency Response Team (RCMP), Emergency response team (ERT) and dog handler members were issued modified Model 5946s with magazine safeties removed until they were replaced with the SIG Sauer P226R. * Smith & Wesson Model 3953 (1996–present) – Special issue compact sidearm for plainclothes members and commissioned officers. It can also be requested as a service pistol by members with small hands who cannot positively grip the larger Model 5946. It is similar to the Model 5946 except it has a shorter, , barrel, a shortened grip, and a single-column eight-round magazine. * SIG Sauer P226#P226 Rail, SIG Sauer 226R (9×19mm ) – Standard issue sidearm for ERT and dog-handler members. It replaced the modified Model 5946 that had been previously issued. * Glock, Glock Model 19 – Special issue sidearm for Sky marshal#Canada, Canadian Air Carrier Protective Program (CACPP) members. * Heckler & Koch MP5 – Adopted by the ERT * Remington Model 700P (.308 Winchester) bolt-action rifle * Remington 870 12-gauge shotgun * Colt Canada C7 rifle (5.56mm NATO) * Colt Canada C7 rifle#C8, Colt Canada C8 carbine (5.56mm NATO) – Adopted by ERT ** Colt Canada C8 IUR (Picatinny rail, integrated upper receiver ) 5.56mm NATO. The semi-automatic C8 IUR was adopted for general use in October, 2011, but the first batch were not procured until 2013. The first RCMP Cadets began qualifying on the C8 IUR and receiving Active Shooter training in 2015. * Taser International M26, X26, and X26P. Following the Robert Dziekanski, Robert Dziekański incident, all older M26 models and 60 faulty X26 models in stock were removed and destroyed in 2010 due to being outside of specifications. * Pepper spray, Oleoresin capsicum spray * ASP, Inc., ASP and Monadnock Baton (law enforcement)#Expandable baton, expandable defensive batons


Past weapons and intervention options

;Rifles * Canadian Arsenals Limited (CAL) L1A1 Self-Loading Rifle#Canada, C1A1 – issued in 7.62×51mm, 7.62mm NATO. Canadian variant of the L1A1 and FN FAL produced under licence by Canadian Arsenals Limited (CAL) (Long Branch). The RCMP's rifles were sourced from the testing batch of FALs received from Fabrique Nationale and had been rebuilt by CAL to meet C1A1 standards. Used from 1961 to 1969. * Winchester Model 70 Issued in .308 Winchester. Used from 1960–1973. This rifle was replaced by the Remington 700. * Lee–Enfield#Rifle No. 4, Lee–Enfield No. 4 Mk 1 – issued in .303 British. World War II surplus rifles used from 1947 to 1966. Replaced by CAL C1A1 and Winchester 70. * Lee–Enfield#Short Magazine Lee–Enfield Mk III, Short Magazine Lee Enfield (SMLE) No. 1 Mk III – issued in .303 British. World War I surplus rifles used from 1919–1947. * Lee–Enfield#Magazine Lee-Enfield, Lee-Enfield carbine (LEC) – issued in .303 British. Procured as military surplus from militia stores to replace the unsatisfactory Ross Rifle. Used from 1914 to 1920. This was the last general-issue rifle used by the NWMP. The RCMP that replaced it only issued rifles according to need. * Ross rifle – issued in .303 British. The Ross Mk I was issued from 1905 to 1907 and the improved Ross Mk II was in testing from 1909 to 1912. The Mk I design was accepted by the Canadian Militia in 1903. The NWMP looked at acquiring the Ross to replace the Winchester and Lee-Metford and ordered 1000. Production problems led to delays until 1904; the most glaring being that the finished product did not match their original specifications. The NWMP demanded their contract carbines use a different set of iron sight (which later became standard on the Mk II) which delayed production for a further year. The carbines received in 1905 were plagued with quality control problems that made them more fragile than the weapons they were to replace. After a constable suffered an eye injury in 1907 the Ross carbines were withdrawn. When the improved Ross Mk II rifles arrived in 1909 the wary NWMP decided to test fire all of them fully before issuing them. A fire at the depot in Regina in 1911 destroyed almost all of the new rifles. The NWMP then gave up on the Ross. * Lee–Enfield#Magazine Lee-Enfield, Magazine Lee-Enfield (MLE) Mk.I rifle – issued in .303 British; it was the first smokeless-powder weapon in NWMP service. Loaned to the NWMP from the Victoria and Winnipeg militias to replace a stolen cache of M1876 Winchesters. The NWMP "forgot" to give them back later. Used from 1902 to 1920. * Lee–Metford, Lee-Metford carbine – issued in .303 British. The Metford rifling gave tighter groups when fired than the later Enfield, but the rifling wore out faster. Only 200 procured. Used from 1895 to 1914. Replaced by the Lee-Enfield carbine. * Winchester Model 1876 saddle carbine—issued in .45-75 Winchester. Popular for its handiness and rate of fire, but it was too fragile for the rough handling and use it received in the field. Used from 1878 until 1914. and replaced by the Lee-Enfield Carbine. * Snider–Enfield Mark III cavalry carbine – issued in .577 Snider. Single-shot breach-loading conversion of an Enfield caplock muzzle-loader. Used from 1873 to 1878 and replaced by the Winchester Model 1876 lever-action rifle. ;Service pistols * Smith & Wesson Model 10, Smith & Wesson ''military and police'' revolver—issued with barrel, in .38 Special. It served more than forty years from 1954 to 1996. Plainclothes members carried a variant with a barrel. **In 1981, the standard loading was changed from a .38 Special Full Metal Jacket bullet, full metal jacket (FMJ) ball round to a .38 Special +P Wadcutter, semi-wadCutter hollowpoint bullet, hollow-point (SWCHP), a violation of the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907, Hague Convention of 1899 if used in a military context. * Colt New Service revolver — issued with 5.5 in (140 mm) barrel; 700 ordered in .455 Webley in 1904, with .45 Colt, .45 Long Colt versions being delivered from 1919; in all, over 3200 issued.Petzal and Bourjaily with Fenson. ''The Total Gun Manual'' (Canadian edition), Note 44 455 Webley was the British military service round and .45 Long Colt was the standard Canadian service round until both were replaced by the NATO-standard 9×19mm Parabellum post World War II. Used from 1904 to 1954. * Enfield revolver, Enfield Mark II revolver—issued in .476 Enfield, about 1080 Mark IIs obtained from Britain's Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom), Ministry of Defence, after it was learned the Beaumont–Adams had been discontinued. The remaining .450 Adams ammunition, which was compatible with the .476 Enfield round, was issued until stocks were depleted. Used from 1882 to 1911. * Beaumont–Adams revolver—first issue weapon, in .450 Adams. 330 Mark Is purchased from Britain's Ministry of Defence in 1873 and issued after delivery in 1874. Rough handling of the crates in transit, poor packing by the contractor who shipped the guns, and previous service wear made them unsuitable for service. The constables sometimes had to manually turn the cylinders due to cracked feed hands or keep both hands on the grips for the springs to work due to loose screws. Later, these were to be replaced by 330 Enfield Mark IIs, but many were stolen en route. Used from 1874 to 1888. ;Pistols Because of procurement problems with the Beaumont–Adams revolvers, constables sometimes carried their own sidearms chambered in a standard service caliber. * Tranter (revolver), Tranter revolver – chambered in .450 Adams, the standard service round. It was similar to the Beaumont-Adams revolver it was substituted for. * Smith & Wesson Model 3 revolver – chambered in .44 Russian, a very powerful cartridge in its day. Thirty were purchased in 1874 by the NWMP to field-test the .44 Russian round for service. Its non-standard chambering and the difficulty to get ammunition for it led to its being withdrawn. * Webley & Scott British Bull Dog revolver, Bull Dog revolver – chambered in .450 Adams. Its small size made it a handy backup pistol. Most were originally procured to arm NWMP constables assigned to protecting mail cars on trains. The constables would sometimes "absent-mindedly forget" to hand the pistols back afterwards. ;Sidearms * 1821 pattern light cavalry sabre – Originally part of a trove of old swords given by the Canadian Militia to the NWMP as weapons. They were returned to stores in 1880. Later issued to commissioned officers in 1882 as ceremonial sidearms and a sign of rank. This was later replaced by the M1896 light cavalry sabre. * 1853 pattern cavalry sabre – Originally part of a trove of old swords given by the Canadian Militia to the NWMP as weapons. They were returned to stores in 1880. Later issued in 1882 to non-commissioned officers as ceremonial sidearms and a sign of rank. This was later replaced by the 1821 pattern sabre. * 1896 pattern light cavalry sabre – Replaced the 1821 pattern sabre as the NWMP officer's ceremonial sword. * 1908 pattern cavalry saber – Carried by the Mounted Police detachment sent to Siberia in 1918 during the Russian Civil War. * Straightstick Baton (law enforcement), baton manufactured in wood and plastic * Weighted-knuckle glove, Sap gloves – Prohibited by RCMP policy. Not currently used.


Ceremonial weapons and symbols of office

* Pattern 1908 and 1912 cavalry swords, 1912 pattern cavalry officer's sword carried by officers. Blade is acid etched both sides with the monarch's crown, Canadian coat of Arms, royal cypher and RCMP badge. * Pattern 1908 and 1912 cavalry swords, 1908 pattern cavalry sword carried by NCOs on the Musical Ride * Lance, Bamboo-shafted lance carried by members on horseback on the Musical Ride. The lance is used as a decorative item and is flourished during trick and formation riding. The pennant is red over white, the national colours of the Canadian flag. It represents the Pattern 1868 cavalry lance carried by the NWMP in the 1870s. * Pace stick, Drill cane * Swagger stick * Commissioner's tipstaff In 1973, Wilkinson Sword produced a number of commemorative swords to celebrate the RCMP centennial. None of these swords were ever used ceremonially, and were strictly collectibles. Wilkinson Sword also made a commemorative centennial tomahawk (axe), tomahawk and miniature "letter opener" models of their centennial swords. In 1973, Winchester Repeating Arms Company produced an RCMP commemorative centennial version of their Winchester Model 1894, Model 94 rifle in .30-30 Winchester, with a round barrel. The Receiver (firearms), receiver, buttplate, and Forend (firearms), forend cap (on the musket-style forend) were plated in gold. Commemorative medallions were embedded in the right-hand side of the Stock (firearms), stock, with an "MP" engraving. There was engraving on the barrel and receiver indicating the rifle was a centennial commemorative edition. Sights were open notch rear, with a flip-up rear ladder, graduated to . Two versions were produced, 9500 with serial numbers beginning "RCMP" for commercial sale, 5000 with the prefix "MP" sold only to serving RCMP members. In addition, ten presentation models were produced, serialled RCMP1P to RCMP10P.


Popular awareness

The Mounties have been immortalized as symbols of Culture of Canada, Canadian culture in numerous Cinema of the United States, Hollywood Northern (genre), Northwestern movies and television series, which often feature the image of the Mountie as square-jawed, stoic, and polite, yet with a steely determination and physical toughness that sometimes appears superhuman. Coupled with the adage that the Mountie "always gets his man", the image projects them as fearsome, incorruptible, dogged yet gentle champions of the law. The RCMP's motto is actually the French ''Maintiens le droit'', which has been translated into the English "Defending the Law" or "Maintain the right". The Hollywood motto derives from a comment by a Montana newspaper, the ''Fort Benton Record'': "They fetch their man every time".Force's legacy endures
''Toronto Star'', March 5, 2005
The RCMP Sunset Ceremony () has taken place every summer since 1989 at the Musical Ride Centre in
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, with it in recent years featuring the Ottawa Police Service Pipe Band and the Governor General's Foot Guards Band.


Early depictions

In 1912, Ralph Connor's ''Corporal Cameron of the North-West Mounted Police: A Tale of the MacLeod Trail'' appeared, becoming an international best-selling novel. Mounties fiction became a popular genre in both pulp magazines and book form. Among the best-selling authors who specialized in tales of the Mounted Police were James Oliver Curwood, Laurie York Erskine, James B Hendryx, T Lund, Harwood Steele (the son of Sam Steele), and William Byron Mowery. In other media, a famous example is the Radio drama, radio and Television program, television series, ''Challenge of the Yukon, Sergeant Preston of the Yukon.'' Dudley Do-Right (of ''The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show'') is a 1960s example of the comic aspect of the Mountie myth, as is Klondike Kat, from Total Television. The Broadway theatre, Broadway musical and Hollywood movie ''Rose Marie (1936 film), Rose-Marie'' is a 1930s example of its romantic side. A successful combination were a series of ''Renfrew of the Royal Mounted'' boy's adventure novels written by Laurie York Erskine beginning in 1922 running to 1941. In the 1930s Erskine narrated a ''Sgt Renfrew of the Mounties'' radio show and a series of films with actor-singer James Newill playing Renfrew were released between 1937 and 1940. In 1953 portions of the films were mixed with new sequences of Newill for a ''Renfrew of the Mounted'' television series. Bruce Carruthers (b.1901–d.1953), a former Mounted Police corporal (1919–1923), served as an unofficial technical advisor to Hollywood in many films with RCMP characters. They included ''Heart of the North'' (1938), ''Susannah of the Mounties'' (1939), ''Northern Pursuit'' (1943), ''Gene Autry and The Mounties'' (1951), ''The Wild North'' (1952), and ''The Pony Soldier'' (1952).


Contemporary culture

In 1959, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation aired R.C.M.P. (TV series), ''R.C.M.P.'', a half-hour dramatic series about an RCMP detachment keeping the peace and fighting crime. Filmed in black and white, in and around Ottawa by F. R. Crawley, Crawley Films, the series was co-produced with the BBC and the Australian Broadcasting Corporation and ran for 39 episodes. It was noted for its pairing of Québécois and Anglo officers. Canadians also poke fun at the RCMP with Dave Broadfoot, Sergeant Renfrew and his faithful dog Cuddles in various sketches produced by the ''Royal Canadian Air Farce'' comedy troupe. On ''That '70s Show'' Mounties were played by Second City Television, SCTV alumni Joe Flaherty and Dave Thomas (actor), Dave Thomas. The British have also exploited the myth: the BBC television series ''Monty Python's Flying Circus'' featured a group of Mounties singing the chorus in ''The Lumberjack Song'' in the lumberjack sketch. The 1972–90 CBC series ''The Beachcombers'' features a character named Constable John Constable who attempts to enforce the law in the town of Gibsons, British Columbia. In comic books, the Marvel Comics characters of Alpha Flight are described on several occasions as "RCMP auxiliaries", and two of their members, Snowbird (comics), Snowbird and the second Major Mapleleaf are depicted as serving members of the force. In the latter case, due to trademark issues, Major Mapleleaf is described as a "Royal Canadian Mountie" in the opening roll call pages of each issue of ''Alpha Flight'' he appears in. Charles Bronson and Lee Marvin starred in the 1981 movie ''Death Hunt'' that fictionalized the RCMP pursuit of Albert Johnson (criminal), Albert Johnson. In the early 1990s, Canadian Professional wrestling, professional wrestler Jacques Rougeau utilized the List of professional wrestling terms#G, gimmick of "The Mountie" while wrestling for the WWE, WWF. He typically wore the Red Serge to the ring, and carried a Cattle prod, shock stick as an illegal weapon. As his character was portrayed as an Heel (professional wrestling), evil Mountie, the RCMP ultimately won an injunction preventing Rougeau from wrestling as this character in Canada, though he was not prevented from doing so outside the country. He briefly held the WWE Intercontinental Championship, Intercontinental Championship in 1992. The 1998 swan song of Nick Berry's time on UK drama ''Heartbeat (British TV series), Heartbeat'' features his character, Sergeant Nick Rowan, transferring to Canada and taking the rank of constable in the Mounties. The special telemovie was titled ''Heartbeat: Changing Places.'' The 1994–98 TV series ''Due South'' pairs Mountie Constable Benton Fraser with streetwise American detective Ray Vecchio cleaning up the streets of Chicago. It mainly derives its entertainment from the stereotype, perceived differences in attitude and culture between these two countries' police forces. Fraser is depicted as honest and polite to a fault, even refusing to carry a loaded sidearm when "assisting" Detective Vecchio, but almost superhuman in his abilities for thwarting crime. A pair of Mounties staff the RCMP detachment in the fictional town of Lynx River, Northwest Territories, in the CBC series ''North of 60.'' The series, which aired from 1992 to 1998, is about events in the mostly indigenous community, but the Mounties feature prominently in each episode. Another TV series from the 1990s, ''Bordertown (1989 TV series), Bordertown'' features an NWMP corporal paired with a United States Marshals Service, U.S. marshal securing law and order on a frontier U.S.–Canada border town. In the ABC TV mini-series ''Answered by Fire'', at least three mounties are featured. Mounties also appear in the TV series ''When Calls the Heart'' (Hallmark Channel). The 1987 Brian De Palma film ''The Untouchables (film), The Untouchables'' features cooperation between the United States Department of the Treasury, Treasury Department task force, led by Eliot Ness, and the Mounties against liquor smuggling across the Canada–United States border. The 1995 album ''C'est Cheese'' by Canadian musical comedy group The Arrogant Worms includes "The Mountie Song", which tells the story of a dissatisfied Mountie. In his 1999, album ''Soiree'' Newfoundland musician A. Frank Willis included "Savage Cop in Savage Cove" which was based on a true story and went on to become a big hit. Conan O'Brien brought his Late Night with Conan O'Brien, late night show to Toronto in February 2004. O'Brien spent a day as a Royal Canadian Mountie at the Canada–United States border. From 2011, the CTV Television Network, CTV fantasy drama series ''The Listener (TV series), The Listener'' regularly features characters who work for the Integrated Investigative Bureau, a fictional division of the RCMP that brings together various specialists, officers and civilian consultants to work on high-profile or federal cases. Although characters in the employ of the IIB are rarely, if ever, depicted wearing uniform, they are often addressed by their ranks – two main characters are Sergeant Michelle McClusky and Corporal Dev Clark. In the 2021 IMDBtv series Leverage Redemption it is revealed characters Elliot Spencer, Sophie Devereaux, Parker and Breanna Casey will not do jobs in Canada because of the RMCP, who want them for various crimes. The four claim the RCMP is the most dangerous police force in the world, will put you down politely and never forget a face, and that Mounties hate being called "Dudley Do-Right."


Mountie merchandise and trademark

There are products and merchandise that are made in the image of the RCMP, like Mounties statues or hats. Before 1995, the RCMP had little control over these products. The Royal Canadian Mounted Police received an international licence on April 1, 1995, requiring those who use the RCMP to pay a licensing fee. Proceeds from the fees are used for community awareness programmes. Those that do not pay the licensing fee are legally unable to use the name of the RCMP or their correct uniforms, though a film such as ''Canadian Bacon'' used the name "Royal Mounted Canadian Police" and the character in the ''Dudley Do-Right (film), Dudley Do-Right'' film did not wear accurate insignia. Through a Master Licensing Agreement (MLA) with the RCMP, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police Foundation, RCMP Foundation is responsible for managing the commercial use of the RCMP name, image, and protected marks. The foundation issues selected companies a royalty-based agreement allowing them to produce and market high-quality official RCMP merchandise. The Walt Disney Company, Walt Disney Co. (Canada) Ltd. was contracted to aid in the initial set up of the licensing program but Disney never owned or controlled any of the RCMP's protected marks. Following the expiration of the Disney contract in 2000, all responsibilities and activities were taken over by the executive director and his staff, reporting to the foundation president and board of directors. In 2007, through a decree signed by Commissioner Beverley Busson, the operating name was changed to the "Royal Canadian Mounted Police Foundation". The RCMP Heritage Centre is a multi-million dollar museum designed by Arthur Erickson that opened May 2007 in Regina, Saskatchewan, at the RCMP Academy, Depot Division. It replaced the old RCMP museum and is designed to celebrate the role of the force in Canada's history.


RCMP bands

The Royal Canadian Mounted Police Band () was the RCMP's central musical ensemble. It was considered one of the best professional bands assembled in Canada. Although it was an official regimental band, the members worked in the band as a secondary job. It is generally considered to have begun in 1938, though there were various police bands in the RCMP that flourished at the time, leading the Canadian government granting approval for the creation of a full-time central band in December 1958, with its headquarters in the capital of
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. Appearances made by the band included Expo 86 and the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meetings, Commonwealth Conference in Vancouver, the Calgary Winter Olympics in 1988, as well as the visits of Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev and Queen
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in 1990. It was dissolved in 1994 due to government budget cuts. In its 55 year existence, it operated as a voluntary regimental band, with its members working with it as a secondary job apart from their other duties in the RCMP. Members of the band wore the RCMP's notable Red Serge as part of their full dress uniform and adopted drill seen in Canadian military bands and bands in the British Army. Its longest serving director was Superintendent Edwin Joseph Lydall who served from 1948 to 1968. Today, instead of brass and reed bands, the RCMP sports eight regional pipe bands across the major cities of the 10 provinces. The first of these bands were established in 1992 in Alberta. The following are the locations of the regional volunteer pipe bands: *Halifax, Nova Scotia, Halifax *Moncton *Montreal (part of The Royal Canadian Mounted Police in Quebec, "C" Division) *
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*Winnipeg *Regina, Saskatchewan, Regina (part of "F" Division) *Edmonton *Vancouver (part of RCMP "E" Division, "E" Division) These bands act as "garrison bands" for the provincial division, and attend parades, police ceremonies, and public events.


RCMP tartan

The RCMP has since 1998 had its own distinctive tartan. The creation of the tartan was the result of a committee created in the early 1990s to create a tartan by its 125th anniversary. Upon approval from commissioner Phillip Murray, the tartan was registered with the Scottish Tartans Society and presented to the agency by Anne, Princess Royal during her Royal tours of Canada by the Canadian Royal Family, royal visit to Canada in 1998. The tartan appeared for the first time by a RCMP pipe band at the Royal Nova Scotia International Tattoo in July and August 1998.


Controversies and criticism

American historian Andrew Graybill has argued that the RCMP historically resembled the Texas Ranger Division, Texas Rangers in many ways. He argues that each protected the established order by confining and removing Indigenous peoples in Canada, Indigenous peoples; tightly controlling the mixed blood peoples (the African Americans in Texas and the Métis in Canada); assisting the large-scale ranchers against the small-scale ranchers and farmers who fenced the land; and breaking the power of labour unions that tried to organize the workers of industrial corporations. The RCMP have been involved in training and logistically supporting the Haitian National Police since 1994, a controversial matter in Canada considering allegations of widespread human rights violations on the part of the HNP. Some Canadian activist groups have called for an end to the RCMP training.RCMP Website
an
"Haiti Support Hits the Streets"
/ref> The RCMP has also provided training overseas in Iraq and other peace-keeping missions. In October 2016, the RCMP issued an apology for harassment, discrimination, and sexual abuse of female officers and civilian members. Additionally they set aside a $100 million fund to compensate these victims. Over 20,000 current and past female employees that were employed after 1974 are eligible. In 2019, ''The Guardian'' revealed that RCMP commanders had advocated the use of "lethal overwatch"—i.e., officers equipped with firearms—while clearing protesters to grant TC Energy access to the lands of the Wetʼsuwetʼen, Wet'suwet'en First Nations, First Nation in order to construct the Coastal GasLink Pipeline. Chief Allan Adam of the Athabasca Chipewyan First Nation was arrested by two RCMP officers on March 10, 2020 in Fort McMurray, Alberta. After several minutes of Chief Adam yelling and posturing at officers, the officers tackled him and punched him in the head whilst struggling with him on the ground. Chief Adam was later charged with resisting arrest and assaulting a peace officer, but the charges were subsequently dropped. After watching the video of the arrest, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau said, "[w]e have all now seen the shocking video of Chief Adam's arrest and we must get to the bottom of this". Following the revelation of Chief Adam's arrest—as well as several other recent instances in which RCMP officers had assaulted or killed Indigenous people—RCMP Commissioner Brenda Lucki stated, after initially demurring on the question, that Institutional racism, systemic racism exists in the RCMP: "I do know that systemic racism is part of every institution, the RCMP included", she said. One day earlier, Prime Minister Trudeau had also stated that "[s]ystemic racism is an issue right across the country, in all our institutions, including in all our police forces, including in the RCMP." In April 2020, the RCMP was strongly criticized for its response to the 2020 Nova Scotia attacks, the deadliest rampage in Canadian history, as well as their transparency in the criminal investigation. CBC News' television program ''The Fifth Estate (TV program), The Fifth Estate'' and online newspaper ''Halifax Examiner'' analyzed the timeline of events, and both observed a myriad of failures and shortcomings in the RCMP response. A criminologist criticised the RCMP's response as "a mess" and called for an overhaul in how the agency responds to active shooter situations, after they had failed to properly respond to other such incidents in the past. In June 2021, Privacy Commissioner of Canada Daniel Therrien found that the RCMP had broken Canadian privacy law through hundreds of illegal searches using Clearview AI.


See also

* Civilian Review and Complaints Commission for the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, the civilian complaints review body * ''Courage in Red'', a 13-part documentary about the RCMP * Emergency Response Team (RCMP) * List of Canadian organizations with royal patronage * RCMP Technical Security Branch


Notes


References


External links

*
Royal Canadian Mounted Police Reports 1929-1948
at Dartmouth College Library {{Coord, 45.42, -75.66, type:landmark_region:CA, display=title Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Federal departments and agencies of Canada Public Safety Canada Canadian intelligence agencies Government agencies established in 1920 Legal history of Canada 1920 establishments in Canada Gendarmerie Organizations based in Canada with royal patronage Organizations based in Ottawa Uniformed services of Canada Federal law enforcement agencies of Canada Nunavut law Northwest Territories law Yukon law National symbols of Canada National police forces Mounted police