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A dictator was a
magistrate The term magistrate is used in a variety of systems of governments and laws to refer to a civilian officer who administers the law. In , a ' was one of the highest ranking government officers, and possessed both and powers. In other parts of t ...
of the
Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a state of the classical Roman civilization, run through public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an indiv ...
, entrusted with the full authority of the state to deal with a military emergency or to undertake a specific duty. All other magistrates were subordinate to his ''
imperium In ancient Rome In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the earliest historians whose work survives. A histori ...

imperium
'', and the right of the plebeian tribunes to veto his actions or of the people to appeal from them was extremely limited. In order to prevent the dictatorship from threatening the state itself, severe limitations were placed upon its powers, as a dictator could only act within his intended sphere of authority, and was obliged to resign his office once his appointed task had been accomplished, or at the expiration of six months. Dictators were frequently appointed from the earliest period of the Republic down to the
Second Punic War The Second Punic War, which lasted from 218 to 201BC, was the second of three wars fought between Carthage Carthage was the capital city of the ancient , on the eastern side of the in what is now . Carthage was the most important trading ...

Second Punic War
(218–201 BC), but the magistracy then went into abeyance for over a century, until it was revived in a significantly modified form, first by
Sulla Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (; 138–78 BC), commonly known as Sulla, was a Roman general A general officer is an officer of high rank in the armies, and in some nations' air forces, space forces, or marines Marines or naval infan ...

Sulla
between 82 and 79 BC, and then by
Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened ...

Julius Caesar
between 49 and 44 BC. The office was formally abolished after the death of Caesar, and not revived under the
Empire An empire is a "political unit" made up of several territories and peoples, "usually created by conquest, and divided between a dominant center and subordinate peripheries". Narrowly defined, an empire is a sovereign state called an empire and ...

Empire
.''Harper's Dictionary of Classical Antiquities'', p. 509.''Oxford Classical Dictionary'', p. 339 ("Dictator").


Origin

With the abolition of the
Roman monarchy The Roman Kingdom, also referred to as the Roman monarchy, or the regal period of ancient Rome, was the earliest period of Ancient Rome, Roman history, when the city and its territory were ruled by kings. Little is certain about the kingdom's ...
in 509 BC, the ''imperium'', or executive power, of the king was divided between two annually-elected magistrates, known as ''praetors''. In time they would come to be known as ''
consuls A consul is an official representative of the government of one Sovereign state, state in the territory of another, normally acting to assist and protect the citizens of the consul's own country, and to facilitate trade and friendship between th ...
'', although probably not until the creation of a third, junior
praetor Praetor ( , ), also pretor, was the granted by the government of to a man acting in one of two official capacities: (i) the commander of an , and (ii) as an elected ' (magistrate), assigned to discharge various duties. The functions of the magi ...
in 367 BC. Neither consul was superior to the other, and the decisions of one could be appealed to the other (''provocatio''). Their insignia were the ''
toga praetexta The toga (, ), a distinctive garment of ancient Rome, was a roughly semicircular cloth, between in length, draped over the shoulders and around the body. It was usually woven from white wool, and was worn over a tunic. In Roman historiography, R ...

toga praetexta
'' and the ''
sella curulis A curule seat is a design of chair noted for its uses in Ancient Rome and Europe through to the 20th century. Its status in early Rome as a symbol of political or military power carried over to other civilizations, as it was also used in this regard ...
'', and each was attended by an escort of twelve
lictor A lictor (possibly from la, ligare, "to bind") was a Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancient Rome *'' ...

lictor
s, each of whom bore the ''
fasces Fasces ( ; ; a ', from the word ', meaning "bundle"; it, fascio littorio) is a bound bundle of wooden rods, sometimes including an axe (occasionally two axes) with its blade emerging. The fasces is an Italian symbol that had its origin in the a ...

fasces
'', a bundle of rods topped by an axe; but by custom the lictors had to remove the axes from their fasces within the ''
pomerium The pomerium or pomoerium was a religious boundary around the city of Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan ...

pomerium
'', the sacred boundary of Rome, to signify that the ''people'', and not the consuls, were sovereign. After several years, the fear of impending war with both the
Sabines The Sabines (; lat, Sabini; grc, Σαβῖνοι ''Sabĩnoi''; it, Sabini, all exonyms) were an Italic peoples, Italic people that lived in the central Apennine Mountains of the ancient Italian Peninsula, also inhabiting Latium north of the An ...
and the
Latin League The Latin League (c. 7th century BC – 338 BC)Stearns, Peter N. (2001) ''The Encyclopedia of World History'', Houghton Mifflin. pp. 76–78. . was an ancient confederation of about 30 villages and tribes in the region of Latium Latium ( , ; ) ...
, combined with widespread suspicion that one or both of the consuls favoured the restoration of the monarchy, led to the call for a ''praetor maximus'', or ''dictator'' ("one who gives orders"), akin to the supreme magistrate of other Latin towns.Livy, ii. 18. According to most authorities, the first dictator was Titus Larcius in 501 BC, who appointed Spurius Cassius his ''
magister equitum The , in English Master of the Horse or Master of the Cavalry, was a Roman magistrate appointed as lieutenant to a Roman dictator, dictator. His nominal function was to serve as commander of the Roman cavalry in time of war, but just as a dictato ...
''. Although there are indications that the term ''praetor maximus'' may have been used in the earliest period, the official title of the dictator throughout the history of the Republic was ''magister populi'', or "master of the infantry". His lieutenant, the ''magister equitum'', was the "master of the horse" (that is, of the cavalry). However, the use of ''dictator'' to refer to the ''magister populi'' seems to have been widespread from a very early period.Lintott, p. 110.


Nomination

The appointment of a dictator involved three steps: first, the
Senate The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum ">Roman_Forum.html" ;"title="Curia Julia in the Roman Forum">Curia Julia in the Roman Forum A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or Debating chamber, chamber of a bicameral legislatu ...

Senate
would issue a decree known as a ''
senatus consultum A ''senatus consultum'' (Latin – decree of the senate; plural ''senatus consulta'') is a text emanating from the senate in Ancient Rome. It is used in the modern phrase ''senatus consultum ultimum''. Translated into French as ''sénatus-cons ...
'', authorizing one of the consuls to nominate a dictator. Technically, a ''senatus consultum'' was advisory, and did not have the force of law, but in practice it was nearly always followed. Either consul could nominate a dictator. If both consuls were available, the dictator was chosen by agreement; if they could not agree, the consuls would draw lots for the responsibility. Finally, the ''
Comitia Curiata The Curiate Assembly (''comitia curiata'') was the principal assembly that evolved in shape and form over the course of the Roman Kingdom The Roman Kingdom, also referred to as the Roman monarchy, or the regal period of ancient Rome, was the ...
'' would be called upon to confer ''imperium'' on the dictator through the passage of a law known as a ''
lex curiata de imperio In the constitution of ancient Rome, the ''lex curiata de imperio'' (plural ''leges curiatae'') was the law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to fo ...
''. A dictator could be nominated for different reasons, or ''causa''. The three most common were ''rei gerundae causa'', "for the matter to be done", used in the case of dictators appointed to hold a military command against a specific enemy; ''comitiorum habendorum causa'', for holding the ''comitia'', or elections, when the consuls were unable to do so; and '' clavi figendi causa'', an important religious rite involving the driving of a nail into the wall of the
Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus The Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus, also known as the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus ( la, Glossary of ancient Roman religion#aedes, Aedes Iovis Optimi Maximi Capitolini; it, Tempio di Giove Ottimo Massimo; ) was the most important temple in ...

Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus
, as a protection against pestilence. Other reasons included ''seditionis sedandae causa'' ("to quell sedition"); ''ferarium constituendarum causa'' (to establish a religious holiday in response to a dreadful portent); ''ludorum faciendorum causa'' (to hold the ''
Ludi Romani The Ludi Romani ("Roman Games"; see ''ludi ''Ludi'' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, know ...
'', or "Roman Games", an ancient religious festival); ''quaestionibus exercendis'', (to investigate certain actions); and in one extraordinary case, ''senatus legendi causa'', to fill up the ranks of the Senate after the
Battle of Cannae A battle is an occurrence of combat in warfare between opposing military units of any number or size. A war usually consists of multiple battles. In general, a battle is a military engagement that is well defined in duration, area, and force c ...
.Livy, xxiii. 23. These reasons could be combined (''seditionis sedandae et rei gerundae causa''), but are not always recorded or clearly stated in ancient authorities, and must instead be inferred. In the earlier period it was customary to nominate someone whom the consul considered the best available military commander; often this was a former consul, but this was never required. However, from 360 BC onward, the dictators were usually ''consulares''. Normally there was only one dictator at a time, although a new dictator could be appointed following the resignation of another. A dictator could be compelled to resign his office without accomplishing his task or serving out his term if there were found to be a fault in the
auspices Augury is the practice from ancient Roman religion Religion in ancient Rome includes the ancestral ethnic religion In religious studies, an ethnic religion is a religion or Belief#Religion, belief associated with a particular ethnic group. ...

auspices
under which he had been nominated.


Insignia

Like other curule magistrates, the dictator was entitled to the ''toga praetexta'' and the ''sella curulis''. He received a ceremonial bodyguard that was unique in Roman tradition: " enty-four lictors indicated his quasi-regal power, which, however, was rather a concentration of the consular authority than a limited revival of the kingship." In a notable exception to the Roman reluctance to reconstitute the symbols of the kings, the lictors of the dictator never removed the axes from their fasces, even within the pomerium. Symbolizing their power over life and death, the axes of a dictator's lictors set him apart from all other magistrates. In an extraordinary sign of deference, the lictors of other magistrates could not bear fasces at all when appearing before the dictator. As the kings had been accustomed to appear on horseback, this right was forbidden to the dictator unless he first received permission from the ''comitia''.


Powers and limitations

In addition to holding a military command and carrying out the actions decreed by the Senate, a dictator could summon the Senate or convene one of the legislative assemblies of the Roman people. The full extent of the dictatorial power was considerable, but not unlimited. It was circumscribed by the conditions of a dictator's appointment, as well as by the evolving traditions of
Roman law Roman law is the law, legal system of ancient Rome, including the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the Twelve Tables (c. 449 BC), to the ''Corpus Juris Civilis'' (AD 529) ordered by Eastern Roman emperor J ...
, and to a considerable degree depended on the dictator's ability to work together with other magistrates. The precise limitations of this power were not sharply defined, but subject to debate, contention, and speculation throughout Roman history.Lintott, p. 112. In the pursuit of his ''causa'', the dictator's authority was nearly absolute. However, as a rule he could not exceed the mandate for which he was appointed; a dictator nominated to hold the ''comitia'' could not then take up a military command against the wishes of the Senate. Some dictators appointed to a military command also performed other duties, such as holding the ''comitia'', or driving a nail into the wall of the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus; but presumably they did so with the Senate's consent. The ''imperium'' of the other magistrates was not vacated by the nomination of a dictator. They continued to perform the duties of their office, although subject to the dictator's authority, and continued in office until the expiration of their year, by which time the dictator had typically resigned.Lintott, p. 111. It is uncertain whether a dictator's ''imperium'' could extend beyond that of the consul by whom he was nominated;
Mommsen Mommsen is a surname, and may refer to one of a family of German historians, see Mommsen family: * Theodor Mommsen (1817–1903), classical scholar, winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature * Hans Mommsen (1930–2015), historian known for arguing ...

Mommsen
believed that his ''imperium'' would cease together with that of the nominating magistrate, but others have suggested that it could continue beyond the end of the civil year. While the Capitoline Fasti contain four instances in which a dictator appears to have remained in office in the subsequent year without any consuls at all—in 333, 324, 309, and 301 BC—most scholars reject the authenticity of these ''dictator years''.Broughton, vol. I, pp. 140, 141, 147–149, 162, 163, 169–171. Initially a dictator's power was not subject to either ''
provocatio The Valerian and Porcian laws were Ancient Rome, Roman Roman law, laws passed between 509 BC and 184 BC. They exempted Roman citizens from degrading and shameful forms of punishment, such as Flagellation, whipping, scourging, or crucifixion. They al ...
'', the right to appeal from the decision of a magistrate, or ''intercessio'', the veto of the
tribunes of the plebs #REDIRECT Tribune of the plebs#REDIRECT Tribune of the plebs Tribune of the plebs, tribune of the people or plebeian tribune ( la, tribunus plebis) was the first office of the Roman state that was open to the plebeians, and was, throughout the his ...
. However, the '' lex Valeria'', establishing the right of appeal, was not abrogated by the appointment of a dictator, and by 300 BC even the dictator was subject to ''provocatio'', at least within the city of Rome. There is also evidence that the power of the plebeian tribunes was not vitiated by the dictator's commands, and 210 BC, the tribunes threatened to prevent elections held by the dictator,
Quintus Fulvius Flaccus Quintus Fulvius Flaccus (c. 277 BC202 BC), son of Marcus Fulvius Flaccus (consul 264 BC), was Roman consul, consul in 237 BC, fighting the Gauls in northern Italy. He was Roman censor, censor in 231 BC, and again consul in 224 BC, when he subdued ...
, unless he agreed to withdraw his name from the list of candidates for the consulship.Livy, xxvii. 6. A dictator was expected to resign his office upon the successful completion of the task for which he was appointed, or at the expiration of six months. These sharp limitations were intended to prevent the dictatorship from too closely resembling the absolute power of the Roman kings. Most authorities hold that a dictator could not be held to account for his actions after resigning his office, the prosecution of
Marcus Furius Camillus Marcus Furius Camillus (; c. 446 – 365 BC) was a Roman soldier and statesman of the Patrician (ancient Rome), patrician class. According to Livy and Plutarch, Camillus Roman triumph, triumphed four times, was five times Roman dictator, dictator, ...
for misappropriating the spoils of
Veii Veii (also Veius; it, Veio) was an important ancient Etruscan civilization, Etruscan city situated on the southern limits of Etruria and only north-northwest of Rome, Italy. It now lies in Isola Farnese, in the Comuni of the Province of Rome, co ...

Veii
being exceptional, as perhaps was that of Lucius Manlius Capitolinus in 362, which was dropped only because his son,
Titus Titus Caesar Vespasianus ( ; 30 December 39 – 13 September 81 AD) was Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles thro ...
, threatened the life of the tribune who had undertaken the prosecution. However, some scholars suggest that the dictator was only immune from prosecution during his term of office, and could theoretically be called to answer charges of corruption.


''Magister equitum''

The dictator's lieutenant was the magister equitum, or "master of the horse". He would be nominated by the dictator immediately upon his own appointment, and unless the ''senatus consultum'' specified the name of the person to be appointed, the dictator was free to choose whomever he wished. It was customary for the dictator to nominate a magister equitum even if he were appointed for a non-military reason. Before the time of Caesar, the only dictator who refused to nominate a magister equitum was
Marcus Fabius Buteo Marcus Fabius Buteo (died around 210 BC-209 BC) was a Rome, Roman politician during the 3rd century BC. He served as Roman consul, consul and as Roman censor, censor, and in 216 BC, being the oldest living ex-censor, he was appointed Roman dictator, ...
in 216 BC, and he strenuously objected to his own nomination, because there was already a dictator in the field. Like the dictator, the magister equitum was a curule magistrate, entitled to the ''toga praetexta'' and the ''sella curulis''. His ''imperium'' was equivalent to that of a praetor (in the later use of the term), in that he was accompanied by six lictors, half the number accorded to the consuls. But like the dictator, he could summon the Senate, and probably also the popular assemblies. His authority was not subject to recall, although if the dictator were compelled to resign due to a fault in the auspices, the magister equitum was also expected to resign, and when the dictator laid down his ''imperium'', so would the magister equitum. In theory, the magister equitum was commander of the cavalry, but he was not limited to that role. The dictator and magister equitum did not always take the field together; in some instances the magister equitum was assigned the defense of the city while the dictator took an army into the field, while on other occasions the dictator remained at Rome to see to some important duty, and entrusted the magister equitum with an army in the field. The magister equitum was necessarily subordinate to the dictator, although this did not always prevent the two from disagreeing.


Decline and disappearance

During the first two centuries of the Republic, the dictatorship served as an expedient means by which a powerful magistracy could be created quickly in order to deal with extraordinary situations. Created for military emergencies, the office could also be used to suppress sedition and prevent the growing number of plebeians from obtaining greater political power. In the
Conflict of the Orders The Conflict or Struggle of the Orders was a political struggle between the plebeians The plebeians, also called plebs, were, in ancient Rome In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman people, Roman civilization from the founding of the It ...
, the dictator could generally be counted upon to support the patrician aristocracy, since he was always a patrician, and was nominated by consuls who were exclusively patrician. After the ''lex Licinia Sextia'' gave plebeians the right to hold one of the annual consulships, a series of dictators were appointed in order to hold elections, with the apparent goal of electing two patrician consuls, in violation of the Licinian law.Broughton, vol. I, pp. 125, 128. After the
Second Samnite War The First, Second, and Third Samnite Wars (343–341 BC, 326–304 BC, and 298–290 BC) were fought between the Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a state of the classical Roman civilization, run throug ...
, the dictatorship was relegated almost exclusively to domestic activities. No dictator was nominated during the
Third Samnite War The First, Second, and Third Samnite Wars (343–341 BC, 326–304 BC, and 298–290 BC) were fought between the Roman Republic and the Samnites, who lived on a stretch of the Apennine Mountains south of Rome and north of the Lucanians. * Th ...
, and the six-month limitation on its powers made the dictatorship impractical for campaigns beyond the Italian peninsula. In 249 BC,
Aulus Atilius Calatinus Aulus Atilius Calatinus (dead by 216 BC) was a politician and general in Ancient Rome. His expedition to Sicily made him the first Roman Dictator, Roman dictator to lead an army outside Italy, then understood as the Italian mainland. He was Roman ...
became the only dictator to lead an army outside Italy, when he invaded
Sicily (man) it, Siciliana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Ethnicity , demographics1_footnotes = , demographi ...

Sicily
, and he was the only dictator to hold a military command during the
First Punic War The First Punic War (264–241 BC) was the first of three wars fought between Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus Romulus was the legendary founder and first ...
. The last dictators to lead an army in the field were
Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus, surnamed Cunctator ( 280 – 203 BC), was a Roman statesman and general of the third century BC. He was consul five times (233, 228, 215, 214, and 209 BC) and was appointed dictator in 221 and 217 BC. He was ...
in 217, and Marcus Junius Pera the following year, during the early stages of the
Second Punic War The Second Punic War, which lasted from 218 to 201BC, was the second of three wars fought between Carthage Carthage was the capital city of the ancient , on the eastern side of the in what is now . Carthage was the most important trading ...

Second Punic War
. All of the other dictators appointed during that conflict remained at Rome in order to hold the ''comitia''; the last dictator named in the traditional manner was Gaius Servilius Geminus, in 202 BC.


Dictatorship revived

For the next century, Rome's ordinary magistrates and promagistrates successfully carried on all Roman campaigns, without the need for a dictator, and the office fell into abeyance. Then, in 82 BC, the dictatorship was suddenly revived by
Sulla Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (; 138–78 BC), commonly known as Sulla, was a Roman general A general officer is an officer of high rank in the armies, and in some nations' air forces, space forces, or marines Marines or naval infan ...

Sulla
. Sulla, already a successful general, had previously marched on Rome and taken the city from his political opponents six years earlier; but after he permitted the election of magistrates for 87, and departed to campaign in the east, his enemies returned. In 83 he turned his attention to regaining Rome, and after defeating his opponents decisively the next year, the Senate and the people named him dictator "for reforming the laws and the constitution" (
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
''dictator legibus faciendis et rei publicae constituendae''), giving Sulla the power to rewrite the Roman constitution, without any time limit.''Oxford Classical Dictionary'', p. 1022 ("Sulla"). Sulla's reforms of the constitution doubled the size of the Senate from 300 to 600, filling its ranks with his supporters. He then placed severe limits on the
tribunician power Tribune of the plebs, tribune of the people or plebeian tribune ( la, tribunus plebis) was the first office of the Roman state that was open to the plebeians The plebeians, also called plebs, were, in ancient Rome In historiography, anci ...
, limiting the veto and forbidding ex-tribunes from holding higher magistracies. Although he resigned the dictatorship in 81, and held the consulship in 80, before returning to private life, Sulla's actions had weakened the Roman state and set a precedent for the concentration of power without effective limitation. The dictatorial power was then granted to
Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman people, Roman general and statesman. A member of the First Triumvirate, Caesar led the Roman armies in the Gallic Wars before defeating his political rival Pompey Caesar's C ...

Caesar
in 49 BC, when he returned to Rome from his campaigns in Gaul, and put the forces of
Pompeius Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (; 29 September 106 BC – 28 September 48 BC), known in English as Pompey or Pompey the Great, was a leading Roman Republic, Roman general and statesman. He played a significant role in the transformation of ...
("Pompey the Great") to flight. He resigned the dictatorship after only eleven days, having held the ''comitia'' at which he himself was elected consul for the following year. Late in 48, Caesar was named dictator "for the sake of accomplishing the task" (Latin ''rei gerundae causa'') with a term of one year, and granted the tribunician power for an indefinite period. He saw to the impeachment of two tribunes who had tried to obstruct him, and having been granted censorial powers, he filled the depleted numbers of the Senate with his supporters, raising the number of senators to 900. In 47, he was named dictator for a term of ten years. Shortly before his assassination in BC 44, Caesar was named dictator "in perpetuity for reforming the constitution" (Latin ''dictator perpetuo rei publicae constituendae''), and given the power to appoint magistrates at will.


Abolition

Caesar's murder came at the hands of conspirators who presented themselves as saviours of the Republic. In order to maintain popular support, Caesar's followers took great care to show their own commitment to preserving the Roman state. The month after the assassination,
Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (14 January 1 August 30 BC), commonly known in English as Mark Antony, was a Ancient Rome, Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the Crisis of the Roman Republic, transformation of the Roman Republic f ...
, who had been Caesar's magister equitum in BC 47, proposed a series of laws, confirming Caesar's actions, but allowing appeals and formally abolishing the dictatorship. These were passed, as the '' leges Antoniae''. In 23 BC, when Caesar's nephew and heir
Augustus Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC19 August AD 14) was the first Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles through ...

Augustus
had attained full control of the state, the Senate offered to appoint him dictator, but he declined, while at the same time accepting proconsular ''imperium'' and the tribunician power for life. Thus, Augustus preserved the appearance of respecting Republican forms, even as he arrogated most of the powers of the Roman state. Following his example, none of the emperors who succeeded him ever adopted the title of ''dictator''. When
Constantine Constantine most often refers to: * Constantine the Great Constantine I ( la, Flavius Valerius Constantinus; ; 27 February 22 May 337), also known as Constantine the Great, was a Roman emperor from 306 to 337. Born in Naissus, Dacia Mediterra ...

Constantine
chose to revive the ancient concept of the infantry commander, he pointedly gave the office the name of ''
magister peditum 300px, The original command structure of the Late Roman army, with a separate ''magister equitum'' and a ''magister peditum'' in place of the later overall ''magister militum'' in the command structure of the army of the Western Roman Empire. (L ...
'', "master of the foot", rather than ''magister populi'', the official style of a dictator.''Oxford Classical Dictionary'', p. 638 ("Magister Militum").


List of Roman dictators


See also

* * *


Footnotes


References


Bibliography

* Titus Livius (
Livy Titus Livius (; 59 BC – AD 17), known in English as Livy ( ), was a Ancient Rome, Roman historian. He wrote a monumental history of Rome and the Roman people, titled , covering the period from the earliest legends of Rome before the traditiona ...
), ''
Ab Urbe Condita 300px, Antoninianus of Pacatianus, Roman usurper, usurper of Roman emperor Philip the Arab, Philip in 248. It reads ''ROMAE AETERANMIL ESIMOET PRIMO'', 'To eternal Rome, in its one thousand and first year.' ''Ab urbe condita'' ( ...
'' (History of Rome). *
Dionysius of Halicarnassus Dionysius of Halicarnassus ( grc, Διονύσιος Ἀλεξάνδρου Ἁλικαρνασσεύς, ; – after 7 BC) was a Greek historian Hellenic historiography (or Greek historiography) involves efforts made by Greeks to track and r ...
, ''Romaike Archaiologia''. *
Plutarch Plutarch (; grc-gre, Πλούταρχος, ''Ploútarchos''; ; AD 46 – after AD 119) was a Greek Middle Platonist Middle Platonism is the modern name given to a stage in the development of Platonic philosophy, lasting from about 90 BC&nbs ...

Plutarch
us, '' Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans''. * , ''Römisches Staatsrecht'', S. Hirzel, Leipzig (1876). * '' Harper's Dictionary of Classical Literature and Antiquities'', Second Edition,
Harry Thurston Peck Harry Thurston Peck (November 24, 1856 – March 23, 1914) was an American classical scholar, author, editor, historian and critic. Biography Peck was born in Stamford, Connecticut Stamford () is a city in the U.S. state In the , a ...
, ed., Harper & Brothers Publishers, New York (1898). * T. Robert S. Broughton, ''The Magistrates of the Roman Republic'', American Philological Association (1952). * ''
Oxford Classical Dictionary The ''Oxford Classical Dictionary'' (''OCD'') is generally considered "the best one-volume dictionary on antiquity," an encyclopedic work in English consisting of articles relating to classical antiquity Classical antiquity (also the class ...
'', N. G. L. Hammond and H. H. Scullard, eds., Clarendon Press, Oxford (Second Edition, 1970). *
Andrew Lintott Andrew William Lintott (born 9 December 1936) is a British classical scholar who specialises in the political and administrative history of ancient Rome In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman people, Roman civilization from the founding of ...
, ''The Constitution of the Roman Republic'', Oxford University Press (1999)
pp. 109 ''ff''.
{{Ancient Rome topics Roman Republic Ancient Roman titles Emergency laws Cursus honorum