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Pope Francis ( la, Franciscus; it, Francesco; es, link=, Francisco; born Jorge Mario Bergoglio, 17 December 1936) is the head of the
Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Catholic Church
and sovereign of the
Vatican City State Vatican City (), officially the Vatican City State ( it, Stato della Città del Vaticano; la, Status Civitatis Vaticanae),—' * german: Vatikanstadt, cf. '—' (in Austria: ') * pl, Miasto Watykańskie, cf. '—' * pt, Cidade do Vatica ...
since 2013. Francis is the first
pope The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () or the Roman pontiff (), is the bishop of Diocese of Rome, Rome, chief pastor of the worldwide Catholic Church, and head of state o ...

pope
to be a member of the
Society of Jesus , image = Ihs-logo.svg , caption = Christogram A Christogram (Latin ') is a monogram or combination of letters that forms an abbreviation for the name of Jesus Christ, traditionally used as a Christian symbolism ...
, the first from the
Americas The Americas (also collectively called America) is a landmass comprising the totality of North America, North and South America. The Americas make up most of the land in Earth's Western Hemisphere and comprise the New World. Along with th ...

Americas
, the first from the
Southern Hemisphere The Southern Hemisphere is the half (hemisphere Hemisphere may refer to: * A half of a sphere As half of the Earth * A hemispheres of Earth, hemisphere of Earth ** Northern Hemisphere ** Southern Hemisphere ** Eastern Hemisphere ** Western He ...

Southern Hemisphere
, and the first pope from outside Europe since
Gregory III
Gregory III
, a Syrian who reigned in the 8th century. Born in
Buenos Aires Buenos Aires ( or ; ), officially Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or cap ...

Buenos Aires
, Argentina, Bergoglio worked for a time as a bouncer and a
janitor A janitor (American English, Scottish English), also known as a custodian, porter, cleanser, cleaner or caretaker is a person who cleans and maintains building, buildings. Janitors typically earn an average wage of $15 per hour in the United St ...

janitor
as a young man before training to be a chemist and working as a technician in a
food science Food science is the basic science Basic research, also called pure research or fundamental research, is a type of scientific research The scientific method is an Empirical evidence, empirical method of acquiring knowledge that has charact ...
laboratory. After recovering from a severe illness, he was inspired to join the Society of Jesus (the Jesuits) in 1958. He was ordained a
Catholic priest The priesthood is the office of the ministers of religion, who have been commissioned ("ordained") with the Holy orders of the Catholic Church. Technically, Bishop in the Catholic Church, bishops and Deacon in the Catholic Church, deacons are pries ...
in 1969, and from 1973 to 1979 was the Jesuit
provincial superior #REDIRECT Provincial superior#REDIRECT Provincial superior A provincial superior is a major superior of a religious institute A religious institute is a type of Institute of consecrated life, institute of consecrated life in the Catholic Church ...
in Argentina. He became the
archbishop of Buenos Aires The Archdiocese of Buenos Aires (''Archidioecesis Bonaerensis'') is one of thirteen Latin Metropolitan archdioceses of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denom ...
in 1998 and was created a
cardinal Cardinal or The Cardinal may refer to: Christianity * Cardinal (Catholic Church), a senior official of the Catholic Church * Cardinal (Church of England), two members of the College of Minor Canons of St. Paul's Cathedral Navigation * Cardina ...
in 2001 by
Pope John Paul II Pope John Paul II ( la, Ioannes Paulus II; it, Giovanni Paolo II; pl, Jan Paweł II; born Karol Józef Wojtyła ; 18 May 19202 April 2005) was the head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Cathol ...

Pope John Paul II
. He led the Argentine Church during the
December 2001 riots in Argentina The December 2001 crisis, sometimes known as the Argentinazo (), was a period of civil unrest and rioting in Argentina, which took place during December 2001, with the most violent incidents taking place on 19 and 20 December in the capital, ...
. The administrations of
Néstor Kirchner Néstor Carlos Kirchner Jr. (; 25 February 195027 October 2010) was an Argentine lawyer and politician who served as the 50th President of Argentina from 2003 to 2007, Governor of Santa Cruz, Governor of Santa Cruz Province from 1991 to 2003, S ...
and
Cristina Fernández de Kirchner Cristina Elisabet Fernández de Kirchner (; born 19 February 1953), often referred to by her initials CFK, is an Argentine lawyer and politician who is serving as the 37th Vice President of Argentina since 2019. She also previously served as ...
considered him to be a political rival. Following the
resignation of Pope Benedict XVI The resignation of Pope Benedict XVI occurred on 28 February 2013 at 20:00 CET, after having been announced on the morning of 11 February 2013 directly by himself. Benedict XVI Pope Benedict XVI ( la, Benedictus XVI; it, Benedetto XVI; ge ...
on 28 February 2013, a papal conclave elected Bergoglio as his successor on 13 March. He chose Francis as his
papal name A list of popes buried in Vatican Vatican may refer to: The Holy See * The Holy See The Holy See ( lat, Sancta Sedes, ; it, Santa Sede ), also called the See of Rome, is the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, known as the pope, which i ...
in honor of
Saint Francis of Assisi Francis of Assisi (born Giovanni di Pietro di Bernardone; it, Francesco d'Assisi; la, Franciscus Assisiensis; 1181 or 1182 – 3 October 1226), was an Italian Catholic Church, Catholic friar, deacon, and Mysticism, mystic. He founded the me ...

Saint Francis of Assisi
. Throughout his public life, Francis has been noted for his humility, emphasis on God's mercy, international visibility as pope, concern for the poor, and commitment to interreligious dialogue. He is credited with having a less formal approach to the papacy than his predecessors, for instance choosing to reside in the
Domus Sanctae Marthae The Domus Sanctae Marthae (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power ...
guesthouse rather than in the papal apartments of the
Apostolic Palace The Apostolic Palace ( la, Palatium Apostolicum; it, Palazzo Apostolico) is the official residence An official residence is the House, residence of nation's head of state, head of government, governor, Clergy, religious leader, leaders of in ...

Apostolic Palace
used by previous popes. Francis maintains the traditional views of the Church regarding
abortion Abortion is the ending of a pregnancy Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring In biology, offspring are the young born of living organism, organisms, produced either by a single organism ...
,
clerical celibacy Clerical celibacy is the requirement in certain religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and ...
, and the
ordination of women The ordination of women to Minister of religion, ministerial or priestly office is an increasingly common practice among some major religious groups of the present time. It remains a controversial issue in certain Christian traditions and denomin ...
, but has initiated dialogue on the possibility of
deaconess The ministry of a deaconess is, in modern times, a non-ordained ministry for women in some Protestant Protestantism is a form of that originated with the 16th-century , a movement against what its followers perceived to be in the . Protes ...
es and has made women full members of
dicasteries A dicastery (from gr, δικαστήριον, dikastērion, law-court, from δικαστής, 'judge, juror') is a department of the Roman Curia The Roman Curia ( la, Romana Curia ministerium suum implent) comprises the administrative ins ...
in the
Roman Curia The Roman Curia ( la, Romana Curia ministerium suum implent) comprises the administrative institutions of the Holy See The Holy See ( lat, Sancta Sedes, ; it, Santa Sede ), also called the See of Rome or Apostolic See, is the jurisdi ...
. He maintains that the Church should be more open and welcoming for members of the
LGBT community The LGBT community (also known as the LGBTQ+ community, GLBT community, or the gay community) is a loosely defined grouping of lesbian A lesbian is a homosexual Homosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction Sexual ...
. Francis is an outspoken critic of unbridled
capitalism Capitalism is an economic system An economic system, or economic order, is a system A system is a group of interacting Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. The idea o ...

capitalism
and free market economics,
consumerism Consumerism is a and economic order that encourages the acquisition of in ever-increasing amounts. With the , but particularly in the 20th century, led to —the of goods would grow beyond consumer , and so manufacturers turned to and to ...
, and
overdevelopmentIn international economics International economics is concerned with the effects upon economic activity from international differences in productive resources and consumer preferences and the international institutions that affect them. It seeks to ...
, and advocates taking action on
climate change Contemporary climate change includes both the global warming caused by humans, and its impacts on Earth's weather patterns. There have been previous periods of climate change, but the current changes are more rapid than any known even ...
, a focus of his papacy with the promulgation of ''
Laudato si'#REDIRECT Laudato si' {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from move {{R from other capitalisation ...
''. In international diplomacy, he helped to restore full diplomatic relations between the United States and Cuba and supported the cause of refugees during the
European European, or Europeans, may refer to: In general * ''European'', an adjective referring to something of, from, or related to Europe ** Ethnic groups in Europe ** Demographics of Europe ** European cuisine, the cuisines of Europe and other Western ...
and Central American migrant crises. Since 2018, he has been an opponent of
populism Populism refers to a range of political stances that emphasize the idea of "the people" and often juxtapose this group against "the elite". The term developed in the late 19th century in connection to the Populist Party and has been applied ...

populism
. He has faced criticism from theological conservatives on many questions, including his promotion of
ecumenism Ecumenism (), also spelled oecumenism, is the concept and principle in which Christians Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion ...
, as well as admitting civilly divorced and remarried Catholics to
communion Communion may refer to: Religion * The Eucharist (also called the Holy Communion or Lord's Supper), the Christian rite involving the eating of bread and drinking of wine, reenacting the Last Supper **Communion (chant), the Gregorian chant that acc ...
with the publication of ''
Amoris laetitia ''Amoris laetitia'' (''The Joy of Love'') is a post-synodal apostolic exhortation by Pope Francis Pope Francis ( la, Franciscus; it, Francesco; es, link=no, Francisco; born Jorge Mario Bergoglio, 17 December 1936) is the head of the Cath ...
''.


Early years

Jorge Mario Bergoglio was born on 17 December 1936 in
Flores Flores island () is one of the Lesser Sunda Islands The Lesser Sunda Islands ( id, Kepulauan Nusa Tenggara "southeastern archipelago" or "lesser sunda archipelago") are an archipelago in Maritime Southeast Asia, north of Australia. Tog ...
, a
neighborhood A neighbourhood (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that has undergone substantial codification of grammar ...
of
Buenos Aires Buenos Aires ( or ; ), officially Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or cap ...

Buenos Aires
. He was the eldest of five children of Mario José Bergoglio (1908–1959) and Regina María Sívori (1911–1981). Mario Bergoglio was an Italian immigrant accountant born in Portacomaro (
Province of Asti The Province of Asti ( it, Provincia di Asti) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territorial and administ ...
) in Italy's
Piedmont it, Piemontese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , demographics1_title2 ...

Piedmont
region. Regina Sívori was a housewife born in Buenos Aires to a family of
northern Italian Northern Italy ( it, Italia settentrionale, it, Nord Italia, label=none, it, Alta Italia, label=none or just it, Nord, label=none) is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of Italy. Non-administrative, it consists of eight adm ...
(Piedmontese-Genoese) origin. Mario José's family left Italy in 1929 to escape the fascist rule of . According to María Elena Bergoglio (b. 1948), the pope's only living sibling, they did not emigrate for economic reasons. His other siblings were Alberto Horacio (1942–2010), Oscar Adrián (1938–deceased) and Marta Regina (1940–2007). Two great-nephews, Antonio and Joseph, died in a traffic collision. His niece, Cristina Bergoglio, is a painter based in
Madrid Madrid ( , ) is the capital and most populous city of Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_ ...

Madrid
, Spain. In the sixth grade, Bergoglio attended Wilfrid Barón de los Santos Ángeles, a school of the
Salesians of Don Bosco , Taiwan Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the south. The ...
, in Ramos Mejía,
Buenos Aires Province Buenos Aires (), officially the Buenos Aires Province (''Provincia de Buenos Aires'' ), is the largest and most populous Provinces of Argentina, Argentine province. It takes its name from the city of Buenos Aires, the capital of the country, whic ...

Buenos Aires Province
. He attended the technical secondary school Escuela Técnica Industrial N° 27 Hipólito Yrigoyen, named after , and graduated with a chemical technician's diploma (not a master's degree in chemistry, as some media outlets incorrectly reported). In that capacity, he spent several years working in the food section of Hickethier-Bachmann Laboratory, where he worked under Esther Ballestrino. Prior to working as a chemical technician, Bergoglio had also worked as a bar bouncer and as a janitor sweeping floors. When he was 21 years old, he suffered from life-threatening
pneumonia Pneumonia is an inflammatory Inflammatory may refer to: * Inflammation, a biological response to harmful stimuli * The word ''inflammatory'' is also used to refer literally to fire and flammability, and figuratively in relation to comments t ...

pneumonia
and three
cysts A cyst is a closed sac, having a distinct envelope and division compared with the nearby tissue. Hence, it is a cluster of cells that has grouped together to form a sac (like the manner in which water molecules group together to form a bubble); ...
. He had part of a lung excised shortly afterwards. Bergoglio has been a lifelong supporter of
San Lorenzo de Almagro Club Atlético San Lorenzo de Almagro, commonly known as San Lorenzo de Almagro or simply San Lorenzo (in English: ''Saint Lawrence''), is an Argentine sports club based in the Boedo district of Buenos Aires Buenos Aires ( or ; ), offici ...
football Football is a family of s that involve, to varying degrees, a to score a . Unqualified, normally means the form of football that is the most popular where the word is used. Sports commonly called ''football'' include (known as ''soccer'' ...
club. Bergoglio is also a fan of the films of
Tita Merello Tita Merello (born Laura Ana Merello; 11 October 1904 in Buenos Aires Buenos Aires ( or ; ), officially Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, is the Capital city, capital and largest city of Argentina. The city is located on the western shore of th ...

Tita Merello
, neorealism, and
tango .Blatter, Alfred (2007). ''Revisiting music theory: a guide to the practice'', p.28. . Tango is a partner dance and social dance that originated in the 1880s along the Río de la Plata The Río de la Plata (, "river of silver"), called Rive ...

tango
dancing, with a fondness for the traditional music of Argentina and
Uruguay Uruguay (; ; pt, Uruguai), officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay ( es, República Oriental del Uruguay), is a country in South America. It shares borders with Argentina to its west and southwest and Brazil to its north and northeast; whi ...

Uruguay
known as the '' milonga''.


Jesuit (1958–2013)

Bergoglio found his vocation to the priesthood while he was on his way to celebrate the
Spring Day Spring Day is a holiday marking the coming of the spring (season), spring season, which takes place in different countries, on varying dates. Northern Hemisphere Albania Albania celebrates the lunar Spring Day, the so-called ''Summer Day'' (), on ...
. He passed by a church to go to
confession A confession is a statement – made by a person or by a group of persons – acknowledging some personal fact that the person (or the group) would ostensibly prefer to keep hidden. The term presumes that the speaker is providing information th ...
, and was inspired by the priest. Bergoglio studied at the archdiocesan
seminary A seminary, school of theology, theological seminary, or divinity school is an educational institution for educating students (sometimes called ''seminarians'') in scripture Religious texts, also known as scripture, scriptures, holy writ, or ...
,
Inmaculada Concepción Seminary The Inmaculada Concepción Seminary A seminary, school of theology, theological seminary, or divinity school is an educational institution for educating students (sometimes called ''seminarians'') in scripture Religious texts are texts related t ...
, in
Villa Devoto Villa Devoto is a Barrios of Buenos Aires, neighborhood or district located in the northwestern area of the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Its administrative limits are defined by Lope de Vega, General Paz, San Martín, and Francisco Beiró Avenue ...
, Buenos Aires, and, after three years, entered the Society of Jesus as a novice on 11 March 1958. Bergoglio has said that, as a young seminarian, he had a crush on a girl he met and briefly doubted about continuing the religious career. As a Jesuit novice he studied humanities in
Santiago Santiago (, ; ), also known as Santiago de Chile, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more fo ...

Santiago
, Chile. After his novitiate in the Society of Jesus, Bergoglio officially became a Jesuit on 12 March 1960, when he made the religious profession of the initial, perpetual vows of
poverty, chastity and obedience In Christianity Christianity is an , based on the and of . It is the , with about 2.5 billion followers. Its adherents, known as , make up a majority of the population in , and believe that is the , whose coming as the was in the (cal ...
of a member of the order.Rosales & Olivera, p. 42 In 1960, Bergoglio obtained a licentiate in philosophy from the Colegio Máximo de San José in San Miguel, Buenos Aires Province. He taught literature and
psychology Psychology is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. ...

psychology
at the Colegio de la Inmaculada Concepción, a high school in Santa Fe, from 1964 to 1965. In 1966, he taught the same courses at the Colegio del Salvador in Buenos Aires.


Presbyterate (1969–1992)

In 1967 Bergoglio began his theological studies at Facultades de Filosofía y Teología de San Miguel and on 13 December 1969 was
ordained Ordination is the process by which individuals are Consecration, consecrated, that is, set apart and elevated from the laity class to the clergy, who are thus then authorization, authorized (usually by the religious denomination, denominational hi ...
to the priesthood by Archbishop
Ramón José Castellano Ramón José Castellano (15 February 1903 – 27 January 1979) was the Argentine people, Argentine Archbishop of Córdoba, known to have ordained to the Catholic priesthood Jorge Mario Bergoglio, Society of Jesus, S.J., who later became Pope Fran ...
. He served as the
master of novicesIn the Catholic Church, a novice master or master of novices is a member of a religious institute who is responsible for the training and government of the novitiate in that institute. In a female religious institute, the novice mistress plays a simi ...
for the province there and became a professor of theology. Bergoglio completed his final stage of spiritual training as a Jesuit,
tertianship Tertianship is the final formal period of formation in the Society of Jesus The Society of Jesus (SJ; la, Societas Iesu) is a religious order (Catholic), religious order of the Catholic Church headquartered in Rome. It was founded by Ignatiu ...
, at
Alcalá de Henares Alcalá de Henares () is a Spain, Spanish city in the Community of Madrid. Straddling the Henares River, it is located to the northeast of the centre of Madrid. , it has a population of 193,751, making it the region's third-most populated Municipa ...

Alcalá de Henares
, Spain, and took final, solemn vows as a Jesuit, including the
fourth vow The fourth vow is a religious solemn vow In Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun β ...
of obedience to missioning by the pope, on 22 April 1973. He was named
provincial superior #REDIRECT Provincial superior#REDIRECT Provincial superior A provincial superior is a major superior of a religious institute A religious institute is a type of Institute of consecrated life, institute of consecrated life in the Catholic Church ...
of the Society of Jesus in Argentina that July, for a six-year term which ended in 1979. In 1973, shortly after being named provincial superior, He had made a
pilgrimage A pilgrimage is a journey, often into an unknown or foreign place, where a person goes in search of new or expanded meaning about their self, others, nature, or a higher good, through the experience. It can lead to a personal transformation, aft ...
to Jerusalem but his stay was shortened by the outbreak of the
Yom Kippur War The Yom Kippur War, also known as the Ramadan War, the October War, the 1973 Arab–Israeli War or the Fourth Arab–Israeli War, was an armed conflict fought from 6 to 25 October 1973 between Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵ ...
. After the completion of his term of office, in 1980 he was named the
rector Rector (Latin for the member of a vessel's crew who steers) may refer to: Style or title *Rector (ecclesiastical), a cleric who functions as an administrative leader in some Christian denominations *Rector (academia), a senior official in an educ ...
of the Philosophical and Theological Faculty of San Miguel where he had studied. Before taking up this new appointment, he spent the first three months of 1980 in Ireland to learn English, staying at the Jesuit Centre at the
Milltown Institute of Theology and Philosophy The Milltown Institute of Theology and Philosophy was a Jesuit The Society of Jesus (SJ; la, Societas Iesu) is a religious order of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List ...
,
Dublin Dublin (; , or ) is the capital and largest city of Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster-Scots: ) is an island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title="Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain">Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain_ ...

Dublin
. He served at San Miguel for six years until 1986 when, at the discretion of Jesuit superior-general
Peter Hans Kolvenbach Peter Hans Kolvenbach (30 November 1928 – 26 November 2016), was the twenty-ninth Superior General of the Society of Jesus, the largest male Catholic religious order In the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as t ...
, he was replaced by someone more in tune with the worldwide trend in the Society of Jesus toward emphasizing social justice, rather than his emphasis on popular religiosity and direct pastoral work.Austen Ivereigh, The Great Reformer: Francis and the Making of a Radical Pope, Henry Holt 2014 He spent several months at the
Sankt Georgen Graduate School of Philosophy and Theology Sankt Georgen Graduate School of Philosophy and Theology (German: ''Philosophisch-Theologische Hochschule Sankt Georgen'') is a higher education Jesuit college A college (Latin: ''collegium'') is an educational institution or a University sy ...
in Frankfurt, Germany, considering possible dissertation topics. He settled on exploring the work of the German / Italian theologian Romano Guardini, particularly his study of 'Contrast' published in his 1925 work ''Der Gegensatz''. However, he was to return to Argentina prematurely to serve as a
confessor Confessor is a title used within Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of Jesus, Jesus of Nazaret ...

confessor
and
spiritual director Spiritual direction is the practice of being with people as they attempt to deepen their relationship with the divinity, divine, or to learn and grow in their personal spirituality. The person seeking direction shares stories of their encounters ...
to the Jesuit community in
CórdobaCórdoba most commonly refers to: * Córdoba, Spain, a major city in southern Spain and formerly the imperial capital of the Islamic Spain * Córdoba, Argentina, a city and capital of Córdoba Province Córdoba or Cordoba may also refer to: Places ...
. In Germany, he saw the painting Mary, Untier of Knots in
Augsburg Augsburg ( , , ; bar, Augschburg, links=https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swabian_German, label=Swabian German) is a city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, ...

Augsburg
and brought a copy of the painting to Argentina where it has become an important
Marian devotion Marian devotions are external pious practices directed to the person of Mary, mother of God, by members of certain Christian traditions. They are performed in Catholicism The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Chur ...
. As a student at the Salesian school, Bergoglio was mentored by
Ukrainian Greek Catholic , native_name_lang = uk , caption_background = , image = StGeorgeCathedral Lviv.JPG , imagewidth = , type = Particular church (sui iuris) , alt = , caption = St. George's Cat ...
priest Stefan Czmil. Bergoglio often rose hours before his classmates to serve Mass for Czmil. Bergoglio was asked in 1992 by Jesuit authorities not to reside in Jesuit houses, because of continued tensions with Jesuit leaders and scholars, a sense of Bergoglio's "dissent," views of his Catholic orthodoxy and his opposition to theology of liberation, and his work as auxiliary bishop of Buenos Aires. As a bishop he was no longer subject to his Jesuit superior. From then on, he did not visit Jesuit houses and was in "virtual estrangement from the Jesuits" until after his election as pope.


Pre-papal episcopate (1992–2013)

Bergoglio was named Auxiliary Bishop of Buenos Aires in 1992 and
consecrated Consecration is the ritual, solemn dedication to a special purpose or service. The word ''consecration'' literally means "association with the sacred". Persons, places, or things can be consecrated, and the term is used in various ways by differen ...
on 27 June 1992 as titular bishop of Auca, with Cardinal
Antonio Quarracino Antonio Quarracino (8 August 1923 – 28 February 1998) was a Cardinal (Catholicism), Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church of Argentina and the Archbishop of Buenos Aires between 1990 and 1998. Biography Early life and priesthood Quarracino ...
, archbishop of Buenos Aires, serving as principal consecrator. He chose as his episcopal motto ''Miserando atque eligendo''. It is drawn from Saint Bede's homily on Matthew 9:9–13: "because he saw him through the eyes of mercy and chose him". On 3 June 1997, Bergoglio was appointed coadjutor archbishop of Buenos Aires with right of succession. Upon Quarracino's death on 28 February 1998, Bergoglio became metropolitan archbishop of Buenos Aires. In that role, Bergoglio created new parishes and restructured the archdiocese administrative offices, led pro-life initiatives, and created a commission on divorces. One of Bergoglio's major initiatives as archbishop was to increase the Church's presence in the slums of Buenos Aires. Under his leadership, the number of priests assigned to work in the slums doubled. This work led to him being called the "Slum Bishop". Early in his time as archbishop of Buenos Aires, Bergoglio sold off the archdiocese's shares in multiple banks and turned its accounts into those of a normal customer in international banks. The shares in banks had led the local church to a propensity towards high spending, and the archdiocese was nearing bankruptcy as a result. As a normal customer of the bank, the church was forced into a higher fiscal discipline. On 6 November 1998, while remaining archbishop of Buenos Aires, he was named
ordinary Ordinary or The Ordinary often refer to: Music * Ordinary (EP), ''Ordinary'' (EP) (2015), by South Korean group Beast * Ordinary (Every Little Thing album), ''Ordinary'' (Every Little Thing album) (2011) * Ordinary (Two Door Cinema Club song), "O ...
for those
Eastern Catholics The Eastern Catholic Churches or Oriental Catholic Churches, also called the Eastern-rite Catholic Churches, Eastern Rite Catholicism, or simply the Eastern Churches and in some historical cases referred to as ''Uniates'', are twenty-three East ...
in Argentina who lacked a
prelate A prelate () is a high-ranking member of the clergy Clergy are formal leaders within established s. Their roles and functions vary in different religious traditions, but usually involve presiding over specific rituals and teaching their r ...
of their own church. Major Archbishop
Sviatoslav Shevchuk ''The LORD is my illumination and my Savior'' , module = Sviatoslav Shevchuk ( uk, Святосла́в Шевчу́к; born 5 May 1970 in Stryi, Ukrainian SSR The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (Ukrainian SSR, UkrSSR or UkSSR; uk, ...
said that Bergoglio understands the liturgy, rites, and spirituality of Shevchuk's Greek Catholic Church and always "took care of our Church in Argentina" as ordinary for Eastern Catholics during his time as archbishop of Buenos Aires. In 2000, Bergoglio was the only church official to reconcile with Jerónimo Podestá, a former bishop who had been suspended as a priest after opposing the
Argentine Revolution Argentine Revolution ( es, Revolución Argentina, links=no) was the name given by its leaders to a military coup d'état A coup d'état (; French for "blow of state") or coup is the removal and seizure of a government and its powers. Typic ...
military dictatorship in 1972. He defended Podestá's wife from Vatican attacks on their marriage. That same year, Bergoglio said the Argentine Catholic Church needed "to put on garments of public penance for the sins committed during the years of the dictatorship" in the 1970s, during the
Dirty War The Dirty War ( es, Guerra sucia) is the name used by the military junta A military junta () is a government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. ...
. Bergoglio made it his custom to celebrate the
Holy Thursday Maundy Thursday or Holy Thursday (also known as Great and Holy Thursday, Holy and Great Thursday, Covenant Thursday, Sheer Thursday, and Thursday of Mysteries, among other names) is the day during Holy Week that commemorates the Washing of the F ...
ritual
washing of feet Maundy (from Old French ''mandé'', from Latin '' mandatum'' meaning "command"), or the Washing of the Feet, or Pedelavium, is a religious rite A rite is an established, Ceremony, ceremonial, usually religious, act. Rites in this sense fall into ...
in places such as jails, hospitals, retirement homes or slums. In 2007, just two days after Benedict XVI issued new rules for using the liturgical forms that preceded the Second Vatican Council, Cardinal Bergoglio established a fixed place for a weekly Mass in this
extraordinary form ''Summorum Pontificum'' (English language, English: "Of the Supreme Pontiffs") is an Ecclesiastical letter#Letters of the Popes in modern times, apostolic letter of Pope Benedict XVI, issued in July 2007, which specifies the circumstances in which ...

extraordinary form
of the
Roman Rite #REDIRECT Roman Rite #REDIRECT Roman Rite The Roman Rite ( la, Ritus Romanus) is the main liturgical rite of the Latin or Western Church, the largest of the sui iuris particular Churches that make up the Catholic Church The Catholic Ch ...
. It was celebrated weekly. On 8 November 2005, Bergoglio was elected president of the
Argentine Episcopal ConferenceThe Argentine Episcopal Conference is an episcopal conference An episcopal conference, sometimes called a conference of bishops, is an official assembly of the Bishop (Catholic Church), bishops of the Catholic Church in a given territory. Episcopal ...
for a three-year term (2005–08). He was reelected to another three-year term on 11 November 2008. He remained a member of that commission's permanent governing body, president of its committee for the
Pontifical Catholic University of Argentina The Pontifical Catholic University of Argentina ( es, link=no, Pontificia Universidad Católica Argentina), also known as Catholic University of Argentina ( es, link=no, Universidad Católica Argentina (UCA), is a private university Private uni ...
, and a member of its liturgy committee for the care of shrines. While head of the Argentine Catholic bishops' conference, Bergoglio issued a collective apology for his church's failure to protect people from the Junta during the Dirty War. When he turned 75 in December 2011, Bergoglio submitted his resignation as archbishop of Buenos Aires to Pope Benedict XVI as required by
canon law Canon law (from grc, κανών, , a 'straight measuring rod, ruler A ruler, sometimes called a rule or line gauge, is a device used in geometry and technical drawing, as well as the engineering and construction industries, to measure dis ...
. Still, as he had no coadjutor archbishop, he stayed in office, waiting for an eventual replacement appointed by the Vatican.


Cardinalate (2001–2013)

At the
consistory Consistory is the anglicized form of the consistorium, a council of the closest advisors of the Roman emperors. It can also refer to: *A papal consistory, a formal meeting of the Sacred College of Cardinals of the Roman Catholic Church *Consistory c ...
of 21 February 2001, Archbishop Bergoglio was created a
cardinal Cardinal or The Cardinal may refer to: Christianity * Cardinal (Catholic Church), a senior official of the Catholic Church * Cardinal (Church of England), two members of the College of Minor Canons of St. Paul's Cathedral Navigation * Cardina ...
by
Pope John Paul II Pope John Paul II ( la, Ioannes Paulus II; it, Giovanni Paolo II; pl, Jan Paweł II; born Karol Józef Wojtyła ; 18 May 19202 April 2005) was the head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Cathol ...

Pope John Paul II
with the
title A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in certain contexts. It may signify either generation, an official position, or a professional or academic qualification. In some languages, titles may be inserted between the firs ...
of
cardinal priest Cardinals ( la, Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae cardinalis, literally "cardinal of the Holy Roman Church") are the most senior members of the clergy Clergy are formal leaders within established religions. Their roles and functions vary in diffe ...
of San Roberto Bellarmino, a church served by Jesuits and named for one; he was formally installed in that church the following 14 October. When he traveled to Rome for the ceremony, he and his sister María Elena visited the village in northern Italy where their father was born. As cardinal, Bergoglio was appointed to five administrative positions in the
Roman Curia The Roman Curia ( la, Romana Curia ministerium suum implent) comprises the administrative institutions of the Holy See The Holy See ( lat, Sancta Sedes, ; it, Santa Sede ), also called the See of Rome or Apostolic See, is the jurisdi ...
. He was a member of the
Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments The Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments ( la, Congregatio de Cultu Divino et Disciplina Sacramentorum) is the congregation A congregation is a large gathering of people, often for the purpose of worship Worship i ...
, the
Congregation for the Clergy The Congregation for the Clergy (; formerly the Sacred Congregation for the Clergy and Sacred Congregation of the Council) is the congregation of the Roman Curia responsible for overseeing matters regarding priests and deacons not belonging to r ...
, the
Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life , type = Congregation , seal = Coat of arms Holy See.svg , seal_size = 100px , seal_caption = Coat of arms of the Holy See , logo = , picture =Via della Conciliazione din Roma1.jpg , picture_caption = Palazzo delle Congregazioni in Piazza ...
, the
Pontifical Council for the Family The Pontifical Council for the Family was part of the Curia of the Roman Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, largest Christian ch ...
and the Commission for Latin America. Later that year, when Cardinal
Edward Egan Edward Michael Egan (April 2, 1932 – March 5, 2015) was an Americans, American Cardinal (Catholicism), cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as Roman Catholic Diocese of Bridgeport, Bishop of Bridgeport from 1988 to 2000, and as Ro ...
returned to New York following the
September 11 attacks The September 11 attacks, also commonly referred to as 9/11, were a series of four coordinated by the militant terrorist group against the on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001. On that morning, four commercial s traveling fro ...
, Bergoglio replaced him as relator (recording secretary) in the Synod of Bishops, and, according to the ''
Catholic Herald Image:The-Catholic-Herald-1-November-2013.jpg, 240px, ''The Catholic Herald'' (1 November 2013) The ''Catholic Herald'' is a London-based Roman Catholic monthly newspaper and starting December 2014 a magazine, published in the United Kingdom, t ...
'', created "a favourable impression as a man open to communion and dialogue". Cardinal Bergoglio became known for personal humility, doctrinal conservatism, and a commitment to
social justice Social justice is justice in terms of the distribution of wealth Wealth is the abundance of valuable financial asset A financial asset is a non-physical asset whose value is derived from a contractual claim, such as deposit (finance), ban ...
. A simple lifestyle contributed to his reputation for humility. He lived in a small apartment, rather than in the elegant bishop's residence in the suburb of Olivos. He took public transportation and cooked his own meals. He limited his time in Rome to "lightning visits". He was known to be devoted to St. Thérèse of Lisieux, and he enclosed a small picture of her in the letters he wrote, calling her "a great missionary saint". After Pope John Paul II died on 2 April 2005, Bergoglio attended his
funeral A funeral is a ceremony A ceremony (, ) is a unified ritual A ritual is a sequence of activities involving gestures, words, actions, or objects, performed according to a set sequence. Rituals may be prescribed by the traditions of a commu ...
and was considered one of the ''
papabile ''Papabile'' (, also , ; ; or "able to be pope") is an unofficial Italian term first coined by Vaticanologists and now used internationally in many languages to describe a Roman Catholic man, in practice always a Cardinal (Catholicism), card ...
'' for succession to the papacy. He participated as a cardinal elector in the
2005 papal conclave The 2005 papal conclave was convened to elect a new pope following the death of Pope John Paul II Pope John Paul II ( la, Ioannes Paulus II; it, Giovanni Paolo II; pl, Jan Paweł II; born Karol Józef Wojtyła ; 18 May 19202 April 200 ...
that elected Pope Benedict XVI. In the ''
National Catholic Reporter The ''National Catholic Reporter'' (''NCR'') is a progressive national newspaper in the United States that reports on issues related to the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List ...
'', John L. Allen Jr. reported that Bergoglio was a frontrunner in the 2005 conclave. In September 2005, the Italian magazine ''
Limes Limes is the plural of lime. It is also the Latin word for ''limit'' which refers to: * Limes (Roman Empire), a border marking and defense system of the ancient Roman Empire * Limes (magazine), ''Limes'' (magazine), an Italian geopolitical magazi ...
'' published claims that Bergoglio had been the runner-up and main challenger to Cardinal Ratzinger at that conclave and that he had received 40 votes in the third ballot, but fell back to 26 at the fourth and decisive ballot. Article gives numbers for the four votes; Ratzinger had most votes, followed by Bergoglio. The claims were based on a diary purportedly belonging to an anonymous cardinal who had been present at the conclave.Rubin, p. 13 According to the Italian journalist
Andrea Tornielli Andrea Tornielli (born Chioggia, 19 March 1964) is an Italian journalist and religious writer. He is married and has three children. He has been the editorial director of the Dicastery for Communication since December 2018. Biography A graduate in ...

Andrea Tornielli
, this number of votes had no precedent for a Latin American ''papabile''. ''
La Stampa ''La Stampa'' (meaning ''The Press'' in English) is an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian languag ...

La Stampa
'' reported that Bergoglio was in close contention with Ratzinger during the election, until he made an emotional plea that the cardinals should not vote for him. According to the source, Cardinal Bergoglio begged "almost in tears" ("quasi in lacrime" in Italian) According to Tornielli, Bergoglio made this request to prevent the conclave from delaying too much in the election of a pope. As a cardinal, Bergoglio was associated with
Communion and Liberation Communion and Liberation (Italian: Comunione e Liberazione, often shortened to CL) is an Italy, Italian Catholic movement founded in 1954 by Fr. Luigi Giussani. The official name is the Fraternity of Communion and Liberation. Its aim is to presen ...
, a Catholic evangelical lay movement of the type known as
associations of the faithful In the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, largest Christian church, with approximately 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worldwi ...
. He sometimes made appearances at the annual gathering known as the
Rimini Meeting The Meeting for friendship among peoples (''Meeting per l'amicizia fra i popoli'' in Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian R ...
held during the late summer months in Italy. In 2005, Cardinal Bergoglio authorized the request for
beatification Beatification (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to b ...
—the third step towards
saint In religious belief, a saint is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of Q-D-Š, holiness, likeness, or closeness to God. However, the use of the term ''saint'' depends on the context and Christian denomination, denominatio ...

saint
hood—for six members of the
Pallottine en, The love of Christ impels us , formation = , founder = Saint Fr. Vincenzo Pallotti, S.A.C. , type = Society of Apostolic Life of Pontifical Right (for Men) , headquarters = Piazza San Vincenzo Pallotti 204, 00186 Roma, Italy , membership = ...
community murdered in the San Patricio Church massacre. At the same time, Bergoglio ordered an investigation into the murders themselves, which had been widely blamed on the
National Reorganization Process The National Reorganization Process (Spanish: ''Proceso de Reorganización Nacional'', often simply ''el Proceso'', "the Process") was the military dictatorship that ruled Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, lin ...
, the military junta that ruled Argentina at the time.


Relations with Argentine governments


Dirty War

Bergoglio was the subject of allegations regarding the Navy's kidnapping of two
Jesuit , image = Ihs-logo.svg , caption = Christogram A Christogram (Latin ') is a monogram or combination of letters that forms an abbreviation for the name of Jesus Christ, traditionally used as a Christian symbolism ...
priests, Orlando Yorio and Franz Jalics, in May 1976, during Argentina's
Dirty War The Dirty War ( es, Guerra sucia) is the name used by the military junta A military junta () is a government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. ...
. He feared for the priests' safety and had tried to change their work prior to their arrest; however, contrary to reports, he never tried to throw them out of the Jesuit order. In 2005, , a human rights lawyer, filed a criminal complaint against Bergoglio, as superior in the Society of Jesus of Argentina, accusing him of involvement in the kidnapping. Her complaint did not specify how Bergoglio was involved; Bergoglio's spokesman flatly denied the allegations. The lawsuit was ultimately dismissed. The priests were tortured, but were found alive five months later, drugged and semi-naked. Yorio accused Bergoglio of effectively handing them over to the death squads by declining to tell the authorities that he endorsed their work. Yorio, who died in 2000, said in a 1999 interview that he believed that Bergoglio did nothing "to free us, in fact just the opposite". Jalics initially refused to discuss the complaint after moving into seclusion in a German monastery. However, two days after the election of Francis, Jalics issued a statement confirming the kidnapping and attributing the cause to a former lay colleague who became a guerrilla, was captured, then named Yorio and Jalics when interrogated. The following week, Jalics issued a second, clarifying statement: "It is wrong to assert that our capture took place at the initiative of Father Bergoglio (…) the fact is, Orlando Yorio and I were not denounced by Father Bergoglio." Bergoglio told his authorized biographer, Sergio Rubin, that after the priests' imprisonment, he worked behind the scenes for their release; Bergoglio's intercession with dictator
Jorge Rafael Videla Jorge Rafael Videla Redondo (; ; 2 August 1925 – 17 May 2013) was a List of Chiefs of the General Staff of the Argentine Army, General Commander of the Army, member of National Reorganization Process, military junta and List of heads of state o ...

Jorge Rafael Videla
on their behalf may have saved their lives. Bergoglio also told Rubin that he had often sheltered people from the dictatorship on church property, and once gave his own identity papers to a man who looked like him, so he could flee Argentina. The interview with Rubin, reflected in the biography '' El jesuita'', is the only time Bergoglio has spoken to the press about those events. Alicia Oliveira, a former Argentine judge, has also reported that Bergoglio helped people flee Argentina during the rule of the junta. Since Francis became pope, Gonzalo Mosca and José Caravias have related to journalists accounts of how Bergoglio helped them flee the Argentine dictatorship. Oliveira described the future pope as "anguished" and "very critical of the dictatorship" during the Dirty War. Oliveira met with him at the time and urged Bergoglio to speak out—he told her that "he couldn't. That it wasn't an easy thing to do." Artist and human rights activist
Adolfo Pérez Esquivel Adolfo Pérez Esquivel (born November 26, 1931) is an Argentine activist, community organizer, painter, writer and sculptor. He was the recipient of the 1980 Nobel Peace Prize for his opposition to National Reorganization Process, Argentina's last ...
, the 1980
Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize is one of the five Nobel Prize The Nobel Prizes ( ; sv, Nobelpriset ; no, Nobelprisen ) are five separate prizes that, according to Alfred Nobel Alfred Bernhard Nobel ( , ; 21 October 1833 – 10 Decemb ...
laureate, said: "Perhaps he didn't have the courage of other priests, but he never collaborated with the dictatorship. …Bergoglio was no accomplice of the dictatorship." Graciela Fernández Meijide, member of the Permanent Assembly for Human Rights, also said that there was no proof linking Bergoglio with the dictatorship. She told the '' Clarín'' newspaper: "There is no information and Justice couldn't prove it. I was in the APDH during all the dictatorship years and I received hundreds of testimonies. Bergoglio was never mentioned. It was the same in the CONADEP. Nobody mentioned him as instigator or as anything."
Ricardo Lorenzetti Ricardo Luis Lorenzetti (born in Rafaela, Santa Fe Province, September 19, 1955) is an Argentine judge graduated from the National University of the Littoral, Argentina, with a long national and international career. He used to be Chief Justice of ...

Ricardo Lorenzetti
, President of the Argentine Supreme Court, also has said that Bergoglio is "completely innocent" of the accusations. Historian
Uki Goñi Uki Goñi (born 1953) is an Argentine author. His research focuses on the role of the Holy See, Vatican, Swiss authorities and the government of Argentina in organizing 'Ratlines (World War II aftermath), ratlines', escape routes for Nazi criminals ...
pointed that, during early 1976, the military junta still had a good image among society, and that the scale of the political repression was not known until much later; Bergoglio would have had little reason to suspect that the detention of Yorio and Jalics could end up in their deaths. When Bergoglio became pope, an alleged photo of him giving the
sacramental bread Sacramental bread, also called Communion bread, Eucharist wafer, the Lamb or simply the host ( la, hostia, lit=sacrificial victim), is the bread used in the Christian ritual of the Eucharist The Eucharist (; grc-gre, εὐχαριστία ...
to dictator Jorge Rafael Videla became popular in social networks. It has also been used by the newspaper ''
Página/12 ''Página/12'' is a newspaper published in Buenos Aires, Argentina. It was founded on May 25, 1987, by journalist Jorge Lanata in association with writer Osvaldo Soriano and Alberto Elizalde Leal. His first president was businessman Fernando Sokolo ...
''. The photo was soon proved to be false. It was revealed that the priest, whose face is not visible in the photo, was Carlos Berón de Astrada. The photo was taken at the church "Pequeña Obra de la Divina Providencia Don Orione" in 1990, not during the Dirty War, and after Videla's presidential pardon. The photo was produced by the agency AFP and it was initially published by the '' Crónica'' newspaper.


Fernando de la Rúa

Fernando de la Rúa replaced Carlos Menem as president of Argentina in 1999. As an archbishop, Bergoglio celebrated the annual Mass at the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Cathedral on the ''First National Government'' holiday, 25 May. In 2000, Bergoglio criticized the perceived apathy of society. Argentina faced an 1998–2002 Argentine great depression, economic depression at the time, and the Church criticized the fiscal austerity of the government, which increased poverty. De la Rúa asked the Church to promote a dialogue between the leaders of economic and political sectors to find a solution for the crisis. He claims that he talked with Bergoglio and proposed to take part in the meeting, but Bergoglio would have told him that the meeting was canceled because of a misunderstanding by De la Rúa's assistant, who may have declined the president's assistance. Bishop Jorge Casaretto considers it unlikely, as De la Rúa only made the request in newspaper interviews, but never made a formal request to the Church. The Justicialist Party won the Argentine legislative election, 2001, 2001 elections and got the majority in the Congress, and appointed Ramón Puerta as president of the Senate. As vice president Carlos Álvarez (Argentine politician), Carlos Álvarez resigned shortly before, this left an opposing party second in the Argentine order of precedence, order of precedence. Bergoglio asked for an interview with Puerta, and had a positive impression of him. Puerta told him that the Justicialist party was not plotting to oust De la Rúa, and promised to help the president promote the laws that may be required. During police repression of the December 2001 riots in Argentina, riots of December 2001, he contacted the Ministry of the Interior and asked that the police distinguish rioters and vandals from peaceful protesters.


Néstor and Cristina Kirchner

When Bergoglio celebrated Mass at the cathedral for the 2004 ''First National Government'' holiday, President
Néstor Kirchner Néstor Carlos Kirchner Jr. (; 25 February 195027 October 2010) was an Argentine lawyer and politician who served as the 50th President of Argentina from 2003 to 2007, Governor of Santa Cruz, Governor of Santa Cruz Province from 1991 to 2003, S ...
attended and heard Bergoglio request more political dialogue, reject intolerance, and criticize exhibitionism and strident announcements. Kirchner celebrated the national day elsewhere the following year and the Mass in the cathedral was suspended. In 2006, Bergoglio helped the fellow Jesuit Joaquín Piña to win the elections in the Misiones Province and prevent an amendment of the local constitution that would allow indefinite re-elections. Kirchner intended to use that project to start similar amendments at other provinces, and eventually to the national constitution. Kirchner considered Bergoglio as a political rival to the day he died in October 2010. Bergoglio's relations with Kirchner's widow and successor,
Cristina Fernández de Kirchner Cristina Elisabet Fernández de Kirchner (; born 19 February 1953), often referred to by her initials CFK, is an Argentine lawyer and politician who is serving as the 37th Vice President of Argentina since 2019. She also previously served as ...
, have been similarly tense. In 2008, Bergoglio called for national reconciliation during 2008 Argentine government conflict with the agricultural sector, disturbances in the country's agricultural regions, which the government interpreted as a support for anti-government demonstrators. The campaign to enact Same-sex marriage in Argentina, same-sex marriage legislation was a particularly tense period in their relations. When Bergoglio was elected pope, the initial reactions were mixed. Most of the Argentine society cheered it, but the pro-government newspaper ''
Página/12 ''Página/12'' is a newspaper published in Buenos Aires, Argentina. It was founded on May 25, 1987, by journalist Jorge Lanata in association with writer Osvaldo Soriano and Alberto Elizalde Leal. His first president was businessman Fernando Sokolo ...
'' published renewed allegations about the Dirty War, and the president of the National Library of the Argentine Republic, National Library described a global conspiracy theory. The president took more than an hour before congratulating the new pope, and only did so in a passing reference within a routine speech. However, due to the pope's popularity in Argentina, Cristina Kirchner made what the political analyst Claudio Fantini called a "Copernican Revolution (metaphor), Copernican shift" in her relations with him and fully embraced the Francis phenomenon. On the day before his inauguration as pope, Bergoglio, now Francis, had a private meeting with Kirchner. They exchanged gifts and lunched together. This was the new pope's first meeting with a head of state, and there was speculation that the two were mending their relations. ''Página/12'' Self-censorship, removed their controversial articles about Bergoglio, written by Horacio Verbitsky, from their web page, as a result of this change.


Papacy (2013–present)

Elected at 76 years old, Francis was reported to be healthy and his doctors have said his missing lung tissue, removed in his youth, does not significantly affect his health. The only concern would be decreased respiratory reserve if he had a respiratory infection. In the past, one attack of sciatica in 2007 prevented him from attending a consistory and delayed his return to Argentina for several days. Francis is the first Jesuit pope. This was a significant appointment, because of the sometimes tense relations between the
Society of Jesus , image = Ihs-logo.svg , caption = Christogram A Christogram (Latin ') is a monogram or combination of letters that forms an abbreviation for the name of Jesus Christ, traditionally used as a Christian symbolism ...
and the Holy See. However, Bergoglio came in second to Cardinal Ratzinger on all the ballots in the 2005 conclave, and at the time appeared as the only other viable candidate. He is also the first from the Americas, and the first from the
Southern Hemisphere The Southern Hemisphere is the half (hemisphere Hemisphere may refer to: * A half of a sphere As half of the Earth * A hemispheres of Earth, hemisphere of Earth ** Northern Hemisphere ** Southern Hemisphere ** Eastern Hemisphere ** Western He ...

Southern Hemisphere
. Many media reported him as being the first non-European pope, but he is actually the 11th; the previous was from Syria, who died in 741. Moreover, although Francis was not born in Europe, he is Ethnic groups in Europe, ethnically European; his father and both of his mother's parents are from northern Italy. As pope, his manner is less formal than that of his immediate predecessors: a style that news coverage has referred to as "no frills", noting that it is "his common touch and accessibility that is proving the greatest inspiration.""Pope Francis brings no-frills style to papacy"
CBS News, 28 March 2013. Retrieved 28 March 2013
On the night of his election, he took a bus back to his hotel with the cardinals, rather than be driven in the papal car. The next day, he visited Cardinal Jorge María Mejía in the hospital and chatted with patients and staff. At his first media audience, the Saturday after his election, the pope explained his papal name choice, citing Saint Francis of Assisi as "the man who gives us this spirit of peace, the poor man", and he added "[h]ow I would like a poor Church, and for the poor". In addition to his Native language, native Spanish, he speaks fluent Italian (the official language of Vatican City and the "everyday language" of the Holy See) and German. He is also conversant in Latin (the official language of the Holy See), French, Portuguese, and English,Willey, David
News analysis sidebar to "Pope Francis delivers Easter plea for peace"
BBC News, 31 March 2013. Retrieved 31 March 2013
and he understands the Piedmontese language and some Genoese dialect, Genoese. Francis chose not to live in the official papal apartments, papal residence in the
Apostolic Palace The Apostolic Palace ( la, Palatium Apostolicum; it, Palazzo Apostolico) is the official residence An official residence is the House, residence of nation's head of state, head of government, governor, Clergy, religious leader, leaders of in ...

Apostolic Palace
, but to remain in the Domus Sanctae Marthae, Vatican guest house, in a suite in which he can receive visitors and hold meetings. He is the first pope since Pope Pius X to live outside the papal apartments. Francis still appears at the window of the Apostolic Palace for the Sunday Angelus.Speciale, Alessandro
"Pope Francis opts for Vatican guesthouse instead of spacious papal apartment"
Religion News Service, 26 March 2013. Retrieved 27 March 2013


Election

Bergoglio was elected pope on 13 March 2013, the second day of the 2013 papal conclave, taking the
papal name A list of popes buried in Vatican Vatican may refer to: The Holy See * The Holy See The Holy See ( lat, Sancta Sedes, ; it, Santa Sede ), also called the See of Rome, is the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, known as the pope, which i ...
Francis. Francis was elected on the fifth ballot of the conclave. The ''Habemus papam'' announcement was delivered by the cardinal protodeacon, Jean-Louis Tauran. Cardinal Christoph Schönborn later said that Bergoglio was elected following two supernatural signs, one in the conclave and hence confidential, and a Latin-American couple of friends of Schönborn who whispered Bergoglio's name in Schönborn's ear; Schönborn commented "if these people say Bergoglio, that's an indication of the Holy Spirit". Instead of accepting his cardinals' congratulations while seated on the papal throne, Francis received them standing, reportedly an immediate sign of a changing approach to formalities at the Vatican. During his first appearance as pontiff on the balcony of Saint Peter's Basilica, he wore a white cassock, not the red, ermine-trimmed mozzetta used by previous popes. He also wore the same iron pectoral cross that he had worn as archbishop of Buenos Aires, rather than the gold one worn by his predecessors. After being elected and choosing his name, his first act was bestowing the ''Urbi et Orbi'' blessing on thousands of pilgrims gathered in St. Peter's Square. Before blessing the crowd, he asked those in St. Peter's Square to pray for his predecessor, "the bishop emeritus of Rome" Pope Benedict XVI, and for himself as the new "bishop of Rome". Francis held his papal inauguration on 19 March 2013 in St. Peter's Square in the Vatican City, Vatican. He celebrated Mass in the presence of various political and religious leaders from around the world. In his homily Francis focused on the Solemnity of Saint Joseph, the liturgical day on which the Mass was celebrated.


Name

At his first audience on 16 March 2013, Francis told journalists that he had chosen the name in honor of Francis of Assisi, Saint Francis of Assisi, and had done so because he was especially concerned for the well-being of the poor. He explained that, as it was becoming clear during the conclave voting that he would be elected the new bishop of Rome, the Brazilian Cardinal Cláudio Hummes had embraced him and whispered, "Don't forget the poor", which had made Bergoglio think of the saint. Bergoglio had previously expressed his admiration for St. Francis, explaining that "He brought to Christianity an idea of poverty against the luxury, pride, vanity of the civil and ecclesiastical powers of the time. He changed history."Bethune, Brian
"Pope Francis: How the first New World pontiff could save the church"
''Maclean's'', 26 March 2013. Retrieved 27 March 2013
This is the first time that a pope has been named ''Francis''. On the day of his election, the Vatican clarified that his official papal name was "Francis", not "Francis I", i.e. no regnal number is used for him. A Vatican spokesman said that the name would become Francis I if and when there is a Francis II. It is the first time since Pope Lando, Lando's 913–914 pontificate that a serving pope holds a name not used by a predecessor. Francis also said that some cardinal electors had jokingly suggested to him that he should choose either "Adrian", since Adrian VI had been a reformer of the church, or "Clement" to settle the score with Clement XIV, who had Suppression of the Society of Jesus, suppressed the Jesuit order.Audience to Representatives of the Communications Media – Address of the Holy Father Pope Francis
nbsp;– vatican.va – Paul VI Audience Hall Saturday, 16 March 2013
In February 2014, it was reported that Bergoglio, had he been elected in 2005, would have chosen the pontifical name of "John XXIV" in honor of John XXIII. It was said that he told Cardinal Francesco Marchisano: "John, I would have called myself John, like the Good Pope; I would have been completely inspired by him".


Curia

On 16 March 2013, Francis asked all those in senior positions of the
Roman Curia The Roman Curia ( la, Romana Curia ministerium suum implent) comprises the administrative institutions of the Holy See The Holy See ( lat, Sancta Sedes, ; it, Santa Sede ), also called the See of Rome or Apostolic See, is the jurisdi ...
to provisionally continue in office. He named Alfred Xuereb as his personal secretary. On 6 April he named José Rodríguez Carballo as secretary for the
Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life , type = Congregation , seal = Coat of arms Holy See.svg , seal_size = 100px , seal_caption = Coat of arms of the Holy See , logo = , picture =Via della Conciliazione din Roma1.jpg , picture_caption = Palazzo delle Congregazioni in Piazza ...
, a position that had been vacant for several months. Francis abolished the bonuses paid to Vatican employees upon the election of a new pope, amounting to several million Euros, opting instead to donate the money to charity. He also abolished the €25,000 annual bonus paid to the cardinals serving on the Board of Supervisors for the Institute for the Works of Religion, Vatican bank. On 13 April 2013, he named eight cardinals to a new Council of Cardinal Advisers to advise him on revising the organizational structure of the Roman Curia. The group included several known as critics of Vatican operations and only one member of the Curia. They are Giuseppe Bertello, president of the President of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State, Vatican City State governorate; Francisco Javier Errazuriz Ossa from Chile; Oswald Gracias from India; Reinhard Marx from Germany; Laurent Monsengwo Pasinya from the Democratic Republic of the Congo; George Pell from Australia; Seán Patrick O'Malley, Seán O'Malley from the United States; and Óscar Rodríguez Maradiaga, Óscar Andrés Rodríguez Maradiaga from Honduras. He appointed Bishop Marcello Semeraro secretary for the group and scheduled its first meeting for 1–3 October.


Early issues

In March 2013, 21 British Catholic House of Lords, peers and House of Commons of the United Kingdom, members of Parliament from all Political parties in the United Kingdom, parties asked Francis to allow married men in Great Britain to be ordained as priests, keeping celibacy as the rule for bishops. They asked it on the grounds that it would be anomalous that married Anglican priests can be received into the Catholic Church and ordained as priests, by means of either the Pastoral Provision of 20 June 1980 or the 2009 Anglican ordinariate, but married Catholic men cannot do the same.Teahan, Madeleine
"Catholic MPs urge Pope Francis to allow ordination of married men"
The Catholic Herald, 27 March 2013. Retrieved 27 March 2013
Fouad Twal, the Latin patriarch of Jerusalem, included a call in his 2013 Easter homily for the pope to visit Jerusalem. Louis Raphaël I Sako, Louis Raphael I, the Chaldean Catholic Church, Chaldean Catholic Patriarch, asked the pope to visit the "embattled Christian community" in Iraq."Chaldean prelate invites pope to visit Iraq"
catholicculture.org, 22 March 2013. Retrieved 31 March 2013
In March 2021, Pope Francis went to Iraq on a first-ever papal visit to the diminishing Christian communities of Mesopotamia fallen apart after years of conflict. On the first Maundy Thursday, Holy Thursday following his election, Francis washed and kissed the feet of ten male and two female juvenile offenders, not all Catholic, aged from 14 to 21, imprisoned at Rome's Casal del Marmo detention facility, telling them Maundy (foot washing), the ritual of foot washing is a sign that he is at their service.Speciale, Alessandro
"Pope washes feet of two girls, two Muslims at youth prison"
''The Washington Post'' (''On Faith''), 29 March 2013. Retrieved 29 March 2013
This was the first time that a pope had included women in this ritual; although he had already done so when he was archbishop. One of the male and one of the female prisoners were Muslim. On 31 March 2013, Francis used his first Urbi et Orbi, Easter homily to make a plea for peace throughout the world, specifically mentioning the Middle East, Africa, and North and South Korea.Lymon, Eric J.
"Pope Francis makes pleas for peace on Easter Sunday"
''USA Today'', 31 March 2013. Retrieved 31 March 2013
He also spoke out against those who give in to "easy gain" in a world filled with greed, and made a plea for humanity to become a better guardian of creation by protecting the environment. He said that "[w]e ask the risen Jesus, who turns death into life, to change hatred into love, vengeance into forgiveness, war into peace.""Pope Francis delivers Easter plea for peace"
BBC News, 31 March 2013. Retrieved 31 March 2013
Although the Vatican had prepared greetings in 65 languages, Francis chose not to read them. According to the Vatican, the pope "at least for now, feels at ease using Italian, the everyday language of the Holy See". In 2013, Francis initially reaffirmed the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith's program to Leadership Conference of Women Religious#Doctrinal issues, reform the U.S. Leadership Conference of Women Religious, initiated under his predecessor, Pope Benedict XVI. ''The New York Times'' reported that the Vatican had formed the opinion in 2012 that the Religious sister (Catholic), sisters' group was tinged with feminist influences, focused too much on ending social and economic injustice and not enough on stopping abortion, and permitted speakers at its meetings who questioned church doctrine. However, in April 2015 the investigation was brought to a close. While the timing of the closure may have anticipated Pope Francis's visit to the United States, a visit by Francis to the U.S. in September 2015, it was noted that the sisters' emphasis is close to that of Francis. On 12 May, Francis carried out his first canonizations of candidates approved for sainthood during the reign of Benedict XVI: the first Colombian saint, Laura of Saint Catherine of Siena, the second female Mexican saint, María Guadalupe García Zavala, both of the 20th century, and the 813 15th-century Martyrs of Otranto. He said: "While we venerate the martyrs of Otranto, ask God to support the many Christians who still suffer from violence and give them the courage and fate and respond to evil with goodness."


Synodal church

Francis has overseen synods on Third Extraordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, the family (2014), on Fifteenth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, youth (2018), and on the Church in the Amazon rainforest, Amazon region (2019). In 2019 Francis' apostolic constitution ''Episcopalis communio'' allowed that the final document of a synod may become magisterial teaching simply with papal approval. The constitution also allowed for laity to contribute input directly to the synod's secretary general. Some analysts see the creation of a truly synodal church as likely to become the greatest contribution of Francis' papacy.


Consultation with Catholic laity

A February 2014 survey by the World Values Survey cited in ''The Washington Post'' and ''Time (magazine), Time'' shows how the unity Francis had created could be challenged. Although views about Francis personally were favorable, many Catholics disagreed with at least some of his teachings. The survey found that members of the Catholic Church are deeply divided over abortion, artificial contraception, divorce, the ordination of women, and married priests. In the same month Francis asked parishes to provide answers to an official questionnaire described as a "much broader consultation than just a survey" regarding opinions among the laity. He continued to assert Catholic doctrine, in less dramatic tone than his recent predecessors, who maintained that the Catholic Church is not a democracy of popular opinion. Linda Woodhead of Lancaster University wrote of the survey Francis initiated, "it's not a survey in any sense that a social scientist would recognize." Woodhead said that many ordinary Catholics would have difficulty understanding theological jargon there. Nonetheless, she suspected the survey might be influential. The Catholic Church in England and Wales had refused to publish results of this survey; a Church spokesman said a senior Vatican official had expressly asked for summaries to remain confidential, and that orders had come from the pope that the information should not be made public until after October. This disappointed many reformers who hoped the laity would be more involved in decision-making. Some other Catholic churches, for example in Catholic Church in Germany, Germany and Catholic Church in Austria, Austria, published summaries of the responses to the survey, which showed a wide gap between Church teaching and the behavior of ordinary Catholics. In a column he wrote for the Vatican's semi-official newspaper ''L'Osservatore Romano'', the then-Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura, American cardinal Raymond Leo Burke, who has a long-standing reputation as one of the church's most vocal conservative hard-liners, said that Francis opposed both abortion and gay marriage. The Vatican's chief spokesman, Father Federico Lombardi, also noted in the Vatican press office during the 2014 consistory meetings that Francis and Cardinal Walter Kasper would not change or redefine any dogmas pertaining to Church theology on doctrinal matters.


Institute for the Works of Religion

In the first months of Francis's papacy, the Institute for the Works of Religion, informally known as the Vatican Bank, said that it would become more transparent in its financial dealings There had long been allegations of corruption and money laundering connected with the bank. Francis appointed a commission to advise him about reform of the Bank, and the finance consulting firm Promontory Financial Group was assigned to carry out a comprehensive investigation of all customer contacts of the bank on these facts. Because of this affair the Devil's advocate#Origin, Promoter of Justice at the Law of Vatican City, Vatican Tribunal applied a letter rogatory for the first time in the history of the Republic of Italy at the beginning of August 2013. In January 2014, Francis replaced four of the five cardinal overseers of the Vatican Bank, who had been confirmed in their positions in the final days of Benedict XVI's papacy. Lay experts and clerics were looking into how the bank was run. Ernst von Freyberg was put in charge. Moneyval feels more reform is needed, and Francis may be willing to close the bank if the reforms prove too difficult. There is uncertainty how far reforms can succeed.


Papal documents

On 29 June 2013, Francis published the encyclical ''Lumen fidei'', which was largely the work of Benedict XVI but awaiting a final draft at his retirement. On 24 November 2013, Francis published his first major letter as pope, the apostolic exhortation ''Evangelii gaudium'', which he described as the programmatic of his papacy. On 18 June 2015, he published his first own, original encyclical ''
Laudato si'#REDIRECT Laudato si' {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from move {{R from other capitalisation ...
'' concerning care for the planet. On 8 April 2016, Francis published his second apostolic exhortation, ''
Amoris laetitia ''Amoris laetitia'' (''The Joy of Love'') is a post-synodal apostolic exhortation by Pope Francis Pope Francis ( la, Franciscus; it, Francesco; es, link=no, Francisco; born Jorge Mario Bergoglio, 17 December 1936) is the head of the Cath ...
'',Pope Francis (8 April 2016)
Amoris laetitia
The Holy See. Retrieved 20 April 2016.
remarking on love within the family. Controversy arose at the end of 2016 when four cardinals formally asked Francis for clarifications, particularly on the issue of giving communion to divorced and civilly remarried Catholics. His motu proprio, ''motu proprios'' include ''Ai nostri tempi'' and ''De concordia inter codices''. Francis issued another titled ''Maiorem hac dilectionem'' which created a new path towards canonization for certain causes. He established two new Secretariats (top-level departments) in the Roman Curia: the Secretariat for the Economy, and the Secretariat for Communications. He Matrimonial nullity trial reforms of Pope Francis, simplified the process for declaring Declaration of nullity, matrimonial nullity. On 8 December 2017, Francis signed a new apostolic constitution on ecclesiastical universities and faculties ''Veritatis gaudium'', published 29 January 2018. A further Apostolic Exhortation, ''Gaudete et exsultate'' (''Rejoice and be glad''), was published on 19 March 2018, dealing with "the Universal call to holiness, call to holiness in today's world" for all persons. He counters contemporary versions of the Gnosticism, gnostic and Pelagianism, Pelagian Heresy in Christianity, heresies and describes how Jesus' beatitudes call people to "go against the flow". In February 2019, Francis acknowledged that priests and bishops were sexually abusing Religious sister (Catholic), religious sisters. He addressed this and the clergy sex abuse scandal by convening a summit on clergy sexual abuse in Rome 21–24 February 2019. As a follow-up to that summit, on 9 May 2019 Francis promulgated the ''motu proprio'' ''Vos estis lux mundi'' which specified responsibilities, including reporting directly to the Holy See on bishops and on one's superior, while simultaneously involving another bishop in the archdiocese of the accused bishop. On 30 September 2020, he published the apostolic letter ''Scripturae sacrae affectus'' to celebrate the 16th centenary of the death of Jerome. On 4 October 2020 on the feast of St. Francis of Assisi, Francis published the encyclical ''Fratelli tutti'' on fraternity and social friendship, using St. Francis' own words to describe our universal brotherhood and sisterhood. On 8 December 2020 on the Feast of the Immaculate Conception, Pope Francis published the apostolic letter ''Patris corde'' ("With a Father's Heart"). To mark the occasion, the Pope proclaimed a "Year of Saint Joseph" from 8 December 2020, to 8 December 2021 on the 150th Anniversary of the Proclamation of Saint Joseph as Patron of the Catholic Church, Universal Church. On 1 June 2021, Francis published the apostolic constitution ''Pascite gregem Dei''. Pope Francis issued the ''motu proprio'' ''Traditionis custodes'' on 16 July 2021. The document abrogated the permissions for the celebration of the Tridentine Mass previously established by Benedict XVI in the 2007 ''Summorum Pontificum'', with ''Traditionis custodes'' instituting increased restrictions on the use of the 1962 Roman Missal. Pope Francis stated in a letter accompanying the ''motu proprio'' that emphasizing the Mass of Paul VI would bring "unity I intend to re-establish throughout the Church of the Roman Rite."


Ecumenism and interreligious dialogue

Pope Francis continued in the tradition of the Second Vatican Council and of the papacies since the Council in promoting
ecumenism Ecumenism (), also spelled oecumenism, is the concept and principle in which Christians Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion ...
with other Christian denominations, as well as encouraging dialogue with leaders of other religions; he has also supported peace with those claiming no religious belief.


Clerical titles

In January 2014, Francis said that he would appoint fewer monsignors and only assign those honored to the lowest of the three surviving ranks of monsignor, chaplain of His Holiness. It would be awarded only to diocesan priests at least 65 years old. During his 15 years as archbishop of Buenos Aires, Francis never sought the title for any of his priests. It is believed he associates it with clerical careerism and hierarchy, though he did not apply this restriction to clergy working in the Roman Curia or diplomatic corps, where careerism is an even greater concern.


Canonizations and beatifications

Francis presided over the first canonizations of his pontificate on 12 May 2013 in which he canonized the Martyrs of Otranto. Antonio Primaldo and his 812 companions who had been Ottoman invasion of Otranto, executed by the Ottomans in 1480, as well as the Religious sister (Catholic), religious sisters Laura Montoya, Laura of St. Catherine of Siena and María Guadalupe García Zavala – in this first canonization he surpassed the record of Pope John Paul II in canonizing the most saints in a pontificate. Francis approved the equipollent canonization of Angela of Foligno the following 9 October and then the Jesuit Peter Faber the following 17 December. The pope approved further equipollent canonizations on 3 April 2014 for the Jesuit José de Anchieta as well as the Ursulines, Ursuline nun Marie of the Incarnation (Ursuline), Marie of the Incarnation and bishop François de Laval. Francis canonized his two predecessors John XXIII and John Paul II on 27 April 2014 and canonized six additional saints the following 23 November. The pope canonized Joseph Vaz on his visit to Sri Lanka on 14 January 2015 and canonized a further four saints on the following 17 May; he canonized Junípero Serra on 23 September while visiting the United States and then canonized four saints on 18 October including the Louis Martin and Marie-Azélie Guérin, first married couple to be named as saints. Francis canonized Elisabeth Hesselblad, Maria Elisabeth Hesselblad and Stanislaus Papczyński on 5 June 2016 and then canonized Teresa of Calcutta on 4 September; he canonized seven additional saints on 16 October. The pope canonized the two child visionaries Francisco and Jacinta Marto during his visit to Fátima in mid-2017 and canonized 35 additional saints on 15 October. Francis recognized seven saints on 14 October 2018, chief among them, his predecessor Pope Paul VI and Óscar Romero. Francis later confirmed the equipollent canonization for Bartholomew of Braga in mid-2019. On 13 October 2019, Francis canonized five new saints, including Cardinal John Henry Newman. The pope confirmed the equipollent canonization for Margaret of Castello, Margherita della Metola on 24 April 2021. The pope has also continued the practice of having beatifications celebrated in the place of the individual's origin though has presided over beatifications himself on three occasions: for Korean Martyrs, Paul Yun Ji-Chung and 123 companions on 16 August 2014, his predecessor Pope Paul VI on 19 October 2014, and two Colombian martyrs on 8 September 2017. The pope has approved beatifications for a range of men and women including the likes of Álvaro del Portillo of Opus Dei (27 September 2014), the martyred archbishop Óscar Romero (23 May 2015) and several large groups of Martyrs of the Spanish Civil War, Spanish martyrs. On 21 February 2015, Francis signed a decree naming Gregory of Narek, Saint Gregory of Narek as the 36th Doctor of the Church; he formally conferred the title upon the saint at a ceremony held in Saint Peter's Basilica on 12 April 2015 with delegations from the Armenian Catholic Church and the Armenian Apostolic Church present. Francis also confirmed his predecessor Pope John Paul I, John Paul I to be Venerable on 8 November 2017.


Consistories

At the first
consistory Consistory is the anglicized form of the consistorium, a council of the closest advisors of the Roman emperors. It can also refer to: *A papal consistory, a formal meeting of the Sacred College of Cardinals of the Roman Catholic Church *Consistory c ...
of his papacy, held on 22 February 2014, Francis created 19 new cardinals. At the time of their elevation to that rank, 16 of these new cardinals were under eighty years of age and thus eligible to vote in a papal conclave. The new appointees included prelates from South America, Africa, and Asia, including appointees in some of the world's poorest countries, such as Chibly Langlois from Haiti and Philippe Ouédraogo (bishop), Philippe Nakellentuba Ouedraogo from Burkina Faso.Pope Francis inducts new cardinals as predecessor Benedict looks on
Reuters, 22 February 2014. Retrieved 22 February 2014
The consistory was a rare occasion in which Francis and his predecessor, Benedict XVI, appeared together in public. Benedict XVI also attended the second consistory on 14 February 2015, at which Francis elevated 20 new cardinals, with 15 under the age of eighty and five over the age of eighty. The pope continued his practice of appointing cardinals from the peripheries, such as Charles Maung Bo of Myanmar and Soane Patita Paini Mafi of Tonga. Francis presided over the third consistory of his papacy on 19 November 2016, elevating 17 new cardinals. Of that total number at the time of their elevation, 13 were under the age of eighty and four were over the age of eighty. Francis continued his previous practice of elevating cardinals from the peripheries with an emphasis again on Asia and Africa, such as Patrick D'Rozario from Bangladesh and Dieudonné Nzapalainga from the Central African Republic, while also naming the first three American cardinals of his papacy and only one Curial appointment. The pope presided over a fourth consistory for the elevation of five new cardinals on the afternoon of 28 June 2017. Each of the five were under the age of eighty, and were thus eligible to vote in a papal conclave. This consistory was noteworthy for the fact that, with the pope continuing the trend of elevating cardinals from a diverse range of areas, no cardinals elevated are of the Roman Curia, and one was a mere auxiliary bishop. Francis presided over his fifth consistory for the elevation of 14 new cardinals on 28 June 2018. The first eleven were under the age of eighty, and therefore, were eligible to vote in a future papal conclave while the last three were over the age of eighty, and thus, ineligible to vote in a papal conclave. The pope continued the practice of naming the Vicar of Rome and a curial prefect as cardinals, while naming his substitute for the Secretariat of State in anticipation of his transferral to a curial department. The pope also continued his practice of bestowing the red hat on those from peripheries such as Madagascar, Pakistan, and Iraq, and like in 2016, created a priest as a cardinal. The consistory was also noteworthy for the fact that Francis named the papal almoner Konrad Krajewski as a cardinal, marking the consistory the first occasion where the almoner was made a cardinal. Francis himself later said that he wanted the office of almoner to receive the red hat going forward as it was an important arm of the Vatican. On 1 September 2019, following his weekly Sunday Angelus address, Francis unexpectedly announced the appointment of 13 new cardinals. Of these, 10 appointees were under the age of 80 and would therefore become cardinal electors, besides three over 80. The new cardinals were formally installed at the consistory celebrated on 5 October 2019. Most of the new cardinals come from the peripheries of the church and developing countries. Two new appointees were from Muslim majority countries (Morocco and Indonesia), while two others were known for their work on refugee and migration issues. This action took the number of cardinal electors appointed by Francis to the College of Cardinals to about 70 out of nearly 130. Francis created thirteen new cardinals on 28 November 2020; nine appointees were under the age of 80, therefore, could vote in a future papal conclave. The pope also nominated four cardinals over the age of 80. Most of these new appointees continued the trend that Francis adhered to, appointing the first cardinals to represent Brunei and Rwanda. Francis also nominated the first African American cardinal (Wilton Daniel Gregory, Gregory), while naming the first Conventual Franciscan (Mauro Gambetti, Gambetti) in almost 160 years, and the first from Siena (Augusto Paolo Lojudice, Lojudice) since 1801. Three of his appointees were only priests upon their nomination, therefore, two (Gambetti and Enrico Feroci, Feroci) received their episcopal consecration, while one (Raniero Cantalamessa, Cantalamessa) was granted a papal dispensation from it.


Year of Mercy

With his April 2015 papal bull of indiction, ''Misericordiae Vultus'' (Latin: "The Face of Mercy"), Francis inaugurated a Special Jubilee (Christianity), Jubilee Year of Mercy, to run from 8 December 2015, Solemnity of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary, to the last Sunday before Advent and the Solemnity of the Feast of Christ the King of the Universe on 20 November 2016. The Holy Doors of the major basilicas of Rome (including the Great Door of St. Peter's) were opened, and special "Doors of Mercy" were opened at cathedrals and other major churches around the world, where the faithful can earn indulgences by fulfilling the usual conditions of prayer for the pope's intentions, confession, and detachment from sin, and communion. During Lent of that year, special 24-hour penance services will be celebrated, and during the year, special qualified and experienced priests called "Missionaries of Mercy" will be available in every diocese to forgive even severe, special-case sins normally reserved to the Holy See's Apostolic Penitentiary. Francis established the World Day of the Poor in his Apostolic Letter, ''Misericordia et Misera'', issued on 20 November 2016 to celebrate the end of the Extraordinary Jubilee of Mercy.


COVID-19 pandemic

During the COVID-19 pandemic, Francis canceled his regular Papal audience, general audiences at St. Peter's Square to prevent crowds from gathering and spreading the virus, which COVID-19 pandemic in Italy, seriously affected Italy. He encouraged priests to visit patients and health workers; urged the faithful not to forget the poor during the time of crisis; offered prayers for victims of the virus in China; and invoked the Blessed Virgin Mary under her title Salus Populi Romani, as the Diocese of Rome observed a period of prayer and fasting in recognition of the victims. The pontiff reacted with displeasure on 13 March 2020, at the news that the Vicar General had closed all churches in the Diocese of Rome. Despite 2020 Italy coronavirus lockdown, Italy being under a quarantine lockdown, Francis pleaded "not to leave the ... people alone" and worked to partially reverse the closures. On 20 March 2020, Francis asked the Dicastery for Promoting Integral Human Development, Dicastery for Promoting Integral Human Development (DPIHD) to create a Vatican COVID-19 Commission to express the Church's concern for the crisis generated by the COVID-19 pandemic, and propose responses to the potential socio-economic challenges deriving from it. On 27 March, Francis gave an extraordinary benediction ''Urbi et Orbi''. In his homily on calming the storm in the Gospel of Mark, Francis described the setting: "Dense darkness has thickened on our squares, streets and cities; it looks over our lives filling everything with a deafening silence and a desolate void that paralyzes everything in its passage: you can feel it in the air, you can feel it in your gestures. ...In the face of suffering, where the true development of our peoples is measured, we discover and experience the priestly prayer of Jesus: 'may all be one'."


Role of women

On 11 January 2021, Francis Spiritus Domini (Pope Francis), allowed bishops to institute women to the ministries of acolyte and Reader (liturgy), lector. While these instituted ministries were previously reserved to men, Catholic women already carry out these duties without institution in most of the world. Francis wrote that these Christian ministry, ministries are fundamentally distinct from those reserved to Holy orders in the Catholic Church, ordained clergy. In February 2021, Francis announced back-to-back appointments of women to take positions that were only held by men in the past. He appointed France’s member of the Congregation of Xavières, Xaviere Missionary Sisters, Nathalie Becquart as the first co-undersecretary of the Synod of Bishops in the Catholic Church, Synod of Bishops. Besides, an Italian magistrate, Catia Summaria also became the first woman Promoter of Justice in the Vatican’s Court of Appeals.


Financial corruption

Francis was mandated by electing cardinals to sort out Vatican finances following scandals during the papacies of Pope Benedict and Pope John Paul II. He stated he is determined to end corruption in the Catholic Church but is not very optimistic due to a human problem dating back centuries.


Theological emphases

In ''Evangelii gaudium'' Francis revealed what would be the emphases of his pontificate: a missionary impulse among all Catholics, sharing the faith more actively, avoiding worldliness and more visibly living the gospel of God's mercy, and helping the poor and working for Catholic social teaching, social justice.


Evangelization

From his first major letter ''Evangelii gaudium'' (''Joy to the World''), Francis called for "a missionary and pastoral conversion" whereby the laity would fully share in the missionary task of the church. Then in his letter on the call of all to the same holiness, ''Gaudete et exsultate'', Fancis describes holiness as "an impulse to evangelize and to leave a mark in this world".


Church governance

Francis called for decentralization of governance away from Rome, and for a synodal manner of decision making in dialogue with the people. He strongly opposed Theology of Pope Francis#Clericalism, clericalism and made Theology of Pope Francis#Important role of women, women full members of the Church's dicasteries in Rome.


Environment

Francis' naming of himself after Francis of Assisi was an early indication of how he shared Francis' care for all of creation. This was followed in May 2015 with his major encyclical on the environment, ''
Laudato si'#REDIRECT Laudato si' {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from move {{R from other capitalisation ...
'' (''Praise be to you'').


Option for the poor

Francis has highly extolled "popular movements", which demonstrate the "strength of us", serve as a remedy to the "culture of the self", and are based on solidarity with the poor and the common good.


Morality

Cardinal Walter Kasper has called mercy "the key word of his pontificate." His papal motto ''Miserando atque eligendo'' ("by having mercy and by choosing") contains a central theme of his papacy, God's mercy, While maintaining the Church's traditional teaching against abortion, Francis, has referred to the "obsession" of some Catholics with a few issues like "abortion, gay marriage and the use of contraceptive methods" which "do not show the heart of the message of Jesus Christ.”


LGBT

In June 2013, Francis suggested that "if a person is gay and seeks God and has good will, who am I to judge?" Later, in 2015, he declared that "the family is threatened by growing efforts on the part of some to redefine the very institution of marriage." He has also suggested that same-sex marriage "disfigures God's plan for creation." He stated that he supports Civil union, legally recognising same-sex civil unions in a statement from an interview published in October 2020; this passage was from an interview from 2019, but this passage had been cut from public releases at the time. The statement was also interpreted as supportive of LGBT adoption.
What we have to create is a civil union law. That way they are legally covered. They're children of God and have a right to a family. Nobody should be thrown out or be made miserable because of it.
However, Vatican later clarified that his comments were taken out of context with two comments to two different questions at different times spliced together in a very misleading way. Francis has never officially pronounced support for gay civil unions. Francis also endorsed the 2015 Slovak same-sex marriage referendum which would have banned same-sex adoptions in the country.


Religious persecution

Francis supported the use of force to stop Islamic militants from attacking religious minorities in Iraq. In January 2018, Francis met with a group of Yazidi people, Yazidi refugees in Europe and expressed his support for their right to freely profess their own faith without limitations. In the meeting, he also urged the international community "not to remain a silent and unresponsive spectator in the face of [your] tragedy."


Controversies

Since 2016, criticism against Francis by theological conservatives has intensified. One commentator has described the conservative resistance against Francis as "unique in its visibility" in recent Church history. Some have explained the level of disagreement as due to his going beyond theoretical principles to pastoral discernment.


Sexual abuse response

As cardinal, in 2010 Bergoglio commissioned a study which concluded that Father Julio Grassi, a priest convicted of child sexual abuse, was innocent, that his victims were lying, and that the case against him never should have gone to trial. Despite the study, the Supreme Court of Argentina upheld the conviction and 15-year prison sentence against Grassi in March 2017. Francis has admitted that the Church "arrived late" in dealing with sexual abuse cases. During his papacy, a number of abuse survivors have expressed disappointment in Francis's response to sex abuse in the Church while others have praised him for his actions. In 2015, Francis was criticized for supporting Chilean bishop Juan Barros, who was accused of covering up sex crimes committed against minors. In 2018, Francis acknowledged he had made "grave errors" in judgment about Barros, apologized to the victims and launched a Vatican investigation that resulted in the resignation of Barros and two other Chilean bishops. In 2018, Archbishop Carlo Maria Viganò published an open letter denouncing Francis's handling of sexual abuse allegations against Theodore McCarrick, accusing him of knowing about allegations that McCarrick had committed sexual abuse and failing to take action. Viganò called on the Pope to resign. In November 2021, Francis thanked journalists for their "mission" on uncovering sex abuse scandals in the Church, adding that it made of the cases "less obscure (...) to make those who live it less fear it."


Theological disagreements


''Amoris laetitia'' and the communion to the divorced and civilly remarried

On a theological level, controversy arose after the publication of the apostolic exhortation ''
Amoris laetitia ''Amoris laetitia'' (''The Joy of Love'') is a post-synodal apostolic exhortation by Pope Francis Pope Francis ( la, Franciscus; it, Francesco; es, link=no, Francisco; born Jorge Mario Bergoglio, 17 December 1936) is the head of the Cath ...
'', especially regarding whether the exhortation had changed the
Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Catholic Church
's sacramental discipline concerning access to the Sacrament of Penance, sacraments of Penance and the Eucharist in the Catholic Church, Eucharist for divorced couples who have Civil marriage, civilly remarried.Oullet, Marc (21 November 2017)
"Accompanying, Discerning, Integrating Weakness"
''L'Osservatore Romano'', retrieved 29 November 2017
Francis had written that "It is important that the divorced who have entered a new union should be made to feel part of the Church." He called not for "a new set of general rules, canonical in nature and applicable to all cases," but "a responsible personal and pastoral discernment of particular cases." He went on to say: “It is true that general rules set forth a good which can never be disregarded or neglected, but in their formulation they cannot provide absolutely for all particular situations.” Four cardinals (Raymond Leo Burke, Carlo Caffarra, Walter Brandmüller, and Joachim Meisner) formally asked Francis for clarifications, particularly on the issue of giving communion to divorced and civilly remarried Catholics. They submitted five "dubia" (doubts), and requested a yes or no answer. Francis has not publicly replied. The exhortation has been implemented in different ways by various bishops around the world. Cardinal Gerhard Ludwig Müller, Gerhard Müller, former prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, maintained that ''Amoris Laetitia'' should only be interpreted in line with previous doctrine. Therefore, according to Cardinal Müller, divorced and civilly remarried can have access to the Sacraments of Reconciliation and the Eucharist only if they take on the duty of living in complete continence. Francis subsequently announced that dicastery prefects would be appointed for a single five-year term, and replaced Müller at the end of his term in 2017 with Luis Ladaria Ferrer. Cardinal Carlo Caffarra, one of the authors of the dubia, maintains that after ''Amoris laetitia'' "only a blind man could deny there's great confusion, uncertainty and insecurity in the Church." In July 2017 a group of conservative clergy, academics and laymen signed a document labeled as a "Correctio filialis de haeresibus propagatis, Filial Correction" of Francis. The 25-page document, which was made public in September after it received no reply, criticized the pope for promoting what it described as seven heretical propositions through various words, actions and omissions during his pontificate. Capuchin Father Thomas Weinandy, ex-doctrine chief of US Bishops, wrote a letter to Francis on 31 July 2017, which he subsequently made public, in which he charged that Francis is fostering "chronic confusion", "demeaning" the importance of doctrine, appointing bishops who "scandalize" believers with dubious "teaching and pastoral practice", giving prelates who object the impression they will be "marginalized or worse" if they speak out, and causing faithful Catholics to "lose confidence in their supreme shepherd".


Document on Human Fraternity

The ''Document on Human Fraternity for World Peace and Living Together'' is a joint statement signed by Francis and Sheikh Ahmed el-Tayeb, Grand Imam of Al-Azhar, on 4 February 2019 in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. This joint statement is concerned with how different faiths can live peaceably in the same world and areas. Criticisms focused particularly on the passage about God's will with regard to the diversity of religions, claiming that the "pluralism and the diversity of religions, colour, sex, race and language are willed by God in His wisdom, through which He created human beings". Catholic theologian Chad Pecknold wrote that this sentence was "puzzling, and potentially problematic". Some Catholic observers tried to understand it as an allusion to the "permissive will" of God, allowing evil on earth. Pecknold wrote that the diversity of religions might also be "evidence of our natural desire to know God". On 8 February 2019 Bishop Athanasius Schneider released a document entitled "The Gift of Filial Adoption, the Christian Faith: the only valid and the only God-willed religion".


''Traditionis custodes'' and the restriction of the Tridentine Mass

In July 2021, Francis issued, ''motu proprio'', the apostolic letter titled ''Traditionis custodes'', which reversed the decision of his immediate predecessor Benedict XVI in Summorum Pontificum, ''Summorum Pontificum'' and imposed new restrictions on the use of the Tridentine Mass, Traditional Latin Mass. The letter returned to the bishops the power to grant or suppress the Latin Mass in their particular dioceses, and requires newly ordained priests to first request permission before performing the old rite, among other changes. "''Traditionis Custodes,'' which Pope Francis published and came into immediate effect on July 16, has been criticized by prelates such as Cardinals Raymond Leo Burke, Raymond Burke, Gerhard Ludwig Müller, Gerhard Müller and Joseph Zen, as well as many lay faithful who attend the traditional Latin Mass, also called Extraordinary Form of the
Roman Rite #REDIRECT Roman Rite #REDIRECT Roman Rite The Roman Rite ( la, Ritus Romanus) is the main liturgical rite of the Latin or Western Church, the largest of the sui iuris particular Churches that make up the Catholic Church The Catholic Ch ...
. The most general criticism is that the restrictions are unnecessary, needlessly harsh, and implemented in an unjustifiably swift fashion."


International policy

Francis has regularly been accused by conservatives of having a "soft spot" for leftist populist movements. After Francis's visit to Cuba in 2015, Catholic Yale historian Carlos Eire said Francis had a "preferential option for the oppressors" in Cuba. Nevertheless, Francis remained hostile to right-wing populism. Francis has supported the Vatican-China agreement, intended to normalize the situation of Catholic Church in China, China's Catholics, which was criticized by Cardinal Joseph Zen as a step towards the "annihilation" of the Catholic Church in China. U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo said cooperating with the Chinese Communist Party puts the pope's moral authority at risk. In September 2020, Pompeo urged Francis to stand against Human rights in China, China's human rights violations. In November, Francis named China's Uyghurs, Uyghur minority among a list of the world's persecuted peoples. He wrote: "I think often of persecuted peoples: the Rohingya people, Rohingya [Muslims in Myanmar], the poor Uighurs, the Yazidi—what ISIS did to them was truly cruel—or Christians in Egypt and Pakistan killed by bombs that went off while they prayed in church." Zhao Lijian, the spokesman of the Foreign Ministry of China, said Francis’ remarks had "no factual basis at all". Since 2016, Francis has also been contrasted with US President Donald Trump, elected that year, with some conservative critics drawing comparisons between the two. During the 2016 United States presidential election, Francis said of Trump, "A person who only thinks about building walls, wherever they may be, and not building bridges, is not Christian. That is not the gospel." Trump responded, "For a religious leader to question a person's faith is disgraceful." Federico Lombardi said that Francis' comments were not "a personal attack, nor an indication of who to vote for". In response to criticism from Episcopal Conference of Venezuela, Venezuela's bishops, President Nicolás Maduro said in 2017 that he had the support of Francis. Francis met with the country's bishops in June 2017, and the Venezuelan bishops' conference president stated, "There is no distance between the episcopal conference and the Holy See." In January 2019, 20 former presidents in Latin America wrote a letter to Francis criticizing his Christmas address regarding the ongoing Crisis in Venezuela, Venezuelan crisis for being too simplistic and for not acknowledging what they believed to be the causes of the suffering of the victims of the crisis. Francis has sought peace in the crisis without picking a side. In 2019, during the 2019–2020 Hong Kong protests, Hong Kong protests, Francis was criticized by Catholic clergy in Hong Kong, with Cardinal Joseph Zen criticizing him for not taking a stand against China and instead being quoted as saying "I would like to go to China. I love China". Francis compared the protests in Hong Kong to those seen 2019–2021 Chilean protests, in Chile and in France. Following the 2021 Taliban offensive, Taliban takeover of Afghanistan and withdrawal of U.S. forces from the country, Francis said that the withdrawal of troops was "legitimate" but said that the process of evacuations was "not thought through" and criticized the war for having failed at nation-building. He also stated that the Vatican is in talks with the Taliban through Cardinal Pietro Parolin to discourage the Taliban on taking reprisal measures against civilians.


International diplomatic role

Francis played a key role in the talks toward restoring Cuban Thaw, full diplomatic relations between the U.S. and Cuba. The restoration was jointly announced by U.S. President Barack Obama and Cuban President Raúl Castro on 17 December 2014. The headline in the ''Los Angeles Times'' on 19 December was "Bridge to Cuba via Vatican," with the further lead "In a rare and crucial role, Francis helped keep U.S. talks with Havana on track and guided final deal." The pope, along with the Government of Canada, was a behind-the-scenes broker of the agreement, taking the role following President Obama's request during his visit to the pope in March 2014. The success of the negotiations was credited to Francis because "as a religious leader with the confidence of both sides, he was able to convince the Obama and Castro administrations that the other side would live up to the deal". En route to the United States for a visit in September 2015, the pope stopped in Cuba. "The plan comes amid a breakthrough for which Francis has received much credit." The Cuba visit "seals that accomplishment, in which he served as a bridge between two erstwhile enemies". According to one expert on religion in Latin America, Mario Paredes, the pope's visit to Cuba was consistent with his aim to promote an understanding of the role of the Cuban Revolution and that of the Catholic Church. When Francis was archbishop of Buenos Aires, he authored a text entitled "Dialogues Between John Paul II and Fidel Castro". John Paul was the first pope to visit Cuba. In May 2015, Francis met with Cuban leader Raúl Castro. After the meeting in Vatican City on 10 May 2015, Castro said that he was considering returning to the
Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Catholic Church
. He said in a televised news conference, "I read all the speeches of the pope, his commentaries, and if the pope continues this way, I will go back to praying and go back to the [Catholic] church. I am not joking." Castro said that, when the pope came, "I promise to go to all his Masses and with satisfaction". In May 2014, his visit to the State of Israel, where he delivered 13 speeches, was heavily publicized. Protests Against Pope Francis Visit to Israel 2014, Protests against his visit resulted in an alleged arson attempt at the Dormition Abbey. The cave under the Church of the Nativity caught fire the night after his visit. In May 2015, Francis welcomed Palestinian president Mahmoud Abbas to the Vatican. Several media outlets reported that Francis praised Abbas as "an angel of peace", though his actual words were the following: "The angel of peace destroys the evil spirit of war. I thought about you: may you be an angel of peace." The Vatican signed a treaty recognizing the state of Palestine. The Vatican issued statements concerning the hope that the peace talks could resume between Israel and Palestine. Abbas' visit was on the occasion of the canonization of two Palestinian nuns. On 6 June 2015, Francis visited Sarajevo, the capital city of Bosnia and Herzegovina. He urged peace during his time in the religiously diverse city, known as the "Jerusalem of Europe". On 25 September 2015, Francis addressed the United Nations in New York City. On 16 April 2016, he visited, together with Bartholomew I of Constantinople, Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew and Ieronymos II of Athens, Archbishop Ieronimos II of Athens, the Moria Refugee Camp on the Greek island of Lesbos, to call the attention of the world to the refugee issue. There the three Christian leaders signed a joint declaration. In January 2017, Francis demanded the resignation of Matthew Festing, the 79th List of Princes and Grand Masters of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, Prince and Grand Master of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta. The Pope's demand came as a response to Festing and Cardinal Raymond Leo Burke firing Boeselager, Baron Albrecht von Boeselager from his position in the Order of Malta. The Order, in May 2017, appointed a new leader in the person of Fra' Giacomo Dalla Torre del Tempio di Sanguinetto. On 24 May 2017, Francis met with U.S. President Donald Trump in Vatican City, where they discussed the contributions of Catholic Church in the United States, Catholics to the United States and to the world. They discussed issues of mutual concern, including how religious communities can combat human suffering in crisis regions, such as Syria, Libya, and ISIS-controlled territory. They also discussed terrorism and the radicalization of young people. The Cardinal Secretary of State, Vatican's secretary of state, Pietro Parolin, raised the issue of
climate change Contemporary climate change includes both the global warming caused by humans, and its impacts on Earth's weather patterns. There have been previous periods of climate change, but the current changes are more rapid than any known even ...
and encouraged Trump to remain in the Paris Agreement. At the 2017 World Food Day ceremony, Francis reiterated that "we see the consequences [of climate change] every day" and that we "know how the problems are to be faced ... [t]hanks to scientific knowledge." He said that "the international community has drawn up the necessary legal instruments, such as the Paris Agreement, from which however some are withdrawing. There is a re-emergence of the nonchalance towards the delicate balances of ecosystems, the presumption of being able to manipulate and control the planet's limited resources, and greed for profit." Francis Pope Francis's visit to Ireland, visited Ireland in 2018, in what was the first papal tour of the country since John Paul II's historic trip in 1979. While in Ireland he apologized for abuses by clergy in the United States and Ireland. In February 2019, Francis visited Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, on the invitation of Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan. Francis became the first pope to hold a papal Mass on the Arabian Peninsula, with more than 120,000 attendees in the Zayed Sports City Stadium. Francis made the plight of refugees and migrants "a core component of his pastoral work", and has defended their rights in Theology of Pope Francis#Refugees and migrants, dialogue both with Europe and with the United States. He went on to place a statue in St. Peter's Square to bring attention to the Christian imperative involved in their situation (Hebrews 13:2). In March 2021, Pope Francis held a Pope Francis's visit to Iraq, historic meeting with Iraq's top Shi'ite cleric, Grand Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani, and visited the birthplace of the Abraham in Islam, Prophet Abraham, Ur. Giving a message of peaceful coexistence, he and the Iraqi cleric urged the Islam, Muslim and Christianity, Christian communities to work together in unity for peace. On 9 May 2021, Francis called for peace between Israel and Palestinians and an end to 2021 Israel–Palestine crisis, clashes in Jerusalem during his Regina caeli address. On 1 September 2021, Francis publicly defended the dialogue with China on the appointment of new bishops. Francis stated that uneasy dialogue was better than no dialogue at all, and emphasized in improving strained ties with the Chinese government. On All Souls' Day, on 1 November 2021, Francis visited a war cemetery in Rome and paid tribute to fallen soldiers during the Battle of Anzio in World War II as well as at the Piave River, in Italy, during World War I. Francis also praised military casualties for "fighting for their homeland and values." and called for global peace.


Public image

Popular mainstream media frequently portray Francis either as a Progressivism, progressive papal reformer or with Social liberalism, liberal, moderate values. The Vatican has claimed that Western news outlets often seek to portray his message with a less-doctrinal tone of papacy, in hopes of extrapolating his words to convey a more merciful and tolerant message. In the news media, both faithful and non-believers often refer to a "honeymoon" phase in which the pope has changed the tone on Catholic doctrines and supposedly initiated ecclesiastical reform in the Vatican. Media systems differ, too, not only in their coverage of Francis's stances but also in how individual events are portrayed. His 2015 trip to Cuba is a prime example. During this trip, American-based AP and British-based Reuters highlighted the religious aspect of the pope's journey while Prensa Latina, the official state media agency, depicted it as a diplomatic visit. American and British media were also more likely during this trip to show Francis interacting with regular Cubans compared to the official Cuban media, which showed Francis interacting with elites most often. In December 2013, both ''Time Magazine, Time'' and ''The Advocate (LGBT magazine), The Advocate'' magazines named the Pontiff as their "Person of the Year" in praise and hopes of reforming the
Roman Curia The Roman Curia ( la, Romana Curia ministerium suum implent) comprises the administrative institutions of the Holy See The Holy See ( lat, Sancta Sedes, ; it, Santa Sede ), also called the See of Rome or Apostolic See, is the jurisdi ...
while hoping to change the Catholic Church's doctrine on various controversial issues. In addition, ''Esquire'' magazine named him as the "Best-dressed man" for 2013 for his simpler vestments often in tune with a modern simplistic design on sartorial fashion. ''Rolling Stone'' magazine followed in January 2014 by making the Pontiff their featured front cover. ''Fortune (magazine), Fortune'' magazine also ranked Francis as number one in their list of 50 greatest leaders. On 5 November 2014, he was ranked by ''Forbes'' as the fourth Forbes list of The World's Most Powerful People, most powerful person in the world and was the only non-political figure in the top ranking. In December 2016, Francis again made ''Forbes''s list of "The World's Most Powerful People", ranking fifth. In March 2013, a new song was dedicated to Francis and released in Brazilian Portuguese, European Portuguese, and Italian, titled ''Come Puoi'' ("How You Can"). Also in March, Pablo Buera, the mayor of La Plata, Argentina, announced that the city had renamed a section of a street leading up to a local cathedral ''Papa Francisco''.Ho, Erica
"Argentina: Town renames street after Pope Francis"
''Time'', 28 March 2013. Retrieved 28 March 2013
There are already efforts to name other streets after him, as well as a school where he studied as a child. A proposal to create a commemorative coin as a tribute to Francis was made in Argentina's lower house on 28 November 2013. On the coins it would read, "Tribute from the Argentine People to Pope Francis." beneath his face. As of May 2013, sales of papal souvenirs, a sign of popularity, were up. Francis presided over his first joint public wedding ceremony in a Nuptial Mass for 20 couples from the Archdiocese of Rome on 14 September 2014, just a few weeks before the start of the 5–19 October Extraordinary Synod of Bishops on the Family. On 19 March 2016, Francis became the first pope to create an Instagram account. He broke records after having gained over one million followers in under twelve hours of the account being up. In 2019 Francis held a conference on the World Day of Social Communications highlighting the pros and cons of social media and urging users to use it as a source that liberates rather than enslaves. On 26 November 2020 Francis became the first pope to write an op-ed for ''The New York Times'', addressing issues such as the coronavirus and the need for global solidarity. The Pontiff also used his op-ed to strongly critique those protesting COVID-19 restrictions. In August 2021, rumors of a possible resignation arose due to health issues, but he dismissed those rumors in early September 2021, saying that he is "living a normal life."


Distinctions


Titles and styles

The official form of address of the pope in English is ''His Holiness Pope Francis''; in Latin, ''Franciscus, Episcopus Romae''. ''Holy Father'' is among the other His holiness#Catholic church, honorifics used for popes.


Foreign orders

* : : Grand Collar of the Order of the Condor of the Andes (9 July 2015) * : Order of Merit "Father Luis Espinal Camps" (9 July 2015) * : : Order of the Smile (26 April 2016)


Awards

* : Charlemagne Prize, International Charlemagne Prize of Aachen 2016. * "Person of the Year" by People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (2015) for his request that all Catholics be kind to animals. *Was made an honorary Harlem Globetrotters, Harlem Globetrotter on 7 May 2015. *Zayed Award for Human Fraternity in October 2020 for significant contributions to the service of humanity from around the world.


Academic honors

* Honorary Sommelier Diploma of the Italian Sommelier Association (2015).


Honorific eponyms and dedications

* : The Pope Francis Center for the Poor – Palo, Leyte (12 July 2015) * Ennio Morricone composed a Mass setting (''Missa Papae Francisci'') named after the pope, for the occasion of the 200th anniversary of the restoration of the Jesuit order. The performance aired on Rai 5 and was attended by former Italian President Giorgio Napolitano and other dignitaries. * The composer Ludger Stühlmeyer dedicated his work ''Klangrede – Sonnengesang des Francis of Assisi, Franziskus'', for choir (SATB) and instruments – to Pope Francis (''Suae Sanctitati Papae Francisci dedicat.''). First performance: Capella Mariana 4 October 2015.


Appreciation

In the oratorio Laudato si' (oratorio), Laudato si' by Peter Reulein (music) written on a libretto by Helmut Schlegel Order of Friars Minor, OFM, the figure of Francis appears next to Mary, mother of Jesus, Mary, Francis of Assisi, and Clare of Assisi. In the oratorio, Pope Franziskus suggests a bridge from the crucifixion scene on Calvary, Golgotha to the suffering of the present. He emphasizes the female talent and the importance of the charism of women for church and society. The texts of the encyclicals ''
Laudato si'#REDIRECT Laudato si' {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from move {{R from other capitalisation ...
'' and ''Evangelii gaudium'' were used. The motto of the Extraordinary Jubilee of Mercy also plays a central role. The oratorio was premiered on 6 November 2016 in the Limburg Cathedral.


Coat of arms


Writings

Pope Francis has written a variety of books, encyclicals, and other writings.


Music album

''Wake Up! (Pope Francis album), Wake Up!'' was released on 27 November 2015 by the label Believe Digital and contains speeches by Francis and accompanying music, including rock music.


Films


Documentary film

By 2015, there were two biographical films about Francis: ''Call Me Francesco'' (Italy, 2015), starring Rodrigo de la Serna, and ''Francis: Pray for me'' (Argentina, 2015), starring Darío Grandinetti. ''Pope Francis: A Man of His Word'' is a documentary film with Swiss-Italian-French-German co-production, co-written and directed by Wim Wenders. It premiered at the 2018 Cannes Film Festival and was released in the United States on 18 May 2018. It includes extensive sections of interviews as well as stock footage from archives. On 21 October 2020, the documentary ''Francesco (2020 film), Francesco'' directed by film producer Evgeny Afineevsky premiered.


Portrayal in film

Francis is played by Jonathan Pryce in the Biographical film, biographical Drama (film and television), drama film ''The Two Popes'' (2019), costarring with Anthony Hopkins who plays Pope Benedict XVI.


See also

* List of current Christian leaders * List of current heads of state and government * List of people beatified by Pope Francis * List of popes


Notes


References


Bibliography

* * * * * * * * * * * *


External links


Vatican: the Holy See
nbsp;– Vatican web site *
Vatican Web site: Official biography of Jorge Mario Bergoglio
(published on the occasion of the Conclave by the Holy See Press Office, with the information provided by the cardinals themselves) * (Official Twitter account) * (Official Instagram account) * (Official Vatican YouTube page, covering the pope and related interests) * * {{DEFAULTSORT:Francis Pope Francis, 1936 births 20th-century Roman Catholic archbishops in Argentina 21st-century Jesuits 21st-century popes 21st-century Roman Catholic archbishops in Argentina Anti–death penalty activists Anti-poverty advocates Roman Catholic archbishops of Buenos Aires Argentina–Holy See relations Argentine cardinals Argentine emigrants to Italy Argentine Jesuits Argentine people of Italian descent Argentine people of Ligurian descent Argentine popes Articles containing video clips Cardinals created by Pope John Paul II Christian humanists Jesuit cardinals Jesuit popes Jesuit theologians Jesuit provincial superiors Living people Papal names Clergy from Buenos Aires People of Piedmontese descent Time Person of the Year Popes Roman Catholic bishops of Buenos Aires