HOME

TheInfoList




Rhodes (; el, Ρόδος, translit=Ródos ) is the largest of the
Dodecanese The Dodecanese (, ; el, Δωδεκάνησα, ''Dodekánisa'' , literally "twelve islands") are a group of 15 larger plus 150 smaller Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ε ...

Dodecanese
islands of
Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geogr ...

Greece
and is also the island group's historical capital. Administratively the island forms a separate municipality within the Rhodes regional unit, which is part of the
South Aegean The South Aegean ( el, Περιφέρεια Νοτίου Αιγαίου, translit=Periféria Notíou Eyéou, ) is one of the thirteen administrative regions of Greece The administrative divisions of Greece, administrative regions of Greec ...
administrative region Administration may refer to: Management of organizations * Management Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body. Management includes th ...
. The principal town of the island and seat of the municipality is
Rhodes Rhodes (; el, Ρόδος, translit=Ródos ) is the largest of the Dodecanese The Dodecanese (, ; el, Δωδεκάνησα, ''Dodekánisa'' , literally "twelve islands") are a group of 15 larger plus 150 smaller Greek islands in the sout ...
. The city of Rhodes had 50,636 inhabitants in 2011. It is located northeast of
Crete Crete ( el, Κρήτη, translit=, Modern Modern may refer to: History *Modern history Human history, also known as world history, is the description of humanity's past. It is informed by archaeology Archaeology or archeology ...

Crete
, southeast of
Athens , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the appropriate article. rect 15 15 985 460 Acropolis of Athens rect 15 475 48 ...

Athens
. Rhodes' nickname is ''The Island of the Knights'', named after the
Knights of Saint John of Jerusalem
Knights of Saint John of Jerusalem
, who ruled the island from 1310 to 1522. Historically, Rhodes island was very famous worldwide for the
Colossus of Rhodes The Colossus of Rhodes ( grc, ὁ Κολοσσὸς Ῥόδιος, ho Kolossòs Rhódios gr, Κολοσσός της Ρόδου, Kolossós tes Rhódou) was a statue of the Greek sun-god Helios, erected in the city of Rhodes Rhodes (; el ...

Colossus of Rhodes
, one of the
Seven Wonders of the Ancient World 324px, Timeline and map of the Seven Wonders. Dates in bold green and dark red are of their construction and destruction, respectively. The Seven Wonders of the World or the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World (simply known as Seven Wonders) is a ...

Seven Wonders of the Ancient World
. The Medieval Old Town of the City of Rhodes has been declared a
World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for h ...
. Today, it is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Europe.


Name

The island has been known as (Ródos) in Greek throughout its history. It was also called Lindos ( grc, Λίνδος). In addition, the island has been called in
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, regional variants of the ...

Italian
, in
Turkish Turkish may refer to: * of or about Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe and Western Asia. It shares borders with Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), offi ...

Turkish
, and or in Ladino. The name of the island comes from the
ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers collectively to the diale ...
''Rhódon'' (
rose A rose is a woody perennial plant, perennial flowering plant of the genus ''Rosa'', in the family Rosaceae, or the flower it bears. There are over three hundred Rose species, species and Garden roses, tens of thousands of cultivars. They form ...

rose
), and is sometimes called the island of roses. ''
The Travels of Sir John Mandeville Sir John Mandeville is the supposed author of ''The Travels of Sir John Mandeville'', a travel memoir which first circulated between 1357 and 1371. The earliest surviving text is in French. By aid of translations into many other languages, the w ...
'' incorrectly reports that Rhodes was formerly called "Collosus", through a conflation of the
Colossus of Rhodes The Colossus of Rhodes ( grc, ὁ Κολοσσὸς Ῥόδιος, ho Kolossòs Rhódios gr, Κολοσσός της Ρόδου, Kolossós tes Rhódou) was a statue of the Greek sun-god Helios, erected in the city of Rhodes Rhodes (; el ...

Colossus of Rhodes
and
Paul Paul may refer to: *Paul (name), a given name (includes a list of people with that name) *Paul (surname), a list of people People Christianity *Paul the Apostle (AD 5–67), also known as Saul of Tarsus or Saint Paul, early Christian missionar ...
's ''
Epistle to the Colossians The Epistle of Paul to the Colossians (or simply Colossians) is the twelfth book of the New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second division of ...
'', which refers to
Colossae Colossae (; Ancient Greek, Greek: wikt:Κολοσσαί, Κολοσσαί) was an ancient city of Phrygia in Asia Minor, and one of the most celebrated cities of southern Anatolia (modern Turkey). The Epistle to the Colossians, an early Christian ...

Colossae
. The island's name might be derived from ''erod'',
Phoenician Phoenician may refer to: * Phoenicia, an ancient civilization * Phoenician alphabet * Phoenician language * List of Phoenician cities * Phoenix, Arizona See also

* Phoenix (mythology) * Phoenicia (disambiguation) {{disambiguation Language an ...
for
snake Snakes are elongated, limbless, carnivore, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes . Like all other Squamata, squamates, snakes are ectothermic, amniote vertebrates covered in overlapping Scale (zoology), scales. Many species of snakes ...

snake
, since the island was home to many snakes in antiquity.


Geography

The island of Rhodes is shaped like a
spear A spear is a pole weapon A pole weapon or pole arm is a close combat weapon in which the main fighting part of the weapon is fitted to the end of a long shaft, typically of wood, thereby extending the user's effective range and striking pow ...

spear
head, long and wide, with a total area of approximately and a coastline of approximately .
Limestone Limestone is a common type of carbonate In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt Salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of Salt (chemistry), salts; salt in its na ...

Limestone
is the main bedrock. The
city of Rhodes Rhodes ( el, Ρόδος, ''Ródos'' ) is the principal city and a former municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as g ...
is located at the northern tip of the island, as well as the site of the ancient and modern commercial
harbour A harbor (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American Engl ...

harbour
s. The main airport is the (
Diagoras International Airport Rhodes International Airport "Diagoras" (Greek language, Greek: Διεθνής Αερολιμένας Ρόδου "Διαγόρας"), or Diagoras of Rhodes, Diagoras International Airport , is located on the West side of the island of Rhodes in G ...

Diagoras International Airport
, IATA code: RHO) is located to the southwest of the city in Paradisi. The road network radiates from the city along the east and west coasts. Outside the city of Rhodes, the island is dotted with small villages of white-wash homes and spa resorts, among them
Faliraki Faliraki ( el, Φαληράκι) is the primary seaside resort A seaside resort is a resort town or resort village, or resort hotel, located on the coast. Sometimes it is also an officially accredited title, that is only awarded to a town when the ...
,
Lindos Lindos (; grc-gre, Λίνδος) is an archaeological Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. Archaeology is often considered a branch of socio-cultural anthropology, b ...

Lindos
,
Kremasti Kremasti ( el, Κρεμαστή) is a town on the Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its pop ...

Kremasti
,
Haraki Charaki ( el, Χαράκι) is a small on the east coast of the island of , . In addition to its fishing trade, Charaki is also a small holiday resort, with the usual s, s and . Charaki has a small, picturesque bay with a number of holiday apa ...
,
Pefkos Pefkos or Pefki, : Πεύκος (Πεύκοι), is a well known beach resort located on eastern coast of , just southwest of , and from the capital city . The island of is the largest of the Dodecanese islands, on the eastern Aegean Sea, just ...

Pefkos
,
ArchangelosArchangelos is a name of various towns and villages in Greece: * Archangelos, Laconia, a village in Laconia * Archangelos, Rhodes, a town in the island of Rhodes * Archangelos, Preveza, a village in the regional unit of Preveza * Archangelos, Pella, ...
, Afantou,
Ixia ''Ixia'' is a genus of cormous plants native to South Africa from the family Iridaceae. Some of them are known as the corn lily. Some distinctive traits include sword-like leaves and long wiry stems with star-shaped flowers. It usually prefers wel ...

Ixia
,
Koskinou Koskinou ( gr, Κοσκινού) is a village on the Greece, Greek island of Rhodes. It is located 5 miles from Rhodes town and 6 miles from the island resort of Faliraki and the Music School of Rhodes (Greece). Koskinou is famous for its unique t ...
,
Embona Embonas ( gr, Έμπωνας), sometimes transliterated Emponas, is a Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country lo ...

Embona
(Attavyros), Paradisi, and Trianta (Ialysos). Rhodes is situated east-southeast from the Greek mainland, and from the southern shore of
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia an ...

Turkey
. Mount
Attavyros Attavyros ( el, Αττάβυρος) is the highest mountain on the island of Rhodes Rhodes (; el, Ρόδος, translit=Ródos ) is the largest of the Dodecanese islands of Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic ...
, at , is the island's highest point of elevation.


Flora

The interior of the island is mountainous, sparsely inhabited and covered with forests of
pine A pine is any conifer Conifers are a group of conifer cone, cone-bearing Spermatophyte, seed plants, a subset of gymnosperms. Scientifically, they make up the phylum, division Pinophyta (), also known as Coniferophyta () or Coniferae. The div ...

pine
(''
Pinus brutia ''Pinus brutia'', commonly known as the Turkish pine, is a species of pine A pine is any Pinophyta, conifer in the genus ''Pinus'' () of the family (biology), family Pinaceae. ''Pinus'' is the sole genus in the subfamily Pinoideae. The Plant Li ...
'') and
cypress Cypress is a common name for various conifer Conifers are a group of conifer cone, cone-bearing Spermatophyte, seed plants, a subset of gymnosperms. Scientifically, they make up the phylum, division Pinophyta (), also known as Coniferophyta ( ...
(''Cupressus sempervirens''). While the shores are rocky, the island has arable strips of land where
citrus ''Citrus'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circums ...

citrus
fruit,
wine Wine is an alcoholic drink An alcoholic drink is a drink A drink (or beverage) is a liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually Deformation (mechanics), deforms (flow ...

wine
grapes, vegetables,
olives The olive, botanical name ''Olea europaea'', meaning "European olive", is a species In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemica ...

olives
and other crops are grown. Many flowering plants for which the island is named are abundant.


Fauna

The Rhodian population of
fallow deer ''Dama'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circumscrib ...

fallow deer
was found to be genetically distinct in 2005, and to be of urgent conservation concern. In
Petaloudes Petaloudes ( el, Πεταλούδες) is a former municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and ...
Valley (Greek for "Valley of the Butterflies"), large numbers of
tiger moths
tiger moths
gather during the summer months.


Earthquakes

Earthquakes include the 226 BC earthquake that destroyed the
Colossus of Rhodes The Colossus of Rhodes ( grc, ὁ Κολοσσὸς Ῥόδιος, ho Kolossòs Rhódios gr, Κολοσσός της Ρόδου, Kolossós tes Rhódou) was a statue of the Greek sun-god Helios, erected in the city of Rhodes Rhodes (; el ...

Colossus of Rhodes
; one on 3 May 1481 which destroyed much of the city of Rhodes; and one on 26 June 1926. On 15 July 2008, Rhodes was struck by a 6.3 magnitude earthquake causing minor damage to a few old buildings and one death.


Climate

Rhodes has a hot-summer
Mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by dry summers and mild, wet winters. The climate Climate is the long-term pattern of weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the degre ...
(''Csa'' in the
Köppen climate classification The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification Climate classification is a way of categorizing the world's s. A climate classification may correlate closely with a category, as climate is a major infl ...
) with mild winters and hot summers. The South East of the island experiences a significantly warmer climate with
Lindos Lindos (; grc-gre, Λίνδος) is an archaeological Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. Archaeology is often considered a branch of socio-cultural anthropology, b ...

Lindos
registering a mean annual temperature of over , making it the warmest area in Greece.


History


Early and classical antiquity


Prehistory

The island was inhabited in the
Neolithic The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, also known as world history, is t ...
period although little remains of this culture.


Minoan Era

In the 16th century BC, the Minoans came to Rhodes. Later Greek mythology recalled a Rhodian race called the
Telchines In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A belief ...
and associated the island of Rhodes with
Danaus In Greek mythology, Danaus (; grc, Δαναός ''Danaós'') was the king of Ancient Libya, Libya. His myth is a foundation legend (or re-foundation legend) of Argos, Peloponnese, Argos, one of the foremost Mycenaean Greece, Mycenaean cities of ...

Danaus
; it was sometimes nicknamed ''Telchinis''.


Mycenaean Era

In the 15th century BCE,
Mycenaean Greeks Mycenaean Greece (or the Mycenaean civilization) was the last phase of the Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric Periodization, period that was characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, and other early features ...
invaded. After the
Bronze Age collapse The Late Bronze Age collapse was a transition period in a large area covering much of Southeast Europe, West Asia and North Africa North Africa is a region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent. There is no singularly ac ...
, the first renewed outside contacts were with
Cyprus Cyprus ; tr, Kıbrıs (), officially called the Republic of Cyprus,, , lit: Republic of Cyprus is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or poli ...
. In the '' Digesta seu Pandectae'' (533), the second volume of the codification of laws ordered by
Justinian I Justinian I (; la, Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus; grc-gre, Ἰουστινιανός ; 48214 November 565), also known as Justinian the Great, was the Byzantine emperor This is a list of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation o ...
(527–565) of the
Eastern Roman Empire The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn ...

Eastern Roman Empire
, a
legal opinion In law, a legal opinion is in certain jurisdictions a written explanation by a judge or group of judges that accompanies an Court order, order or ruling in a Legal case, case, laying out the rationale and legal principles for the ruling. Opinion ...
written by the Roman jurist Paulus at the beginning of the
Crisis of the Third Century The Crisis of the Third Century, also known as Military Anarchy or the Imperial Crisis (235–284 AD), was a period in which the Roman Empire nearly collapsed. It ended due to the military victories of Aurelian and with the ascension of Dioclet ...
in 235 AD was included about the ''
Lex Rhodia Lex or LEX may refer to: Arts and entertainment * ''Lex'', a daily featured column in the ''Financial Times'' Games * Lex, the mascot of the word-forming puzzle video game ''Bookworm'' * Lex, the protagonist of the word-forming puzzle video ga ...
'' ("Rhodian law") that articulates the general average principle of marine insurance established on the island of Rhodes in approximately 1000 to 800 BC as a member of the
Doric Hexapolis The Doric or Dorian Hexapolis ( grc-gre, Δωρικὴ Ἑξάπολις or Δωριέων Ἑξάπολις) was a federation A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self ...
, plausibly by the
Phoenicia Phoenicia () was an ancient Ancient history is the aggregate of past eventsWordNet Search – 3 ...
ns during the proposed
Dorian invasion The Dorian invasion is a concept devised by historians of Ancient Greece Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was a civilization belonging to a period of History of Greece, Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th ce ...
and emergence of the purported
Sea Peoples The Sea Peoples are a purported seafaring confederation A confederation (also known as a confederacy or league) is a union of sovereign groups or states united for purposes of common action. Usually created by a treaty, confederations of ...
during the
Greek Dark Ages The Greek Dark Ages is the period of Greek history The history of Greece encompasses the history of the territory of the modern nation-state of Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a count ...
(c. 1100–c. 750) that led to the proliferation of the
Doric Greek Doric or Dorian ( grc, Δωρισμός, Dōrismós) was an Ancient Greek dialect Ancient Greek in classical antiquity, before the development of the common Koine Greek of the Hellenistic period, was divided into several variety (linguistics), ...
dialect The term dialect (from Latin , , from the Ancient Greek word , 'discourse', from , 'through' and , 'I speak') can refer to either of two distinctly different types of Linguistics, linguistic phenomena: * One usage refers to a variety (linguis ...
. The law of general average constitutes the fundamental
principle A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a Legal rule, rule that has to be or usually is to be followed. It can be desirably followed, or it can be an inevitable consequence of something, suc ...

principle
that underlies all
insurance Insurance is a means of protection from financial loss. It is a form of risk management Risk management is the identification, evaluation, and prioritization of risk In simple terms, risk is the possibility of something bad happening. ...

insurance
.
Homer Homer (; grc, Ὅμηρος , ''Hómēros'') was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally re ...

Homer
mentions that Rhodes participated in the
Trojan War In Greek mythology, the Trojan War was waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans (Homer), Achaeans (Greeks) after Paris (mythology), Paris of Troy took Helen of Troy, Helen from her husband Menelaus, king of Sparta. The war is one of the ...
under the leadership of
Tlepolemus In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A belief ...
.


Archaic Era

In the 8th century BCE, the island's settlements started to form, with the coming of the
Dorians The Dorians (; el, Δωριεῖς, ''Dōrieîs'', singular , ''Dōrieús'') were one of the four major ethnic groups into which the Greeks, Hellenes (or Greeks) of Classical Greece divided themselves (along with the Aeolians, Achaeans (tribe) ...
, who built the three important cities of Lindos,
Ialyssos Ialysos (Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as ...
and Kameiros, which together with
Kos Kos or Cos (; el, Κως ) is a island, part of the island chain in the southeastern . Kos is the third largest island of the Dodecanese by area, after and ; it has a population of 33,388 (2011 census), making it the second most populous of t ...

Kos
,
Cnidus Knidos or Cnidus (; grc-gre, Κνίδος, , ) was a Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southe ...

Cnidus
and
Halicarnassus Halicarnassus (; grc, Ἁλικαρνᾱσσός ''Halikarnāssós'' or ''Alikarnāssós''; tr, Halikarnas; : 𐊠𐊣𐊫𐊰 𐊴𐊠𐊥𐊵𐊫𐊰 ''alos k̂arnos'') was an city in , in . It was located in southwest , on an advantageous ...
(on the mainland) made up the so-called
Dorian Hexapolis The Doric or Dorian Hexapolis ( grc-gre, Δωρικὴ Ἑξάπολις or Δωριέων Ἑξάπολις) was a federation A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self ...
(Greek for six cities). In
Pindar Pindar (; grc-gre, Πίνδαρος , ; la, Pindarus; c. 518 – 438 BC) was an Greek lyric, Ancient Greek lyric poet from Thebes, Greece, Thebes. Of the Western canon, canonical nine lyric poets of ancient Greece, his work is the best preserv ...

Pindar
's ode, the island was said to be born of the union of
Helios Helios; Homeric Greek Homeric Greek is the form of the Greek language that was used by Homer in the ''Iliad'' and ''Odyssey'' and in the Homeric Hymns. It is a literary dialect of Ancient Greek consisting mainly of Ionic Greek, Ionic and Aeol ...

Helios
the sun god and the nymph
Rhodos In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A belie ...

Rhodos
, and the cities were named for their three sons. The ''rhoda'' is a pink
hibiscus ''Hibiscus'' is a genus of flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Any ...

hibiscus
, native to the island.
Diodorus Siculus Diodorus Siculus, or Diodorus of Sicily ( grc-gre, Διόδωρος Σικελιώτης ;  1st century BC), was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern ...
added that Actis, one of the sons of Helios and Rhode, travelled to
Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identi ...

Egypt
. He built the city of Heliopolis and taught the Egyptians
astrology Astrology is a pseudoscience that claims to divination, divine information about human affairs and terrestrial events by studying the movements and relative positions of Celestial objects in astrology, celestial objects. Astrology has be ...
. In the second half of the 8th century, the sanctuary of Athena received votive gifts that are markers for cultural contacts: small ivories from the Near East and bronze objects from Syria. At Kameiros on the northwest coast, a former Bronze Age site, where the temple was founded in the 8th century, there is another notable contemporaneous sequence of carved ivory figurines. The cemeteries of Kameiros and Ialyssos yielded several exquisite exemplars of the Orientalizing Rhodian jewelry, dated in the 7th and early 6th centuries BC. Phoenician presence on the island at
Ialysos Ialysos (Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as ...
is attested in traditions recorded much later by Rhodian historians.


Classical Era

The
Persians The Persians are an Iranian ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups such as a common set of traditions, ancestr ...

Persians
invaded and overran the island, but they were in turn defeated by forces from
Athens , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the appropriate article. rect 15 15 985 460 Acropolis of Athens rect 15 475 48 ...
in 478 BC. The Rhodian cities joined the
Athenian League The Athenian League was an English amateur An amateur (; ; ) is generally considered a person who pursues a particular activity or field of study independently from their source of income. Amateurs and their pursuits are also described as popul ...
. When the
Peloponnesian War The Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC) was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to ...

Peloponnesian War
broke out in 431 BC, Rhodes remained largely neutral, although it remained a member of the League. The war lasted until 404 BC, but by this time Rhodes had withdrawn entirely from the conflict and decided to go her own way. In 408 BC, the cities united to form one territory. They built the
city of Rhodes Rhodes ( el, Ρόδος, ''Ródos'' ) is the principal city and a former municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as g ...
, a new capital on the northern end of the island. Its regular plan was, according to
Strabo Strabo''Strabo'' (meaning "squinty", as in strabismus Strabismus is a condition in which the eyes do not properly align with each other when looking at an object. The eye that is focused on an object can alternate. The condition may be pre ...

Strabo
, superintended by the Athenian architect
Hippodamus Hippodamus of Miletus (; Greek: Ἱππόδαμος ὁ Μιλήσιος, ''Hippodamos ho Milesios''; 498 – 408 BC) was an ancient Greece, ancient Greek architect, urban planner, physician, mathematician, meteorologist and philosopher, who is ...
. In 357 BC, the island was conquered by the king
Mausolus Mausolus ( el, Μαύσωλος or Μαύσσωλλος, Carian language, Carian: 𐊠𐊸𐊫𐊦 ''Mauśoλ'' “much blessed”) was a ruler of Caria (377–353 BC), nominally a satrap of the Achaemenid Empire. He enjoyed the status o ...

Mausolus
of
Caria Caria (; from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxima ...

Caria
, then it fell again to the Persians in 340 BC. Their rule was also short.


Hellenistic and Roman periods

Rhodes then became a part of the growing empire of
Alexander the Great Alexander III of Macedon ( grc-gre, Αλέξανδρος}, ; 20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great, was a king (''basileus ''Basileus'' ( el, βασιλεύς) is a Greek term and title A title ...

Alexander the Great
in 332 BC, after he defeated the Persians. Following the death of Alexander, his generals (
Diadochi 250px, Bust of Seleucus ''Nicator'' ("Victor"; 358 – 281 BCE), the last of the original Diadochi. The Diadochi (; plural of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the ...

Diadochi
) vied for control of the kingdom. Three—
Ptolemy Claudius Ptolemy (; grc-koi, Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, , ; la, Claudius Ptolemaeus; AD) was a mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes ...
, Seleucus, and Antigonus—succeeded in dividing the kingdom among themselves. Rhodes formed strong commercial and cultural ties with the Ptolemies in
Alexandria Alexandria ( or ; ar, الإسكندرية ; arz, اسكندرية ; Coptic language, Coptic: Rakodī; el, Αλεξάνδρεια ''Alexandria'') is the List of cities and towns in Egypt, third-largest city in Egypt after Cairo and Giza, ...

Alexandria
, and together formed the Rhodo-Egyptian alliance that controlled trade throughout the Aegean in the 3rd century BC. The city developed into a maritime, commercial and cultural center; its coins circulated nearly everywhere in the Mediterranean. Its famous schools of philosophy, science, literature and
rhetoric Rhetoric () is the Art (skill), art of persuasion, which along with grammar and logic (or dialectic – see Martianus Capella), is one of the Trivium, three ancient arts of discourse. Rhetoric aims to study the techniques writers or sp ...
shared masters with Alexandria: the Athenian rhetorician
Aeschines Aeschines (; Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximatel ...

Aeschines
, who formed a school at Rhodes;
Apollonius of Rhodes Apollonius of Rhodes ( grc, Ἀπολλώνιος Ῥόδιος ''Apollṓnios Rhódios''; la, Apollonius Rhodius; fl. first half of 3rd century BCE) was an ancient Greek author, best known for the ''Argonautica The ''Argonautica'' ( el, ...
, who wrote about
Jason Jason ( ; ) was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek ...

Jason
and
Medea In Greek mythology, Medea (; grc, Μήδεια, ''Mēdeia'' perhaps implying "planner / schemer") is the daughter of Aeëtes, King Aeëtes of Colchis, a niece of Circe and the granddaughter of the sun god Helios. Medea figures in the myth of Ja ...

Medea
in the ''
Argonautica The ''Argonautica'' ( el, Ἀργοναυτικά , translit=Argonautika) is a Greek literature, Greek epic poem written by Apollonius of Rhodes, Apollonius Rhodius in the 3rd century BC. The only surviving Hellenistic civilization, Hellenistic ...
''; the observations and works of the astronomers
Hipparchus Hipparchus of Nicaea (; el, Ἵππαρχος, ''Hipparkhos'';  BC) was a Ancient Greek astronomy, Greek astronomer, geographer, and mathematician. He is considered the founder of trigonometry, but is most famous for his incidental discov ...
and
Geminus Geminus of Rhodes Rhodes (; el, Ρόδος, translit=Ródos ) is the largest of the Dodecanese islands of Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population ...

Geminus
; and the rhetorician
Dionysius Thrax Dionysius Thrax ( grc-gre, Διονύσιος ὁ Θρᾷξ ''Dionysios o Thrax'', 170–90 BC) was a Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hel ...
. Its school of sculptors developed, under influence, a rich, dramatic style that can be characterized as "
Hellenistic The Hellenistic period spans the period of History of the Mediterranean region, Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire, as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31  ...
Baroque The Baroque (, ; ) is a style Style is a manner of doing or presenting things and may refer to: * Architectural style, the features that make a building or structure historically identifiable * Design, the process of creating something * Fashi ...

Baroque
".
Agesander of Rhodes Agesander (also ''Agesandros'', ''Hagesander'', ''Hagesandros'', or ''Hagesanderus''; grc, Ἀγήσανδρος or grc, Ἁγήσανδρος) was one, or more likely, several Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to ...
, with two other Rhodian sculptors, carved the famous '''', now in the
Vatican Museums The Vatican Museums ( it, Musei Vaticani; la, Musea Vaticana) are the public museums of the Vatican City. They display works from the immense collection amassed by the Catholic Church and the papacy throughout the centuries, including several of ...
, and the in the villa of
Tiberius Tiberius Caesar Augustus (; 16 November 42 BC – 16 March AD 37) was the second Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the History of the Roman Empire, imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors use ...

Tiberius
, probably in the early . In 305 BC, Antigonus directed his son,
Demetrius Demetrius is the Latinization of names, Latinized form of the Ancient Greek male name, male Greek given names, given name ''Dēmḗtrios'' (), meaning “Demetris” - "devoted to goddess Demeter". Alternate forms include Demetrios, Dimitrios, ...

Demetrius
, to besiege Rhodes in an attempt to break its alliance with Egypt. Demetrius created huge
siege engines A siege engine is a device that is designed to break or circumvent heavy castle doors, thick city wall A defensive wall is a fortification A fortification is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a h ...
, including a
battering ram A battering ram is a siege engine A siege engine is a device that is designed to break or circumvent heavy castle doors, thick city wall A defensive wall is a fortification A fortification is a military construction or building ...

battering ram
and a
siege tower A siege tower or breaching tower (or in the , a belfry''Castle: Stephen Biesty's Cross-Sections''. Pub (T); 1st American edition (September 1994). Siege towers were invented in 300 BC. ) is a specialized , constructed to protect assailants and l ...
called
Helepolis Helepolis ( el, ἑλέπολις, meaning: "Taker of Cities") is the Greek name for a movable siege tower A siege tower or breaching tower (or in the Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted from ...

Helepolis
that weighed . Despite this engagement, in 304 BC after only one year, he relented and signed a peace agreement, leaving behind a huge store of military equipment. The Rhodians sold the equipment and used the money to erect a statue of their sun god,
Helios Helios; Homeric Greek Homeric Greek is the form of the Greek language that was used by Homer in the ''Iliad'' and ''Odyssey'' and in the Homeric Hymns. It is a literary dialect of Ancient Greek consisting mainly of Ionic Greek, Ionic and Aeol ...

Helios
, the statue since called the
Colossus of Rhodes The Colossus of Rhodes ( grc, ὁ Κολοσσὸς Ῥόδιος, ho Kolossòs Rhódios gr, Κολοσσός της Ρόδου, Kolossós tes Rhódou) was a statue of the Greek sun-god Helios, erected in the city of Rhodes Rhodes (; el ...

Colossus of Rhodes
. Throughout the 3rd century BC, Rhodes attempted to secure her independence and her commerce, most especially her virtual control over the grain trade in the eastern Mediterranean. Both of these goals were dependent upon no one of the three great Hellenistic states achieving dominance, and consequently the Rhodians pursued a policy of maintaining a balance of power among the Antigonids, Seleucids and Ptolemies, even if that meant going to war with her traditional ally, Egypt. To this end they employed as leverage their economy and their excellent navy, which was manned by proverbially the finest sailors in the Mediterranean world: "If we have ten Rhodians, we have ten ships." The Rhodians also established their dominance on the shores of
Caria Caria (; from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxima ...

Caria
across from their island, which became known as the "
Rhodian Peraia The Rhodian Peraea or Peraia ( grc, ἡ τῶν Ῥοδίων περαία, 3=''peraia'' of the Rhodians) was the name for the southern coast of the region of Caria in western Asia Minor during the 5th–1st centuries BC, when the area was controll ...
". It extended roughly from the modern city of
Muğla Muğla (), formerly Mobolla (), is a city in south-western Turkey. The city is the center of the District of Districts of Turkey, Menteşe and Muğla Province, which stretches along Turkey's Aegean Sea, Aegean coast. Muğla's center is situated ...
(ancient ''Mobolla'') in the north and
Kaunos Kaunos (Carian The Carian language is an extinct language of the Luwian subgroup of the Anatolian branch of the Indo-European language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spoke ...

Kaunos
bordering
Lycia Lycia ( Lycian: 𐊗𐊕𐊐𐊎𐊆𐊖 ''Trm̃mis''; el, Λυκία, ; tr, Likya) was a geopolitical region in Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula ...
in the south, near the present-day
Dalyan Dalyan is a town in Muğla Province Muğla Province ( tr, , ) is a Provinces of Turkey, province of Turkey, at the country's south-western corner, on the Aegean Sea. Its seat is Muğla, about inland, while some of Turkey's largest holiday ...

Dalyan
, Turkey. Rhodes successfully carried on this policy through the course of the third century BC, an impressive achievement for what was essentially a democratic state. By the end of that period, however, the balance of power was crumbling, as declining Ptolemaic power made Egypt an attractive target for Seleucid ambitions. In 203/2 BC the young and dynamic kings of Antigonid Macedon and Seleucid Asia,
Philip VPhilip V may refer to: * Philip V of Macedon (221–179 BC) * Philip V of France (1293–1322) * Philip II of Spain, also Philip V, Duke of Burgundy (1526–1598) * Philip V of Spain (1683–1746) {{hndis, Philip 06 ...

Philip V
and
Antiochus III Antiochus III the Great (Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is a ...
, agreed to accept—at least temporarily—their respective military ambitions: Philip's campaign in the Aegean and Cretan War (205–200 BC)#Asia Minor campaign, western Anatolia and Antiochus' plan for Egypt. Heading a coalition of small states, the Rhodians Battle of Chios (201 BC), checked Philip's navy, but not his superior army. Without a third power to which to turn, the Rhodians (along with ambassadors from Pergamum, Egypt, and Athens) appealed in 201 BC to the Roman Republic. Despite being exhausted by the Second Punic War against Hannibal (218–201 BC) the Romans agreed to intervene, still angry over the Macedonian alliance with Carthage that had led to the First Macedonian War from 214–205 BC. The Senate saw the appeal from Rhodes and her allies as the opportunity to pressure Philip. The result was the Second Macedonian War (200–196 BC), which Rome won and greatly reduced Macedon's power, prestige, and territory. Rhodian independence was preserved. Rhodian influence in the Aegean was cemented through the organization of the Cyclades into the Second Nesiotic League under Rhodian leadership. The Romans withdrew from Greece after the end of the conflict, but the resulting power vacuum quickly drew in Antiochus III and subsequently the Romans. The Roman–Seleucid War lasted from 192–188 BC with Rome, Rhodes, Pergamon, and other Roman-allied Greek states defeated the Seleucids and their allies, the last Mediterranean power that might even vaguely threaten Roman dominance. Having provided Rome with valuable naval help in her first foray into Asia, the Rhodians were rewarded with territory and enhanced status by the Treaty of Apamea (188 BC). The Romans once again evacuated the east – the Senate preferred clients to provinces – but it was clear that Rome now ruled the Mediterranean and Rhodian autonomy was ultimately dependent upon good relations with them. Those good graces soon evaporated in the wake of the Third Macedonian War (171–168 BC). In 169 BC, during the war against Perseus of Macedon, Perseus, Rhodes sent Agepolis as ambassador to the consul Quintus Marcius Philippus (consul 186 BC), Quintus Marcius Philippus, and then to Rome in the following year, hoping to turn the Senate against the war. Rhodes remained scrupulously neutral during the war, but in the view of hostile elements in the Senate she had been a bit too friendly with the defeated King Perseus. Some actually proposed declaring war on the island republic, but this was averted. In 164, Rhodes became a "permanent ally" of Rome, which was essentially a reduction to client state of nominal but meaningless independence. It was said that the Romans ultimately turned against the Rhodians because the islanders were the only people they had encountered who were more arrogant than themselves. After surrendering its independence, Rhodes became a cultural and educational center for Roman noble families. It was especially noted for its teachers of rhetoric, such as Hermagoras of Temnos, Hermagoras and the unknown author of ''Rhetorica ad Herennium''. At first, the state was an important ally of Rome and enjoyed numerous privileges, but these were later lost in various machinations of Roman politics. Gaius Cassius Longinus, Cassius eventually invaded the island and sacked the city. In the early Imperial period Rhodes became a favorite place for political exiles. In the 1st century AD, the Emperor
Tiberius Tiberius Caesar Augustus (; 16 November 42 BC – 16 March AD 37) was the second Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the History of the Roman Empire, imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors use ...

Tiberius
spent a brief term of exile on Rhodes. By tradition, Paul the Apostle evangelized and helped establish an Early Christianity, early Christian church on the island during the first century. In ancient times there was a Roman saying: "Wiktionary:hic Rhodus, hic salta, hic Rhodus, hic salta!"—"Here is Rhodes, jump here", an admonition to prove one's idle boasts by deed rather than talk. It comes from an Aesop's fable called "The Boastful Athlete" and was cited by Hegel, Marx, and Kierkegaard.


Byzantine period

In 395 with the division of the Roman Empire, the long Byzantine Empire, Byzantine period began for Rhodes. In Late Antiquity, the island was the capital of the Roman province of the Islands (Roman province), Islands, headed by a ''praeses'' (''hegemon'' in Greek), and encompassing most of the Aegean islands, with twenty cities. Correspondingly, the island was also the Metropolis of Rhodes, metropolis of the ecclesiastical province of Cyclades, with eleven suffragan sees. Beginning from ca. 600 AD, its influence in maritime issues was manifested in the collection of Admiralty law, maritime laws known as "Rhodian Sea Law" (''Nomos Rhodion Nautikos''), accepted throughout the Mediterranean and in use throughout Byzantine times (and influencing the development of Admiralty law#History of admiralty law, admiralty law up to the present). In 622/3, during the climactic Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628, Rhodes was captured by the Sasanian navy. Rhodes was occupied by the Islamic Umayyad Caliphate, Umayyad forces of Caliph Muawiyah I in 654, who carried off the remains of the Colossus of Rhodes. The island was again captured by the Arabs in 673 as part of their Siege of Constantinople (674–678), first attack on Constantinople. When their fleet was destroyed by Greek fire before Constantinople and by storms on its return trip, however, the Umayyads evacuated their troops in 679/80 as part of the Byzantine–Umayyad peace treaty. In 715 the Byzantine fleet dispatched against the Arabs launched a rebellion at Rhodes, which led to the installation of Theodosios III on the Byzantine throne. From the early 8th to the 12th centuries, Rhodes belonged to the Cibyrrhaeot Theme of the Byzantine Empire, and was a centre for shipbuilding and commerce. In 1090, it was occupied by the forces of the Seljuk dynasty, Seljuk Turks, after the long period of chaos resulting from the Battle of Manzikert. Rhodes was recaptured by the Emperor Alexios I Komnenos during the First Crusade. As Byzantine central power weakened under the Angeloi emperors (1185–1204), in the first half of the 13th century, Rhodes became the centre of an independent domain under Leo Gabalas and his brother John Gabalas, John, until it was Genoese occupation of Rhodes, occupied by the Republic of Genoa, Genoese in 1248–1250. The Genoese were evicted by the Empire of Nicaea, after which the island became a regular province of the Nicaean state (and after 1261 of the restored Byzantine Empire). In 1305, the island was given as a fief to Andrea Morisco, a Genoese adventurer who had entered Byzantine service. Between 1300 and 1314, however, Rhodes was controlled by Menteşe (beylik), Menteşe, an Anatolian beylik.


Crusader and Ottoman rule

In 1306–1310, the Byzantine era of the island's history came to an end when Hospitaller conquest of Rhodes, the island was occupied by the Knights Hospitaller. Under the rule of the newly named "Knights of Rhodes", the city was rebuilt into a model of the European medieval ideal. Many of the city's famous monuments, including the Palace of the Grand Master of the Knights of Rhodes, Palace of the Grand Master, were built during this period. The strong walls which the knights had built withstood the attacks of the Sultan of Egypt in 1444, and a Siege of Rhodes (1480), siege by the Ottomans under Mehmed II in 1480. Eventually, however, Rhodes Siege of Rhodes (1522), fell to the large army of Suleiman the Magnificent in December 1522. The Sultan deployed 400 ships delivering 100,000 men to the island (200,000 in other sources). Against this force the Knights, under Grand Master Philippe Villiers de L'Isle-Adam, had about 7,000 men-at-arms and their fortifications. The siege lasted six months, at the end of which the surviving defeated Hospitallers were allowed to withdraw to the Kingdom of Sicily. Despite the defeat, both Christians and Muslims seem to have regarded the conduct of Villiers de L'Isle-Adam as extremely valiant, and the Grand Master was proclaimed a Defender of the Faith by Pope Adrian VI (see Knights Hospitaller#Knights of Cyprus and Rhodes, Knights of Cyprus and Rhodes). The knights would later move their base of operations to History of Malta under the Order of Saint John, Malta. Rhodes was thereafter a possession of the Ottoman Empire (see Sanjak of Rhodes) for nearly four centuries.


Modern history

In the 19th century the island was populated by ethnic groups from the surrounding nations, including Jews. Under Ottoman rule, they generally did fairly well, but discrimination and bigotry occasionally arose. In February 1840, the Jews of Rhodes were falsely accused by the Greek Orthodox community of ritually murdering a Christian boy. This became known as the Rhodes blood libel. Austria opened a post-office at ''RHODUS'' (Venetian name) before 1864, as witnessed by stamps with Franz-Josef head.


Italian occupation

In 1912, Italy seized Rhodes from the Ottomans during the Italo-Turkish War. The island's population was spared the Population exchange between Greece and Turkey, "exchange of the minorities" between Greece and
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia an ...

Turkey
. Rhodes and the rest of the Dodecanese Islands were assigned to Italy in the Treaty of Ouchy. Turkey ceded them officially to Italy with the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne. It then became the core of their possession of the ''Isole Italiane dell'Egeo''. The island was greatly improved (mainly the capital called "Rodi" in Italian) under the more than thirty years of the Kingdom of Italy's rule. Thousands of Italian colonists in the Dodecanese, Italian colonists settled in the island, mainly in the capital "Rodi", while some of them founded farm villages (like "Peveragno Rodio” (1929), “Campochiaro” (1935), “San Marco” (1936) and “Savona” (1938): in the Dodecanese islands was officially proposed the creation in 1940 of the "Italian Islands of the Aegean, Provincia italiana di Rodi". In the late 1930s, Mussolini embarked on a program of Italianization, hoping to make the island of Rhodes a modern transportation hub that would serve as a focal point for the spread of Italian culture in
Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geogr ...

Greece
and the Levant. The Fascist program did have some positive effects in its attempts to modernize the island, resulting in the eradication of malaria, the construction of hospitals, Aqueduct (water supply), aqueducts, a power plant to provide Rhodes' capital with electric lighting and the establishment of the Dodecanese Cadastre. Following the Armistice between Italy and Allied armed forces, Italian Armistice of 8 September 1943, the British attempted to get the Italian garrison on Rhodes to change sides. This was anticipated by the German Army (Wehrmacht), German Army, which succeeded in occupying the island with the Battle of Rhodes (1943), Battle of Rhodes. In great measure, the German occupation caused the British failure in the subsequent Dodecanese Campaign. After September 1943 the Jews -who had been protected by the Italian government- were persecuted by the nazi Germans and sent to concentration camps. However, the Turkey, Turkish Consul Selahattin Ülkümen succeeded, at considerable risk to himself and his family, in saving 42 Jewish families, about 200 persons in total, who had Turkish citizenship or were members of Turkish citizens' families. On 8 May 1945 the Germans under Otto Wagener surrendered Rhodes as well as the Dodecanese as a whole to the British, who soon after then occupied the islands as a military protectorate. In the WW2 Peace Treaty, Rhodes, together with the other islands of the
Dodecanese The Dodecanese (, ; el, Δωδεκάνησα, ''Dodekánisa'' , literally "twelve islands") are a group of 15 larger plus 150 smaller Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ε ...

Dodecanese
, was united with Greece in February 1947. 6000 Italian colonists were forced to abandon the island and returned to Italy.


Contemporary period

In 1949, Rhodes was the venue for negotiations between Israel and
Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identi ...

Egypt
, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria, concluding with the 1949 Armistice Agreements. In the 1960s the island started to enjoy a boom in tourism.


Archaeology

The
Colossus of Rhodes The Colossus of Rhodes ( grc, ὁ Κολοσσὸς Ῥόδιος, ho Kolossòs Rhódios gr, Κολοσσός της Ρόδου, Kolossós tes Rhódou) was a statue of the Greek sun-god Helios, erected in the city of Rhodes Rhodes (; el ...

Colossus of Rhodes
was considered to be one of the
Seven Wonders of the Ancient World 324px, Timeline and map of the Seven Wonders. Dates in bold green and dark red are of their construction and destruction, respectively. The Seven Wonders of the World or the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World (simply known as Seven Wonders) is a ...

Seven Wonders of the Ancient World
. This giant bronze statue was documented as once standing at the harbour. It was completed in 280 BC and destroyed in an earthquake in 224 BC. No trace of the statue remains today. Historical sites on the island of Rhodes include the Lindos, Acropolis of Lindos, the Acropolis of Rhodes with the Temple of Pythian Apollo and an ancient theatre and stadium, ancient
Ialysos Ialysos (Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as ...
, ancient Kamiros, the Governor's Palace on Rhodes, Governor's Palace, Fortifications of Rhodes, Rhodes Old Town (walled medieval city), the Palace of the Grand Master of the Knights of Rhodes, Palace of the Grand Masters, Kahal Shalom Synagogue in the La Juderia, Jewish Quarter, the Archaeological Museum of Rhodes, Archaeological Museum, the ruins of the Monolithos, Greece, castle of Monolithos, the Kritinia, castle of Kritinia, St. Catherine Hospice and Rhodes Footbridge.


Religion


Christianity

The predominant religion is Greek Orthodox; the island is the seat of the Metropolis of Rhodes. There is a Roman Catholic Church, Latin Catholic minority on the island of 2,000, many of whom are descendants of Italians who remained after the end of the Italian occupation, pastorally served by the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Rhodes.


Islam

Rhodes has a Turkish people, Turkish Muslim minority, which includes Greek Muslims whose ancestors from Crete and the Dodecanese converted to Islam in the Ottoman period. Although a remnant from Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Turkish times they were not required in the population exchange of 1923–24 to resettle in Turkey like the Turkish, Greek, and other Muslim communities living mainly in Macedonia (Greece), Macedonia and other parts of Northern Greece because unlike these areas the Dodecanese Islands were under Italian administration at the time. They are organized around the Turkish Association of Rhodes ( tr, Rodos Türk Derneği), which gives the figure 3,500 for the population they bring together and represent for the island. The number of the Turks in Rhodes could be as many as 4,000.


Judaism

The Jewish community of Rhodes goes back to the first century AD. ''Kahal Shalom Synagogue'', established in 1557, during the Ottoman Empire, Ottoman era, is the oldest synagogue in Greece and still stands in the Jewish quarter (''La Juderia'') of the old town of Rhodes. At its peak in the 1920s, the Jewish community was one-third of the town's total population. In the 1940s, there were about 2000 Jews of various ethnic backgrounds. The Nazis deported and killed most of the community during the The Holocaust, Holocaust. ''Kahal Shalom'' has been renovated with the help of foreign donors but few Jews live year-round in Rhodes today, so services are not held on a regular basis. The Jewish Museum of Rhodes was established in 1997 to preserve the Jewish history and culture of the Jews of Rhodes. It is adjacent to the Kahal Shalom Synagogue.


Government

The present municipality Rhodes was formed at the 2011 local government reform by the merger of the following 10 former municipalities, that became municipal units (constituent communities in parentheses): * Afantou (Afantou, Archipoli) *
ArchangelosArchangelos is a name of various towns and villages in Greece: * Archangelos, Laconia, a village in Laconia * Archangelos, Rhodes, a town in the island of Rhodes * Archangelos, Preveza, a village in the regional unit of Preveza * Archangelos, Pella, ...
(Archangelos, Malonas, Masari) * Attavyros (municipality), Attavyros (Embonas, Kritinia, Monolithos, Siana, Agios Isidoros) *
Ialysos Ialysos (Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as ...
* Kallithea, Rhodes, Kallithea (Kalythies, Koskinou, Psinthos) * Kameiros (municipality), Kameiros (Soroni, Apollona, Dimylia, Kalavarda, Platania, Salakos, Fanes) *
Lindos Lindos (; grc-gre, Λίνδος) is an archaeological Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. Archaeology is often considered a branch of socio-cultural anthropology, b ...

Lindos
(
Lindos Lindos (; grc-gre, Λίνδος) is an archaeological Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. Archaeology is often considered a branch of socio-cultural anthropology, b ...

Lindos
, Kalathos, Laerma, Lardos, Pylona) *
Petaloudes Petaloudes ( el, Πεταλούδες) is a former municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and ...
(Kremasti, Pastida, Maritsa, Paradeisi, Theologos, Damatria) *
Rhodes Rhodes (; el, Ρόδος, translit=Ródos ) is the largest of the Dodecanese The Dodecanese (, ; el, Δωδεκάνησα, ''Dodekánisa'' , literally "twelve islands") are a group of 15 larger plus 150 smaller Greek islands in the sout ...
* South Rhodes (Gennadi, Apolakkia, Arnitha, Asklipieio, Vati, Istrios, Kattavia, Lachania, Mesanagros, Profilia) The municipality has an area of 1400.681 km2. It covers the island of Rhodes and a few uninhabited offshore islets. Rhodes city was the capital of the former
Dodecanese The Dodecanese (, ; el, Δωδεκάνησα, ''Dodekánisa'' , literally "twelve islands") are a group of 15 larger plus 150 smaller Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ε ...

Dodecanese
Prefecture. Rhodes is the most populated island of the
South Aegean The South Aegean ( el, Περιφέρεια Νοτίου Αιγαίου, translit=Periféria Notíou Eyéou, ) is one of the thirteen administrative regions of Greece The administrative divisions of Greece, administrative regions of Greec ...
Region.


Towns and villages

Rhodes has 43 towns and villages:


Economy

The economy is tourist-oriented, and the most developed sector is service. Tourism has elevated Rhodes economically, compared to the rest of Greece. Small industries process imported raw materials for local retail, though other industry includes agricultural goods production, stockbreeding, fishery and winery.


Transportation


Air

Rhodes has three airports, but only one is public. Diagoras Airport, one of the biggest in Greece, is the main entrance/exit point for both locals and tourists. The island is well connected with other major Greek cities and islands as well as with major European capitals and cities via charter flights. * Rhodes International Airport, "Diagoras": public airport, southwest of Rhodes City, third in international passenger volume and fourth in total passenger volume in Greece. * Rhodes Maritsa Airport: closed to public, near Maritsa village. Built in 1938 by the Italians, it was the first airport of the island and was the public airport until 1977. Nowadays, it serves the Hellenic Air Force and is sometimes used for car races. It may have been preceded by an unimproved airstrip. Carl August von Gablenz of Lufthansa landed a tri-motored Junkers there in 1937 after a non-stop flight from Berlin. * Kalathos Airfield: inoperative, north of
Lindos Lindos (; grc-gre, Λίνδος) is an archaeological Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. Archaeology is often considered a branch of socio-cultural anthropology, b ...

Lindos
. Built by the Italians during World War II, was called ''Aeroporto di Gadurrà''. Today only the runway is visible. * Kattavia Airstrip, located in the south of the island it was an emergency airstrip built by the Italians during World War II. Today it is abandoned. Two pilot schools offer aviation services (small plane rental and island hopping).


Sea

Rhodes has five ports, three of them in Rhodes City, one in the west coast near Kamiros and one in east coast near Lardos. * Central Port: located in the city of Rhodes serves exclusively international traffic consisting of scheduled services to/from Turkey, cruise ships and yachts. Since Summer 2012, the port is also a homeport for Costa Cruises during the summer period. * Kolona Port: opposite and north of the central port, serves intra-Dodecanese traffic and all sizes yachts. * Akandia Port: the new port of the island, south and next to the central port, being built since the 1960s, for domestic, cargo and general purpose traffic. Since 2017 summer a passenger terminal is finally in use hosting a cafe and waiting lounges. * Mandraki Port: the oldest port of the island, in the center of Rhodes city. Many cruise boats begin their daily trips to Symi island or to the southern east coast until Lindos. * Kamiros Skala Dock: south west of the city near Ancient Kamiros ruins serves mainly the island of Halki (Greece), Halki * Lardos Dock: formerly servicing local industries, now under development as an alternative port for times when the central port is inaccessible due to weather conditions. It is situated in a rocky shore near the village of Lardos in south east Rhodes.


Road network

The road network of the island is mostly paved and consists of 3 national roads plus one planned, 40 provincial and numerous local. These are the four major island arteries: * Rhodes-Kamiros Province Avenue: Province road 2 till Kalavarda village and 21 from there till Kamiros with two lane that runs through the west coast north to south and connects Rhodes City with Diagoras Airport and Kamiros. * Rhodes-Lindos National Avenue (Greek National Road 95): Four and two lane, runs mainly inland north to south and connects Rhodes City with Lindos. Part from Rhodes Town until Kolympia is now 4 lanes, the rest until Lindos is 2 lanes. * Rhodes-Kallithea-Faliraki Province Avenue 4: Two lanes, runs through the east coast north to south and connects Rhodes City with Kallithea monument and Faliraki Resort. * Tsairi-Airport National Avenue (Greek National Road 100): Four and two lane, runs inland east to west and connects the east coast with the west and the airport. * Lindos-Katavia Province Road 1: Two lane, begins just before Lindos and though villages and resorts leads to Katavia village, the southernmost of the island, from where a further deviation leads to Prasonissi. * Rhodes Town Ring Road (Phase 1): Beginning from the new marina and ending to Rhodes-Kallithea province avenue is a four lane expressway. Future roads: * Further widening of Rhodes-Lindos National Avenue (Greek National Road 95) from Kolympia to Lindos. This is to be four lane with a jersey barrier in the middle. A tender is expected to take place by end of 2019 so as constructions can begin. * Ring Road phases 2, 3 and 4 pending; phase 2 will extend the expressway to Greek National Road 95 and then to Rhodes General Hospital where it supposedly will connect to also planned new Rhodes City-Airport expressway. In June 2018 Rhodes municipality stated that plans for the final 700 meters of the ring road leading to Akandia Port are pending approval. Phases 3 and 4 which plan to run the ring road from hospital hill down to Ixia and then through Kritika back to the town will most probably never occur. * Plans also exist for a new four lane express road connecting Rhodes Town with Diagoras Airport. The road, recognised as National back in 2014, will follow existing Provincial Road 3 routing with a total length of 8,6 km and including 3 main junctions and is intended to relieve congestion on the coastal west avenue. The so-called Leoforos Mesogeion is vastly anticipated and is a top priority for local authorities.


Bus

Bus services are handled by two operators: * RODA: Municipal bus company that serves Rhodes city as well suburban areas (Koskinou, Faliraki, Ialysos, Kremasti, Airport, Pastida, Maritsa, Paradeisi) and the west coast of the island * KTEL: Limited liability private transport company that serve villages and resorts in the east coast of the island


Cars and motorbikes

Families in Rhodes often own more than one car, along with a motorbike. Traffic jams are common particularly in the summer months as vehicles more than double while parking spots downtown and around the old town are limited and can't cope with demand. Moreover, the island is served by 450 taxis and some 200 public and private buses adding to the traffic burden.


Sports

* Football: AS Rodos and Diagoras F.C. are the island's biggest teams and rivals. The latter competed in 2018–19 season at the national level third tier (Gamma Ethniki) along with GAS Ialysos 1948 F.C., GAS Ialysos and both achieved promotion to (Greek Football League). AS Rodos competed in 1st tier of local league and ranking 1st achieved promotion and is returning after one year to (Gamma Ethniki) which from 2019–20 season becomes tier 4. Local football leagues (organized at the prefecture level) contain three divisions with more than 50 teams. Many stadiums are grass covered. * Basketball: Kolossos Rodou BC, Colossus BC sponsors professional basketball and after more than a decade of presence in the top-level Greek Basket League was relegated to Greek A2 Basket League. The local league includes a single division with two groups, one for Rhodes and the other for the other islands, with 7 and 5 teams respectively. Three indoor courts exist in Rhodes City, and one each in Ialysos, Kremasti and Faliraki.
ArchangelosArchangelos is a name of various towns and villages in Greece: * Archangelos, Laconia, a village in Laconia * Archangelos, Rhodes, a town in the island of Rhodes * Archangelos, Preveza, a village in the regional unit of Preveza * Archangelos, Pella, ...
town will also get an indoor court according to Rhodes municipality planned works and regional government's approved funds. * Volleyball: Rodion Athlisis managed to escape local obscurity and until 2018–19 season competed at the national level second tier failing io achieve promotion to first level in play-offs for three consecutive seasons. This unlucky streak caused team sponsors to withdraw from the men's team and focus solely on developing youth academies. * Water polo: mostly amateur based. There is not any single public indoor pool on the island. * Rugby: introduced in 2007. Teams compete at the national level. * Tennis: Rhodes Tennis Club (Ροδιακός Όμιλος Αντισφαίρισης) promotes officially tennis since 1949. Club operates on two separate locations, one downtown next to the casino and one next to Kallipateira National Athletic Centre. * Sailing: Island has competed at the international level * Cycling: For a long period of time Rhodes had the only velodrome in Greece. For the moment, island is the seat of Dodecanissos Local Cycling Committee. Most notable cycling clubs are Rodilios CC, Diagoras GC, Elafos CC, Iviskos CC, all based in the city of Rhodes, plus Antaios SC of
Kremasti Kremasti ( el, Κρεμαστή) is a town on the Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its pop ...

Kremasti
and Athlos SC of Paradeisi. In Rhodes, the International Tour of Rhodes, part of UCI Europe Tour Cycling Calendar, is annually organised. * Rhodes competed in the bi-annual International Island Games Association, Island Games, which it hosted in 2007. Since 2019 is suspended from competition.


Cuisine

Rhodian tradition in cuisine is rich. Koriantolino and Souma (Greek cuisine), Souma (colorless alcoholic beverage produced from grape distillation) are the main alcoholic drinks of Rhodes. Local foods include: *Escharitis, type of bread *Pitaroudia *Milla and Tsiriggia, meat fat *Pougia pie *Lakani, goat meat with chickpeas *Lópia (beans) with goat *Matsi, hand made pasta used to make Koulouría, a traditional recipe *Synoro, traditional cheese *Tahinopita *Zvigoi, type of loukoumades *Melekouni *Fanouropita *Takakia (Mantinades) *Katimeria (tiganites, pancakes) *Amygdalota, white almond cookies *Moschopougia


Notable people

* Agesander of Rhodes, Agesander (1st century BC), sculptor * Apollonius of Rhodes, Apollonius (3rd century BC), epic poet * Chares of Lindos (3rd century BC), sculptor * Cleobulus of Lindos (6th century BC), philosopher and one of the Seven Sages of Ancient Greece * Diagoras of Rhodes, Diagoras (5th century BC), boxer, multiple Olympic winner * Dinocrates (4th century BC), architect and technical adviser for Alexander the Great * Hecato of Rhodes, Hecato (c. 100 BC), Stoic philosopher * Hieronymus of Rhodes, Hieronymus, (c.290-c.230 BC), Peripatetic philosopher *
Hipparchus Hipparchus of Nicaea (; el, Ἵππαρχος, ''Hipparkhos'';  BC) was a Ancient Greek astronomy, Greek astronomer, geographer, and mathematician. He is considered the founder of trigonometry, but is most famous for his incidental discov ...
, (2nd century BC), astronomer, mathematician, geographer, founder of trigonometry * Leonidas of Rhodes, Leonidas (2nd century BC), athlete * Memnon of Rhodes, Memnon (380–333 BC), commander of mercenary army * Mentor of Rhodes, Mentor (385–340 BC), mercenary soldier, brother of Memnon * Panaetius (c. 185 – c. 110/109 BC), Stoic philosopher * Timocreon (5th century BC), poet * Joannicius II of Constantinople, Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople * George Marshall (gunner), George Marshall (1781-1855) author and Master Gunner, United States Navy * :el:Παναγιώτης Ρόδιος, Panagiotis Rodios, revolutionary and Hellenic Army officer * Reşit Galip, Turkish politician, one of the first ministers of education of the Republic of Turkey * Niki Xanthou, long jumper * Nick Galis, basketball player, FIBA Hall of Fame and Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame member (his father was born in a small village called Agios Isidoros, Rhodes, Agios Isidoros) * Braith Anasta, rugby league player and NRL premiership winner (ancestral ties to the island through his father, Petros ("Peter") Anastasakis) *Lawrence Durrell, writer and poet, author of The Alexandria Quartet, resided on Rhodes 1945–1947. In 1953 his travel book about Rhodes – Reflections on a Marine Venus – was published. *:el:Ιωάννης Ζίγδης, Ioannis Zigdis (1913–1997), politician and economist *Murat Reis the Elder, Murat Reiz Plaku Albanian Navy Commander


Tourism

Rhodes is one of the most attractive tourist destinations in Greece. After
Crete Crete ( el, Κρήτη, translit=, Modern Modern may refer to: History *Modern history Human history, also known as world history, is the description of humanity's past. It is informed by archaeology Archaeology or archeology ...

Crete
the island is the most visited destination in Greece, with arrivals standing at 1,785,305 in 2013. In 2014 they stood at 1,931,005, while in 2015 the arrival number reduced slightly and stood at 1,901,000. The average length of stay is estimated at 8 days. Guests from Great Britain, Israel, France, Italy, Sweden and Norway are the ones that constitute the biggest portion in terms of the arrivals by country.sete.gr In Rhodes the supply of available rooms is high, since more than 550 hotels are operating in the island, the majority of which are 2 star hotels. Additionally, in terms of competitiveness, the World Tourism Organization ranks Greece in the 31st position globally.world tourism organization competitiveness ranking


In popular culture

*Wikt:hic Rhodus, hic salta, Hic Rhodus, hic salta!, a phrase from the antiquity *Movies shot on the island include ''The Guns of Navarone (film), The Guns of Navarone'' (1961), ''To Doloma'' by Alekos Sakellarios (1964), ''Kiss the Girls (1965 film), Kiss the Girls'' by Giannis Dalianidis (1965) and ''Escape to Athena'' (1979).


Panoramas

Rhodes harbor 2017: Rhodes panorama 2017:


See also

* Brygindara * Ancient regions of Anatolia * 95th National Guard Higher Command (Greece) * Medieval Rose


References


Sources

*John Boardman (art historian), Boardman, John ed., ''The Oxford History of Classical Art'', 1993, OUP, * * * *


External links


Official website
{{Authority control Rhodes, Mediterranean islands Municipalities of the South Aegean Phoenician colonies in Greece Dorian colonies Islands of the South Aegean Landforms of Rhodes (regional unit) Dodecanese Mediterranean port cities and towns in Greece Populated places in Rhodes Greek city-states Hellenic Navy bases