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In marketing, promotion refers to any type of
marketing communicationMarketing communications (MC, marcom(s), marcomm(s) or simply communication(s)) refers to the use of different marketing channels and tools in combination.Tomse, & Snoj, 2014 Marketing communication channel Image:Communications men.jpg, 220px, Old te ...
used to inform
target audience A target audience is the intended audience An audience is a group of people who participate in a show or encounter a work of art A work of art, artwork, art piece, piece of art or art object is an artistic creation of aesthetic Aesthet ...
s of the relative merits of a product, service, brand or issue, most of the time persuasive in nature. It helps marketers to create a distinctive place in customers' mind, it can be either a
cognitive Cognition () refers to "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses". It encompasses many aspects of intellectual function Intellectual functioning refers to the "general men ...
or emotional route. The aim of promotion is to increase
awareness Awareness is the state of being conscious of something. More specifically, it is the ability to directly know and perceive, to feel, or to be cognizant of events. Another definition describes it as a state wherein a subject is aware of some infor ...

awareness
, create interest, generate sales or create
brand loyalty Brand loyalty is the positive feelings towards a brand A brand is a name, term, design, symbol or any other feature that identifies one seller's good or service as distinct from those of other sellers. Brands are used in business Business ...
. It is one of the basic elements of the market mix, which includes the four Ps, i.e., product, price, place, and promotion. Promotion is also one of the elements in the
promotional mix In marketing Marketing is the process of intentionally stimulating demand for and purchases of goods and services; potentially including selection of a target audience; selection of certain attributes or themes to emphasize in advertising; oper ...
or promotional plan. These are
personal selling Personal selling occurs when a sales representative meets with a potential client for the purpose of transacting a sale. Many sales representatives rely on a sequential sales process that typically includes nine steps. Some sales representatives ...
,
advertising Advertising is a marketing Marketing is the process of intentionally stimulating demand for and purchases of goods and services; potentially including selection of a target audience; selection of certain attributes or themes to emphasi ...

advertising
,
sales promotion Sales promotion is one of the elements of the promotional mix. The primary elements in the promotional mix are advertising, sales, personal selling, direct marketing and publicity/public relations. Sales promotion uses both media and non-media mark ...

sales promotion
,
direct marketing Direct marketing is a form of communicating an offer, where organizations communicate directly to a Target market, pre-selected customer and supply a method for a direct response. Among practitioners, it is also known as ''direct response ma ...
publicity In marketing Marketing is the process of intentionally stimulating demand for and purchases of goods and services; potentially including selection of a target audience; selection of certain attributes or themes to emphasize in advertising; ope ...

publicity
,
word of mouth Word of mouth or ''viva voce'', is the passing of information Information is processed, organised and structured data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of information, often numeric. In a more technical sense, data ...
and may also include event marketing,
exhibition An exhibition, in the most general sense, is an organized presentation and display of a selection of items. In practice, exhibitions usually occur within a cultural or educational setting such as a museum A museum ( ; plural museums or, ...

exhibition
s and trade shows. A promotional plan specifies how much attention to pay to each of the elements in the promotional mix, and what proportion of the budget should be allocated to each element. Promotion covers the methods of communication that a marketer uses to provide information about its product. Information can be both
verbal Verbal may refer to: People *Verbal (rapper) Verbal (born August 21, 1975) is a Japanese hip hop musician, recording artist, music video director and record producer who debuted in 1998 as a member of the hip hop group M-Flo. He is a third gener ...

verbal
and
visual The visual system comprises the sensory organ A sense is a biological system A biological system is a complex network which connects several biologically relevant entities. Biological organization spans several scales and are determined b ...

visual
.


Etymology and usage

The term ''promotion'' derives from the Old French, ''promocion'' meaning to "move forward", "push onward" or to "advance in rank or position" which in turn, comes from the Latin, ''promotionem'' meaning "a moving forward". The word entered the English language in the 14th century. The use of the term ''promotion'' to refer to "advertising or publicity" is very modern and is first recorded in 1925. It may be a contraction of a related term, ''sales promotion,'' which is one element in the larger set of tools used in marketing communications. The terms, ''promotion'' and ''marketing communications'' can be used synonymously, but in practice, the latter is more widely used.


Purpose

There are three objectives of promotion. These are: # To present information to consumers and others. # To increase
demand In economics Economics () is a social science Social science is the branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant ...

demand
.instead of spending on free samples, giving a larger amount to a paying customer to whom an expiration date matching that of the small size promotes self-medicating # To differentiate a product. The purpose of a promotion and thus its promotional plan can have a wide range, including: sales increases, new product acceptance, creation of
brand equity Brand equity, in marketing Marketing is the process of intentionally stimulating demand for and purchases of goods and services; potentially including selection of a target audience; selection of certain attributes or themes to emphasize in adv ...
, positioning, competitive retaliations, or creation of a
corporate image 200px, Replica of an East Indiaman of the Dutch East India Company/United East India Company (VOC). A corporate identity or corporate image is the manner in which a corporation A corporation is an organization—usually a group of peop ...
. The term 'promotion' tends to be used internally by the marketing function. To the public or the market, phrases like "
special offer Sales promotion is a short-term incentive to initiate trial or purchase. Sales promotion is one of the elements of the promotional mix. The primary elements in the promotional mix are advertising, sales, personal selling, direct marketing and publ ...
" are more common. Examples of a fully integrated, long-term, and large-scale promotion are My Coke Rewards in the USA or Coke Zone in the UK and
Pepsi Stuff Pepsi Stuff was a major loyalty program launched by PepsiCo PepsiCo, Inc. (commonly known as the Pepsi Company) is an American multinational corporation, multinational food, snack, and beverage corporation headquartered in Harrison, New York, ...
.


Types

There have been different ways to promote a product in person or with different media. Both person and media can be either physically real or virtual/electronic.


In a physical environment

Promotions can be held in physical environments at special events such as
concert A concert is a live music Music is the of arranging s in time through the of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the aspects of all human societies. General include common elements such as (which governs and ), ( ...

concert
s, festivals,
trade show A trade fair (trade show, trade exhibition, or trade exposition) is an exhibition organized so that companies A company, abbreviated as co., is a legal entity In law, a legal person is any person A person (plural people or persons) i ...
s, and in the field, such as in grocery or department stores. Interactions in the field allow immediate purchases. The purchase of a product can be
incentive An incentive is something that motivates or drives one to do something or behave in a certain way. There are two types of incentives that affect human decision making. These are: intrinsic and extrinsic incentives. Intrinsic incentives are ...
with discounts (i.e., coupons), free items, or a contest. This method is used to increase the sales of a given product. Interactions between the brand and the customer are performed by a
brand ambassador A brand ambassador (sometimes also called a corporate ambassador) is a person who is employed by an organization An organization, or organisation (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth English; American and British English s ...

brand ambassador
or
promotional model A promotional model is a Model (person), model hired to drive demand, consumer demand for a product, service, brand, or concept by directly interacting with potential customers. Most promotional models are conventionally attractive in physical appe ...
who represents the product in physical environments. Brand ambassadors or promotional models are hired by a
marketing companyThe advertising industry is the global Industry (economics), industry of public relation and marketing companies, media services and advertising agencies - largely controlled today by just a few international holding companies (WPP plc, Omnicom, Publ ...
, which in turn is booked by the brand to represent the product or service. Person-to-person interaction, as opposed to media-to-person involvement, establishes connections that add another dimension to promotion. Building a community through promoting goods and services can lead to
brand loyalty Brand loyalty is the positive feelings towards a brand A brand is a name, term, design, symbol or any other feature that identifies one seller's good or service as distinct from those of other sellers. Brands are used in business Business ...
.


Traditional media

Examples of traditional media include print media such as
newspaper A newspaper is a periodical Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of serial Serial may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media The presentation of works in sequential segments ...

newspaper
s and magazines, electronic media such as radio and
television Television, sometimes shortened to TV or telly, is a telecommunication Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire A wire is a single usually cylindrical A cylinder (from Gre ...

television
, and outdoor media such as banner or
billboard A billboard (also called a hoarding in the UK and many other parts of the world) is a large outdoor advertising Out-of-home (OOH) advertising, also called outdoor advertising, outdoor media, and out-of-home media, is advertising experienced ...

billboard
advertisements. Each of these platforms provide ways for brands to reach consumers with advertisements.


Digital media

Digital media, which includes Internet,
social networking A social networking service (also social networking site or social media) is an online platform which people use to build social networks or social relationships with other people who share similar personal or career interests, activities, back ...
and
social media Social media are interactive technologies that facilitate the creation Creation may refer to: Religion * Creation ''ex nihilo'', the concept that matter was created by God out of nothing * Creation myth A creation myth (or cosmogonic myth) ...

social media
sites, is a modern way for brands to interact with consumers as it releases news, information and advertising from the technological limits of print and broadcast infrastructures. Digital media is currently the most effective way for brands to reach their consumers on a daily basis. Over 2.7 billion people are online globally, which is about 40% of the world's population. 67% of all Internet users globally use social media.
Mass communication Mass communication is the process of imparting and exchanging information through mass media to large segments of the population. It is usually understood for relating to various forms of media, as its technologies are used for the dissemination ...
has led to modern marketing strategies to continue focusing on brand awareness, large distributions and heavy promotions. The fast-paced environment of digital media presents new methods for promotion to utilize new tools now available through technology. With the rise of technological advances, promotions can be done outside of local contexts and across geographic borders to reach a greater number of potential consumers. The goal of a promotion is then to reach the most people possible in a time efficient and a cost efficient manner. Social media, as a modern marketing tool, offers opportunities to reach larger audiences in an interactive way. These interactions allow for conversation rather than simply educating the customer.
Facebook Facebook is an American online social media and social networking service owned by Meta Platforms. Founded in 2004 by Mark Zuckerberg with fellow Harvard College students and roommates Eduardo Saverin, Andrew McCollum, Dustin Moskovitz, an ...

Facebook
,
Snapchat Snapchat is an American multimedia Multimedia is a form of communication that combines different content forms such as text Text may refer to: Written word * Text (literary theory) Text may refer t ...
,
Instagram Instagram is an American photo 396x396px, '' View from the Window at Le Gras'' (1826 or 1827), by Nicéphore Niépce, the earliest known surviving photograph of a real-world scene, made with a camera obscura. Original (left) & Film coloriz ...

Instagram
,
Twitter Twitter is an American microblogging Microblogging is an online Broadcasting, broadcast medium that exists as a specific form of blogging. A micro-blog differs from a traditional blog in that its content is typically smaller in both actu ...

Twitter
,
Pinterest Pinterest is an American image sharing and social media service designed to enable saving and discovery of information (specifically "ideas") on the internet using images and, on a smaller scale, animated GIFs and videos, in the form of Bulletin ...

Pinterest
,
Tumblr Tumblr (stylized as tumblr and pronounced "tumbler") is an American microblogging Microblogging is an online Broadcasting, broadcast medium that exists as a specific form of blogging. A micro-blog differs from a traditional blog in that its con ...

Tumblr
, as well as alternate audio and media sites like
SoundCloud SoundCloud is an online audio distribution platform and music sharing website based in Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its ...
and Mixcloud allow users to interact an
promote music online
with little to no cost. You can purchase and buy ad space as well as potential customer interactions stores as , Followers, and clicks to your page with the use of third parties. As a participatory media culture, social media platforms or social networking sites are forms of mass communication that, through media technologies, allow large amounts of product and distribution of content to reach the largest audience possible. /sup> However, there are downsides to virtual promotions as servers, systems, and websites may crash, fail, or become overloaded with information. You also can stand risk of losing uploaded information and storage and at a use can also be effected by a number of outside variables. Brands can explore different strategies to keep consumers engaged. One popular tool is branded entertainment, or creating some sort of social game for the user. The benefits of such a platform include submersing the user in the brand's content. Users will be more likely to absorb and not grow tired of advertisements if they are, for example, embedded in the game as opposed to a bothersome pop-up ad. Personalizing advertisements is another strategy that can work well for brands, as it can increase the likelihood that the brand will be anthropomorphized by the consumer. Personalization increases click-through intentions when data has been collected about the consumer.Aguirre, Elizabeth; Mahr, Dominik; Grewal, Dhruv; de Ruyter, Ko; Wetzels, Martin (2015-03-01). "Unraveling the Personalization Paradox: The Effect of Information Collection and Trust-Building Strategies on Online Advertisement Effectiveness". ''Journal of Retailing'' 91 (1): 34–49. doi:10.1016/j.jretai.2014.09.005. Brands must navigate the line between effectively promoting their content to consumers on social media and becoming too invasive in consumers' lives. Vivid Internet ads that include devices such as
animation Animation is a method in which figures Figure may refer to: General *A shape, drawing, depiction, or geometric configuration *Figure (wood), wood appearance *Figure (music), distinguished from musical motif *Noise figure, in telecommunication ...

animation
might increase a user's initial attention to the ad. However, this may be seen as a distraction to the user if they are trying to absorb a different part of the site such as reading text. Additionally, when brands make the effort of overtly collecting data about their consumers and then personalizing their ads to them, the consumer's relationship with the advertisements, following this data collection, is frequently positive. However, when data is covertly collected, consumers can quickly feel like the company betrayed their trust. It is important for brands to utilize personalization in their ads, without making the consumer feel vulnerable or that their
privacy Privacy (, ) is the ability of an individual or group to seclude themselves or information about themselves, and thereby express themselves selectively. When something is private to a person, it usually means that something is inherently special ...
has been betrayed.


Sponsorship

Sponsorship generally involves supplying resources (such as money) to a group or an event in exchange for advertising or publicity. Company will often help fund athletes, teams, or events in exchange for having their logo prominently visible.


See also


References

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