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Plant taxonomy is the science that finds, identifies, describes, classifies, and names
plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cellular respiration, can later be released to fuel ...

plant
s. It is one of the main branches of
taxonomy Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also refer to a specific classification scheme. Originally used only about biological ...
(the science that finds, describes, classifies, and names living things). Plant taxonomy is closely allied to plant systematics, and there is no sharp boundary between the two. In practice, "plant systematics" involves relationships between plants and their
evolution Evolution is change in the heritable Heredity, also called inheritance or biological inheritance, is the passing on of Phenotypic trait, traits from parents to their offspring; either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, ...

evolution
, especially at the higher levels, whereas "plant taxonomy" deals with the actual handling of plant specimens. The precise relationship between taxonomy and systematics, however, has changed along with the goals and methods employed. Plant taxonomy is well known for being turbulent, and traditionally not having any close agreement on
circumscription Circumscription may refer to: *Circumscribed circle *Circumscription (logic) *Circumscription (taxonomy) *Circumscription theory, a theory about the origins of the political state in the history of human evolution proposed by the American anthropol ...
and placement of
taxa In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanism ...
. See the
list of systems of plant taxonomy This list of systems of plant taxonomy presents "taxonomic systems" used in plant classification. A taxonomic system Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie ...
.


Background

Classification systems serve the purpose of grouping organisms by characteristics common to each group. Plants are distinguished from animals by various traits: they have
cell walls Cell most often refers to: * Cell (biology) The cell (from Latin ''cella'', meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known organisms. Cells are the smallest units of life, and hence are often refer ...
made of
cellulose Cellulose is an organic compound with the chemical formula, formula , a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of glycosidic bond, β(1→4) linked glucose, D-glucose units. Cellulose is an important stru ...

cellulose
,
polyploidy Polyploidy is a condition in which the cell Cell most often refers to: * Cell (biology), the functional basic unit of life Cell may also refer to: Closed spaces * Monastic cell, a small room, hut, or cave in which a monk or religious recluse ...
, and they exhibit sedentary growth. Where animals have to eat organic molecules, plants are able to change energy from light into organic energy by the process of
photosynthesis Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to into that, through , can later be released to fuel the organism's activities. Some of this chemical energy is stored in molecules, such as s and es, which are synthesized fro ...

photosynthesis
. The basic unit of classification is
species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individu ...

species
, a group able to breed amongst themselves and bearing mutual resemblance, a broader classification is the
genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circumscribing) and classifying gr ...
. Several genera make up a family, and several families an order.


''Plantae'', the Plant Kingdom

The plant kingdom is divided according to the following:


Identification, classification and description of plants

Three goals of plant taxonomy are the identification, classification and description of plants. The distinction between these three goals is important and often overlooked. 1.
Plant identification In biology, determination is the process of matching a specimen of an organism to a known taxon In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, ch ...
is a determination of the identity of an unknown plant by comparison with previously collected specimens or with the aid of books or identification manuals. The process of identification connects the specimen with a published name. Once a plant specimen has been identified, its name and properties are known. 2.
Plant classification Image:ViennaDioscoridesAuthorPortrait.jpg, upright=1.5, The ''Vienna Dioscurides'' manuscript of ''De Materia Medica'', from the early sixth century, is one of the oldest herbals in existence. Dioscorides wrote the book between 50 and 60 AD. The hi ...
is the placing of known plants into groups or categories to show some relationship.
Scientific classification In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mecha ...

Scientific classification
follows a system of rules that standardizes the results, and groups successive categories into a
hierarchy A hierarchy (from the Greek: , from , 'president of sacred rites') is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "above", "below", or "at the same level as" one another. Hierarch ...

hierarchy
. For example, the
family In human society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same spatial or social territory, typically subject to the same Politic ...
to which the
lilies ''Lilium'' is a genus of Herbaceous plant, herbaceous flowering plants growing from bulbs, all with large prominent flowers. They are the true lilies. Lilies are a group of flowering plants which are important in culture and literature in much o ...

lilies
belong is classified as follows: * Kingdom:
Plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cellular respiration, can later be released to fuel ...

Plant
ae * Division:
Magnoliophyta Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλά ...
* Class:
Liliopsida Liliopsida Batsch August Johann Georg Karl Batsch (28 October 1761 – 29 September 1802) was a German naturalist Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms, including animals, fungus, fungi, and plants, in their natural env ...
* Order:
Liliales Liliales is an order Order or ORDER or Orders may refer to: * Orderliness Orderliness is associated with other qualities such as cleanliness Cleanliness is both the abstract state of being clean and free from germs, dirt, trash, or waste, and ...
* Family:
Liliaceae The lily family In human society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same spatial or social territory, typically subject ...

Liliaceae
The classification of plants results in an organized system for the naming and cataloging of future specimens, and ideally reflects scientific ideas about inter-relationships between plants. The set of rules and recommendations for formal botanical nomenclature, including plants, is governed by the
International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants The ''International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants'' (ICN) is the set of rules and recommendations dealing with the formal botanical name A botanical name is a formal scientific name Science (from the Latin Latin (, ...
abbreviated as ICN. 3. Plant description is a formal description of a newly discovered
species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individu ...

species
, usually in the form of a
scientific paper : ''For a broader class of literature, see Academic publishing Academic publishing is the subfield of publishing which distributes academic research and scholarship. Most academic work is published in academic journal articles, books or thes ...
using ICN guidelines. The names of these plants are then registered on the
International Plant Names Index The International Plant Names Index (IPNI) describes itself as "a database In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorith ...
along with all other validly published names.


Classification systems

These include; *
APG system The APG system (Angiosperm Phylogeny Group system) of plant classification is the first version of a modern, mostly molecular A scanning tunneling microscopy image of pentacene molecules, which consist of linear chains of five carbon rings. ...
(''angiosperm phylogeny group'') ** APG II system (''angiosperm phylogeny group II'') **
APG III system The APG III system of flowering plant classification is the third version of a modern, mostly molecular-based, system of plant taxonomy being developed by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG). Published in 2009, it was superseded in 2016 by a fu ...
(''angiosperm phylogeny group III'') **
APG IV systemAPG is an abbreviation with several different meanings: * Aberdeen Proving Ground, a United States Army installation in Aberdeen, Maryland, also ** Phillips Army Airfield, the airfield of the above, from its IATA airport code * Aboriginal Provision ...
(''angiosperm phylogeny group IV'') * Bessey system (''a system of plant taxonomy'') *
Cronquist systemCronquist can refer to: * Arthur J. Cronquist, a North American botanist (1919–1992). * The Cronquist system, a system attributed to Arthur J. Cronquist. Many authors use their own variation of this system, which they also refer to as the ...
(''taxonomic classification of flowering plants'') *
Melchior system This is the named Melchior system, "a reference in all Taxonomy (biology), taxonomic courses", detailing the List of systems of plant taxonomy, taxonomic system of the Flowering plant, Angiospermae according to Adolf Engler, A. Engler's ''Syllabus d ...


Online databases

* Ecocrop * EPPO Code * GRIN See Online botany databases


See also

*
American Society of Plant TaxonomistsThe American Society of Plant Taxonomists (ASPT) is a botanical organization formed in 1935 to "foster, encourage, and promote education and research in the field of plant taxonomy, to include those areas and fields of study that contribute to and b ...
*
Biophysical environment A biophysical environment is a life, biotic and Abiotic component, abiotic surrounding of an organism or population, and consequently includes the factors that have an influence in their survival, development, and evolution. A biophysical enviro ...
*
Botanical nomenclature Botanical nomenclature is the formal, scientific naming of plants. It is related to, but distinct from taxonomy Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such ...
*
Citrus taxonomy Citrus taxonomy refers to the botanical classification of the species, variety (botany), varieties, cultivars, and Graft-chimaera, graft hybrids within the genus ''Citrus'' and related genera, found in cultivation and in the wild. Citrus taxonomy ...
*
Environmental protection Environmental protection is the practice of protecting the natural environment The natural environment or natural world encompasses all and non-living things occurring , meaning in this case not . The term is most often applied to the or s ...
*
Herbarium A herbarium (plural: herbaria) is a collection of preserved plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical ener ...
*
History of plant systematics upright=1.5, The ''Vienna Dioscurides'' manuscript of ''De Materia Medica'', from the early sixth century, is one of the oldest herbals in existence. Dioscorides wrote the book between 50 and 60 AD. The history of plant systematics—the biolo ...
*
International Association for Plant Taxonomy The International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) is an organization established to promote an understanding of plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Ener ...
* Taxonomy of cultivated plants


References


External links


Plant systematics
{{Taxonomy of...