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The Puebloans or Pueblo peoples, are Native Americans in the Southwestern United States who share common agricultural, material, and religious practices. Pueblo, which means "village" in Spanish, was a term originating with the Colonial Spanish, who used it to refer to the people's particular style of dwelling. When
Spaniards entered the area
Spaniards entered the area
beginning in the 16th century founding Nuevo México, they came across complex, multi-story
Pueblo In the Southwestern United States The southwestern United States, also known as the American Southwest or simply the Southwest, is a geographic and cultural region of the United States that generally includes Arizona Arizona ( ; nv, ...

Pueblo
''villages'' built of
adobe Adobe (; ) is a building material Building material is material used for construction Construction is a general term meaning the art and science to form Physical object, objects, systems, or organizations,"Construction" def. 1.a. ...

adobe
, stone and other local materials.
New Mexico ) , population_demonym = New Mexican ( es, Neomexicano, Neomejicano, Nuevo Mexicano) , seat = Santa Fe , LargestCity = Albuquerque , LargestMetro = Greater Albuquerque , OfficialLang = None , Languages = English English usually refer ...

New Mexico
contains the most federally recognized Pueblo communities, but some Pueblo communities can be found in Arizona and
Texas Texas (, ; Spanish language, Spanish: ''Texas'', ''Tejas'') is a state in the South Central United States, South Central region of the United States. At 268,596 square miles (695,662 km2), and with more than 29.1 million residents in 2020, ...

Texas
, mostly in the
Sangre de Cristo Mountains The Sangre de Cristo Mountains (Spanish language, Spanish for "Blood of Christ") are the southernmost mountain range, subrange of the Rocky Mountains. They are located in southern Colorado and northern New Mexico in the United States. The mountains ...

Sangre de Cristo Mountains
and along the
Rio Grande The Rio Grande ( and ), known in Mexico as the Río Bravo del Norte and as the Río Bravo, is one of the principal river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another riv ...

Rio Grande
and
Colorado Colorado (, other variants) is a state in the Mountain states, Mountain West subregion of the Western United States. It encompasses most of the Southern Rocky Mountains, as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the weste ...
rivers and their
tributaries A tributary, or affluent, is a stream A stream is a body of water with surface water flowing within the stream bed, bed and Bank (geography), banks of a Channel (geography), channel. The flow of a stream is controlled by three inputs – ...
. There are currently 100 Pueblos that are still inhabited, among which
Taos
Taos
,
San Ildefonso San Ildefonso (), La Granja (), or La Granja de San Ildefonso, is a town and municipality in the Segovia (province), Province of Segovia, in the Castile and León Autonomous region of central Spain. It is located in the foothills of the Sierra d ...

San Ildefonso
,
Acoma
Acoma
, Zuni, and
Hopi The Hopi are a Native American tribe In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It co ...

Hopi
are the best-known. The term ''
Anasazi The Ancestral Puebloans were an ancient Native American culture that spanned the present-day Four Corners boy on horseback in Monument Valley Monument Valley ( nv, Tsé Biiʼ Ndzisgaii, , meaning ''valley of the rocks'') is a region o ...

Anasazi
'' is sometimes used to refer to ancestral Pueblo people but it is now largely deprecated. ''Anasazi'' is a
Navajo The Navajo (; British English: Navaho; nv, Diné or ') are a of the . At more than 399,494 enrolled tribal members , the is the largest federally recognized tribe in the U.S. (the being the second largest); the Navajo Nation has the larges ...
word that means ''Ancient Ones'' or ''Ancient Enemy'', hence Pueblo peoples' rejection of it (see
exonym An endonym (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 milli ...
). Puebloans speak languages from four different
language families A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages have a writing system composed of glyphs to inscribe the original soun ...
, and each Pueblo is further divided culturally by kinship systems and agricultural practices, although all cultivate varieties of maize. Pueblo nations have maintained much of their traditional cultures, which center around agricultural practices, a tight-knit community revolving around family clans and respect for tradition. Puebloans have been remarkably adept at preserving their culture and core religious beliefs, including developing a
syncretic Syncretism is the combining of different beliefs and various schools of thought A school of thought, or intellectual tradition, is the perspective of a group of people who share common characteristics of opinion or outlook of a philosophy, Lis ...
approach to
Catholicism The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ri ...

Catholicism
/Christianity. Exact numbers of Pueblo peoples are unknown but, in the 21st century, some 35,000 Pueblo are estimated to live in New Mexico and Arizona. These numbers do not reflect the much larger amount of
Hispano The term ''Hispanic'' ( es, hispano or ) refers to people, cultures, or countries related to Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazon ...
mestizo (; ; fem. ) is a racial classification used to refer to a person of a combined Ethnic groups in Europe, European and Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indigenous American ancestry. The term was used as an ethnic/racial category for mixed-ra ...

mestizo
or other affiliated individuals.


Subdivisions

Despite various similarities in cultural and religious practices, scholars have proposed divisions of contemporary Pueblos into smaller groups based on linguistic and individual manifestations of the broader Puebloan culture.


Linguistic affiliation

The clearest division between Puebloans relates to the languages they speak. Pueblo peoples speak languages from four distinct
language families A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages have a writing system composed of glyphs to inscribe the original soun ...

language families
, which means these languages are completely different in
vocabulary A vocabulary is a set of familiar words In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning (linguistics), m ...

vocabulary
,
grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the ...
, and most other linguistic aspects. As a result, each Pueblo language is often completely unintelligible to the other languages, with English now working as the
lingua franca A lingua franca (; ; for plurals see ), also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vehicular language, or link language, is a language or dialect The term dialect (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a ...
of the region. *
Keresan Keresan (), also Keres (), is a Indigenous languages of the Americas, Native American language, spoken by the Keres people, Keres Pueblo people in New Mexico. Depending on the analysis, Keresan is considered a small language family or a language ...
: family to which Western and Eastern Keres belong, considered by some a language isolate consisting of a
dialect continuum A dialect continuum or dialect chain is a series of language varieties spoken across some geographical area such that neighboring varieties are mutually intelligible In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of languag ...
spoken at the pueblos of Acoma,
Laguna Laguna (Italian and Spanish for lagoon) may refer to: People * Abe Laguna (born 1992), American DJ known as Ookay * Andrés Laguna (1499–1559), Spanish humanist physician, pharmacologist, and botanist * Ana Laguna (born 1955), Spanish-Swedish ba ...
, Santa Ana, Zia,
Cochiti Cochiti (; Eastern Keresan: Kotyit ʰocʰi̥tʰ- "Forgotten", Navajo: ''Tǫ́ʼgaaʼ'') is a census-designated place A census-designated place (CDP) is a Place (United States Census Bureau), concentration of population defined by the United State ...
, Kewa, and San Felipe. * Kiowa-Tanoan: stock to which the Tanoan (or Puebloan) branch belongs, consisting of three separate sub-branches: ** Towa: currently solely spoken at
Jemez Pueblo Jemez Pueblo (/ˈhɛmɛz/; tow, Walatowa, nv, Mąʼii Deeshgiizh) is a census-designated place A census-designated place (CDP) is a Place (United States Census Bureau), concentration of population defined by the United States Census Bureau for s ...
. **
Tewa upright=1.25, Chaiwa, a Tewa girl with a butterfly whorl hairstyle, photographed by Edward S. Curtis in 1922 The Tewa are a linguistic group of Pueblo In the Southwestern United States, Pueblo (capitalized) refers to the Native tribes of ...
: the most widespread Tanoan language with several dialects, spoken at
Ohkay Owingeh Image:SanJuanPotters.jpeg, Ohkay Owingeh potters at work, 1937. Pottery making was historically important in the economy of San Juan, and continues today at Ohkay Owingeh. Ohkay Owingeh (pronounced in Tewa language, Tewa , Navajo ''Kin Łichííʼ'' ...
,
San Ildefonso San Ildefonso (), La Granja (), or La Granja de San Ildefonso, is a town and municipality in the Segovia (province), Province of Segovia, in the Castile and León autonomous region of central Spain. It is located in the foothills of the Sierra ...
, Santa Clara, Tesuque, Nambé, and Pojoaque Pueblos. ** Tiwa: the only Tanoan sub-branch consisting of separate languages: *** Northern Tiwa: a language with two dialects, one spoken at Taos and the other at Picuris. ***
Southern Tiwa The Southern Tiwa language is a Tanoan language spoken at Sandia Pueblo and Isleta Pueblo in New Mexico and Ysleta del Sur in Texas Texas (, ) is a state in the South Central United States, South Central region of the United States. It ...
: also consisting of two dialects, spoken at
Sandia"Sandía" is "watermelon" in Spanish. Sandia may also refer to: Places * Sandia, California, community in Imperial County * Sandia, Texas, town in the USA * Sandia, Peru, town in the Puno region of Peru, capital of ** Sandia Province, province in th ...
and
Isleta Pueblo of Isleta or Isleta Pueblo ( tix, Shiewhibak , kjq, Dîiw'a'ane ; nv, Naatoohó ) is an unincorporated community and Tanoan pueblo in Bernalillo County, New Mexico, United States, originally established in the . The Southern Tiwa langu ...
Pueblos. *
Uto-Aztecan Uto-Aztecan, Uto-Aztekan or (rarely) Uto-Nahuatl is a Language family, family of indigenous languages of the Americas, consisting of over thirty languages. Uto-Aztecan languages are found almost entirely in the Western United States and Mexico. T ...
: stock to which
Hopi The Hopi are a Native Americans in the United States, Native American tribe who primarily live on the Hopi Reservation in northeastern Arizona. As of the United States Census, 2010, 2010 census, there are 19,338 Hopi in the United States. The Ho ...
belongs, spoken exclusively at Hopi Pueblo. *
Zuni Zuni may refer to: Peoples and languages * Zuni people The Zuni ( zun, A:shiwi; formerly spelled ''Zuñi'') are Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of ...
: family to which Zuni belongs; it is a
language isolate Language isolates are languages that cannot be classified into larger language families with any other languages. Korean language, Korean and Basque language, Basque are two of the most commonly cited language isolates, but there are many others. ...
, currently spoken exclusively at Zuni Pueblo.


Cultural practices

Anthropologists have studied Pueblo peoples extensively and published various classifications of their subdivisions. In 1950, Fred Russell Eggan contrasted the peoples of the Eastern and Western Pueblos, based largely on their subsistence farming techniques. The Western or Desert Pueblos of the Zuni and Hopi specialize in
dry farming Dryland farming in the Granada region of Spain Dryland farming and dry farming encompass specific agricultural Agriculture is the practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentar ...
, compared to the
irrigation Irrigation is the agricultural Agriculture is the practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exercise trends, Increases in seden ...

irrigation
farmers of the Eastern or River Pueblos. Both groups cultivate mostly maize (corn), but squash and beans have also been staple Pueblo foods all around the region. In 1954, Paul Kirchhoff published a division of Pueblo peoples into two groups based on culture. Paul Kirchhoff
"Gatherers and Farmers in the Greater Southwest: A Problem in Classification"
''American Anthropologist'', New Series, Vol. 56, No. 4, Southwest Issue (August 1954), pp. 529–550
The
Hopi The Hopi are a Native American tribe In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It co ...

Hopi
,
Zuni Zuni may refer to: Peoples and languages * Zuni people The Zuni ( zun, A:shiwi; formerly spelled ''Zuñi'') are Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of ...
,
Keres In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A beli ...
and
JemezJemez or Jémez may refer to *Jemez Pueblo, New Mexico, a census-designated place in the United States **Jemez Springs, New Mexico, a village **Jemez Mountains **Jemez Mountains salamander (''Plethodon neomexicanus'') **Jemez Mountains Electric Co ...
each have
matrilineal Matrilineality is the tracing of kinship In anthropology, kinship is the web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of all humans in all societies, although its exact meanings even within this discipline are often ...
kinship systems: children are considered born into their mother's clan and must marry a spouse outside it, an
exogamous Exogamy is the social norm of marrying outside one's social group. The group defines the scope and extent of exogamy, and the rules and enforcement mechanisms that ensure its continuity. One form of exogamy is dual exogamy, in which two groups e ...
practice. They maintain multiple
kiva A kiva is a space used by Puebloans The Puebloans or Pueblo peoples, are Native Americans in the Southwestern United States who share common agricultural, material, and religious practices. Pueblo, which means "village" in Spanish, ...

kiva
s for sacred ceremonies. Their
creation story A creation myth (or cosmogonic myth) is a symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objecti ...
tells that humans emerged from the underground. They emphasize four or six cardinal directions as part of their sacred cosmology, beginning in the north. Four and seven are numbers considered significant in their rituals and symbolism. In contrast, the
Tanoan Tanoan , also Kiowa–Tanoan or Tanoan–Kiowa, is a family of languages spoken by indigenous peoples in present-day New Mexico ) , population_demonym = New Mexican ( es, Neomexicano, Neomejicano, Nuevo Mexicano) , seat = Santa Fe , Larg ...
-speaking Puebloans (other than Jemez) have a patrilineal kinship system, with children considered born into their father's clan. They practice
endogamy Endogamy is the practice of marrying within a specific social group In the social science Social science is the branch The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany ...
, or marriage within the clan. They have two kivas or two groups of kivas in their pueblos. Their belief system is based in
dualism Dualism most commonly refers to: * Mind–body dualism, a philosophical view which holds that mental phenomena are, at least in certain respects, not physical phenomena, or that the mind and the body are distinct and separable from one another ** P ...
. Their creation story recounts the emergence of people from underwater. They use five directions, beginning in the west. Their ritual numbers are based on multiples of three.


History of the Puebloans


Precursors

Puebloan societies contain elements of three major cultures that dominated the Southwest United States region before European contact: the ''Mogollon Culture'', whose adherents occupied an area near
Gila Wilderness Gila Wilderness was designated the world's first wilderness area on June 3, 1924. Along with Aldo Leopold Wilderness and Blue Range Wilderness, the (872 sq. mi.) wilderness is part of New Mexico's Gila National Forest. The wilderness is approxi ...

Gila Wilderness
; the ''Hohokam Culture''; and the ''Ancestral Puebloan Culture'' who occupied the
Chaco Canyon Chaco Culture National Historical Park is a United States National Historical Park National Historic Site (NHS) is a designation for an officially recognized area of national historic significance in the United States. An NHS usually contains ...

Chaco Canyon
and
Mesa Verde region The Mesa Verde Region is a portion of the Colorado Plateau in the United States that extends through parts of New Mexico, Colorado and Utah. It is bounded by the San Juan River (Colorado River), San Juan River to the south, the Piedra River (Col ...

Mesa Verde region
s of the
Four Corners The Four Corners is a region of the Southwestern United States The Southwestern United States, also known as the American Southwest or simply the Southwest, is a geographic and cultural list of regions of the United States, region of t ...

Four Corners
area. Archeological evidence suggests that people partaking in the
Mogollon culture Mogollon culture () is an archaeological culture of Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native Americans ...
/moʊɡəˈjoʊn/ were initially foragers who augmented their subsistence through the development of farming. Around the first millennium CE, however, farming became the main means to obtain food.
Water control Flood control methods are used to reduce or prevent the detrimental effects of flood A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land that is usually dry. In the sense of "flowing water", the word may also be applied to the inflow of th ...

Water control
features are common among Mimbres branch sites, which date from the 10th through 12th centuries CE. The nature and density of Mogollon residential villages changed through time. The earliest Mogollon villages were small
hamlets 300px, The hamlet at Oberwil, 3 km from Waldkirch, near St. Gallen (Switzerland) A hamlet is a small human settlement. In different jurisdictions and geographies, a hamlet may be the size of a town, village or parish A parish is a territorial ...
composed of several pithouses (houses excavated into the ground surface, with a stick and thatch roofs supported by a network of posts and beams, and faced on the exterior with earth). Village sizes increased over time and, by the 11th century, villages composed of ground level dwellings made with a rock and earth walls, with roofs supported by post and beam networks, became common. Cliff-dwellings became common during the 13th and 14th centuries.
Hohokam Hohokam () was a culture in the North American Southwest in what is now part of Arizona Arizona ( ; nv, Hoozdo Hahoodzo ; ood, Alĭ ṣonak) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magaz ...
is a term borrowed from the
O'odham language The O'odham peoples, including the Tohono O'odham, the Pima people, Pima or Akimel O'odham, and the Hia C-ed O'odham, are indigenous people of the Americas, indigenous Uto-Aztecan peoples of the Sonoran desert in southern and central Arizona and ...
, used to define an archaeological culture that relied on irrigation canals to water their crops since as early as the 9th century CE. Their irrigation system techniques allowed for its adherents to expand into the largest population in the Southwest by 1300. Archaeologists working at a major archaeological dig in the 1990s in the Tucson Basin, along the Santa Cruz River, identified a culture and people that were ancestors of the Hohokam who might have occupied southern Arizona as early as 2000 BCE. This prehistoric group from the Early Agricultural Period grew corn, lived year-round in sedentary villages, and developed sophisticated irrigation canals from the beginning of the common era to about the middle of the 15th century. Within a larger context, the Hohokam culture area inhabited a central trade position between the
Patayan Patayan is a term used by archaeologists to describe prehistoric and historic Native American cultures who inhabited parts of modern-day Arizona Arizona ( ; nv, Hoozdo Hahoodzo ; ood, Alĭ ṣonak) is a state in the Southwestern re ...
situated along with the Lower
Colorado River The Colorado River ( es, Río Colorado) is one of the principal rivers (along with the Rio Grande) in the Southwestern United States and northern Mexico. The river drains an expansive, arid drainage basin, watershed that encompasses parts of ...

Colorado River
and in southern California; the
Trincheras Trincheras is a town in Trincheras Municipality, in the north-west of the Mexican state of Sonora. It was founded in 1775 by Bernardo de Urrea. The municipal area is 3,764.26 km2. and the population in 2000 was 1,788. The main economic activit ...
of
Sonora Sonora (), officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Sonora ( en, Free and Sovereign State of Sonora), is one of the 31 states which, along with Mexico City Mexico City ( es, link=no, Ciudad de México, ; abbreviated as CDMX; nah, Āltepētl Mēx ...
, Mexico; the
Mogollon culture Mogollon culture () is an archaeological culture of Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native Americans ...
in eastern Arizona, southwest New Mexico, and northwest
ChihuahuaChihuahua may refer to: Places *Chihuahua (state), a Mexican state **Chihuahua (dog), a breed of dog named after the state **Chihuahua cheese, a type of cheese originating in the state **Chihuahua City, the capital city of the state **Chihuahua Muni ...
, Mexico; and the
Ancestral Puebloans The Ancestral Puebloans were an ancient Native American culture that spanned the present-day Four Corners boy on horseback in Monument Valley Monument Valley ( nv, Tsé Biiʼ Ndzisgaii, , meaning ''valley of the rocks'') is a region of ...
in northern Arizona, northern New Mexico, southwest Colorado, and southern
Utah Utah ( , ) is a U.S. state, state in the Mountain states, Mountain West subregion of the Western United States. Utah is a landlocked U.S. state bordered to its east by Colorado, to its northeast by Wyoming, to its north by Idaho, to its so ...

Utah
. The Ancestral Puebloan culture is known for the stone and earth dwellings its people built along cliff walls, particularly during the Pueblo II and Pueblo III eras, from about 900 to 1350 CE in total. The best-preserved examples of the stone dwellings are now protected within United States'
national parks#REDIRECT National park A national park is a park in use for Conservation (ethic), conservation purposes, created and protected by national governments. Often it is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state dec ...

national parks
, such as
Navajo National Monument Navajo National Monument is a national monument (United States), National Monument located within the northwest portion of the Navajo Nation territory in northern Arizona, which was established to preserve three well-preserved cliff dwellings of the ...
,
Chaco Culture National Historical Park Chaco Culture National Historical Park is a United States National Historic Sites (United States), National Historical Park in the Southwestern United States, American Southwest hosting a concentration of pueblos. The park is located in northw ...

Chaco Culture National Historical Park
,
Mesa Verde National Park Mesa Verde National Park is an American national park and UNESCO World Heritage Site located in Montezuma County, Colorado, Montezuma County, Colorado. The park protects some of the best-preserved Ancestral Puebloans, Ancestral Puebloan archaeol ...

Mesa Verde National Park
,
Canyons of the Ancients National Monument Canyons of the Ancients National Monument is a national monument protecting an archaeologically-significant landscape located in the southwestern region of the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commo ...

Canyons of the Ancients National Monument
,
Aztec Ruins National Monument The Aztec Ruins National Monument in northwestern New Mexico, USA consists of preserved structures constructed by the Ancestral Puebloan, Pueblo Indians nearly a thousand years ago. The National monument (United States), national monument lies o ...
,
Bandelier National Monument Bandelier National Monument is a United States U.S. National Monument, National Monument near Los Alamos, New Mexico, Los Alamos in Sandoval County, New Mexico, Sandoval and Los Alamos County, New Mexico, Los Alamos counties, New Mexico. The mon ...

Bandelier National Monument
,
Hovenweep National Monument Hovenweep National Monument is located on land in southwestern Colorado Colorado (, other variants) is a U.S. state, state in the Mountain states, Mountain West region of the United States. It encompasses most of the Southern Rocky Mountains ...
, and
Canyon de Chelly National Monument Canyon de Chelly National Monument ( ) was established on April 1, 1931, as a unit of the National Park Service The National Park Service (NPS) is an List of federal agencies in the United States, agency of the federal government of the United ...

Canyon de Chelly National Monument
. These villages were accessible only by rope or through rock climbing. However, the first Ancestral Puebloan homes and villages were based on the pit-house, a common feature in the Basketmaker periods. Villages consisted of apartment-like complexes and structures made from stone, adobe mud, and other local materials, or were carved into the sides of
canyon A canyon (; archaic British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that has undergone substantial codification of grammar a ...

canyon
walls. Design details from Ancestral Puebloan villages contain elements from cultures as far away as present-day Mexico. In their day, these ancient towns and cities were usually multistoried and multi-purposed buildings surrounding open
plaza A town square (or square, plaza, public square, city square, urban square, or piazza) is an open public space A public space is a place that is generally open and accessible to people. Roads (including the pavement), public square A ...

plaza
s and
viewshed A viewshed is the geographical area that is visible from a location. It includes all surrounding points that are in line-of-sight with that location and excludes points that are beyond the horizon The horizon is the apparent line that separate ...
s. They were occupied by hundreds to thousands of Ancestral Pueblo peoples. These population complexes hosted cultural and civic events and infrastructure that supported a vast outlying region hundreds of miles away linked by transportation roadways.


Development of architecture and city-states

By about 700 to 900 CE, the Puebloans began to move away from ancient pit houses dug in cliffs and to construct connected rectangular rooms arranged in apartment-like structures made of adobe and adapted to sites. By 1050, they had developed planned villages composed of large terraced buildings, each with many rooms. These apartment-house villages were often constructed on defensive sites: on ledges of massive rock, on flat summits, or on steep-sided mesas, locations that would afford the Puebloans protection from raiding parties originating from the north, such as the
Comanche The Comanche or Nʉmʉnʉʉ ( com, Nʉmʉnʉʉ; "the people") are a Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants ...
and Navajo. The largest of these villages,
Pueblo Bonito Pueblo Bonito (Spanish for ''beautiful town'') is the largest and best-known great house , Yorkshire, the largest private house in the United Kingdom. Picture from ''A Complete History of the County of York'' by Thomas Allen (1828–1830) ...

Pueblo Bonito
in
Chaco Canyon Chaco Culture National Historical Park is a United States National Historical Park National Historic Site (NHS) is a designation for an officially recognized area of national historic significance in the United States. An NHS usually contains ...

Chaco Canyon
, New Mexico, contained around 700 rooms in five stories; it may have housed as many as 1000 persons. Pueblo buildings are constructed as complex apartments with numerous rooms, often built in strategic defensive positions. The most highly developed were large villages or pueblos situated at the very top of the
mesa A mesa is an isolated, flat-topped elevation, ridge or hill, which is bounded from all sides by steep escarpments and stands distinctly above a surrounding plain. Mesas characteristically consist of flat-lying soft sedimentary rocks capped by ...

mesa
s, the rocky tablelands typical to the Southwest.


European contact and revolt

Before 1598, Spanish exploration of the present-day Pueblo areas was limited to an assortment of small groups. A group of colonizers led by
Juan de Oñate Juan de Oñate y Salazar (; 1550–1626) was a Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Ca ...
arrived at the end of the 16th Century as part of an apostolic mission to convert the Natives. Despite initial peaceful contact, Spain's attempts to dispose of the Pueblo religion and replace it with Catholicism became increasingly more aggressive, and were met with great resistance by Puebloans, whose governmental structure was based around the figure of the
cacique A ''cacique'' (Iberian ; Latin American ; ; feminine form: ''cacica'') translates to "king" or "prince" of an indigenous group, derived from the Taíno language, Taíno word ''kasike'' for the pre-Columbian tribal chiefs in the Bahamas, the Gre ...

cacique
, a
theocratic Theocracy is a form of government in which one or more deities A deity or god is a supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed phenomena or entities that are not subject to the . This term is attributed to , such as s, s, , and ...

theocratic
leader for both material and spiritual matters. Over the years, Spaniards' methods grew harsher, leading to a series of revolts by the Puebloans. The
Pueblo Revolt The Pueblo Revolt of 1680, also known as Popé's Rebellion or Popay's Rebellion, was an uprising of most of the indigenous Pueblo people The Puebloans or Pueblo peoples, are Native Americans in the Southwestern United States who share common ...
that started in 1680 was the first led by a Native American group to successfully expel colonists from North America for a considerable number of years. It followed the successful Tiguex War led by Tiwas against the Coronado Expedition in 1540–41, which temporarily halted Spanish advances in present-day New Mexico. The 17th Century's revolt was a direct consequence of growing discontent among the Northern Pueblos against the abuses by the Spaniards, which finally brewed into a large organized uprising against European colonizers. The events that led to the Pueblo Revolt go back at least a decade before the formal uprising began. In the 1670s, severe drought swept the region, which caused both a famine among the Pueblo and increased the frequency of raids by the
Apache The Apache () are a group of culturally related Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native Americans ...

Apache
. Neither Spanish nor Pueblo soldiers were able to prevent the attacks by the Apache raiding parties. The unrest among the Pueblos came to a head in 1675, when Governor Juan Francisco Treviño ordered the arrest of forty-seven Pueblo
medicine men '' midew'' (ceremonial leader) in a ''mide-wiigiwaam'' (medicine lodge) A medicine man or medicine woman is a traditional healer and spiritual leader who serves a community of indigenous people of the Americas The indigenous peoples of the A ...

medicine men
and accused them of practicing sorcery. Four of the medicine men were sentenced to death by hanging; three of those sentences were carried out, while the fourth prisoner committed suicide. The remaining men were publicly whipped and sentenced to prison. When the news of the killings and public humiliation reached Pueblo leaders, they moved in force to , where the prisoners were held. Because a large number of Spanish soldiers were away fighting the Apache, Governor Treviño was forced to release the prisoners. Among those released was an
Ohkay Owingeh Image:SanJuanPotters.jpeg, Ohkay Owingeh potters at work, 1937. Pottery making was historically important in the economy of San Juan, and continues today at Ohkay Owingeh. Ohkay Owingeh (pronounced in Tewa language, Tewa , Navajo ''Kin Łichííʼ'' ...
a Tewa man named Popé. After being released, Popé took up residence in
Taos Pueblo Taos Pueblo (or Pueblo de Taos) is an ancient pueblo belonging to a Taos-speaking ( Tiwa) Native American tribe of Puebloan people. It lies about north of the modern city of Taos, New Mexico Taos is a town in Taos County in the north-cen ...

Taos Pueblo
far from the capital of Santa Fe and spent the next five years seeking support for a revolt among the 46 Pueblo villages. He was able to gain the support of the Northern
TiwaTiwa and Tigua may refer to: * Tiwa Puebloans, an ethnic group of New Mexico, US * Tiwa (Lalung), an ethnic group of north-eastern India * Tiwa language (India), a Sino-Tibetan language of India * Tiwa languages, a group of Tanoan languages of the U ...
,
Tewa upright=1.25, Chaiwa, a Tewa girl with a butterfly whorl hairstyle, photographed by Edward S. Curtis in 1922 The Tewa are a linguistic group of Pueblo In the Southwestern United States, Pueblo (capitalized) refers to the Native tribes of ...
, Towa, Tano, and
Keres In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A beli ...
-speaking Pueblos of the Rio Grande Valley. The Pueblo, 50 miles east of the Rio Grande pledged its participation in the revolt as did the
Zuni Zuni may refer to: Peoples and languages * Zuni people The Zuni ( zun, A:shiwi; formerly spelled ''Zuñi'') are Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of ...
and
Hopi The Hopi are a Native American tribe In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It co ...

Hopi
, 120 and 200 miles respectively west of the Rio Grande. At the time, the Spanish population was of about 2,400 colonists, including mixed-blood
mestizo (; ; fem. ) is a racial classification used to refer to a person of a combined Ethnic groups in Europe, European and Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indigenous American ancestry. The term was used as an ethnic/racial category for mixed-ra ...

mestizo
s, and Indian servants and retainers, who were scattered thinly throughout the region. Starting early on 10 August, 1680, Popé and leaders of each of the Pueblos sent a knotted rope carried by a runner to the next Pueblo; the number of knots signified the number of days to wait before beginning the uprising. Finally, on 21 August, 2,500 Puebloan warriors took the colony's capital from Spanish control, killing many colonizers, the remainder of whom were successfully expelled. On 22 September 2005, the statue of Po'pay ( Popé), the leader of the Pueblo Revolt, was unveiled in the Capitol Rotunda in Washington, D.C. The statue was the second commissioned by the state of New Mexico for the
National Statuary Hall Collection The National Statuary Hall Collection in the United States Capitol is composed of statues donated by individual states to honor persons notable in their history. Limited to two statues per state, the collection was originally set up in the old ...

National Statuary Hall Collection
; it was the 100th and last to be added to the collection. It was created by Cliff Fragua, a Puebloan from
Jemez Pueblo, New Mexico Jemez Pueblo (/ˈhɛmɛz/; tow, Walatowa, nv, Mąʼii Deeshgiizh) is a census-designated place A census-designated place (CDP) is a concentration of population defined by the United States Census Bureau The United States Census Bureau (U ...
. It is the only statue in the collection to be created by a Native American.


Culture

In 1844
Josiah Gregg Josiah Gregg (19 July 1806 – 25 February 1850) was an American merchant, explorer, naturalist, and author of '' Commerce of the Prairies'', about the American Southwest The Southwestern United States, also known as the American Southwest o ...

Josiah Gregg
described the historic Pueblo people in '' The journal of a Santa Fé trader'' as follows:
'' When these regions were first discovered it appears that the inhabitants lived in comfortable houses and cultivated the soil, as they have continued to do up to the present time. Indeed, they are now considered the best horticulturists in the country, furnishing most of the fruits and a large portion of the vegetable supplies that are to be found in the markets. They were until very lately the only people in New Mexico who cultivated the grape. They also maintain at the present time considerable herds of cattle, horses, etc. They are, in short, a remarkably sober and industrious race, conspicuous for morality and honesty, and very little given to quarreling or dissipation ... ''


Material culture

The Puebloans are traditional weavers of cloth and have used textiles,
natural fiber Natural fibers or natural fibres (see spelling differences Despite the various English dialects Dialect The term dialect (from Latin , , from the Ancient Greek word , , "discourse", from , , "through" and , , "I speak") is used in two ...
s, and
animal hide A hide or skin is an animal skin Skin is the layer of usually soft, flexible outer tissue covering the body of a vertebrate Vertebrates () comprise all species of animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic orga ...
in their cloth-making. Since woven clothing is laborious and time-consuming, every-day style of dress for working around the villages has been sparer. The men often wore breechcloths.


Agriculture

Corn is the most readily recognizable
staple food A staple food, food staple, or simply a staple, is a food Food is any substance consumed to provide Nutrient, nutritional support for an organism. Food is usually of plant, animal or Fungus, fungal origin, and contains essential nutrients, ...

staple food
for Pueblo peoples. Although it is possible that different groups may have grown local plants such as
gourd Gourds include the fruits of some flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Gre ...

gourd
s and at very early dates, the first evidence of maize cultivation in the Southwest dates from about 2100 BCE. Small, fairly undomesticated maize cobs have been found at five different sites in New Mexico and Arizona. Maize reached the present-day Southwest via an unknown route from
Mesoamerica Mesoamerica is a historical and important region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the ...
(i.e., present-day Mexico) and was rapidly adopted by peoples in the region. One theory states that maize cultivation was carried northward from central Mexico by migrating farmers, most likely speakers of a
Uto-Aztecan Uto-Aztecan, Uto-Aztekan or (rarely) Uto-Nahuatl is a Language family, family of indigenous languages of the Americas, consisting of over thirty languages. Uto-Aztecan languages are found almost entirely in the Western United States and Mexico. T ...
language. Another theory, more accepted among scholars, is that between 4300 BCE and 2100 BCE maize was diffused northward from group to group between rather than migrants. There is evidence that maize was initially cultivated in the Southwest during a climatic period when
precipitation In meteorology Meteorology is a branch of the (which include and ), with a major focus on . The study of meteorology dates back , though significant progress in meteorology did not begin until the 18th century. The 19th century saw mod ...

precipitation
was relatively high.


Pottery

The various Pueblo communities have different traditions regarding the making and decoration of pottery artifacts. Present-day archaeologists date the use of pottery by Puebloans dating back the early centuries of the Common Era. File:Maria Martinez pot.jpg,
San Ildefonso Pueblo San Ildefonso Pueblo (Tewa language, Tewa: P'ohwhóge Owingeh ’òhxʷógè ʔówîŋgè"where the water cuts through" ) is a census-designated place (CDP) in Santa Fe County, New Mexico, Santa Fe County, New Mexico, United States, and a feder ...

San Ildefonso Pueblo
Black-on-Black Pottery Bowl by
Maria Martinez Maria Montoya Martinez (1887, San Ildefonso Pueblo San Ildefonso Pueblo (Tewa language, Tewa: P'ohwhóge Owingeh ’òhxʷógè ʔówîŋgè"where the water cuts through" ) is a census-designated place (CDP) in Santa Fe County, New Mexico, Sa ...
File: Zuni figure (UBC-2011).jpg,
Zuni Zuni may refer to: Peoples and languages * Zuni people The Zuni ( zun, A:shiwi; formerly spelled ''Zuñi'') are Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of ...
owl figure,
University of British Columbia The University of British Columbia (UBC) is a public university, public research university with campuses near Vancouver and in Kelowna, British Columbia. Established in 1908, UBC is British Columbia's oldest university. The university ranks a ...

University of British Columbia
File:AcomaJar2.jpg, Acoma Pueblo, pottery jar, Field Museum File:TesuqueJar1.jpg, Tesuque Pueblo, Pottery, Field Museum File:BirdEffigyJarCicuye1.jpg, Bird effigy, pottery,
Cochiti Pueblo Cochiti (; Keresan languages, Eastern Keresan: Kotyit ʰocʰi̥tʰ- "Forgotten", Navajo: ''Tǫ́ʼgaaʼ'') is a census-designated place (CDP) in Sandoval County, New Mexico, Sandoval County, New Mexico, United States. A historic pueblo of the Co ...
. Field Museum


Religion

In Native communities of the Southwest's belief system, the
archetypal The concept of an archetype (; from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its popu ...
deities A deity or god is a supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed phenomena or entities that are not subject to the . This term is attributed to , such as s, s, , and . It also includes claimed abilities embodied in or provided by suc ...

deities
appear as visionary beings who bring blessings and receive love. A vast collection of religious stories explore the relationships among people and nature, including plants and animals.
Spider Grandmother Spider Grandmother (Hopi language, Hopi ''Kokyangwuti'', Navajo language, Navajo ''Na'ashjé'ii Asdzáá'') is an important figure in the mythology, oral traditions and folklore of many Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Native American cultures, e ...
and
kachina A kachina (; also katchina, katcina, or katsina; Hopi The Hopi are a Native American tribe In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguou ...
spirits figure prominently in some myths. Pueblo prayer included substances as well as words; one common prayer material was ground-up maizewhite
cornmeal Cornmeal is a meal (coarse flour Flour is a powder A powder is a dry, bulk solid Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas and plasma). The molecules in a solid are closely packed ...
. A man might bless his son, or some land, or the town by sprinkling a handful of meal as he uttered a blessing. After the 1692 re-conquest, the Spanish were prevented from entering one town when they were met by a handful of men who uttered imprecations and cast a single pinch of a sacred substance. The Pueblo peoples used ritual 'prayer sticks', which were colorfully decorated with beads, fur, and feathers. These prayer sticks (or 'talking sticks') were similar to those used by other Native American nations. By the 13th century, Puebloans used turkey feather blankets for warmth. Most of the Pueblos hold annual sacred ceremonies, some of which are now open to the public. Religious ceremonies usually feature traditional dances that are held outdoors in the large common areas and courtyards, which are accompanied by singing and drumming. Unlike kiva ceremonies, traditional dances may be open to non-Puebloans. Traditional dances are considered a form of prayer, and strict rules of conduct apply to those who wish to attend one (e.g. no clapping or walking across the dance area or between the dancers, singers, or drummers).
'' Since time immemorial, Pueblo communities have celebrated seasonal cycles through prayer, song, and dance. These dances connect us to our ancestors, community, and traditions while honoring gifts from our Creator. They ensure that life continues and that connections to the past and future are reinforced.''
Traditionally, all outside visitors to a public dance would be offered a meal afterward in a Pueblo home. Because of the numerous outside tourists who have attended these dances in the pueblos since the late 20th century, such meals are now open to outsiders by personal invitation only. Private sacred ceremonies are conducted inside the
kiva A kiva is a space used by Puebloans The Puebloans or Pueblo peoples, are Native Americans in the Southwestern United States who share common agricultural, material, and religious practices. Pueblo, which means "village" in Spanish, ...

kiva
s and only tribal members may participate according to specific rules pertaining to each Pueblo's religion. One of the primary goals of Spanish colonists in the 17th Century was the desire to bring Christianity to Natives in New Spain. Franciscan priests had prepared for a long process of conversion, building churches and missions all around Pueblo country. Pueblos' feast days are a product of that process. Feast days are held on the day sacred to its
Roman Catholic Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Laz ...

Roman Catholic
patron saint A patron saint, patroness saint, patron hallow or heavenly protector is a saint who in Catholic Church, Catholicism, Anglicanism, or Eastern Orthodoxy is regarded as the heavenly advocacy, advocate of a nation, place, craft, activity, class, c ...
, assigned by Spanish missionaries so that each Pueblo's feast day would coincide with one of the people's existing traditional ceremonies. About the imposition of Christianity, Alfonso Ortiz, an Ohkay Owingeh anthropologist and Pueblo specialist states:
''The Spanish government demanded labor and tribute from the Pueblos and vigorously attempted to suppress native religion. (...) In that year''
692 __NOTOC__ Year 692 ( DCXCII) was a leap year starting on Monday A leap year starting on Monday is any year with 366 days (i.e. it includes 29 February) that begins on Monday Monday is the between and . According to the 's standard, i ...

692
''Diego de Vargas re-entered Pueblo territory, though it was not until 1696 that he gained control over the entire Rio Grande Pueblo area. The Spaniards had learned from the Pueblo Revolt and were gentler in their demands in the next century and a half. However, the Pueblos had learned as well and maintained their ceremonial life out of the view of the Spaniards, while adopting a veneer of Roman Catholicism.''
The public observances may also include a Roman Catholic
Mass Mass is the quantity Quantity is a property that can exist as a multitude or magnitude, which illustrate discontinuity and continuity. Quantities can be compared in terms of "more", "less", or "equal", or by assigning a numerical value ...
and processions on the Pueblo's feast day. Some Pueblos also hold sacred ceremonies around Christmas and at other Christian holidays.


List of Pueblos


New Mexico

*
Acoma Pueblo Acoma Pueblo () is a Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native Americans in the United States * Indigeno ...

Acoma Pueblo
Keres In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A beli ...
speakers. Known for its location atop a
mesa A mesa is an isolated, flat-topped elevation, ridge or hill, which is bounded from all sides by steep escarpments and stands distinctly above a surrounding plain. Mesas characteristically consist of flat-lying soft sedimentary rocks capped by ...

mesa
. Established in the 12th Century, it is one of the oldest continuously inhabited places in the United States. *
Cochiti Pueblo Cochiti (; Keresan languages, Eastern Keresan: Kotyit ʰocʰi̥tʰ- "Forgotten", Navajo: ''Tǫ́ʼgaaʼ'') is a census-designated place (CDP) in Sandoval County, New Mexico, Sandoval County, New Mexico, United States. A historic pueblo of the Co ...
– Keres speakers. Known for its ceramic storyteller figurines, drums, and the nearby
Cochiti Dam The Cochiti Dam is an earthen fill dam A dam is a barrier that stops or restricts the flow of water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency and translucency, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and Color of water, ne ...
*
Isleta Pueblo Pueblo of Isleta or Isleta Pueblo ( tix, Shiewhibak , kjq, Dîiw'a'ane ; nv, Naatoohó ) is an unincorporated community File:Entering Heinola, Minnesota.jpg, Sign at Heinola, Minnesota, Heinola, an unincorporated community in Otter Tail Cou ...
TiwaTiwa and Tigua may refer to: * Tiwa Puebloans, an ethnic group of New Mexico, US * Tiwa (Lalung), an ethnic group of north-eastern India * Tiwa language (India), a Sino-Tibetan language of India * Tiwa languages, a group of Tanoan languages of the U ...
speakers. Established in the 14th century. Located on the southern outskirts of Albuquerque. *
Jemez Pueblo Jemez Pueblo (/ˈhɛmɛz/; tow, Walatowa, nv, Mąʼii Deeshgiizh) is a census-designated place A census-designated place (CDP) is a Place (United States Census Bureau), concentration of population defined by the United States Census Bureau for s ...
Towa speakers. Known for its runners and running ceremonies. *
Kewa Pueblo Kewa Pueblo (Keresan languages, Eastern Keres , Keres: ''Díiwʾi'', Navajo: ''Tó Hájiiloh''), formerly known as Santo Domingo Pueblo, is a census-designated place (CDP) in Sandoval County, New Mexico, Sandoval County, New Mexico, and a federally ...
(formerly Santo Domingo) – Keres speakers. Known for
turquoise Turquoise is an opaque Opacity or opaque may refer to: * Impediments to (especially, visible) light: ** Opacities, absorption coefficients ** Opacity (optics), property or degree of blocking the transmission of light * Metaphors derived from li ...

turquoise
work and the Corn Dance. *
Laguna Pueblo The Laguna Pueblo ( Western Keres: Kawaika ʰɑwɑjkʰɑ is a federally recognized tribe This is a list of federally recognized tribes in the contiguous United States of America The United States of America (USA), commonly known a ...
– Keres speakers. Known for its well-preserved 17th Century mission church. * Nambé Pueblo
Tewa language Tewa is a Tanoan language Tanoan , also Kiowa–Tanoan or Tanoan–Kiowa, is a family of languages spoken by indigenous peoples in present-day New Mexico, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas. Most of the languages – Tiwa languages, Tiwa (Taos, Pic ...
speakers. Established in the 14th century. Was an important trading center for the Northern Pueblos. *
Ohkay Owingeh Pueblo Ohkay Owingeh potters at work, 1937. Pottery making was historically important in the economy of San Juan, and continues today at Ohkay Owingeh. Ohkay Owingeh (pronounced in Tewa , Navajo ''Kin Łichííʼ'') is a census-designated place (CDP) in ...
(formerly San Juan) – Tewa speakers. Headquarters of the Eight Northern Indian Pueblos Council. Home of Popé, one of the leaders of the 1680
Pueblo Revolt The Pueblo Revolt of 1680, also known as Popé's Rebellion or Popay's Rebellion, was an uprising of most of the indigenous Pueblo people The Puebloans or Pueblo peoples, are Native Americans in the Southwestern United States who share common ...
against Spanish colonizers. *
Picuris Pueblo Picuris Pueblo (; Tiwa language, Tiwa: P'įwweltha ’ī̃wːēltʰà is a historic pueblo in Taos County, New Mexico, Taos County, New Mexico, United States. It is also a census-designated place (CDP) and a federally recognized tribe of Native ...
– Tiwa speakers. Known for its micaceous pottery. *
Pojoaque Pueblo Pojoaque (; Tewa language, Tewa: P'osuwaege Owingeh ’òhsũ̀wæ̃̀gè ʔówîŋgè is a census-designated place (CDP) in Santa Fe County, New Mexico, Santa Fe County, New Mexico, United States. It is part of the Santa Fe, New Mexico Metropol ...
– Tewa speakers. Re-established in the 1930s. *
Sandia Pueblo Sandia Pueblo (; Tiwa: Tuf Shur Tia) is a federally recognized tribe of Native American Pueblo people inhabiting a reservation of the same name in the eastern Rio Grande Rift of central New Mexico ) , population_demonym = New Mexican ( ...
– Tiwa speakers. Established in the 14th Century. Located on the northern outskirts of Albuquerque. *
San Felipe Pueblo San Felipe Pueblo (Keresan languages, Eastern Keres: Katishtya, Navajo ''Tsédááʼkin'') is a census-designated place (CDP) in Sandoval County, New Mexico, Sandoval County, New Mexico, United States, and is located 10 miles (16 km) north of B ...
– Keres speakers. *
San Ildefonso Pueblo San Ildefonso Pueblo (Tewa language, Tewa: P'ohwhóge Owingeh ’òhxʷógè ʔówîŋgè"where the water cuts through" ) is a census-designated place (CDP) in Santa Fe County, New Mexico, Santa Fe County, New Mexico, United States, and a feder ...

San Ildefonso Pueblo
– Tewa speakers. Famous for its valuable black-on-black pottery. Located between Pojoaque and Los Alamos. *
Santa Ana Pueblo Santa Ana Pueblo (Keresan languages, Eastern Keres: Tamaya ʰɑmɑjːɑ is a census-designated place (CDP) in Sandoval County, New Mexico, Sandoval County, New Mexico, United States. As of the United States Census, 2000, 2000 census, the CDP ha ...
– Keres speakers. *
Santa Clara Pueblo Santa Clara Pueblo (in Tewa language, Tewa: Kha'po Owingeh ɑ̀ʔp’òː ʔówîŋgè is a census-designated place (CDP) in Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, United States and a federally recognized tribe of Native ...
– Tewa speakers. Established in the 16th Century. Located near Española. *
Taos Pueblo Taos Pueblo (or Pueblo de Taos) is an ancient pueblo belonging to a Taos-speaking ( Tiwa) Native American tribe of Puebloan people. It lies about north of the modern city of Taos, New Mexico Taos is a town in Taos County in the north-cen ...

Taos Pueblo
– Tiwa speakers. Known for its architecture. Established in the 11th Century, it is one of the oldest continuously inhabited places in the United States. *
Tesuque Pueblo Tesuque (Tewa language, Tewa: Tetsuge Owingeh ) is a census-designated place (CDP) in Santa Fe County, New Mexico, Santa Fe County, New Mexico, United States. It is part of the Santa Fe, New Mexico, Metropolitan Statistical Area. The population wa ...

Tesuque Pueblo
– Tewa speakers. Known for the
Pueblo Revolt The Pueblo Revolt of 1680, also known as Popé's Rebellion or Popay's Rebellion, was an uprising of most of the indigenous Pueblo people The Puebloans or Pueblo peoples, are Native Americans in the Southwestern United States who share common ...
of 1680, Camel Rock Monument, and its ceramic Rain God figurines. Located near Santa Fe. *
Zia Pueblo Zia Pueblo ( Eastern Keres: Tsi'ya , es, Pueblo de Zía) is a census-designated place A census-designated place (CDP) is a concentration of population defined by the United States Census Bureau The United States Census Bureau (USCB), offi ...
– Keres speakers. Known for their sun symbol, which is . *
Zuni Pueblo Zuni Pueblo ( Zuni: a:shiwi, also Zuñi Pueblo) is a census-designated place A census-designated place (CDP) is a Place (United States Census Bureau), concentration of population defined by the United States Census Bureau for statistical purposes o ...
Zuni Zuni may refer to: Peoples and languages * Zuni people The Zuni ( zun, A:shiwi; formerly spelled ''Zuñi'') are Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of ...
speakers. Known for being the first Pueblo visited by the Spanish in 1540.


Arizona

*
Hopi The Hopi are a Native American tribe In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It co ...

Hopi
Tribe Nevada-Kykotsmovi –
Hopi language Hopi (Hopi: ) is a Uto-Aztecan language Uto-Aztecan, Uto-Aztekan or (rarely) Uto-Nahuatl is a family In human society, family (from la, familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth) or affinity ( ...
speakers. Area of present villages settled around 700 CE


Texas

*
Ysleta del Sur Pueblo Ysleta del Sur Pueblo (also Tigua Pueblo) is a Puebloan Native American tribal entity in the Ysleta section of El Paso, Texas El Paso (; "the pass") is a city and the county seat of El Paso County, Texas, United States, in the far western par ...
,
El Paso, Texas El Paso (; "the pass") is a city in and the county seat of El Paso County, Texas, El Paso County in the far southwestern part of the U.S. state of Texas. The 2020 population of the city from the United States Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau w ...

El Paso, Texas
– originally Tigua (Tiwa) speakers. Also spelled 'Isleta del Sur Pueblo'. This Pueblo was established in 1680 as a result of the Pueblo Revolt. Some 400 members of Isleta, Socorro, and neighboring pueblos were forced out or accompanied the Spaniards to El Paso as they fled Northern New Mexico. The Spanish fathers established three missions (Ysleta, Socorro, and San Elizario) on the Camino Real between Santa Fe and Mexico City. The San Elizario mission was administrative (that is, non-Puebloan). * Some of the Piro Puebloans settled in Seneca, and then in
Socorro, Texas Socorro is a city in El Paso County, Texas Texas (, ) is a state in the South Central United States, South Central region of the United States. It is the second largest U.S. state by both List of U.S. states and territories by area, area (a ...
, adjacent to
Ysleta Ysleta is a community in El Paso El Paso (; "the pass") is a city and the county seat of El Paso County, Texas, United States, in the far western part of the state. The 2019 population estimate for the city from the 2010 United States Census, ...
(which is now within El Paso city limits). When the
Rio Grande The Rio Grande ( and ), known in Mexico as the Río Bravo del Norte and as the Río Bravo, is one of the principal river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another riv ...

Rio Grande
flooded the valley or changed course, as it commonly has over the centuries, these missions have sometimes been associated with Mexico or with Texas due to the changes. Socorro and San Elizario are still separate communities; Ysleta has been annexed by El Paso. * The Texas Band of Yaqui Indians are descended from the
Yaqui The Yaqui, Hiaki, or Yoeme, are a Uto-Aztecan Uto-Aztecan, Uto-Aztekan or (rarely) Uto-Nahuatl is a Language family, family of indigenous languages of the Americas, consisting of over thirty languages. Uto-Aztecan languages are found almost e ...
or "Yoeme" people, the most southern of the Pueblo peoples of the Capitan dialect. They were prevalent throughout the entire southwestern states of Sonora and Chihuahua in Mexico; and in Texas, Arizona, and California of the United States. The Texas Band are descendants of Mountain Yaqui fighters who fled to Texas in 1870, after having killed Mexican soldiers in the State of Sonora. Many of their descendant families organized as a band with self-government in 2001; they have been recognized as a tribe by a legislative resolution of the state of Texas. Resolution SR#989
/ref> all members have documentation of Yaqui ancestry dating to Yaqui Territory of the 1700s. * Firecracker pueblo,
/ref> Jornada
Mogollon culture Mogollon culture () is an archaeological culture of Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native Americans ...
, abandoned 2nd half of the fifteenth c., excavated beginning 1980. Illustrates the evolution from pit-houses to a linear array of 15–17 rooms. The walls were coursed adobe; the floors were plastered
caliche Caliche () is a sedimentary rock Sedimentary rocks are types of rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the mine ...
. Room 11 had ''
metate A metate or metlatl (or mealing stone) is a type or variety of quern, a ground stone tool used for processing grain A grain is a small, hard, dry seed, with or without an attached husk, hull or fruit layer, harvested for human or animal consu ...

metate
s'' and a ''mano'' for grinding corn. (Note that ''metates'' exist in the stone floors of caves of nearby
Hueco Tanks Hueco Tanks is an area of low mountains and historic site in El Paso County, Texas El Paso County is the westernmost county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brook ...
as well.) Located in
El Paso County, Texas El Paso County is the westernmost county A county is a geographical region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and t ...
.


Endonyms and exonyms

Although most present-day pueblos are known by their Spanish or anglicized Spanish name, most Pueblos have a unique name in each of the different languages spoken in the area. The names used by each Pueblo to refer to their village (''endonyms'') usually differ from those given to them by outsiders (their ''exonyms''), including by speakers of other Puebloan languages. Centuries of trade and intermarriages between the groups are reflected in the names given to the same Pueblo in each of the languages. The table below contains the names of the New Mexican pueblos and Hopi using the official or practical orthographies of the languages. Despite not being a Puebloan language,
Navajo The Navajo (; British English: Navaho; nv, Diné or ') are a of the . At more than 399,494 enrolled tribal members , the is the largest federally recognized tribe in the U.S. (the being the second largest); the Navajo Nation has the larges ...
names are also included due to prolonged contact between them and the several Pueblos. With the exception of Zuni, all Puebloan languages, as well as Navajo, are
tonal Tonal may refer to: * Tonal (mythology), a concept in the belief systems and traditions of Mesoamerican cultures, involving a spiritual link between a person and an animal * Tonal language, a type of language in which pitch is used to make phonemic ...
. However, the tone is not usually shown in the spelling of these languages save for Navajo, Towa, and Tewa. In the table above, a low tone is left unmarked in the orthography. Vowel nasalisation is shown by an
ogonek 100px, Ogonek The ( Polish: , "little tail", the diminutive of ; lt, nosinė, "nasal") is a diacritic A diacritic (also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or accent) is a glyph added to a letter or basic glyph. The t ...

ogonek
diacritic below the vowel;
ejective consonant In phonetics, ejective consonants are usually voiceless consonants that are pronounced with a Airstream mechanism#Glottalic initiation, glottalic egressive airstream. In the phonology of a particular language, ejectives may contrast with Aspirated ...
s are transcribed with an
apostrophe The apostrophe ( or ) is a punctuation Punctuation (or sometimes interpunction) is the use of spacing, conventional signs (called punctuation marks), and certain typographical devices as aids to the understanding and correct reading of wri ...

apostrophe
following the consonant.
Vowel length In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most langua ...
is shown either by doubling of the character or, in Zuni, by adding a colon.


Feast days

;January *
San Ildefonso Pueblo San Ildefonso Pueblo (Tewa language, Tewa: P'ohwhóge Owingeh ’òhxʷógè ʔówîŋgè"where the water cuts through" ) is a census-designated place (CDP) in Santa Fe County, New Mexico, Santa Fe County, New Mexico, United States, and a feder ...

San Ildefonso Pueblo
Feast Day: 23 January. ; April * Texas Band of Yaqui Indians Easter Observance Dance of the Coyotes. ; May *
San Felipe Pueblo San Felipe Pueblo (Keresan languages, Eastern Keres: Katishtya, Navajo ''Tsédááʼkin'') is a census-designated place (CDP) in Sandoval County, New Mexico, Sandoval County, New Mexico, United States, and is located 10 miles (16 km) north of B ...
Feast Day: 1 May * Texas Band of Yaqui Indians 27 May: Recognition Celebrations ; June *
Ohkay Owingeh Pueblo Ohkay Owingeh potters at work, 1937. Pottery making was historically important in the economy of San Juan, and continues today at Ohkay Owingeh. Ohkay Owingeh (pronounced in Tewa , Navajo ''Kin Łichííʼ'') is a census-designated place (CDP) in ...
Feast Day: 24 June *
Sandia Pueblo Sandia Pueblo (; Tiwa: Tuf Shur Tia) is a federally recognized tribe of Native American Pueblo people inhabiting a reservation of the same name in the eastern Rio Grande Rift of central New Mexico ) , population_demonym = New Mexican ( ...
Feast Day: 13 June. * Ysleta / Isleta del Sur Pueblo Feast Day: 13 June. ; July *
Cochiti Pueblo Cochiti (; Keresan languages, Eastern Keresan: Kotyit ʰocʰi̥tʰ- "Forgotten", Navajo: ''Tǫ́ʼgaaʼ'') is a census-designated place (CDP) in Sandoval County, New Mexico, Sandoval County, New Mexico, United States. A historic pueblo of the Co ...
Feast Day: 14 July *
Santa Ana Pueblo Santa Ana Pueblo (Keresan languages, Eastern Keres: Tamaya ʰɑmɑjːɑ is a census-designated place (CDP) in Sandoval County, New Mexico, Sandoval County, New Mexico, United States. As of the United States Census, 2000, 2000 census, the CDP ha ...
Feast Day: 26 July ;August *
Picuris Pueblo Picuris Pueblo (; Tiwa language, Tiwa: P'įwweltha ’ī̃wːēltʰà is a historic pueblo in Taos County, New Mexico, Taos County, New Mexico, United States. It is also a census-designated place (CDP) and a federally recognized tribe of Native ...
Feast Day: 10 August *
Jemez Pueblo Jemez Pueblo (/ˈhɛmɛz/; tow, Walatowa, nv, Mąʼii Deeshgiizh) is a census-designated place A census-designated place (CDP) is a Place (United States Census Bureau), concentration of population defined by the United States Census Bureau for s ...
Feast Day: 2 August *
Santo Domingo Pueblo Kewa Pueblo (Keresan languages, Eastern Keres , Keres: ''Díiwʾi'', Navajo: ''Tó Hájiiloh''), formerly known as Santo Domingo Pueblo, is a census-designated place (CDP) in Sandoval County, New Mexico, Sandoval County, New Mexico, and a federally ...
Feast Day: 4 August *
Santa Clara Pueblo Santa Clara Pueblo (in Tewa language, Tewa: Kha'po Owingeh ɑ̀ʔp’òː ʔówîŋgè is a census-designated place (CDP) in Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, United States and a federally recognized tribe of Native ...
Feast Day : 12 August *
Zia Pueblo Zia Pueblo ( Eastern Keres: Tsi'ya , es, Pueblo de Zía) is a census-designated place A census-designated place (CDP) is a concentration of population defined by the United States Census Bureau The United States Census Bureau (USCB), offi ...
Feast Day: 15 August ;September *
Acoma Pueblo Acoma Pueblo () is a Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native Americans in the United States * Indigeno ...

Acoma Pueblo
Feast Day of San Esteban del Rey: 2 September *
Laguna Pueblo The Laguna Pueblo ( Western Keres: Kawaika ʰɑwɑjkʰɑ is a federally recognized tribe This is a list of federally recognized tribes in the contiguous United States of America The United States of America (USA), commonly known a ...
Feast Day: 19 September *
Taos Pueblo Taos Pueblo (or Pueblo de Taos) is an ancient pueblo belonging to a Taos-speaking ( Tiwa) Native American tribe of Puebloan people. It lies about north of the modern city of Taos, New Mexico Taos is a town in Taos County in the north-cen ...

Taos Pueblo
Feast Day: 30 September ; October * Nambe Pueblo Feast Day of St. Francis: 4 October ; November
Jemez Pueblo Jemez Pueblo (/ˈhɛmɛz/; tow, Walatowa, nv, Mąʼii Deeshgiizh) is a census-designated place A census-designated place (CDP) is a Place (United States Census Bureau), concentration of population defined by the United States Census Bureau for s ...
Feast Day: 12 November *
Tesuque Pueblo Tesuque (Tewa language, Tewa: Tetsuge Owingeh ) is a census-designated place (CDP) in Santa Fe County, New Mexico, Santa Fe County, New Mexico, United States. It is part of the Santa Fe, New Mexico, Metropolitan Statistical Area. The population wa ...

Tesuque Pueblo
Feast Day of San Diego: 12 November ; December *
Pojoaque Pueblo Pojoaque (; Tewa language, Tewa: P'osuwaege Owingeh ’òhsũ̀wæ̃̀gè ʔówîŋgè is a census-designated place (CDP) in Santa Fe County, New Mexico, Santa Fe County, New Mexico, United States. It is part of the Santa Fe, New Mexico Metropol ...
Feast Day: 12 December ; Variable *
Isleta Pueblo Pueblo of Isleta or Isleta Pueblo ( tix, Shiewhibak , kjq, Dîiw'a'ane ; nv, Naatoohó ) is an unincorporated community File:Entering Heinola, Minnesota.jpg, Sign at Heinola, Minnesota, Heinola, an unincorporated community in Otter Tail Cou ...
Feast Days


See also

*
Ancestral Puebloans The Ancestral Puebloans were an ancient Native American culture that spanned the present-day Four Corners boy on horseback in Monument Valley Monument Valley ( nv, Tsé Biiʼ Ndzisgaii, , meaning ''valley of the rocks'') is a region of ...
*
Arizona Tewa The Hopi-Tewa (also Tano, Southern Tewa, Hano, Thano, or Arizona Tewa) are a Tewa upright=1.25, Chaiwa, a Tewa girl with a butterfly whorl hairstyle, photographed by Edward S. Curtis in 1922 The Tewa are a linguistic group of Pueblo In t ...
*
Astialakwa Astialakwa ( Towa: ''Walatowa'', Navajo The Navajo (; English: Navaho; nv, Diné or ') are a Native American people of the Southwestern United States. At more than 300,000 enrolled tribal members , the Navajo Nation is the largest federa ...
*
Casas Grandes Casas Grandes (Spanish for ''Great Houses''; also known as Paquimé) is a prehistoric archaeological site in the northern Mexico, Mexican state of Chihuahua (state), Chihuahua. Construction of the site is attributed to the Mogollon culture. Casas ...
*
Hopi The Hopi are a Native American tribe In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It co ...

Hopi
*
Keresan languages Keresan (), also Keres (), is a Native American language Over a thousand Indigenous languages An indigenous language or autochthonous language, is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including ...
*
Navajo people The Navajo (; British English: Navaho; nv, Diné or ') are a Native American people Native Americans, also known as American Indians, First Americans, Indigenous Americans and #Terminology differences, other terms, are the Indigenous peop ...
*
Pueblo Revolt The Pueblo Revolt of 1680, also known as Popé's Rebellion or Popay's Rebellion, was an uprising of most of the indigenous Pueblo people The Puebloans or Pueblo peoples, are Native Americans in the Southwestern United States who share common ...
*
Tanoan languages Tanoan , also Kiowa–Tanoan or Tanoan–Kiowa, is a family of languages spoken by indigenous peoples in present-day New Mexico, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas. Most of the languages – Tiwa languages, Tiwa (Taos, Picuris, Southern Tiwa), Tewa la ...
*
Tewa people The Tewa are a linguistic group of Pueblo In the Southwestern United States The southwestern United States, also known as the American Southwest or simply the Southwest, is a geographic and cultural region of the United States that gene ...
*
Tiwa languages Tiwa (Spanish language, Spanish ''Tigua'', also ''E-nagh-magh'') is a group of two, possibly three, related Tanoan languages spoken by the Tiwa people, Tiwa Puebloan peoples, Pueblo, and possibly Piro Pueblo, in the United States, U.S. state of N ...
* Carol Jean Vigil *
Zuni people The Zuni ( zun, A:shiwi; formerly spelled ''Zuñi'') are Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native Am ...


References

* Fletcher, Richard A. (1984). ''Saint James' Catapult: The Life and Times of Diego Gelmírez of Santiago de Compostela''. Oxford University Press.
on-line text, ch. 1
* Florence Hawley Ellis
An Outline of Laguna Pueblo History and Social Organization
' Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, Vol. 15, No. 4 (Winter, 1959), pp. 325–347
Indian Pueblo Cultural Center
in Albuquerque, NM offers information from the Pueblo people about their history, culture, and visitor etiquette. * Gram, John R. (2015). ''Education at the Edge of Empire: Negotiating Pueblo Identity in New Mexico's Indian Boarding Schools.'' Seattle: University of Washington Press. * Paul Horgan, ''Great River: The Rio Grande in North American History''. Vol. 1, Indians and Spain. Vol. 2, Mexico and the United States. 2 Vols. in 1. Wesleyan University Press 1991. * ''Pueblo People, Ancient Traditions Modern Lives'', Marica Keegan, Clear Light Publishers, Santa Fe, New Mexico, 1998, profusely illustrated hardback, *
Elsie Clews Parsons Elsie Worthington Clews Parsons (November 27, 1875 – December 19, 1941) was an American anthropologistAn anthropologist is a person engaged in the practice of anthropology. Anthropology is the study of aspects of humans within past and present ...
, ''Pueblo Indian Religion'' (2 vols., Chicago, 1939). * Ryan D, A. L. Kroeber
Elsie Clews Parsons
' American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol. 45, No. 2, Centenary of the American Ethnological Society (Apr. – Jun. 1943), pp. 244–255 * Parthiv S, ed. ''Handbook of North American Indians'', Vol. 9, Southwest. Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1976. *


External links

*

', Pueblo of Laguna
Pueblo of Isleta

Pueblo of Laguna

Pueblo of Sandia

Pueblo of Santa Ana
* Th
SMU-in-Taos Research Publications
digital collection contains nine anthropological and archaeological monographs and edited volumes representing the past several decades of research at the SMU-in-Taos (Fort Burgwin) campus near Taos, New Mexico, includin
Papers on Tao's archaeology
an
Tao's archeology
{{authority control Oasisamerica cultures Southwest tribes Native American tribes in Arizona Native American tribes in New Mexico
Native American tribes in Texas *Native American tribes — in Texas. {{DEFAULTSORT:Native American Tribes In Texas Native American history of Texas Native American tribes by state, Texas History of Texas Texas ...
Native American history of New Mexico