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Portuguese Angola refers to
Angola , national_anthem = "Angola Avante "Angola Avante" (, ) is the national anthem A national anthem is a song that officially symbolizes a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often r ...

Angola
during the historic period when it was a territory under Portuguese rule in southwestern
Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent, after Asia in both cases. At about 30.3 million km2 (11.7 million square miles) including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth's total surface area and 20% of i ...

Africa
. In the same context, it was known until 1951 as Portuguese West Africa (officially the State of West Africa). Initially ruling along the coast and engaging in military conflicts with the
Kingdom of Kongo Kingdom may refer to: Monarchy * A type of monarchy A monarchy is a form of government in which a person, the monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. Li ...
, in the 18th century Portugal gradually managed to colonise the interior Highlands. However, full control of the entire territory was not achieved until the beginning of the 20th century, when agreements with other European powers during the
Scramble for Africa The Scramble for Africa, also called the Partition of Africa, or the Conquest of Africa, was the invasion, occupation, division, and colonisation of Africa, colonization of most of Africa by seven Western Europe, Western European powers during a ...
fixed the colony's interior borders. On June 11, 1951 the status was upgraded to Overseas Province of Angola and finally in 1973, State of Angola. In 1975, Portuguese Angola became the independent
People's Republic of Angola The People's Republic of Angola () was the self-declared socialist state A socialist state, socialist republic, or socialist country, sometimes referred to as a workers' state or workers' republic, is a sovereign Sovereign is a title which can ...
.


History

The history of Portuguese presence on the territory of contemporary Angola lasted from the arrival of the
explorer Exploration is the act of searching for the purpose of discovery Discovery may refer to: * Discovery (observation) Discovery is the act of detecting something new, or something previously unrecognized as meaningful. With reference to scienc ...
Diogo Cão Diogo Cão (), anglicised as Diogo Cam and also known as Diego Cam, was a Portuguese explorer Exploration is the act of searching for the purpose of discovery of information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertai ...

Diogo Cão
in 1484 until the decolonization of the territory in November 1975. During these five centuries, several entirely different situations have to be distinguished.


Colony

When
Diogo Cão Diogo Cão (), anglicised as Diogo Cam and also known as Diego Cam, was a Portuguese explorer Exploration is the act of searching for the purpose of discovery of information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertai ...

Diogo Cão
and other explorers reached the
Kongo Kingdom The Kingdom of Kongo ( Kikongo: ''Kongo dia Ntotila'' or ''Wene wa Kongo;'' Portuguese: ''Reino do Congo'') was a kingdom located in central Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent, after Asia in bo ...
at the end of the 15th century, Angola as such did not exist. Its present territory comprised a number of separate peoples, some organized as kingdoms or tribal federations of varying sizes. The Portuguese were interested in trade, principally in slaves. They therefore maintained a peaceful and mutually profitable relationship with the rulers and nobles of the Kongo Kingdom, whom they
Christianised Christianization ( or Christianisation) is the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire groups at once. Various strategies and techniques were employed in Christianization campaigns from Late Antiquity and througho ...
and taught
Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portuguese language ** Portug ...

Portuguese
, allowing them a share of the benefits from the slave trade. They established small trading posts on the lower Congo, in the area of the present
Democratic RepublicA democratic republic is a form of government operating on principles adopted from a republic and a democracy. Rather than being a cross between two entirely separate systems, democratic republics may function on principles shared by both republics a ...

Democratic Republic
. A more important trading settlement on the Atlantic coast was erected at
Soyo Soyo (formerly known as ''Santo António do Zaire'') is a city, with a population of 200,920 (2014 census),Citypopulat ...
in the territory of the Kongo Kingdom. It is now Angola's northernmost town, apart from the Cabinda exclave. In 1575, the settlement of
Luanda Luanda () is the Capital (political), capital and largest city in Angola. It is Angola's primary port, and its major Angola#Economy, industrial, Angola#Culture, cultural and Angola#Demographics, urban centre. Located on Angola's northern Atla ...

Luanda
was established on the coast south of the Kongo Kingdom, and in the 17th century the settlement of
Benguela Benguela (; Umbundu: Luombaka) is a city in western Angola, capital of Benguela Province. Benguela is one of Angola's most populous cities with a population of 555,124 in the city and 561,775 in the municipality, at the 2014 census. History Port ...

Benguela
, even farther to the south. From 1580 to the 1820s, well over a million people from present-day Angola were exported as slaves to the so-called
New World The "New World" is a term for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas."America." ''The Oxford Companion to the English Language'' (). McArthur, Tom, ed., 1992. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 33: " 6c: from ...
, mainly to Brazil, but also to North America. According to Oliver and Atmore, "for 200 years, the colony of Angola developed essentially as a gigantic slave-trading enterprise". Portuguese people sailors, explorers, soldiers and merchants had a long-standing policy of conquest and establishment of military and trading outposts in Africa with Portuguese conquest of Ceuta, the conquest of Muslim-ruled Ceuta in 1415 and the establishment of bases in present-day
Morocco ) , image_map = Morocco (orthographic projection, WS claimed).svg , map_caption = Location of Morocco in northwest Africa.Dark green: Undisputed territory of Morocco.Lighter green: Western Sahara, a United Nations lis ...

Morocco
and the
Gulf of Guinea pt, Golfo da Guiné , native_name_lang= , image= Gulf of Guinea (English).jpg , caption = Gulf of Guinea map showing the chain of islands formed by the Cameroon line The Cameroon line (, ) is a chain of volcanoes. It includes islands in the G ...
. The Portuguese had
Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...
beliefs and their military expeditions included from the very beginning the
conversion Conversion or convert may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media * Conversion (Doctor Who audio), "Conversion" (''Doctor Who'' audio), an episode of the audio drama ''Cyberman'' * Conversion (Stargate Atlantis), "Conversion" (''Stargate Atlantis ...
of foreign peoples. In the 17th century, conflicting economic interests led to a military confrontation with the Kongo Kingdom. Portugal defeated the Kongo Kingdom in the
Battle of Mbwila At the Battle of Mbwila (or Battle of Ambuila or Battle of Mbuila or Battle of Ulanga) on October 29, 1665, Kingdom of Portugal, Portuguese forces defeated the forces of the Kingdom of Kongo and decapitated king António I of Kongo, also called N ...
on October 29, 1665, but suffered a disastrous defeat at the
Battle of Kitombo The Battle of Kitombo was a military engagement between forces of the BaKongo state of Soyo, formerly a province of the Kingdom of Kongo, and the Portuguese Angola, Portuguese colony of Angola on 18 October 1670. Earlier in the year a Portuguese e ...
when they tried to invade Kongo in 1670. Control of most of the central highlands was achieved in the 18th century. Further reaching attempts at conquering the interior were undertaken in the 19th century However, full Portuguese administrative control of the entire territory was not achieved until the beginning of the 20th century. In 1884, the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
, which up to that time refused to acknowledge that Portugal possessed territorial rights north of
Ambriz Ambriz is a village and municipality in Bengo Province, Angola. It is located 127 km from the town of Caxito. It borders the municipality of N'zeto, Zaire Province, to the North and the municipality of Dande, to the South. Demographics T ...
, concluded a treaty recognising Portuguese sovereignty over both banks of the lower Congo. However, the treaty, meeting with opposition there and in
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inh ...

Germany
, was not ratified. Agreements concluded with the
Congo Free State ''(Work and Progress) , national_anthem = Vers l'avenir ''Vers l'avenir'' (, "Towards the future"), less commonly known by its Dutch language, Dutch title ''Naar wijd en zijd'', is a Belgium, Belgian nationalist song which was also the ...
, the
German Empire The German Empire or the Imperial State of Germany,, officially '.Herbert Tuttle Herbert Tuttle (1846–1894) was an American historian. Biography Herbert Tuttle was born in Bennington, Vermont Bennington is a New England town, town ...
and
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...
in 1885–1886 fixed the limits of the province, except in the south-east, where the frontier between
Barotseland Barotseland (Lozi language, Lozi: Mubuso Bulozi) is a Kingdom between Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Zambia and Angola. It is the homeland of the Lozi people or ''Barotse'', or Malozi, who are a unified group of over 20 individual formerly dive ...

Barotseland
( north-west Rhodesia) and Angola was determined by an Anglo-Portuguese agreement of 1891 and the arbitration award of King Vittorio Emanuele III of Italy in 1905. During the period of Portuguese colonial rule of Angola, cities, towns and trading posts were founded, railways were opened, ports were built, and a Westernised society was being gradually developed, despite the deep traditional tribal heritage in Angola which the minority European rulers were neither willing nor interested in eradicating. Since the 1920s, Portugal's administration showed an increasing interest in developing Angola's economy and social infrastructure.More Power to the People, 2006.


The beginning of the war

In 1951, the Portuguese Colony of Angola became an
overseas province Overseas province ( pt, província ultramarina) was a designation used by Portugal to describe its non-continental holdings. History In the early the 19th century, Portuguese overseas territories were referred to as "overseas dominions", but admini ...
of Portugal. In the late 1950s the
National Front for the Liberation of Angola The National Front for the Liberation of Angola ( pt, Frente Nacional de Libertação de Angola; Abbreviation, abbreviated FNLA) is a political party and former militant organisation that fought for Angolan independence from Portugal in the Angol ...
(FNLA) and the People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola (
MPLA The People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola, for some years called the People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola – Labour Party ( pt, Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola – Partido do Trabalho, MPLA), is a left-wing politi ...
) began to organize strategies and action plans to fight Portuguese rule and the remunerated system which affected many of the native African people from the countryside, who were relocated from their homes and made to perform compulsory work, almost always unskilled hard labour, in an environment of
economic boom The business cycle, also known as the economic cycle or trade cycle, are the fluctuations of gross domestic product Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all the final goods and services produced in a sp ...
. Organised
guerrilla warfare Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare Irregular warfare (IW) is defined in United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States ...
began in 1961, the same year that a law was passed to improve the working conditions of the largely unskilled native workforce, which was demanding more rights. In 1961, the Portuguese Government indeed abolished a number of basic legal provisions which discriminated against black people, like the ''Estatuto do Indigenato'' (Decree-Law 43: 893 of September 6, 1961). However, the conflict, conversely known as the Colonial War or the War of Liberation, erupted in the North of the territory when UPA rebels based in
Republic of the Congo The Republic of the Congo ( french: République du Congo, mkw, Repubilika ya Kôngo), also known as Congo-Brazzaville, the Congo Republic or simply either Congo or the Congo, is a country located in the western coast of Central Africa ...
massacred both white and black civilians in surprise attacks in the countryside. After visiting the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization aiming to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harm ...

United Nations
, rebel leader
Holden Roberto Holden Álvaro Roberto (January 12, 1923 – August 2, 2007) was an Angolan revolutionary politician and freedom fighter who founded and led the National Liberation Front of Angola (FNLA) from 1962 to 1999. His memoirs are unfinished. Early li ...

Holden Roberto
returned to
Kinshasa Kinshasa (; ; ln, Kinsásá), formerly Léopoldville ( nl, Leopoldstad), is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase ...

Kinshasa
and organised
Bakongo The Kongo people ( kg, Bisi Kongo, , singular: ; also , singular: ) are a Bantu Bantu may refer to: *Bantu languages, constitute the largest sub-branch of the Niger–Congo languages *Bantu peoples, over 400 peoples of Africa speaking a Bantu ...
militants. Holden Roberto launched an incursion into Angola on March 15, 1961, leading 4,000 to 5,000 militants. His forces took farms, government outposts, and trading centres, killing everyone they encountered. At least 1,000 whites and an unknown number of blacks were killed. Commenting on the incursion, Roberto said, "this time the slaves did not cower". They massacred everything. The effective military in Angola were composed of approximately 6,500 men: 5,000 black Africans and 1,500 white Europeans sent from Portugal. After these events the
Portuguese Government , border = Central , image = , caption = Coat of Arms of the Portuguese Republic , date = , state = Portuguese Republic Portugal (), officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Po ...
, under the
dictatorial , the Italian dictator from 1922 to 1943 and Adolf Hitler, the German dictator from 1933 to 1945 A dictator is a political leader who possesses autocracy, absolute power. A dictatorship is a state ruled by one dictator or by a small clique. ...
'' Estado Novo'' regime of
António de Oliveira Salazar António de Oliveira Salazar (, , ; 28 April 1889 – 27 July 1970) was a Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language ...
and later
Marcelo Caetano Marcello José das Neves Alves Caetano (; 17 August 1906 – 26 October 1980) was a Portuguese politician and scholar. He was the second and last leader of the Estado Novo (Portugal), Estado Novo after succeeding António de Oliveira Salazar, ...
, sent thousands of troops from Europe to perform counterterrorism and counterinsurgency operations. In 1963 Holden Roberto established the
Revolutionary Government of Angola in ExileImage:Bandeira da FNLA.svg, The Revolutionary Government of Angola in Exile flew the flag of the FNLA The Revolutionary Government of Angola in Exile ( pt, Govêrno revolucionário de Angola no exílio, or GRAE) was a self-proclaimed government-in-ex ...
(Portuguese: ''Governo revolucionário de Angola no exílio'', GRAE) in
Kinshasa Kinshasa (; ; ln, Kinsásá), formerly Léopoldville ( nl, Leopoldstad), is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase ...

Kinshasa
in an attempt to claim on the international scene the sole representation of forces fighting Portuguese rule in Angola. The National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (
UNITA The National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA, pt, União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola) is the second-largest political party in Angola. Founded in 1966, UNITA fought alongside the Popular Movement for the L ...
) also started pro-independence guerrilla operations in 1966. Despite the overall military superiority of the
Portuguese Army The Portuguese Army ( pt, Exército Português) is the land component of the Armed Forces of Portugal and is also its largest branch. It is charged with the defence of Portugal Portugal (), officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, Repúb ...
in the Angolan theatre, the independence guerrilla movements were never fully defeated. However, by 1972, after the ''
Frente Leste Frente Leste (Portuguese for Eastern Front) was the name of the theater of Portuguese Armed Forces' anti-guerrilla operations in the East of Angola (Portugal), Angola (by then a Portuguese overseas territory), during the Portuguese Colonial War (19 ...
'', a successful military campaign in the East of Angola, complemented by a pragmatic hearts and minds policy, the military conflict in Angola was effectively won for the Portuguese. From 1966 to 1970, the pro-independence guerrilla movement MPLA expanded their previously-limited insurgency operations to the East of Angola. This vast countryside area was far away from the main urban centres and close to foreign countries where the guerrillas were able to take shelter. The UNITA, a smaller pro-independence guerrilla organisation established in the East, supported the MPLA. Until 1970, the combined guerrilla forces of MPLA and UNITA in the East Front were successful in pressuring
Portuguese Armed Forces The Portuguese Armed Forces ( pt, Forças Armadas) are the military of Portugal. They include the Armed Forces General Staff (Portugal), General Staff of the Armed Forces, the other unified bodies and the three service branches: Portuguese Navy ...
(FAP) in the area to the point that the guerrillas were able to cross the
Cuanza River The Cuanza River, also known as the Coanza, the Quanza, and the Kwanza, is one of the longest rivers of Africa, rivers in Angola. It empties into the Atlantic Ocean just south of the national capital Luanda. Geography The river is navigable for ab ...
and could threaten the territory of Bié, which included an important urban centre in the agricultural, commercial and industrial town of Silva Porto. In 1970, the guerrilla movement decided to reinforce the Eastern Front by relocating troops and armament from the North to the East.


Campaign in the Eastern Front

In 1971, the FAP started a successful counter-insurgency military campaign that expelled the three guerrilla movements operating in the East to beyond the frontiers of Angola. The last guerrillas lost hundreds of soldiers and left tons of equipment behind, disbanding chaotically to neighbouring countries or, in some cases, joining or surrendering to the Portuguese. In order to gain the confidence of the local rural populations, and to create conditions for their permanent and productive settlement in the region, the Portuguese authorities organised massive vaccination campaigns, medical check-ups, and water, sanitation and alimentary infrastructure as a way to better contribute to the economic and social development of the people and dissociate the population from the guerrillas and their influence. On 31 December 1972, the Development Plan of the East (''Plano de Desenvolvimento do Leste'') included in its first stage 466 development enterprises (150 were completed and 316 were being built). Nineteen health centres had been built and 26 were being constructed. 51 new schools were operating and 82 were being constructed António Pires Nunes
Angola Vitória Militar no Leste
/ref>


Federated state

In June 1972, the Portuguese National Assembly approved a new version of its Organic Law on Overseas Territories, in order to grant its African overseas territories a wider political autonomy and to tone down the increasing dissent both internally and abroad. It changed Angola's status from an
overseas province Overseas province ( pt, província ultramarina) was a designation used by Portugal to describe its non-continental holdings. History In the early the 19th century, Portuguese overseas territories were referred to as "overseas dominions", but admini ...
to an “autonomous state” with authority over some internal affairs, while Portugal was to retain responsibility for defense and foreign relations. However, the intent was by no means to grant Angolan independence, but was instead to "win the hearts and minds" of the Angolans, convincing them to remain permanently a part of an intercontinental Portugal. Renaming Angola (like
Mozambique Mozambique (), officially the Republic of Mozambique ( pt, Moçambique or , ; ny, Mozambiki; sw, Msumbiji; ts, Muzambhiki), is a country located in Southeastern Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean The Indian Ocean is the third-lar ...
) in November 1972 (in effect 1 January 1973) "Estado" (state) was part of an apparent effort to give the
Portuguese Empire The Portuguese Empire ( pt, Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (''Ultramar Português'') or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (''Império Colonial Português''), was composed of the overseas colonies In political scie ...
a sort of federal structure, conferring some degree of autonomy to the "states". In fact, the structural changes and increase in autonomy were extremely limited. The government of the "State of Angola" was the same as the old provincial government, except for some cosmetic changes to personnel and titles. As in Portugal itself, the government of the "State of Angola" was entirely composed of people aligned with the ''Estado Novo'' regime's establishment. While these changes were taking place, a few guerrilla nuclei stayed active inside the territory, and continued to campaign outside of Angola against Portuguese rule. The idea of having the independence movements take part in the political structure of the revamped territory's organization was absolutely unthinkable (on both sides).


Carnation Revolution and independence

However, the Portuguese authorities were unable to defeat the guerrillas as a whole during the
Portuguese Colonial War #REDIRECT Portuguese Colonial War #REDIRECT Portuguese Colonial War#REDIRECT Portuguese Colonial War The Portuguese Colonial War ( pt, Guerra Colonial Portuguesa), also known in Portugal as the Overseas War () or in the Portuguese Empire, former ...
, particularly in
Portuguese Guinea Portuguese Guinea ( pt, Guiné), called the Overseas Province of Guinea from 1951 until 1972 and then State of Guinea from 1972 until 1974, was a West Africa West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of . The defines Western Af ...

Portuguese Guinea
, and suffered heavy casualties in the 13 years of conflict. Throughout the war Portugal faced increasing dissent, arms embargoes and other punitive sanctions from most of the international community. The war was becoming even more unpopular in Portuguese society due to its length and costs, the worsening of diplomatic relations with other United Nations members, and the role it played as a factor in the perpetuation of the '' Estado Novo'' regime. It was this escalation that would lead directly to the mutiny of members of the FAP in the
Carnation Revolution The Carnation Revolution ( pt, Revolução dos Cravos), also known as the 25 April ( pt, 25 de Abril, links=no), was initially a 25 April 1974 military coup A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly ...
of April 1974 – an event that would lead to the independence of all of the former Portuguese colonies in Africa. On April 25, 1974, the Portuguese Government of the '' Estado Novo'' regime under
Marcelo Caetano Marcello José das Neves Alves Caetano (; 17 August 1906 – 26 October 1980) was a Portuguese politician and scholar. He was the second and last leader of the Estado Novo (Portugal), Estado Novo after succeeding António de Oliveira Salazar, ...
, the
corporatist Corporatism is a political ideology which advocates the organization of society by Corporate group (sociology), corporate groups, such as agricultural, labour, military, scientific, or guild associations, on the basis of their common interests. ...
and
authoritarian Authoritarianism is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a mon ...
regime established by
António de Oliveira Salazar António de Oliveira Salazar (, , ; 28 April 1889 – 27 July 1970) was a Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language ...
that had ruled Portugal since the 1930s, was overthrown in the
Carnation Revolution The Carnation Revolution ( pt, Revolução dos Cravos), also known as the 25 April ( pt, 25 de Abril, links=no), was initially a 25 April 1974 military coup A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly ...
, a military uprising in
Lisbon Lisbon (; pt, Lisboa ) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 544,851 within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2. Grande Lisboa, Lisbon's urban area extends beyond the city's admin ...

Lisbon
. In May of that year, the '' Junta de Salvação Nacional'' (the new revolutionary government of Portugal) proclaimed a truce with the pro-independence African guerrillas in an effort to promote peace talks and independence.Angola, History
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2007, Columbia University Press
The military-led coup returned democracy to Portugal, ending the unpopular
Colonial War Colonial war (in some contexts referred to as small war) is a blanket term relating to the various conflicts that arose as the result of overseas territories being settled by foreign powers creating a colony In political science, a colony ...
where hundreds of thousands of Portuguese soldiers had been conscripted into military service, and replacing the authoritarian ''Estado Novo'' (New State) regime and its secret police which repressed elemental
civil liberties Civil liberties are guarantees and freedoms that governments commit not to abridge, either by constitution, legislation Legislation is the process or product of enrolled bill, enrolling, enactment of a bill, enacting, or promulgation, promulgat ...
and
political freedom Political freedom (also known as political autonomy or political agency) is a central concept Concepts are defined as abstract ideas or general notions that occur in the mind, in speech, or in thought. They are understood to be the fundamental ...
s. It started as a professional class protest of
Portuguese Armed Forces The Portuguese Armed Forces ( pt, Forças Armadas) are the military of Portugal. They include the Armed Forces General Staff (Portugal), General Staff of the Armed Forces, the other unified bodies and the three service branches: Portuguese Navy ...
captains Captain is a title for the commander of a military unit, the commander of a ship, aeroplane, spacecraft, or other vessel, or the commander of a port, fire department or police department, election precinct, etc. The captain is a military rank in ar ...
against the 1973 decree law ''Dec. Lei n.o 353/73''. These events prompted a mass exodus of Portuguese citizens, overwhelmingly white but some ''mestiço'' (mixed race) or black, from Portugal's African territories, creating hundreds of thousands destitute refugees — the '' retornados''. Angola became a sovereign state on 11 November 1975 in accordance with the
Alvor Agreement The Alvor Agreement, signed on 15 January 1975 in Alvor, Portugal, granted Angola , national_anthem = " Angola Avante"() , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Luanda , religion = , religion_year ...
and the newly independent country was proclaimed the People's Republic of Angola.


Government

In the 20th century, Portuguese Angola was subject to the '' Estado Novo'' regime. In 1951, the Portuguese authorities changed the statute of the territory from a colony to an
overseas province Overseas province ( pt, província ultramarina) was a designation used by Portugal to describe its non-continental holdings. History In the early the 19th century, Portuguese overseas territories were referred to as "overseas dominions", but admini ...
of Portugal. Legally, the territory was as much a part of Portugal as Lisbon but as an overseas province enjoyed special derogations to account for its distance from Europe. Most members of the government of Angola were from Portugal, but a few were Angolan. Nearly all members of the bureaucracy were from Portugal, as most Angolans did not have the necessary qualifications to obtain positions. The government of Angola, as it was in Portugal, was highly centralised. Power was concentrated in the executive branch, and all elections where they occurred were carried out using indirect methods. From the Prime Minister's office in Lisbon, authority extended down to the most remote posts of Angola through a rigid chain of command. The authority of the government of Angola was residual, primarily limited to implementing policies already decided in Europe. In 1967, Angola also sent a number of delegates to the
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliam ...
in Lisbon. The highest official in the province was the governor-general, appointed by the Portuguese cabinet on recommendation of the Overseas Minister. The governor-general had both executive and legislative authority. A Government Council advised the governor-general in the running of the province. The functional cabinet consisted of five secretaries appointed by the Overseas Minister on the advice of the governor. A Legislative Council had limited powers and its main activity was approving the provincial budget. Finally, an Economic and Social Council had to be consulted on all draft legislation, and the governor-general had to justify his decision to Lisbon if he ignored its advice. In 1972, the Portuguese National Assembly changed Angola's status from an overseas province to an “autonomous state” with authority over some internal affairs; Portugal was to retain responsibility for defense and foreign relations. Elections were held in Angola for a legislative assembly in 1973.


Geography

Portuguese Angola was a territory covering 1,246,700 km², an area greater than
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
and
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
put together. It had 5,198 km of terrestrial borders and a coastline with 1,600 km. Its geography was diverse. From the coastal plain, ranging in width from 25 kilometres in the south to 100-200 kilometers in the north, the land rises in stages towards the high inland plateau covering almost two-thirds of the country, with an average altitude of between 1,200 and 1,600 metres. Angola's two highest peaks were located in these central highlands. They were Moco Mountain (2,620 m) and Meco Mountain (2,538 m). Most of Angola's rivers rose in the central mountains. Of the many rivers that drain to the Atlantic Ocean, the
CuanzaCuanza may refer to *Cuanza, Angola, commune in Bie province, Angola *Cuanza River, a river in Angola *Cuanza Norte Province, Angola *Cuanza Sul Province, Angola {{geodis ...
and were the most important. Other major streams included the
Kwango River The Cuango or Kwango ( pt, Rio Cuango) is a Angola–Democratic Republic of the Congo border, transboundary river of Angola and Democratic Republic of Congo. It is the largest left bank tributary of the Kasai River in the Congo River basin. It flow ...

Kwango River
, which drains north to the
Congo River The Congo River ( kg, Nzâdi Kôngo, french: Fleuve Congo, pt, Rio Congo), formerly also known as the Zaire River, is the second longest river in Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous , after in both case ...
system, and the Kwando and Cubango Rivers, both of which drain generally southeast to the
Okavango Delta The Okavango Delta (or Okavango Grassland) (formerly spelled "Okovango" or "Okovanggo") in Botswana Botswana (, also ), officially the Republic of Botswana ( tn, Lefatshe la Botswana, label=Setswana The Tswana language () is a Ba ...

Okavango Delta
. As the land drops from the plateau, many rapids and waterfalls plunge downward in the rivers. Portuguese Angola had no sizable lakes, besides those formed by dams and reservoirs built by the Portuguese administration. The Portuguese authorities established several national parks and natural reserves across the territory: Bicauri, Cameia,
Cangandala Cangandala (or Kangandala) is a town and municipalities of Angola, municipality in the provinces of Angola, province of Malanje Province, Malanje (Malange) in Angola. It covers an area of and its population is 45,120 (2014 census). Cangandala is ...
,
Iona Iona ( gd, Ì Chaluim Chille (IPA: iːˈxaɫ̪ɯimˈçiʎə, sometimes simply ''Ì''; sco, Iona) is a small island in the Inner Hebrides off the Ross of Mull on the western coast of Scotland. It is mainly known for Iona Abbey, though there a ...
,
Mupa Mupa is a town and Communes of Angola, commune of Angola, located in the province of Cunene Province, Cunene. See also * Communes of Angola References

Populated places in Cunene Province Communes in Cunene Province {{Angola-geo-st ...
, Namibe and
Quiçama Quiçama (Portuguese spelling), Kissama or Kisama (Bantu spelling) is one of the seven ''municípios'' (city council or municipality) that make up the Luanda Province, province of Luanda, as per the new administrative division of the province (the ...
. Iona was Angola's oldest and largest national park, it was proclaimed as a reserve in 1937 and upgraded to a national park in 1964. Angola was indeed a territory that underwent a great deal of progress after 1950. The Portuguese government built dams, roads, schools, etc. There was also an economic boom that led to a huge increase of the European population. The white population increased from 44,083 in 1940 to 172,529 in 1960. With around 1,000 immigrants arriving each month. On the eve of the end of the colonial period, the ethnic European residents numbered 400,000 (1974) (excluding enlisted and commissioned soldiers from the mainland) and the mixed race population was at around 100,000 (many were Cape Verdian migrants working in the territory). The total population was around 5.9 million at that time.
Luanda Luanda () is the Capital (political), capital and largest city in Angola. It is Angola's primary port, and its major Angola#Economy, industrial, Angola#Culture, cultural and Angola#Demographics, urban centre. Located on Angola's northern Atla ...

Luanda
grew from a town of 61,208 with 14.6% of those inhabitants being white in 1940, to a major cosmopolitan city of 475,328 in 1970 with 124,814 Europeans (26.3%) and around 50,000 mixed race inhabitants. Most of the other large cities in Angola had around the same ratio of Europeans at the time, with the exception of Sá da Bandeira (
Lubango Lubango, formerly known as Sá da Bandeira, is a municipality in Angola , national_anthem = "Angola Avante "Angola Avante" (, ) is the national anthem A national anthem is a song that officially symbolizes a country A country is ...

Lubango
), Moçâmedes () and Porto Alexandre ( Tombua) in the south where the white population was more established. All of these cities had European majorities from 50% to 60%. The capital of the territory was Luanda, officially called São Paulo de Luanda. Other cities and towns were: The exclave of Cabinda was to the north. Portuguese Congo (Cabinda) was established a Portuguese
protectorate A protectorate is a state that is controlled and protected by another sovereign state. It is a dependent territory A dependent territory, dependent area, or dependency (sometimes referred as an external territory) is a territory that does not ...
by the 1885
Treaty of Simulambuco The Treaty of Simulambuco was signed in 1885 by representatives of the Portuguese government and officials in the N'Goyo Kingdom. The agreement was drafted and signed in response to the Treaty of Berlin, which was an agreement between the coloni ...
. Sometime during the 1920s, it became incorporated into the larger colony (later the
overseas province Overseas province ( pt, província ultramarina) was a designation used by Portugal to describe its non-continental holdings. History In the early the 19th century, Portuguese overseas territories were referred to as "overseas dominions", but admini ...
) of Portuguese Angola. The two colonies had initially been contiguous, but later became by a narrow corridor of land, which Portugal ceded to Belgium, allowing the
Belgian Congo The Belgian Congo (french: link=no, Congo belge, ; nl, Belgisch-Congo) was a Belgian colony in Central Africa Central Africa is a subregion of the Africa, African continent comprising various countries according to different definitions ...

Belgian Congo
access to the Atlantic Ocean. Following the
decolonisation Decolonization (American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States ( ...
of Portuguese Angola with the 1975
Alvor Agreement The Alvor Agreement, signed on 15 January 1975 in Alvor, Portugal, granted Angola , national_anthem = " Angola Avante"() , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Luanda , religion = , religion_year ...
, the short-lived
Republic of Cabinda The Republic of Cabinda ( Ibinda: ''Kilansi kia cabinda''; pt, República de Cabinda) http://www.cabinda.net/ was an unrecognized state located in what is presently Angola's Cabinda Province. The Front for the Liberation of the State of Cabinda-E ...
unilaterally declared its independence. However, Cabinda was soon overpowered and re-annexed by the newly proclaimed
People's Republic of Angola The People's Republic of Angola () was the self-declared socialist state A socialist state, socialist republic, or socialist country, sometimes referred to as a workers' state or workers' republic, is a sovereign Sovereign is a title which can ...
and never achieved
international recognition Diplomatic recognition in international law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally accepted in relations between nations. It establishes normative guideli ...
.


Economy

Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portuguese language ** Portug ...
explorers and settlers had founded trading posts and forts along the coast of
Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent, after Asia in both cases. At about 30.3 million km2 (11.7 million square miles) including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth's total surface area and 20% of i ...

Africa
since the 15th century, and reached the Angolan coast in the 16th century. Portuguese explorer
Paulo Dias de Novais Paulo Dias de Novais (c. 1510 – 9 May 1589), a fidalgo ''Fidalgo'' (, ), from Galician language, Galician and Portuguese language, Portuguese —equivalent to nobleman, but sometimes literally translated into English as "son of somebody" or "so ...
founded Luanda in 1575 as "São Paulo de Loanda", and the region developed as a
slave trade Slavery and enslavement are both the state and the condition of being a slave, who is someone forbidden to quit their service for an enslaver, and who is treated by the enslaver as their property Property is a system of rights that give ...
market with the help of local
Imbangala The Imbangala or Mbangala were 17th-century groups of Angola , national_anthem = " Angola Avante"() , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Luanda , religion = , religion_year = 2015 , religion_ref ...
and Mbundu peoples who were . Trade was mostly with the Portuguese
colony of Brazil Colonial Brazil ( pt, Brasil Colonial) comprises the period from 1500, with the arrival of the Portugal, Portuguese, until 1815, when Brazil was elevated to a kingdom in union with Portugal as the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algar ...
in the
New World The "New World" is a term for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas."America." ''The Oxford Companion to the English Language'' (). McArthur, Tom, ed., 1992. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 33: "[16c: from ...
. Brazilian ships were the most numerous in the ports of Luanda and Benguela. By this time, Angola, a Portuguese colony, was in fact more like a colony of Brazil, another Portuguese colony. A strong Brazilian influence was also exercised by the Jesuits in religion and education.History of Angola
, Republic of Angola Embassy in the United Kingdom
The philosophy of war gradually gave way to the philosophy of trade. The great trade routes and the agreements that made them possible were the driving force for activities between the different areas; warlike states become states ready to produce and to sell. In the Planalto, or high plains, the most important states were those of Bié and Bailundo, the latter being noted for its production of foodstuffs and rubber. The colonial power, Portugal, becoming ever richer and more powerful, would not tolerate the growth of these neighbouring states and subjugated them one by one, enabling Portuguese hegemony over much of the area. During the period of the
Iberian Union The Iberian Union was the dynastic union of the Kingdom of Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = ...
(1580-1640), Portugal lost influence and power and made new enemies. The
Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Dutch Castle Places * ...

Dutch
, a major enemy of , invaded many Portuguese overseas possessions, including Luanda. The Dutch ruled Luanda from 1640 to 1648 as Fort Aardenburgh. They were seeking black slaves for use in
sugarcane Sugarcane or sugar cane is a species of (often hybrid) tall, perennial A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the Kingdom (biology), kingdom Plantae. Historically, ...

sugarcane
plantations of
Northeastern Brazil The Northeast Region of Brazil ( pt, Região Nordeste do Brasil; ) is one of the five official and political regions of the country according to the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. For the socio-geographic area see Nordeste (soc ...
(
Pernambuco Pernambuco () is a States of Brazil, state of Brazil, located in the Northeast Region, Brazil, Northeast region of the country. With an estimated population of 9.6 million people as of 2020, it is the List of Brazilian states by population, sev ...

Pernambuco
,
Olinda Olinda () is a historic city in Pernambuco Pernambuco () is a States of Brazil, state of Brazil, located in the Northeast Region, Brazil, Northeast region of the country. With an estimated population of 9.6 million people as of 2020, it is th ...

Olinda
and
Recife That it may shine on all ( Matthew 5:15) , image_map = Brazil Pernambuco Recife location map.svg , mapsize = 250px , map_caption = Location in the state of Pernambuco , pushpin_map = Brazil#South A ...

Recife
), which they had also seized from Portugal.
John Maurice, Prince of Nassau-Siegen John Maurice of Nassau (Dutch language, Dutch: ''Johan Maurits van Nassau-Siegen''; German language, German: ''Johann Moritz von Nassau-Siegen''; Portuguese language, Portuguese: ''João Maurício de Nassau-Siegen''; 17 June 1604 – 20 December 167 ...

John Maurice, Prince of Nassau-Siegen
, conquered the Portuguese possessions of Saint George del Mina, Saint Thomas, and Luanda on the west coast of Africa. After the dissolution of the Iberian Union in 1640, Portugal reestablished its authority over the lost territories of the
Portuguese Empire The Portuguese Empire ( pt, Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (''Ultramar Português'') or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (''Império Colonial Português''), was composed of the overseas colonies In political scie ...
. The Portuguese started to develop townships, trading posts, logging camps, and small processing factories. From 1764 onwards, there was a gradual change from a slave-based society to one based on production for domestic consumption and export.
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 mill ...
became
independent Independent or Independents may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Artist groups * Independents (artist group), a group of modernist painters based in the New Hope, Pennsylvania, area of the United States during the early 1930s * Independen ...
in 1822 and the slave trade was abolished in 1836. In 1844, Angola's ports were opened to legal foreign shipping. By 1850, Luanda was one of the most developed cities outside
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of scienc ...
in the
Portuguese Empire The Portuguese Empire ( pt, Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (''Ultramar Português'') or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (''Império Colonial Português''), was composed of the overseas colonies In political scie ...
: it was full of trading companies, exporting (together with
Benguela Benguela (; Umbundu: Luombaka) is a city in western Angola, capital of Benguela Province. Benguela is one of Angola's most populous cities with a population of 555,124 in the city and 561,775 in the municipality, at the 2014 census. History Port ...

Benguela
) palm and peanut oil, wax, copal, timber, ivory, cotton, coffee, and cocoa, among many other products. Maize, tobacco, dried meat and cassava flour also began to be produced locally. The Angolan bourgeoisie was born. From the 1920s to the 1960s, strong economic growth, abundant natural resources and development of infrastructure, led to the arrival of even more Portuguese settlers from the
metropole The metropole (from the Greek ''metropolis A metropolis () is a large city or conurbation which is a significant economic, political, and cultural center for a country or region, and an important hub for regional or international conne ...

metropole
.
Diamond Diamond is a Allotropes of carbon, solid form of the element carbon with its atoms arranged in a crystal structure called diamond cubic. At Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, room temperature and pressure, another solid form of ...

Diamond
mining began in 1912, when the first gems were discovered by Portuguese prospectors in a stream of the Lunda region, in the northeast. In 1917 the Companhia de Diamantes de Angola ( Diamang) was granted the concession for diamond mining and prospecting in Portuguese Angola. Diamang had exclusive mining and labor procurement rights in a huge concession in Angola and used this monopoly to become the colony's largest commercial operator and also its leading revenue generator. Its wealth was generated by African laborers, many of whom were forcibly recruited to work on the mines with Lunda's aggressive state-company recruitment methods (See also chivalo/shibalo). Work was done with shovels into the 1970s, and as late as 1947, the company saw no benefit to mechanizing its operations, because local labour was so inexpensive. Even the voluntary contract workers, or contratados, were exploited and had to build their own housing and often cheated of their wages. However Diamang, which was exempt from taxes, grew affluent in the 1930s and also realized that in a remote area like Lunda, the supply of workers was not inexhaustible and so the workers there were somewhat better treated than on some of the other mines or on the sugar plantations. On the whole African laborers performed brutal work in poor conditions for very little pay, and they were frequently cheated of that. The American sociologist Edward Ross visited rural Angola in 1924 on behalf of the Temporary Slavery Commission of the League of Nations and wrote a scathing report describing the labor system as "virtually state serfdom", that did not allow Africans time to produce their food. In addition, when their wages were embezzled, they had no access to the colonial judicial system. From the mid-1950s until 1974, iron ore was mined in Malanje, Bié, Huambo, and Huíla Province, Huíla provinces, and production reached an average of 5.7 million tons per year between 1970 and 1974. Most of the iron ore was shipped to Japan, West Germany, and the United Kingdom, and earned almost US$50 million a year in export revenue. During 1966-67 a major iron ore terminal was built by the Portuguese at Saco, the bay just 12 km North of Namibe, Moçâmedes (Namibe). The client was the ''Compania Mineira do Lobito'', the Lobito Mining Company, which developed an iron ore mine inland at Cassinga. The construction of the mine installations and a 300 km railway were commissioned to Krupp of Germany and the modern harbour terminal to SETH, a Portuguese company owned by MT Højgaard, Højgaard & Schultz of Denmark. The small fishing town of Moçâmedes hosted construction workers, foreign engineers and their families for two years. The Ore Terminal was completed on time within one year and the first 250,000 ton ore carrier docked and loaded with ore in 1967. The Portuguese discovered petroleum in Angola in 1955. Production began in the Cuanza basin in the 1950s, in the Congo basin in the 1960s, and in the exclave of Cabinda in 1968. The Portuguese government granted operating rights for Block Zero to the Cabinda Gulf Oil Company, a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco, in 1955. Oil production surpassed the exportation of coffee as Angola's largest export in 1973. By the early 1970s, a variety of crops and livestock were produced in Portuguese Angola. In the north, cassava, coffee, and cotton were grown; in the central highlands, maize was cultivated; and in the south, where rainfall is lowest, cattle herding was prevalent. In addition, there were large plantations run by Portuguese that produced palm oil,
sugarcane Sugarcane or sugar cane is a species of (often hybrid) tall, perennial A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the Kingdom (biology), kingdom Plantae. Historically, ...

sugarcane
, bananas, and sisal. These crops were grown by commercial farmers, primarily Portuguese, and by peasant farmers, who sold some of their surplus to local Portuguese traders in exchange for supplies. The commercial farmers were dominant in marketing these crops, however, and enjoyed substantial support from the overseas province's Portuguese government in the form of Development aid, technical assistance, irrigation facilities, and financial credit. They produced the great majority of the crops that were marketed in Angola's urban centres or exported for several countries. Fishing in Portuguese Angola was a major and growing industry. In the early 1970s, there were about 700 fishing boats, and the annual catch was more than 300,000 tons. Including the catch of foreign fishing fleets in Angolan waters, the combined annual catch was estimated at over 1 million tons. The Portuguese territory of Angola was a net exporter of fish products, and the ports of Namibe, Moçâmedes,
Luanda Luanda () is the Capital (political), capital and largest city in Angola. It is Angola's primary port, and its major Angola#Economy, industrial, Angola#Culture, cultural and Angola#Demographics, urban centre. Located on Angola's northern Atla ...

Luanda
and
Benguela Benguela (; Umbundu: Luombaka) is a city in western Angola, capital of Benguela Province. Benguela is one of Angola's most populous cities with a population of 555,124 in the city and 561,775 in the municipality, at the 2014 census. History Port ...

Benguela
were among the most important fishing harbours in the region.


Education

Non-urban black African access to educational opportunities was very limited for most of the Colonial history of Angola, colonial period, most were not able to speak
Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portuguese language ** Portug ...

Portuguese
and did not have knowledge of Portuguese culture and History of Portugal, history.Warner, Rachel. "Conditions before Independence".
A Country Study: Angola
' (Thomas Collelo, editor). Library of Congress Federal Research Division (February 1989). ''This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.

/ref> Until the 1950s, educational facilities run by the Portuguese colonial government were largely restricted to the urban areas. Responsibility for educating rural Africans were commissioned by the authorities to several Roman Catholicism in Angola, Roman Catholic and Protestantism in Angola, Protestant missions based across the vast countryside, which taught black Africans in Portuguese language and culture. As a consequence, each of the missions established its own school system, although all were subject to ultimate control and support by the Portuguese. In mainland Portugal, the homeland of the colonial authorities who ruled in the territory from the 16th century until 1975, by the end of the 19th century the illiteracy rates were at over 80 percent and higher education was reserved for a small percentage of the population. 68.1 percent of mainland Portugal's population was still classified as illiterate by the 1930 census. Mainland Portugal's literacy rate by the 1940s and early 1950s was low by North American and Western European standards at the time. Only in the 1960s did the country make public education available for all children between the ages of six and twelve, and the overseas territories profited from this new educational developments and change in policy at
Lisbon Lisbon (; pt, Lisboa ) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 544,851 within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2. Grande Lisboa, Lisbon's urban area extends beyond the city's admin ...

Lisbon
. Starting in the early 1950s, the access to basic, secondary and technical education was expanded and its availability was being increasingly opened to both the African indigenes and the ethnic Portuguese of the territories. Education beyond the primary education, primary level became available to an increasing number of black Africans since the 1950s, and the proportion of the age group that went on to secondary school in the early 1970s was an all-time record high enrolment. Primary school attendance was also growing substantially. In general, the quality of teaching at the primary level was acceptable, even with instruction carried on largely by black Africans who sometimes had substandard qualifications. Most secondary school teachers were ethnically Portuguese, especially in the urban centers. Two state-run university institutions were founded in Portuguese Africa in 1962 by the Portuguese Ministry of the Overseas Provinces headed by Adriano Moreira—the ''Estudos Gerais Universitários de Angola'' in Portuguese Angola and the ''Estudos Gerais Universitários de Moçambique'' in Portuguese Mozambique—awarding a wide range of degrees from engineering to medicine. In the 1960s, the Portuguese mainland had four public universities, two of them in Lisbon (which compares with the 14 Portuguese public universities today). In 1968, the ''Estudos Gerais Universitários de Angola'' was renamed ''Universidade de Luanda'' (University of Luanda).


Sports

From the 1940s onward, city and town expansion and modernization included the construction of several sports facilities for association football, football, rink hockey, basketball, volleyball, team handball, handball, athletics (sport), athletics, gymnastics and Swimming (sport), swimming. Several sports clubs were founded across the entire territory, among them were some of the largest and oldest sports organizations of Angola. Several sportsmen, especially football players, that achieved wide notability in Portuguese sports were from Angola. José Águas, Rui Jordão and Jacinto João were examples of that, and excelled in the Portugal national football team. Since the 1960s, with the latest developments on commercial aviation, the highest ranked football teams of Angola and the other African overseas provinces of Portugal, started to compete in the Taça de Portugal (the Portuguese Cup). Other facilities and organizations for swimming (sport), swimming, nautical sports, tennis and wild hunting became widespread. Beginning in the 1950s, motorsport was introduced to Angola. Sport races were organized in cities like Nova Lisboa,
Benguela Benguela (; Umbundu: Luombaka) is a city in western Angola, capital of Benguela Province. Benguela is one of Angola's most populous cities with a population of 555,124 in the city and 561,775 in the municipality, at the 2014 census. History Port ...

Benguela
, Lubango, Sá da Bandeira and Namibe, Moçâmedes. The International Nova Lisboa 6 Hours sports car race became noted internationally. Football became very popular in Angola during the 20th century. Football was mostly spread to Angola by the Portuguese people who settled in the colonies. This was mostly due to the fact that immigration to the colonies was encouraged, both Angola and Mozambique saw an influx of Portuguese migrants. Football became very popular in Angola and people started to follow teams that were from the Portuguese mainland. In the latter half of the 20th century, Portugal would recruit many players form Angola. Miguel Arcanjo was one such player who played in Portugal. The colonial players would help Portuguese teams win many championships.


Famous people

* António da Silva Porto * Anthony Johnson (colonist), Anthony Johnson * Agostinho Neto * Armando Gama * Assunção Cristas * Bonga (musician), Bonga * Carlos Castro (journalist), Carlos Castro * Carlos Cruz (television presenter), Carlos Cruz * Daniel Chipenda * Deolinda Rodrigues Francisco de Almeida * Eduardo Nascimento * Fernando Nobre * Fernando José de França Dias Van-Dúnem * Fernando Peyroteo * Francisca Van Dunem * Graça de Freitas * Henrique Galvão *
Holden Roberto Holden Álvaro Roberto (January 12, 1923 – August 2, 2007) was an Angolan revolutionary politician and freedom fighter who founded and led the National Liberation Front of Angola (FNLA) from 1962 to 1999. His memoirs are unfinished. Early li ...

Holden Roberto
* Horácio Roque * Isabel dos Santos * Jacinto João * Joana Amaral Dias * João Carqueijeiro * Jonas Savimbi * Rui Jordão, Jordão * José Águas * José Eduardo Agualusa * José Eduardo dos Santos * José Norton de Matos * José Quitongo * Mário Pinto de Andrade * Marcolino Moco * Miguel Arcanjo * Miguel Relvas * Mwene Mbandu Kapova I of Mbunda, Mwene Mbandu I Lyondthzi Kapova of Mbunda * Nzinga of Ndongo and Matamba * Paula Teixeira da Cruz * Paulo Maló * Paulo Kassoma * Pedro Passos Coelho * Pepetela * Raul Águas * Viriato da Cruz * Waldemar Bastos * Zeca Afonso


See also

* Estado Novo (Portugal) * History of Angola * List of colonial governors of Angola * Arquivo Histórico Ultramarino (archives in Lisbon documenting Portuguese Empire, including Angola) * Portuguese Mozambique *
Portuguese Guinea Portuguese Guinea ( pt, Guiné), called the Overseas Province of Guinea from 1951 until 1972 and then State of Guinea from 1972 until 1974, was a West Africa West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of . The defines Western Af ...

Portuguese Guinea


Notes


References

*


Bibliography

* * * {{Authority control Portuguese Angola, Former colonies in Africa Colonial states of the Portuguese Empire, Angola Former Portuguese colonies, Angola Portuguese colonisation in Africa History of Central Africa States and territories established in 1575 States and territories disestablished in 1975 1570s establishments in Angola 1975 disestablishments in Angola 1575 establishments in Africa 1975 disestablishments in Africa 1575 establishments in the Portuguese Empire 1975 disestablishments in the Portuguese Empire 1570s in Angola 1970s in Angola 2nd millennium in Angola Former polities of the Cold War