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The Romanian Orthodox Church ( ro, Biserica Ortodoxă Română), or Patriarchate of Romania, is an
autocephalous Autocephaly (; from el, αὐτοκεφαλία, meaning "property of being self-headed") is the status of a hierarchy, hierarchical Christian church whose head bishop does not report to any higher-ranking bishop. The term is primarily used i ...
Eastern Orthodox The Eastern Orthodox Church, also called the Orthodox Church, is the second-largest Christian church, with approximately 220 million baptised members. It operates as a communion Communion may refer to: Religion * The Eucharist (also cal ...
church in
full communion Full communion is a communion or relationship of full understanding among different Christian denomination A Christian denomination is a distinct Religion, religious body within Christianity that comprises all Church (congregation), church cong ...
with other Eastern Orthodox
Christian churches Christian Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Criticism of the Catholic Church, errors in the Catholic Church. ...
, and one of the nine patriarchates in the
Eastern Orthodox Church The Eastern Orthodox Church, also called the Orthodox Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, second-largest Christian church, with approximately 220 million baptised members. It operates as a Communion (Christ ...
. Since 1925, the church's
Primate A primate ( ) (from Latin , from 'prime, first rank') is a eutheria Eutheria (; from Greek , 'good, right' and , 'beast'; ) is the clade A clade (; from grc, , ''klados'', "branch"), also known as a monophyletic group or natural gro ...
bears the title of
Patriarch The highest-ranking bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Or ...

Patriarch
. Its jurisdiction covers the territories of
Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to: Directions ...

Romania
and
Moldova Moldova (, ; ), officially the Republic of Moldova ( ro, Republica Moldova), is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to ...

Moldova
, with additional
diocese In Ecclesiastical polity, church governance, a diocese or bishopric is the ecclesiastical district under the jurisdiction of a bishop. History In the later organization of the Roman Empire, the increasingly subdivided Roman province, prov ...
s for Romanians living in nearby
Serbia Serbia (, ; Serbian Serbian may refer to: * someone or something related to Serbia, a country in Southeastern Europe * someone or something related to the Serbs, a South Slavic people * in both meanings, depending on the context, it may refe ...

Serbia
and
Hungary Hungary ( hu, Magyarország ) is a in . Spanning of the , it is bordered by to the north, to the northeast, to the east and southeast, to the south, and to the southwest and to the west. Hungary has a population of 10 million, mostl ...

Hungary
, as well as for diaspora communities in
Central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to: Directions and generalised locations * Central Africa, a region in the centre of Africa ...

Central
and
Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe. The region's countries and territories vary depending on context. Beginning with foreign exploration during the Age of Discovery, roughly from the 15th century, the concept of ''Europe'' as "the W ...

Western Europe
,
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North America
and
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Oceania
. It is the only autocephalous church within
Eastern Orthodoxy The Eastern Orthodox Church, officially the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, second-largest Christian church, with approximately 220 million baptised members. It operates as a Communion ( ...
to have a
Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular or Colloquial Latin is a range of informal sociolects of Latin Latin (, or , ) ...

Romance language
for liturgical use. The majority of
Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to: Directions ...

Romania
's population (16,367,267, or 85.9% of those for whom data were available, according to the 2011 census data), as well as some 720,000
Moldova Moldova (, ; ), officially the Republic of Moldova ( ro, Republica Moldova), is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to ...

Moldova
ns, belong to the Romanian Orthodox Church. Members of the Romanian Orthodox Church sometimes refer to Orthodox Christian doctrine as ''Dreapta credință'' ("right/correct belief" or "true faith"; compare to Greek ὀρθὴ δόξα, "straight/correct belief").


History


In the Principalities and the Kingdom of Romania

The Orthodox hierarchy in the territory of modern Romania had existed within the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the
Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople The Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople ( el, Οἰκουμενικὸν Πατριαρχεῖον Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, translit=Oikoumenikón Patriarkhíon Konstantinoupóleos, ; la, Patriarchatus Oecumenicus Constanti ...
until 1865 when the churches in the Romanian principalities of
Moldavia Moldavia ( ro, Moldova, or , literally "The Moldavian Country"; in : or ; chu, Землѧ Молдавскаѧ; el, Ἡγεμονία τῆς Μολδαβίας) is a and former in and , corresponding to the territory between the and t ...

Moldavia
and
Wallachia Wallachia or Walachia (; ro, Țara Românească, lit=The Romanian Land' or 'The Romanian Country, ; : ', : ) is a and geographical region of . It is situated north of the and south of the . Wallachia is traditionally divided into two sections ...
embarked on the path of ecclesiastical independence by nominating Nifon Rusailă, Metropolitan of Ungro-Wallachia, as the first Romanian primate.
Prince A prince is a Monarch, male ruler (ranked below a king, grand prince, and grand duke) or a male member of a monarch's or former monarch's family. ''Prince'' is also a title of nobility (often highest), often hereditary title, hereditary, in so ...
Alexandru Ioan Cuza Alexandru Ioan Cuza (, or Alexandru Ioan I, also anglicised as Alexander John Cuza; 20 March 1820 – 15 May 1873) was the first ''domnitor ''Domnitor'' (Plural, pl. ''Domnitori'') was the official title of the ruler of Romania between 1862 an ...
, who had in 1863 carried out a mass confiscation of monastic estates in the face of stiff opposition from the Greek hierarchy in Constantinople, in 1865 pushed through a legislation that proclaimed complete independence of the church in the principalities from the patriarchate. In 1872, the Orthodox churches in the principalities, the Metropolis of Ungro-Wallachia and the Metropolis of Moldavia, merged to form the Romanian Orthodox Church. Following the
international recognition Diplomatic recognition in international law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally accepted in relations between nations. It establishes normative guideli ...
of the independence of the
United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia The United Principalities Moldavia and Wallachia ( ro, Principatele Unite Moldova și Țara Românească), commonly called United Principalities, was the personal union A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the s ...
(later
Kingdom of Romania The Kingdom of Romania ( ro, Regatul României) was a constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy, parliamentary monarchy, or democratic monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch exercises his authority in accordance with a co ...
) in 1878, after a long period of negotiations with the Ecumenical Patriarchate, Patriarch Joachim IV granted recognition to the autocephalous Metropolis of Romania in 1885, which was raised to the rank of Patriarchate in 1925. Romanian Orthodox theological education was underdeveloped at the end of the nineteenth-century. The theological institute at Sibiu, for example, had only one theologian as part of its faculty; the rest were historians, journalists, naturalists, and agronomists. The focus of priestly education was practical and general rather than specialized. In the early twentieth century the curriculum of a priest included subjects such as hygiene, calligraphy, accountancy, psychology, Romanian literature, geometry, chemistry, botany, and gymnastics. A strong emphasis was placed on church music, canon law, church history, and exegesis. After
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
, the Kingdom of Romania significantly increased its territory. Consequently, the Romanian Orthodox Church needed massive reorganization in order to incorporate congregations from these new provinces. This led to shortages and difficulties. The Church had to establishing a uniform interpretation of canon law. It had to handle public funds for paying clergymen in the newly acquired territories and, generally speaking, manage the relationship with the state. The legislation was intricate. The ''Statute on the organization of the Romanian Orthodox Church'' adopted by the Romanian parliament on May 6, 1925 counted 178 articles. The law on the functioning of the Romanian Orthodox Church counted 46 articles. Legislators adopted the Transylvanian tradition of mixing clergymen and laymen in administrative assemblies and granted bishops seats in the Romanian Senate. However, the context also allowed a number of young theologians like
Nichifor Crainic Nichifor Crainic (; pseudonym of Ion Dobre ; 22 December 1889, Bulbucata, Giurgiu County Giurgiu () is a county ( judeţ) of Romania on the border with Bulgaria, in Muntenia, with the capital city at Giurgiu. Demographics In 2011, it had a ...

Nichifor Crainic
, Ioan Savin, or Dumitru Stăniloae to study abroad. These theologians proved extremely influential after their return to Romania and helped shape theological academies. With a few rare exceptions, like
Gala Galaction Gala Galaction (; the pen name A pen name, also called a ''nom de plume'' () or a literary double, is a pseudonym (or, in some cases, a variant form of a real name) adopted by an author and printed on the title page or by-line of their works in pla ...

Gala Galaction
, the Romanian Orthodox theologians of this period embraced
nationalism Nationalism is an idea and movement that holds that the nation A nation is a community of people formed on the basis of a common language, history, ethnicity, or a common culture, and, in many cases, a shared territory. A nation is more ove ...
. Their scholarly works are thus imbued with nationalist ideology. The second half of the 1920s is marked by the rise of antisemitism in Romanian politics with figures such as A.C. Cuza or
Iron Guard The Iron Guard ( ro, Garda de Fier) was a militant revolutionary nationalism, revolutionary Fascism, fascist Political movement, movement and political party in Romania founded in 1927 by Corneliu Zelea Codreanu as the Legion of the Archangel M ...
founding father Codreanu. Antisemitism also became apparent in church publications. In 1925, for instance, church journal ''Revista Teologică (The Theological Review)'' published an anti-Semitic article by Sibiu professor priest Pompiliu Morușca. Morușca's article blamed the Jews for the economic situation of Romanians in
Bukovina Bukovina ro, Bucovina; german: Bukowina or ; pl, Bukowina; hu, Bukovina; uk, Буковина, ; see also other languages Other most often refers to: * Other (philosophy), a concept in psychology and philosophy Other or The Other may also re ...

Bukovina
. It is a testimony of an older form of anti-Semitism going back to the 19th century. The Romanian Orthodox Church would evolve different forms of antisemitism in the 1930s. The
Concordat A concordat is a convention between the Holy See The Holy See ( lat, Sancta Sedes, ; it, Santa Sede ), also called the See of Rome, is the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, known as the pope, which includes the apostolic see, apostolic e ...
of 1927 also triggered anti-Catholic reactions.


1930s - Patriarch Miron Cristea's premiership

The rise of
Nazi Germany Nazi Germany, (lit. "National Socialist State"), ' (lit. "Nazi State") for short; also ' (lit. "National Socialist Germany") officially known as the German Reich from 1933 until 1943, and the Greater German Reich from 1943 to 1945, was ...

Nazi Germany
exposed Romania to the Reich's theological ideas. This mixture of nationalism, racism and theological thought found fertile ground in a Romanian Orthodox Church that was already no stranger to antisemitism. It became particularly evident in the second half of the 1930s in the writings of theologians such as
Nichifor Crainic Nichifor Crainic (; pseudonym of Ion Dobre ; 22 December 1889, Bulbucata, Giurgiu County Giurgiu () is a county ( judeţ) of Romania on the border with Bulgaria, in Muntenia, with the capital city at Giurgiu. Demographics In 2011, it had a ...

Nichifor Crainic
, Nicolae Neaga or Liviu Stan. In 1936, Crainic published a seminal text titled ''Rasă și religiune (Race and Religion)''. While rejecting the Nazi idea of a superior Germanic race, as well as the fascination with Germanic paganism, Crainic argued that some races are indeed superior based on their accomplishment of the Christian essence. Crainic also denied the Jews the moral right to use the books of the Old Testament since, according to him, those prophesies had been fulfilled by the coming off Christ who had abolished the Jewish religion. The deaths of prominent
Iron Guard The Iron Guard ( ro, Garda de Fier) was a militant revolutionary nationalism, revolutionary Fascism, fascist Political movement, movement and political party in Romania founded in 1927 by Corneliu Zelea Codreanu as the Legion of the Archangel M ...
members Ion Moța and on the same day, January 13, 1937, at
Majadahonda Majadahonda () is a municipality in Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , ...
during the
Spanish Civil War The Spanish Civil War ( es, Guerra Civil Española)) or The Revolution ( es, La Revolución) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War ( es, Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlism, Carlists, and The Rebellion ( es, La Rebelión) or Uprising ( ...

Spanish Civil War
while fighting for the Nationalist faction led to the organization of massive processions in Romania, particularly in Bucharest where they were interred. Hundreds of Orthodox priests participated and Metropolitans Nicolae Bălan of
Transylvania Transylvania is a historical region in central Romania. To the east and south its natural border is the Carpathian Mountains, and to the west the Apuseni Mountains. Broader definitions of Transylvania also encompass the western and north-western R ...

Transylvania
and of
Bukovina Bukovina ro, Bucovina; german: Bukowina or ; pl, Bukowina; hu, Bukovina; uk, Буковина, ; see also other languages Other most often refers to: * Other (philosophy), a concept in psychology and philosophy Other or The Other may also re ...

Bukovina
held special services. Shortly after the funeral, Orthodox theologian Gheorghe Racoveanu and priest Grigore Cristescu founded the theological journal ''Predania (The Tradinion)''. The first issue featured a glorification of Moța and Marin and their sacrifice and reflected the Guard's obsession for martyrdom. Intended as a bi-monthly ''Predania'' printed a total of twelve issues before being banned by the authorities. It stood out for its profoundly anti-ecumenical editorial line, publishing attacks against Catholics, Protestants, Evangelicals. Also in the aftermath of Moța and Marin's grandiose funeral, the Holy Synod issued a condemnation of
Freemasonry Freemasonry or Masonry refers to fraternal organisations that trace their origins to the local guilds of stonemasons Stonemasonry or stonecraft is the creation of building A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and walls ...

Freemasonry
. Moreover, following the lead of Metropolitan Bălan who wrote the anti-Masonic manifest, the Synod issued a "Christian point of view" against political secularism stating that the Church was in its right to choose which party was worthy of support, based on its moral principles. Iron Guard leader Codreanu saluted the Synod's position and instructed that the Synod's proclamation should be read by Guard members in their respective ''nests'' (i.e. chapters). In 1937, the -
Cuza Alexandru Ioan Cuza (, or Alexandru Ioan I, also anglicised as Alexander John Cuza; 20 March 1820 – 15 May 1873) was the first ''domnitor'' (Ruler) of the Romanian Principalities through his double election as prince of Moldavia on 5 January 1 ...
government was the first to adopt and enact antisemitic legislation in the Kingdom of Romania, stripping over two hundred thousand Jews of their citizenship. That very same year, the head of the Romanian Orthodox Church, Patriarch made an infamous speech in which he described the Jews as parasites who suck the bone marrow of the Romanian people and who should leave the country. The Orthodox church directly or indirectly supported far-right parties and antisemitic intellectuals in their anti-Jewish rhetoric. At the time many Orthodox priests had become active in far-right politics, thus in the 1937 parliamentary elections 33 out of 103
Iron Guard The Iron Guard ( ro, Garda de Fier) was a militant revolutionary nationalism, revolutionary Fascism, fascist Political movement, movement and political party in Romania founded in 1927 by Corneliu Zelea Codreanu as the Legion of the Archangel M ...
candidates were orthodox priests. In 1938 an Orthodox priest named Alexandru Răzmeriţă, elaborated a plan for the total elimination of Jews in the cities and their deportation to forced labor camps in the countryside. Overall, the church became increasingly involved in politics and, after
King Carol II Carol II (3 October 18934 April 1953) reigned as King of Romania from 8 June 1930 until his abdication on 6 September 1940. He was the eldest son of Ferdinand I of Romania, Ferdinand I and became crown prince upon the death of his grand-uncle, Ki ...
assumed emergency powers, Patriarch Miron Cristea became prime-minister in February 1938. In March 1938, the Holy Synod banned the conversion of Jews who were unable to prove their Romanian citizenship. Cristea continued the policies of the Goga-Cuza government but also advocated more radical antisemitic measures including deportation and exclusion from employment. Cristea referred to this last measure as "Romanianization". The church newspaper ''Apostolul'' was instrumental in propagating Cristea's antisemitic ideas throughout his premiership but church press as a whole became flooded with antisemitic materials. Miron Cristea died in March 1939. Soon after, the Holy Synod voted to uphold regulations adopted under Cristea banning the baptism of Jews who were not Romanian citizens. Cristea's death led to elections being held in order to select a new Patriarch. Metropolitans and the highly influential Nicolae Bălan publicly declared their refusal to enter the race. Both of these bishops held pro-German, pro-Iron-Guard and antisemitic views and it is reasonable to assume that King Carol II's opposition was instrumental in their refusal. Thus, the patriarchal office passed to a reluctant Nicodim Munteanu.


1940s - World War II

King Carol II abdicated on September 6, 1940. An openly pro-German coalition of the military headed by marshal
Ion Antonescu Ion Antonescu (; ; – 1 June 1946) was a Romanian military officer and Mareșal (Romania), marshal who presided over two successive Romania during World War II, wartime dictatorships as Prime Minister of Romania, Prime Minister and ''Conducăt ...
and the
Iron Guard The Iron Guard ( ro, Garda de Fier) was a militant revolutionary nationalism, revolutionary Fascism, fascist Political movement, movement and political party in Romania founded in 1927 by Corneliu Zelea Codreanu as the Legion of the Archangel M ...
took over. Patriarch Nicodim Munteanu's reaction was cautious and his September 1940 address was unenthusiastic. Munteanu, like Cristea before him, feared the anti-establishment nature of the Guard. But the Iron Guard was highly influential on the Church's grassroots. In January 1941, seeking full control of the country, the Iron Guard attempted a violent insurrection known as the Legionary Rebellion. The putsch failed and out of the 9000 people arrested, 422 were Orthodox priests. Some particularly violent episodes during the insurrection directly involved the Orthodox clergy. Students and staff of the Theological Academy in Sibiu, led by Professor Spiridon Cândea and assisted by Iron Guard militiamen rounded up Jews in the courtyard of the Academy and forced them to hand over their valuables at gunpoint. Monks from the Antim Monastery in Bucharest, led by their abbot, armed themselves and, using explosives, blew up a Synagogue on Antim Street. The numerous Jewish inhabitants of the neighborhood hid in terror. After Antonescu and the Army crushed the insurrection, the Holy Synod was quick to condemn the Legionary Rebellion and publicly paint it as a diabolical temptation that had led the Iron Guard to undermine the state and the
Conducător ''Conducător'' (, "Leader") was the title used officially by Romanian dictator Ion Antonescu during World War II, also occasionally used in official discourse to refer to Carol II of Romania, Carol II and Nicolae Ceaușescu. History The word is de ...
. Many of the clergymen who had participated in the Rebellion were, however, shielded by their bishops and continued parish work in remote villages. Romania's participation in
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
on the Axis side after June 1941 would provide them with opportunities for rehabilitation. By the early 1940s, Orthodox theologians such as
Nichifor Crainic Nichifor Crainic (; pseudonym of Ion Dobre ; 22 December 1889, Bulbucata, Giurgiu County Giurgiu () is a county ( judeţ) of Romania on the border with Bulgaria, in Muntenia, with the capital city at Giurgiu. Demographics In 2011, it had a ...

Nichifor Crainic
already had a lengthy record of producing propaganda supporting the concept of
Judeo-Bolshevism Jewish Bolshevism, also Judeo–Bolshevism, is an anti-communist and antisemitic canard, which alleges that the Jews were the originators of the Russian Revolution in 1917, and that they held primary power among the Bolsheviks who led the revolu ...
. After 1941 the idea became commonplace in central church newspapers such as ''Apostolul'' or ''BOR''. A particularly infamous article was signed by Patriarch Nicodim himself and published in ''BOR'' in April 1942. It referred to the danger of domestic enemies whom he identified as mostly being Jewish. In 1943 ''BOR'' published a 13 page laudatory review of Nichifor Crainic's infamous antismetic book ''Transfigurarea Românismului'' ''(The Transfiguration of Romanianism)''. Antisemitism was also present in regional journals, a leading example being Dumitru Stăniloae's ''Telegraful român'' (''The Romanian Telegraph'').Gabriel Andreescu, ''Anti-Semitic issues in Orthodox publications, years 1920-1944'', Civitas Europica Centralis, 2014 Orthodox chaplains in the Romanian army cultivated the Judeo-Bolshevik myth. A particular case was Romanian-occupied
Transnistria Transnistria, officially the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR), is an List of states with limited recognition, unrecognised breakaway state located in the narrow strip of land between the river Dniester and the Moldova–Ukraine border, ...

Transnistria
. On August 15, 1941, The Holy Synod established a mission, rather than a new bishopric, in Romanian-occupied territories across the
Dniester The Dniester ( ) is a river in Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because the term has a wide range of , geographical, ethnic, cultural, and conn ...
. The assumption was that Soviet atheist rule had destroyed the
Russian Orthodox Church , native_name_lang = ru , image = Moscow July 2011-7a.jpg , imagewidth = , alt = , caption = Cathedral of Christ the Saviour The Cathedral of Christ the Saviour ( rus, Храм Хри ...

Russian Orthodox Church
and the Romanian Orthodox Church took it upon itself to "re-evangelize" the locals. The main architect of the enterprise was
Archimandrite The title archimandrite ( gr, ἀρχιμανδρίτης, archimandritēs), primarily used in the Eastern Orthodox The Eastern Orthodox Church, officially the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of m ...

Archimandrite
Iuliu Scriban. In 1942 the Mission evolved into an Exarchate and was taken over by . Many of the missionaries were former affiliates of the Iron Guard, some were seeking rehabilitation after the 1941 insurrection. Abuse against the Jewish population was wide-spread and numerous reports of Orthodox priests partaking and profiting from the abuse exist. In 1944, Visarion Puiu fled to the West. In Romania he was tried and convicted ''in absentia'' after the war. Many priests active in Trannsnistria also faced prosecution after the war, although it is worth noting that communist prosecutors were mostly looking for connections to the Iron Guard, rather than explicitly investigating persecution of Jews. Historical evidence regarding the Romanian Orthodox Church's role in World War II is overwhelmingly incriminating but there are a few exceptions. Tit Simedrea, metropolitan of Bukovina is one two high-ranking bishops known to have interceded in favor of the Jewish population, the other being the metropolitan Nicolae Bălan of Transylvania. Evidence also surfaced that Simedrea personally sheltered a Jewish family in the metropolitanate compound. Priest Gheorghe Petre was recognized as
Righteous Among the Nations#REDIRECT Righteous Among the Nations {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...

Righteous Among the Nations
for having saved Jews in Kryve Ozero. Petre was arrested in 1943 and court-martialed but was released in 1944 for lack of evidence. After
King Michael's Coup King Michael's Coup was a '' coup d'état'' led by King Michael I of Romania during World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a World war, global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It in ...
on August 23, 1944, Romania switched sides. The coup had been backed by the communists; the Church, known for its long-term record of anti-Soviet and anti-communist rhetoric now found itself in an awkward position. Patriarch Nicodim was quick to write a pastoral letter denouncing the previous dictatorship, blaming the Germans for the events that had taken place in Romania during the 30s and during the war and praising ''"the powerful neighbor from the East"'' with whom Romania had, supposedly, always had ''"the best political, cultural, and religious relations."'' Starting in 1944, and even more after
Petru Groza Petru Groza (7 December 1884 – 7 January 1958) was a Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country located at the crossroads of Central Europe, Central, Eastern Europe, Eastern, and Southeast Europe, Southeastern Europe. It shares l ...

Petru Groza
became Prime-minister with Soviet support in 1945, the Church tried to adapt to the new political situation. In August 1945 a letter of the Holy Synod was published in ''BOR''. Again, it blamed the Germans for the horrors of the war and claimed that the Orthodox Church had always promoted democracy. The Romania Army was also praised for having joined forces with ''"the brave Soviet armies in the war against the true adversaries of our country."'' Finally, the Orthodox faithful were asked to fully support the new government. Later that year ''BOR'' published two relatively long articles authored by Bishop Antim Nica and, respectively, by Teodor Manolache. Both articles delt with the Holocaust and painted the Romanian Orthodox Church as a savior of Jews.


Communist period

Romania officially became a communist state in 1947. Restricted access to ecclesiastical and relevant state archives makes an accurate assessment of the Romanian Orthodox Church's attitude towards the
Communist regime A communist state, also known as a Marxist–Leninist state, is a one-party state A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of unitary state A unitary state is a State (polity), state gover ...
a difficult proposition. Nevertheless, the activity of the Orthodox Church as an institution was more or less tolerated by the Marxist–Leninist atheist regime, although it was controlled through "special delegates" and its access to the public sphere was severely limited; the regime's attempts at repression generally focused on individual believers. The attitudes of the church's members, both laity and clergy, towards the communist regime, range broadly from opposition and
martyrdom A martyr ( Greek: μάρτυς, ''mártys'', "witness"; stem μαρτυρ-, ''martyr-'') is someone who suffers persecution and death for advocating, renouncing, refusing to renounce, or refusing to advocate a religious belief or cause as demand ...

martyrdom
, to silent consent, collaboration or subservience aimed at ensuring survival. Beyond limited access to the
Securitate The Securitate (, Romanian for ''Security'') was the popular term for the Departamentul Securității Statului (Department of State Security), the secret police Secret police (or political police) are intelligence, security or police agencies ...
and Party archives as well as the short time elapsed since these events unfolded, such an assessment is complicated by the particularities of each individual and situation, the understanding each had about how their own relationship with the regime could influence others and how it actually did. The
Romanian Workers' Party The Romanian Communist Party ( ro, Partidul Comunist Român, , PCR) was a communist party A communist party is a left-wing political party that seeks to realize the social and economic goals of communism. The term ''communist party'' was popu ...
, which assumed political power at the end of 1947, initiated mass purges that resulted in a decimation of the Orthodox hierarchy. Three archbishops died suddenly after expressing opposition to government policies, and thirteen more "uncooperative" bishops and archbishops were arrested. A May 1947 decree imposed a mandatory retirement age for clergy, thus providing authorities with a convenient way to pension off old-guard holdouts. The 4 August 1948 Law on Cults institutionalised state control over episcopal elections and packed the Holy Synod with Communist supporters. The
evangelical Evangelicalism (), evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide trans-denominational movement within Protestant Christianity that maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salv ...

evangelical
wing of the Romanian Orthodox Church, known as the Army of the Lord, was suppressed by communist authorities in 1948. In exchange for subservience and enthusiastic support for state policies, the property rights over as many as 2,500 church buildings and other assets belonging to the (by then-outlawed)
Romanian Greek-Catholic Church The Romanian Greek Catholic Church or Romanian Church United with Rome, Greek-Catholic ( la, Ecclesiae Graecae Catholico Romaniae; ro, Biserica Română Unită cu Roma, Greco-Catolică), sometimes called, in reference to its Byzantine Rite, the ...
were transferred to the Romanian Orthodox Church; the government took charge of providing salaries for bishops and priests, as well as financial subsidies for the publication of religious books, calendars and theological journals. By weeding out the anti-communists from among the Orthodox clergy and setting up a pro-regime, secret police-infiltrated Union of Democratic Priests (1945), the party endeavoured to secure the hierarchy's cooperation. By January 1953 some 300-500 Orthodox priests were being held in concentration camps, and following Patriarch Nicodim's death in May 1948, the party succeeded in having the ostensibly docile Justinian Marina elected to succeed him. As a result of measures passed in 1947–48, the state took over the 2,300 elementary schools and 24 high schools operated by the Orthodox Church. A new campaign struck the church in 1958-62 when more than half of its remaining monasteries were closed, more than 2,000 monks were forced to take secular jobs, and about 1,500 clergy and lay activists were arrested (out of a total of up to 6,000 in the 1946-64 period). Throughout this period Patriarch Justinian took great care that his public statements met the regime's standards of political correctness and to avoid giving offence to the government; indeed the hierarchy at the time claimed that the arrests of clergy members were not due to religious persecution. The church's situation began to improve in 1962, when relations with the state suddenly thawed, an event that coincided with the beginning of Romania's pursuit of an independent foreign policy course that saw the political elite encourage nationalism as a means to strengthen its position against Soviet pressure. The Romanian Orthodox Church, an intensely national body that had made significant contributions to Romanian culture from the 14th century on, came to be regarded by the regime as a natural partner. As a result of this second co-optation, this time as an ally, the church entered a period of dramatic recovery. By 1975, its diocesan clergy was numbering about 12,000, and the church was already publishing by then eight high-quality theological reviews, including ''Ortodoxia'' and ''Studii Teologice''. Orthodox clergymen consistently supported the Ceaușescu regime's foreign policy, refrained from criticizing domestic policy, and upheld the Romanian government's line against the Soviets (over Bessarabia) and the Hungarians (over Transylvania). As of 1989, two metropolitan bishops even sat in the
Great National Assembly , disbanded = 1989 , succeeded_by = Parliament of Romania The Parliament of Romania ( ro, Parlamentul României) is the national legislature of Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country located at the crossroads of ...
. The members of the church's hierarchy and clergy remained mostly silent as some two dozen historic Bucharest churches were demolished in the 1980s, and as plans for
systematization Systematization ( ro, Sistematizarea) in Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country located at the crossroads of Central Europe, Central, Eastern Europe, Eastern, and Southeast Europe, Southeastern Europe. It shares land borders with ...
(including the destruction of village churches) were announced. A notable dissenter was
Gheorghe Calciu-Dumitreasa Gheorghe Calciu-Dumitreasa (November 23, 1925, Mahmudia, Tulcea County, Kingdom of Romania, Romania – November 21, 2006, Woodburn, Fairfax County, Virginia) was a Romanian priest and dissident. He served 21 years in prison during the Socialist Rep ...

Gheorghe Calciu-Dumitreasa
, imprisoned for a number of years and eventually expelled from Romania in June 1985, after signing an open letter criticizing and demanding an end to the regime's violations of human rights. In an attempt to adapt to the newly created circumstances, the Eastern Orthodox Church proposed a new ecclesiology designed to justify its subservience to the state in supposedly theological terms. This so-called "Social Apostolate" doctrine, developed by Patriarch Justinian, asserted that the church owed allegiance to the secular government and should put itself at its service. This notion inflamed conservatives, who were consequently purged by
Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej (; 8 November 1901 – 19 March 1965) was a Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Europe, Central, Eastern Europe, Eastern and Southeast Europe, Southeastern Europe. It b ...

Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej
, Ceaușescu's predecessor and a friend of Justinian's. The Social Apostolate called on clerics to become active in the
People's Republic#REDIRECT People's republic People's republic is an official title used by some currently or formerly communist or left-wing states. It is mainly associated with soviet republics, socialist states following people's democracy, sovereign state ...
, thus laying the foundation for the church's submission to and collaboration with the state. Fr. Vasilescu, an Orthodox priest, attempted to find grounds in support of the Social Apostolate doctrine in the Christian tradition, citing
Augustine of Hippo Augustine of Hippo (; la, Aurelius Augustinus Hipponensis; 13 November 354 – 28 August 430), also known as Saint Augustine, was a theologian and philosopher of Berber Berber or Berbers may refer to: Culture * Berbers Berbers or ''Im ...

Augustine of Hippo
,
John Chrysostom John Chrysostom (; gr, Ἰωάννης ὁ Χρυσόστομος; 14 September 407) was an important Early Church Father The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers, Christian Fathers, or Fathers of the Church were ancient and influential ...
,
Maximus the Confessor Maximus the Confessor ( el, Μάξιμος ὁ Ὁμολογητής), also known as Maximus the Theologian and Maximus of Constantinople ( – 13 August 662), was a Christian monk A monk (, from el, μοναχός, ''monachos'', "single ...

Maximus the Confessor
,
Origen Origen of Alexandria, ''Ōrigénēs''; Coptic language, Coptic: Ϩⲱⲣⲓⲕⲉⲛ Origen's Greek name ''Ōrigénēs'' () probably means "child of Horus" (from , "Horus", and , "born"). ( 184 – 253), also known as Origen Adamantius, was an ...

Origen
and
Tertullian Tertullian (; la, Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus; 155 AD – 220 AD) was a prolific early Christian The history of Christianity concerns the Christianity, Christian religion, Christendom, Christian countries, and the Ch ...

Tertullian
. Based on this alleged grounding in tradition, Vasilescu concluded that Christians owed submission to their secular rulers as if it were the will of God. Once recalcitrants were removed from office, the remaining bishops adopted a servile attitude, endorsing Ceauşescu's concept of nation, supporting his policies, and applauding his peculiar ideas about peace.


Collaboration with the Securitate

In the wake of the
Romanian Revolution The Romanian Revolution ( ro, Revoluția Română) was a period of violent civil unrest in Romania during December 1989 as a part of the Revolutions of 1989 that occurred in several countries. The Romanian Revolution started in the city of ...
, the church never admitted to having ever willingly collaborated with the regime, although several Romanian Orthodox priests have publicly admitted after 1989 that they had collaborated with and/or served as informers for the
Securitate The Securitate (, Romanian for ''Security'') was the popular term for the Departamentul Securității Statului (Department of State Security), the secret police Secret police (or political police) are intelligence, security or police agencies ...
, the
secret police Secret police (or political police) are intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for abstraction Abstraction in its main sense is a conceptual process where general rules and concept Concepts are defined as abstr ...
. A prime example was Bishop Nicolae Corneanu, the Metropolitan of Banat, who admitted to his efforts on behalf of the
Romanian Communist Party The Romanian Communist Party ( ro, Partidul Comunist Român, , PCR) was a communist party A communist party is a left-wing political party that seeks to realize the social and economic goals of communism. The term ''communist party'' was po ...
, and denounced activities of clerics in support of the Communists, including his own, as "the Church's ct ofprostitution with the Communist regime". In 1986, Metropolitan Antonie Plămădeală defended Ceaușescu's church demolition programme as part of the need for
urbanization Urbanization (or urbanisation) refers to the population shift from rural A rural landscape in Lappeenranta, South Karelia, Finland. 15 July 2000.">South_Karelia.html" ;"title="Lappeenranta, South Karelia">Lappeenranta, South Karelia, Finla ...
and
modernisation Modernization theory is used to explain the process of modernization within societies. Modernization refers to a model of a progressive transition from a 'pre-modern' or 'Traditional society, traditional' to a 'modern' society. Modernization theory ...
in Romania. The church hierarchy refused to try to inform the international community about what was happening. Widespread dissent from religious groups in Romania did not appear until revolution was sweeping across
Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because the term has a wide range of , geographical, ethnic, cultural, and connotations. , located in Eastern Europe, is both the ...

Eastern Europe
in 1989. The Patriarch of the Romanian Orthodox Church supported Ceaușescu up until the end of the regime, and even congratulated him after the state murdered one hundred demonstrators in
Timișoara), City of Roses ( ro, Orașul florilor), City of Parks ( ro, Orașul parcurilor) , image_map = Timisoara pe Harta Timisului.png , pushpin_map = Romania#Europe , pushpin_relief = 1 , pushpin_label_position = bottom ...
. It was not until the day before Ceaușescu's execution on 24 December 1989 that the Patriarch condemned him as "a new child-murdering Herod". Following the removal of Communism, the Patriarch resigned (only to return a few months after) and the Holy Synod apologised for those "who did not have the courage of the
martyr A martyr (, ''mártys'', "witness", or , ''marturia'', stem Stem or STEM may refer to: Biology * Plant stem, the aboveground structures that have vascular tissue and that support leaves and flowers ** Stipe (botany), a stalk that supports some ...

martyr
s".


After 1989

As Romania made the transition to democracy, the church was freed from most of its state control, although the State Secretariat for Religious Denominations still maintains control over a number of aspects of the church's management of property, finances and administration. The state provides funding for the church in proportion to the number of its members, based on census returns and "the religion's needs" which is considered to be an "ambiguous provision". Currently, the state provides the funds necessary for paying the salaries of priests, deacons and other prelates and the pensions of retired clergy, as well as for expenses related to lay church personnel. For the Orthodox church this is over 100 million euros for salaries, with additional millions for construction and renovation of church property. The same applies to all state-recognised religions in Romania. The state also provides support for church construction and structural maintenance, with a preferential treatment of Orthodox parishes. The state funds all the expenses of Orthodox seminaries and colleges, including teachers' and professors' salaries who, for compensation purposes, are regarded as civil servants. Since the fall of Communism, Greek-Catholic Church leaders have claimed that the Eastern Catholic community is facing a cultural and religious wipe-out: the Greek-Catholic churches are allegedly being destroyed by representatives of the Eastern Orthodox Church, whose actions are supported and accepted by the Romanian authorities.


In the Republic of Moldova

The Romanian Orthodox Church also has jurisdiction over a minority of believers in
Moldova Moldova (, ; ), officially the Republic of Moldova ( ro, Republica Moldova), is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to ...

Moldova
, who belong to the
Metropolis of Bessarabia The Metropolis of Bessarabia ( ro, Mitropolia Basarabiei), also referred to as the Bessarabian Orthodox Church, is a Moldovan autonomous Eastern Orthodox The Eastern Orthodox Church, officially the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the Lis ...
, as opposed to the majority, who belong to the
Moldovan Orthodox Church Moldovan and Moldavian refer to something of, from, or related to Moldova Moldova (, ; ), officially the Republic of Moldova ( ro, Republica Moldova), is a landlocked A landlocked country is a country that does not have territory connecte ...
, under the Moscow Patriarchate. In 2001 it won a landmark legal victory against the Government of Moldova at the
Strasbourg Strasbourg (, , ; german: Straßburg ; gsw, label=Bas Rhin Alsatian dialect, Alsatian, Strossburi , gsw, label=Haut Rhin Alsatian dialect, Alsatian, Strossburig ) is the Prefectures in France, prefecture and largest city of the Grand Est Re ...

Strasbourg
-based
European Court of Human Rights European, or Europeans, may refer to: In general * ''European'', an adjective referring to something of, from, or related to Europe ** Ethnic groups in Europe ** Demographics of Europe ** European cuisine, the cuisines of Europe and other Western ...

European Court of Human Rights
. This means that despite current political issues, the Metropolis of Bessarabia is now recognized as "the rightful successor" to the Metropolitan Church of Bessarabia and Hotin, which existed from 1927 until its dissolution in 1944, when its canonical territory was put under the jurisdiction of the in 1947.


Organization

The Romanian Orthodox Church is organized in the form of the Romanian
Patriarchate Patriarchate ( Greek: , ''patriarcheîon'') is an ecclesiological term in Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of ...
. The highest hierarchical, canonical and dogmatical authority of the Romanian Orthodox Church is the
Holy Synod In several of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox The Eastern Orthodox Church, officially the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, second-largest Christian church, with approximately 220 mil ...
. There are six Orthodox
MetropolitanateA metropolis religious jurisdiction, or a metropolitan archdiocese, is an episcopal see whose bishop is the metropolitan bishop of an ecclesiastical province. Metropolises, historically, have been important cities in their provinces. Eastern Orthodo ...
s and ten
archbishopric In church governance, a diocese or bishopric is the ecclesiastical district under the jurisdiction of a bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted ...
s in Romania, and more than twelve thousand priests and deacons, servant fathers of ancient altars from parishes, monasteries and social centres. Almost 400 monasteries exist inside the country, staffed by some 3,500 monks and 5,000 nuns. Three ''Diasporan Metropolitanates'' and two ''Diasporan Bishoprics'' function outside Romania proper. As of 2004, there are, inside
Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to: Directions ...

Romania
, fifteen theological universities where more than ten thousand students (some of them from
Bessarabia Bessarabia (; gag, Besarabiya; ro, Basarabia; russian: Бессарабия, ''Bessarabiya''; tr, Besarabya; uk, Бессара́бія'', Bessarabiya''; bg, Бесарабия, ''Besarabiya'') is a historical region Historical regions (or ...

Bessarabia
,
Bukovina Bukovina ro, Bucovina; german: Bukowina or ; pl, Bukowina; hu, Bukovina; uk, Буковина, ; see also other languages Other most often refers to: * Other (philosophy), a concept in psychology and philosophy Other or The Other may also re ...

Bukovina
and
Serbia Serbia (, ; Serbian Serbian may refer to: * someone or something related to Serbia, a country in Southeastern Europe * someone or something related to the Serbs, a South Slavic people * in both meanings, depending on the context, it may refe ...

Serbia
benefiting from a few Romanian fellowships) currently study for a theological degree. More than 14,500 churches (traditionally named "lăcașe de cult", or houses of worship) exist in Romania for the Romanian Orthodox believers. As of 2002, almost 1,000 of those were either in the process of being built or rebuilt.


Notable theologians

Dumitru Stăniloae (1903–1993) is considered one of the greatest Orthodox theologians of the 20th century, having written extensively in all major fields of Eastern Christian
systematic theology Systematic theology is a discipline of Christian theology Christian theology is the theology of Christianity, Christian belief and practice. * help them better understand Christian tenets * make comparative religion, comparisons between Christ ...
. One of his other major achievements in theology is the 45-year-long comprehensive series on Orthodox spirituality known as the Romanian
Philokalia The ''Philokalia'' ( grc, φιλοκαλία "love of the beautiful, the good", from '' philia'' "love" and ''kallos'' "beauty") is "a collection of texts written between the 4th and 15th centuries by spiritual masters" of the Eastern Orthodox ...
, a collection of texts written by classical Byzantine writers, that he edited and translated from Greek.
Archimandrite The title archimandrite ( gr, ἀρχιμανδρίτης, archimandritēs), primarily used in the Eastern Orthodox The Eastern Orthodox Church, officially the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of m ...

Archimandrite
Cleopa Ilie Father Cleopa Ilie (; 10 April 1912 – 2 December 1998) was an abbot of the Sihastria Monastery. He was a well-known spiritual representative of the Romanian Orthodox Church. Biography Cleopa Ilie (lay name: Constantin) was born in Sulița, B ...
(1912–1998), elder of the ''Sihăstria Monastery'', is considered one of the most representative fathers of contemporary Romanian Orthodox monastic spirituality.


List of patriarchs

* (1925–1939) * Nicodim (1939–1948) *
Justinian Justinian I (; la, Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus; grc-gre, Ἰουστινιανός ; 48214 November 565), also known as Justinian the Great, was the Byzantine emperor from 527 to 565. His reign is marked by the ambitious but only pa ...
(1948–1977) * Iustin (1977–1986) * (1986–2007) *
Daniel Daniel is a masculine Masculinity (also called manhood or manliness) is a set of attributes, behavior Behavior (American English) or behaviour (British English; American and British English spelling differences#-our, -or, see spelling d ...

Daniel
(since 2007)


Jubilee and commemorative years

Initiative of Patriarch Daniel’s, with a deep missionary impact for Church and society, has been the proclamation of jubilee and commemorative years in the Romanian Patriarchate, with solemn sessions of the Holy Synod, conferences, congresses, monastic synaxes, debates, programmes of catechesis, processions and other Church activities dedicated to the respective annual theme. *2008 – The Jubilee Year of the Holy Scripture and the Holy Liturgy; *2009 – The Jubilee-Commemorative year of Saint Basil the Great, Archbishop of Cæsarea in Cappadocia; *2010 – The Jubilee Year of the Orthodox Creed and of Romanian Autocephaly; *2011 – The Jubilee Year of Holy Baptism and Holy Matrimony; *2012 – The Jubilee Year of Holy Unction and of the care for the sick; *2013 – The Jubilee Year of the Holy Emperors Constantine and Helena; *2014 – The Jubilee Year of the Eucharist (of the Holy Confession and of the Holy Communion) and the Commemorative Year of the Martyr Saints of the Brancoveanu family; *2015 – The Jubilee Year of the Mission of Parish and Monastery Today and the Commemorative Year of Saint John Chrysostom and of the great spiritual shepherds in the eparchies; *2016 – The Jubilee Year of Religious Education for Orthodox Youth and the Commemorative Year of the Holy Hierarch and Martyr Antim of Iveria and of all the printing houses of the Church; *2017 – The Jubilee Year of the Holy Icons and of church painters and the Commemorative Year of Patriarch Justin and of all defenders of Orthodoxy during communism; *2018 – The Jubilee Year of Unity of Faith and Nation, and the Commemorative Year of the 1918 Great Union Founders; *2019 – Solemn Year of church singers and of the Commemorative Year of Patriarch Nicodim and of the translators of church books; *2020 – Solemn Year of Ministry to Parents and Children and the Commemorative Year of Romanian Orthodox Philanthropists;


Current leaders

The patriarchal chair is currently held by
Daniel IDaniel I may refer to: * Daniel I of Armenia (ruled 347) * Archbishop Danilo I of the Serbian Orthodox Church (ruled 1271–1272) * Daniel of Moscow (1261–1303) * Daniel I of Kongo (ruled 1674–78) * Metropolitan Danilo I Petrović-Njegoš (1670 ...
, Archbishop of
Bucharest Bucharest ( , ; ro, București ) is the capital and largest city of Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), cente ...

Bucharest
, Metropolitan of Muntenia and Dobrudja (former Ungro-Wallachia) and Patriarch of All of the Romanian Orthodox Church. Since 1776, the Metropolitan of Ungro-Wallachia has been
titular bishop A titular bishop in various churches is a bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic, ...
of Caesarea in Cappadocia (''Locțiitor al tronului Cezareei Capadociei''), an honor bestowed by
Ecumenical Patriarch The ecumenical patriarch ( el, Οἰκουμενικός Πατριάρχης, translit=Oikoumenikós Patriárchis; tr, Konstantinopolis ekümenik patriği) is the archbishop of Constantinople la, Constantinopolis , alternate_name = Byzant ...
Sophronius II. *, Metropolitan of Moldavia and Bukovina * Laurențiu Streza, Metropolitan of
Transylvania Transylvania is a historical region in central Romania. To the east and south its natural border is the Carpathian Mountains, and to the west the Apuseni Mountains. Broader definitions of Transylvania also encompass the western and north-western R ...
* Andrei Andreicuț, Metropolitan of Cluj, Maramureș and Sălaj * Ioan Selejan, Metropolitan of
Banat Banat (, ) is a geographical and historical region straddling between Central and Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the region of the European continent between Western Europe and Asia. There is no consistent definition of the precise area it ...
* Irineu Popa, Metropolitan of
Oltenia Oltenia (, also called Lesser Wallachia in antiquated versions, with the alternative Latin names ''Wallachia Minor'', ''Wallachia Alutana'', ''Wallachia Caesarea'' between 1718 and 1739) is a historical province and geographical region of Romania i ...
*, Metropolitan of
Bessarabia Bessarabia (; gag, Besarabiya; ro, Basarabia; russian: Бессарабия, ''Bessarabiya''; tr, Besarabya; uk, Бессара́бія'', Bessarabiya''; bg, Бесарабия, ''Besarabiya'') is a historical region Historical regions (or ...
* Iosif Pop, Metropolitan of Western and Southern Europe * Serafim Joantă, Metropolitan of Germany and Central Europe * Nicolae Condrea, Metropolitan of the
Americas The Americas (also collectively called America) is a landmass comprising the totality of North North is one of the four compass points or cardinal directions. It is the opposite of south and is perpendicular to East and West. ''North'' ...


Gallery

File:Catedrala Mare Targu Mures 03.JPG, Ascension of the Lord Cathedral in
Târgu Mureș Târgu Mureș (; hu, Marosvásárhely, ) is the seat of Mureș County in the historical region of Transylvania, Romania. It is the List of cities and towns in Romania, 16th largest Romanian city, with 134,290 inhabitants as of the 2011 census. I ...
File:Iaşi ,Catedrala Metropolitană Ortodoxă.JPG, Metropolitan Cathedral in
Iași Iași ( , , ), also referred to as Jassy, is the second largest city in Romania and the seat of Iași County. Located in the historical region of Western Moldavia, Moldavia, Iași has traditionally been one of the leading centres of Romanian soc ...
, the largest historic Orthodox church in
Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to: Directions ...

Romania
File:Catedrala ortodoxă "Sf. Ierarh Nicolae", Galati.jpg, Orthodox cathedral in
Galați Galați (, , ; also known by other #Etymology and names, alternative names) is the capital city of Galați County, in the historical region of Western Moldavia, in eastern Romania. Galați is a port town on the Danube, Danube River. It has been t ...
File:BisericaDinMioveni.jpg, Orthodox cathedral in
Mioveni Mioveni () is a town in Argeș County, Romania, approximately 15 km (9 miles) north-east of Pitești. , it had a population of 31,998. The town administers four villages: Clucereasa, Colibași, Făgetu and Racovița. History It was first ...
File:Sârbi Josani.jpg, Orthodox church in Sârbi Josani File:Voronet, Manastirea.jpg, Orthodox church in ,
Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to: Directions ...

Romania
File:Densus (Grigore Roibu).jpg, Romano-Gothic Orthodox church in Densuș File:Lugojchurch.jpg, Baroque Orthodox cathedral in
Lugoj Lugoj () is a municipiu, city in Timiș County, Banat, western Romania. The river Timiș (river), Timiș divides the city into two halves, the so-called Romanian Lugoj that spreads on the right bank and the Banat Swabians, German Lugoj on the le ...

Lugoj
File:Man Curtea de Arges.SV.jpg, Orthodox church in
Curtea de Argeș:''See Argeș (disambiguation), Argeș for namesakes Curtea de Argeș () is a municipiu, municipality in Romania on the left bank of the river Argeș (river), Argeș, where it flows through a valley of the lower Carpathian Mountains, Carpathians (t ...
File:Iglesia San Constantino y Santa Elena 2013 001.jpg, Orthodox church ( Church of St. Constantine and Helena) in
Caracas Caracas (, ), officially Santiago de León de Caracas, abbreviated as CCS, is the capital and largest city of Venezuela, and the center of the Metropolitan Region of Caracas (or Greater Caracas). Caracas is located along the Guaire River in the ...

Caracas
,
Venezuela Venezuela (; ), officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela ( es, link=no, República Bolivariana de Venezuela), is a country on the northern coast of South America, consisting of a continent A continent is any of several large l ...

Venezuela
File:Romania - Neamt monastery 2.jpg, Orthodox church in Vânători-Neamț File:Aa005 Hurezi.jpg, Orthodox church in
Horezu Horezu is a town located in Vâlcea County, Oltenia, Romania, about 43 km from Râmnicu Vâlcea. The town administers six villages: Ifrimești, Râmești, Romanii de Jos, Romanii de Sus, Tănăsești and Urșani. The town is well known for ...

Horezu
,
Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to: Directions ...

Romania
File:RO VL Cozia Holy Trinity church side.jpg, Orthodox church in File:Capela Gimnaziului de Fete.jpg, Neoclassic Byzantine Orthodox cathedral in
Chișinău Chișinău ( , also , ), also known as Kishinev (russian: Кишинёв, r=Kishinjóv ), is the Capital city, capital and largest city of the Republic of Moldova. The city is Moldova's main industrial and commercial center, and is located in ...
File:Flickr - fusion-of-horizons - Catedrala Patriarhală (2).jpg, The Palace of the Romanian Patriarchate (the former Palace of the Assembly of Deputies File:Holy Trinity Cathedral - Arad -3.jpg, New Holy Trinity Cathedral of Arad, the first cathedral to be built after the
Romanian Revolution The Romanian Revolution ( ro, Revoluția Română) was a period of violent civil unrest in Romania during December 1989 as a part of the Revolutions of 1989 that occurred in several countries. The Romanian Revolution started in the city of ...
File:Romanian People's Salvation Cathedral Bukarest.jpg, Romanian People's Salvation Cathedral,
Bucharest Bucharest ( , ; ro, București ) is the capital and largest city of Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), cente ...

Bucharest
(under construction) File:La catedral ortodoxa.jpg, Orthodox church in ,
Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to: Directions ...

Romania
File:Căpriana monastery in Moldova.jpg, Orthodox church in
Căpriana Căpriana is a village in Strășeni District, Moldova.Republic of Moldova A republic ( la, res publica ''Res publica'' (also spelt as ''rēs pūblica'' to indicate vowel length In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived length of a vowel sound: the corresponding physical measurement is length (phonetics), du ...

Republic of Moldova
Catedrala Episcopală Alba-Iulia.jpg, Orthodox cathedral in
Alba Iulia Alba Iulia (; german: Karlsburg or ''Carlsburg'', formerly ''Weißenburg''; hu, Gyulafehérvár; la, Apulum), is a city that serves as the seat of Alba County Alba County () is a county (județ) of Romania located in the historic region of ...

Alba Iulia
Catedrala Arhiepiscopiei ortodoxe din Cluj-Napoca.jpg, Orthodox cathedral in
Cluj-Napoca ; hu, kincses város) , official_name=Cluj-Napoca , native_name= , image_skyline= , subdivision_type1 = Region , subdivision_name1 = Transylvania Transylvania is a historical region in central Romania. To the east and south its natural bor ...

Cluj-Napoca


See also

* Romanian People’s Salvation Cathedral * Patriarch of All Romania * List of Romanian Orthodox monasteries *
Romanian Orthodox icons In the Romanian Orthodox Church, icons serve much the same purpose as they do in the rest of the worldwide Eastern Orthodox Church, Orthodox Church. The art of painting them has seen a revival after the end of the Communist Romania, communist period ...
* Frumușeni Mosaics *'' Byzantium after Byzantium'' *
Religion in Romania Romania is a secular state, and it has no state religion. Romania is one of the most religious out of European countries. and the majority of the country's citizens are Orthodox Christians. The Romanian state officially recognizes 18 religions ...
* Orthodox Church of France *
Orthodox Church in America Romanian Episcopate Image:Map of North America highlighting OCA Romanian Episcopate.svg, 280px, The states/provinces in which the Romanian Orthodox Episcopate of America has jurisdiction. The Romanian Orthodox Episcopate of America is one of three Ethnic group, ethnic ...
*
List of members of the Holy Synod of the Romanian Orthodox Church This is the list of the hierarchs of the Romanian Orthodox Church, depicting the organization of the church. For a list of those hierarchs who are currently members of the Holy Synod, see thwebsite of the patriarchate Hierarchs Image:Romanian Ort ...
* Religious education in Romania


References


Notes


Citations


Sources

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External links


Romania


Romanian PatriarchateThe Metropolitanate of Moldavia and Bucovina and the Archdiocese of Iași
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Archdiocese of Bucharest
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Romanian PatriarchsPilgrimage Centre in Iași, RomaniaArticle on the Romanian Orthodox Church by Ronald Roberson on the CNEWA website


Outside Romania


''Metropolitan Church of Bessarabia and Others v. Moldova''

Romanian Orthodox Metropolitanate of Western and Southern Europe

Romanian Orthodox Metropolitanate of Germany and Central Europe


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Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to: Directions ...
Religious organizations established in 1872 Members of the World Council of Churches Eastern Orthodox organizations established in the 19th century Christian denominations established in the 19th century 1872 establishments in Romania Romanian culture Religious organizations based in Bucharest