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Philip Kindred Dick (December 16, 1928March 2, 1982) was an American
science fiction Science fiction (sometimes shortened to sci-fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction which typically deals with imagination, imaginative and futuristic concepts such as advanced science and technology, space exploration, time travel, Parall ...

science fiction
writer. He wrote 44 novels and about 121 short stories, most of which appeared in science fiction magazines during his lifetime. His fiction explored varied philosophical and social questions such as the
nature of reality
nature of reality
,
perception Perception (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" o ...

perception
,
human nature Human nature is a concept that denotes the fundamental disposition A disposition is a quality of character, a habit A habit (or wont as a humorous and formal term) is a routine of behavior Behavior (American English) or behaviour (British ...

human nature
, and
identity Identity may refer to: Social sciences * Identity (social science), personhood or group affiliation in psychology and sociology Group expression and affiliation * Cultural identity, a person's self-affiliation (or categorization by others ...
, and commonly featured characters struggling against elements such as alternate realities, illusory environments, monopolistic corporations,
drug abuse Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is the use of a drug in amounts or by methods which are harmful to the individual or others. It is a form of substance-related disorder Substance-related disorders, also known as substance use disord ...
,
authoritarian Authoritarianism is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a mo ...
governments, and
altered states of consciousness An altered state of consciousness (ASC), also called altered state of mind or mind alteration, is any condition which is significantly different from a normal waking state. By 1892, the expression was in use in relation to hypnosis ...
. Born in Chicago, Dick moved to the
San Francisco Bay Area The San Francisco Bay Area, popularly referred to as the Bay Area, is a populous region surrounding the San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Pablo Bay, San Pablo, and Suisun Bay estuary, estuaries in Northern California. Although the exact bou ...
with his family at a young age. He began publishing science fiction stories in 1952, at age 23. He found little commercial success until his alternative history novel ''
The Man in the High Castle ''The Man in the High Castle'' is an alternate history novel by American writer Philip K. Dick. Published and set in 1962, the novel takes place fifteen years after a different end to World War II World War II or the Second World Wa ...
'' (1962) earned him acclaim, including a
Hugo Award for Best Novel The Hugo Award for Best Novel is one of the Hugo Award The Hugo Award is an annual literary award for the best science fiction or fantasy works and achievements of the previous year, given at the World Science Fiction Convention and chosen by ...
, when he was 33. He followed with science fiction novels such as ''
Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? ''Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?'' (retitled ''Blade Runner: Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?'' in some later printings) is a dystopian science fiction novel by American writer Philip K. Dick, first published in 1968. The novel is set ...
'' (1968) and ''
Ubik ''Ubik'' ( ) is a 1969 in literature, 1969 science fiction novel by American writer Philip K. Dick. The story is set in a future 1992 where psychic powers are utilized in corporate espionage, while Cryonics, cryonic technology allows recently de ...

Ubik
'' (1969). His 1974 novel ''
Flow My Tears, the Policeman Said ''Flow My Tears, the Policeman Said'' is a 1974 science fiction novel by American writer Philip K. Dick. The novel is set in a futuristic dystopia where the United States has become a police state in the aftermath of a Second Civil War. The story ...
'' won the John W. Campbell Memorial Award for Best Science Fiction Novel. Following years of
drug abuse Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is the use of a drug in amounts or by methods which are harmful to the individual or others. It is a form of substance-related disorder Substance-related disorders, also known as substance use disord ...
and a series of
mystical experience Scholarly approaches to mysticism include typologies of mysticism and the explanation of mystical states. Since the 19th century, mystical experience has evolved as a distinctive concept. It is closely related to "mysticism Mysticism is popu ...
s in 1974, Dick's work engaged more explicitly with issues of theology, metaphysics, and the nature of reality, as in novels ''
A Scanner Darkly ''A Scanner Darkly'' is a science fiction Science fiction (sometimes shortened to sci-fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction which typically deals with imagination, imaginative and futuristic concepts such as advanced science and tec ...
'' (1977), ''
VALIS Valis may refer to: * ''Valis'' (novel series), a series of science fantasy novels by Philip K. Dick ** ''Valis'' (novel), the first novel in the series * ''Valis'' (video game series), a video game series which began in 1986 **''Valis: The Fan ...
'' (1981), and '' The Transmigration of Timothy Archer'' (1982). A collection of his speculative nonfiction writing on these themes was published posthumously as '' The Exegesis of Philip K. Dick'' (2011). He died in 1982 in
Santa Ana, California Santa Ana () is the second most populous city and the county seat of Orange County, California, Orange County, California, in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. The United States Census Bureau estimated its 2019 population at 332,318, making San ...
, at the age of 53, due to complications from a
stroke A stroke is a medical condition A disease is a particular abnormal condition that negatively affects the structure or function (biology), function of all or part of an organism, and that is not due to any immediate external injury. Di ...

stroke
. Following his death, he became "widely regarded as a master of imaginative,
paranoid fiction Paranoid fiction is a term sometimes used to describe works of literature that explore the Subjectivity, subjective nature of reality and how it can be manipulated by forces in power. These forces can be external, such as a totalitarianism, totalit ...
in the vein of
Franz Kafka Franz Kafka (3 July 1883 – 3 June 1924) was a German-speaking The German language (, ) is a West Germanic language mainly spoken in Central Europe Central Europe is the central region of Europe. Central Europe includes contigu ...
and
Thomas Pynchon Thomas Ruggles Pynchon Jr. ( , ; born May 8, 1937) is an American novelist. A MacArthur Fellow The MacArthur Fellows Program, also known as the MacArthur Fellowship and commonly but unofficially known as the "Genius Grant", is a prize awarded ...
". Dick's posthumous influence has been widespread, extending beyond literary circles into
Hollywood Hollywood is a neighborhood A neighbourhood (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of An ...

Hollywood
filmmaking. Popular films based on his works include ''
Blade Runner ''Blade Runner'' is a 1982 science fiction film Science fiction (or sci-fi) is a film genre A film genre is a Genre, stylistic or thematic category for Film, motion pictures based on similarities either in the narrative , narrative elem ...

Blade Runner
'' (1982), ''Total Recall'' (adapted twice: in 1990 and in 2012), '' Minority Report'' (2002), ''
A Scanner Darkly ''A Scanner Darkly'' is a science fiction Science fiction (sometimes shortened to sci-fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction which typically deals with imagination, imaginative and futuristic concepts such as advanced science and tec ...
'' (2006), ''
The Adjustment Bureau ''The Adjustment Bureau'' is a 2011 American science fiction Science fiction (sometimes shortened to sci-fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction which typically deals with imagination, imaginative and futuristic concepts such as advan ...
'' (2011), and Radio Free Albemuth (2010). Beginning in 2015,
Amazon Amazon usually refers to: * Amazons In Greek mythology, the Amazons (Ancient Greek: Ἀμαζόνες ''Amazónes'', singular Ἀμαζών ''Amazōn'') are portrayed in a number of ancient Greek, ancient epic poems and legends, such as the ...
produced the multi-season television adaptation ''
The Man in the High Castle ''The Man in the High Castle'' is an alternate history novel by American writer Philip K. Dick. Published and set in 1962, the novel takes place fifteen years after a different end to World War II World War II or the Second World Wa ...
'', based on Dick's 1962 novel; and in 2017
Channel 4 Channel 4 is a British free-to-air Free-to-air (FTA) services are television (TV) and radio services broadcast in clear (unencrypted) form, allowing any person with the FTA Receiver, appropriate receiving equipment to receive the signal and ...
began producing the ongoing anthology series '' Electric Dreams'', based on various Dick stories. In 2005, ''
Time Time is the continued sequence of existence and event (philosophy), events that occurs in an apparently irreversible process, irreversible succession from the past, through the present, into the future. It is a component quantity of various me ...
''
magazine A magazine is a periodical publication Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of serial Serial may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media The presentation of works in sequential ...
named ''
Ubik ''Ubik'' ( ) is a 1969 in literature, 1969 science fiction novel by American writer Philip K. Dick. The story is set in a future 1992 where psychic powers are utilized in corporate espionage, while Cryonics, cryonic technology allows recently de ...

Ubik
'' (1969) one of the hundred greatest English-language novels published since 1923. In 2007, Dick became the first science fiction writer included in The Library of America series.


Early life

Dick and his twin sister, Jane Charlotte Dick, were born six weeks prematurely on December 16, 1928, in Chicago, Illinois, to Dorothy (née Kindred; 1900–1978) and Joseph Edgar Dick (1899–1985), who worked for the
United States Department of Agriculture The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, rural economic development, ...
. His paternal grandparents were Irish. Jane's death on January 26, 1929, six weeks after their birth, profoundly affected Philip's life, leading to the recurrent
motif Motif may refer to: General concepts * Motif (chess composition), an element of a move in the consideration of its purpose * Motif (folkloristics), a recurring element that creates recognizable patterns in folklore and folk-art traditions * Motif ...
of the " phantom twin" in his books. Dick's family later moved to the
San Francisco Bay Area The San Francisco Bay Area, popularly referred to as the Bay Area, is a populous region surrounding the San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Pablo Bay, San Pablo, and Suisun Bay estuary, estuaries in Northern California. Although the exact bou ...
. When he was five, his father was transferred to
Reno, Nevada Reno ( ) is a city in the northwest section of the U.S. state of Nevada, along the Nevada-California border, about from Lake Tahoe, known as "The Biggest Little City in the World". Known for its casino and tourism industry, Reno is the county ...
, and when Dorothy refused to move, she and Joseph divorced. Both fought for custody of Philip, which was awarded to Dorothy. Determined to raise Philip alone, she took a job in Washington, DC and moved there with her son. Philip was enrolled at John Eaton Elementary School (1936–1938), completing the second through fourth grades. His lowest grade was a "C" in Written Composition, although a teacher said he "shows interest and ability in
story telling Storytelling describes the social and cultural activity of sharing narrative, stories, sometimes with improvisation, theatre, theatrics or embellishment. Every culture has its own stories or narratives, which are shared as a means of entertainme ...

story telling
". He was educated in
Quaker Quakers are people who belong to a historically Protestant Christian Protestantism is a form of that originated with the 16th-century , a movement against what its followers perceived to be in the . Protestants originating in the Ref ...

Quaker
schools. In June 1938, Dorothy and Philip returned to California, and it was around this time that he became interested in science fiction. Dick stated that he read his first science fiction magazine, ''Stirring Science Stories,'' in 1940.Sutin p.3 Dick attended Berkeley High School in
Berkeley, California Berkeley ( ) is a city on the eastern shore of San Francisco Bay in northern Alameda County, California, Alameda County, California. It is named after the 18th-century Irish people, Irish bishop and philosopher George Berkeley. It borders the cit ...
. He and fellow science fiction author Ursula K. Le Guin were members of the class of 1947 but did not know each other at the time. He claimed to have hosted a classical music program on KSMO Radio in 1947.Sutin, p. 53 From 1948 to 1952, he worked at Art Music Company, a record store on
Telegraph Avenue Telegraph Avenue is a street A street is a public thoroughfare in a built environment. It is a public parcel of landform, land adjoining buildings in an urban area, urban context, on which people may freely assemble, interact, and move about ...

Telegraph Avenue
. He attended the
University of California, Berkeley The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization ...

University of California, Berkeley
from September 1949 to November 11, 1949, ultimately receiving an honorable dismissal dated January 1, 1950. He did not declare a major and took classes in history, psychology, philosophy, and zoology. Dick dropped out because of ongoing
anxiety Anxiety is an emotion Emotions are mental state, psychological states brought on by neurophysiology, neurophysiological changes, variously associated with thoughts, feelings, behavioural responses, and a degree of pleasure or suffering, disp ...

anxiety
problems, according to his third wife Anne's memoir. She also says he disliked the mandatory
ROTC The Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC) is a group of college A college (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communi ...
training. At Berkeley, he befriended poet Robert Duncan and poet and
linguist Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo ...

linguist
Jack Spicer Jack Spicer (January 30, 1925 – August 17, 1965) was an American poet A poet is a person who creates poetry. Poets may describe themselves as such or be described as such by others. A poet may simply be a writer of poetry, or may perform ...
, who gave Dick ideas for a Martian language. Through his studies in philosophy, he believed that existence is based on internal human perception, which does not necessarily correspond to external reality. He described himself as "an acosmic
panentheist Panentheism ("all in God”, from the Greek language, Greek ''pân'', "all", ''en'', "in" and ''Theós'', "God") is the belief that the Divinity, divine intersects every part of Universe, the universe and also extends beyond space and time. Th ...
," believing in the universe only as an extension of God.Dick, Philip K. "An Interview With America's Most Brilliant Science-Fiction Writer" Interview by Joe Vitale. Interview With Philip K Dick. Print Interviews. Web. October 22, 2011. After reading the works of
Plato Plato ( ; grc-gre, Πλάτων ; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was an Classical Athens, Athenian philosopher during the Classical Greece, Classical period in Ancient Greece, founder of the Platonist school of thought and the Platoni ...

Plato
and pondering the possibilities of
metaphysical Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy that studies the first principles of being, identity and change, space and time, causality, necessity and possibility. It includes questions about the nature of consciousness and the relationship between ...

metaphysical
realms, he came to the conclusion that, in a certain sense, the world is not entirely real and there is no way to confirm whether it is truly there. This question from his early studies persisted as a theme in many of his novels.


Career


Early writing

Dick sold his first story, "
Roog Roog or Rog (Koox in the Cangin languages The Cangin languages are spoken by 200,000 people (as of 2007) in a small area east of Dakar Dakar (; ; wo, Ndakaaru) is the capital and largest city of Senegal. The city of Dakar proper has a p ...
", in 1951, when he was 22, about "a dog who imagined that the garbagemen who came every Friday morning were stealing valuable food which the family had carefully stored away in a safe metal container". From then on he wrote full-time. During 1952, his first speculative fiction publications appeared in July and September numbers of ''
Planet Stories ''Planet Stories'' was an American pulp magazine, pulp science fiction magazine, published by Fiction House between 1939 and 1955. It featured interplanetary adventures, both in space and on some exoplanet, other planets, and was initially focuse ...
'', edited by Jack O'Sullivan, and in '' If'' and ''
The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction ''The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction'' (usually referred to as ''F&SF'') is a U.S. fantasy fiction magazine, fantasy and science fiction magazine first published in 1949 by Mystery House, a subsidiary of Lawrence E. Spivak, Lawrence Spiva ...
'' that year. His debut novel, '' Solar Lottery'', was published in 1955 as half of
Ace Double American company Ace Books began publishing genre fiction starting in 1952. Initially these were mostly in the attractive dos-à-dos binding, tête-bêche format, but they also published a few single volumes, in the early years, and that number g ...
#D-103 alongside ''The Big Jump'' by
Leigh Brackett Leigh Douglass Brackett (December 7, 1915 – March 18, 1978) was an American science fiction writer called "the Queen of Space Opera." She was also a screenwriter known for ''The Big Sleep (1946 film), The Big Sleep'' (1946), ''Rio Bravo (1959 f ...
. The 1950s were a difficult and impoverished time for Dick, who once lamented, "We couldn't even pay the late fees on a library book." He published almost exclusively within the science fiction genre, but dreamed of a career in mainstream fiction. During the 1950s, he produced a series of non-genre, relatively conventional novels. In 1960, Dick wrote that he was willing to "take twenty to thirty years to succeed as a literary writer". The dream of mainstream success formally died in January 1963 when the Scott Meredith Literary Agency returned all of his unsold mainstream novels. Only one of them, '' Confessions of a Crap Artist'', was published during Dick's lifetime. In 1963 Dick won the Hugo Award for ''
The Man in the High Castle ''The Man in the High Castle'' is an alternate history novel by American writer Philip K. Dick. Published and set in 1962, the novel takes place fifteen years after a different end to World War II World War II or the Second World Wa ...
''. Although he was hailed as a genius in the science fiction world, the mainstream literary world was unappreciative, and he could publish books only through low-paying science fiction publishers such as
Ace An ace is a playing card A playing card is a piece of specially prepared , heavy paper, thin cardboard, , cotton-paper blend, or thin plastic that is marked with distinguishing motifs. Often the front (face) and back of each card has a to ...
. Even in his later years, he continued to have financial troubles. In the introduction to the 1980 short story collection ''The Golden Man'', he wrote: {{Blockquote, "Several years ago, when I was ill,
HeinleinHenlein or Heinlein is a German surname. Notable people with the surname include: * Robert A. Heinlein Robert Anson Heinlein (; July 7, 1907 – May 8, 1988) was an American science fiction File:Imagination 195808.jpg, Space exploration, ...

Heinlein
offered his help, anything he could do, and we had never met; he would phone me to cheer me up and see how I was doing. He wanted to buy me an electric
typewriter A typewriter is a mechanical Mechanical may refer to: Machine * Mechanical system A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional properties. It may represent human-made or naturally occurring device molecular ...

typewriter
, God bless him—one of the few true gentlemen in this world. I don't agree with any ideas he puts forth in his writing, but that is neither here nor there. One time when I owed the
IRS The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) is the revenue service A revenue service, revenue agency or taxation authority is a government agency responsible for the intake of government revenue, including taxes and sometimes non-tax revenue. ...
a lot of money and couldn't raise it, Heinlein loaned the money to me. I think a great deal of him and his wife; I dedicated a book to them in appreciation. Robert Heinlein is a fine-looking man, very impressive and very military in stance; you can tell he has a military background, even to the haircut. He knows I'm a flipped-out freak and still he helped me and my wife when we were in trouble. That is the best in humanity, there; that is who and what I love."


Flight to Canada and suicide attempt

In 1971, Dick's marriage to Nancy Hackett broke down, and she moved out of their house in Santa Venetia, California. He had abused
amphetamine Amphetamine (contracted from alpha-methylphenethylamine) is a central nervous system The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living orga ...

amphetamine
for much of the previous decade, stemming in part from his need to maintain a prolific writing regimen due to the financial exigencies of the science fiction field. He allowed other drug users to move into the house. Following the release of 21 novels between 1960 and 1970, these developments were exacerbated by unprecedented periods of
writer's block #REDIRECT Writer's block Writer's block is a condition, primarily associated with writing Writing is a medium of human communication that involves the representation of a language with written symbols. Writing systems are not themselves hu ...
, with Dick ultimately failing to publish new fiction until 1974. One day, in November 1971, Dick returned to his home to discover it had been burglarized, with his safe blown open and personal papers missing. The police couldn't determine the culprit, and even suspected Dick of having done it himself.{{cite journal, url=http://amazingstoriesmag.com/2014/06/mad-flight-manic-phoenix-philip-k-dick-vancouver-1972/, title=Mad Flight of a Manic Phoenix, or: Philip K. Dick in Vancouver (1972), last=Cameron, first=R. Graeme, journal=
Amazing Stories ''Amazing Stories'' is an United States, American science fiction magazine launched in April 1926 by Hugo Gernsback's Experimenter Publishing. It was the first magazine devoted solely to science fiction. Science fiction stories had made regular ...
, date=June 20, 2014, access-date=June 26, 2015, archive-date=June 27, 2015, archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150627042033/http://amazingstoriesmag.com/2014/06/mad-flight-manic-phoenix-philip-k-dick-vancouver-1972/, url-status=live
Shortly thereafter, he was invited to be guest of honor at the Vancouver Science Fiction Convention in February 1972. Within a day of arriving at the conference and giving his speech, ''
The Android and the HumanThe Android and the Human is a speech given by science-fiction author Philip K. Dick at the Vancouver Science Fiction Convention, taking place at the University of British Columbia in December 1972. It was subsequently published in the fanzine SF Com ...
'', he informed people that he had fallen in love with a woman named Janis whom he had met there and announced that he would be remaining in Vancouver. A conference attendee, Michael Walsh, movie critic for the local newspaper ''
The Province ''The Province'' is a daily newspaper A newspaper is a periodical Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of serial Serial may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media The pre ...

The Province
'', invited Dick to stay in his home, but asked him to leave two weeks later due to his erratic behavior. Janis then ended their relationship and moved away. On March 23, 1972, Dick attempted suicide by taking an overdose of the sedative
potassium bromide Potassium bromide (K Br) is a salt Salt is a mineral In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal stru ...

potassium bromide
. Subsequently, after deciding to seek help, Dick became a participant in X-Kalay (a Canadian
Synanon Synanon was initially a drug rehabilitation program founded by Charles E. "Chuck" Dederich Sr., (1913–1997) in 1958 in Santa Monica, California. By the early 1960s, Synanon became an alternative community centered on group truth-telling se ...
-type recovery program), and was well enough by April to return to California. On relocating to
Orange County, California Orange County is located in the Los Angeles metropolitan area Greater Los Angeles, with a 2019 population of 18,710,563, is the second-largest urban region area in the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA) ...
at the behest of
California State University, Fullerton California State University, Fullerton (CSUF or Cal State Fullerton) is a public university #REDIRECT Public university #REDIRECT Public university #REDIRECT Public university#REDIRECT Public university A public university or public college is a ...
professor Willis McNelly (who initiated a correspondence with Dick during his X-Kalay stint), he donated
manuscripts A manuscript (abbreviated MS for singular and MSS for plural) was, traditionally, any document written by hand – or, once practical typewriter A typewriter is a mechanical Mechanical may refer to: Machine * Mechanical system ...
, papers and other materials to the university's Special Collections Library, where they are in the Philip K. Dick Science Fiction Collection in the Pollak Library. During this period, Dick befriended a circle of Fullerton State students that included several aspiring science fiction writers, including K. W. Jeter,
James Blaylock James Paul Blaylock (born September 20, 1950) is an American fantasy Fantasy is a genre of speculative fiction involving Magic (supernatural), magical elements, typically set in a fictional universe and sometimes inspired by mythology and fo ...
and
Tim Powers Timothy Thomas Powers (born February 29, 1952) is an American science fiction Science fiction (sometimes shortened to sci-fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction which typically deals with imagination, imaginative and futuristic concep ...

Tim Powers
. Jeter would later continue Dick's Bladerunner series with three sequels.{{citation needed, date=April 2021 Dick returned to the events of these months while writing his novel ''
A Scanner Darkly ''A Scanner Darkly'' is a science fiction Science fiction (sometimes shortened to sci-fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction which typically deals with imagination, imaginative and futuristic concepts such as advanced science and tec ...
'' (1977), which contains fictionalized depictions of the burglary of his home, his time using amphetamines and living with addicts, and his experiences of X-Kalay (portrayed in the novel as "New-Path"). A factual account of his recovery program participation was portrayed in his posthumously released book ''
The Dark Haired Girl ''The Dark Haired Girl'' is a collection of essays, poems and Letter (message), letters by Philip K. Dick. It was first published by Mark V. Ziesing in 1989. Ziesing considers this the necessary companion volume to the complete collected works of ...
'', a collection of letters and journals from the period.{{citation needed, date=April 2021


Paranormal experiences

On February 20, 1974, while recovering from the effects of
sodium pentothal Sodium thiopental, also known as Sodium Pentothal (a trademark of Abbott Laboratories), thiopental, thiopentone, or Trapanal (also a trademark), is a rapid-onset short-acting barbiturate general anesthetic. It is the thiobarbiturate structural an ...

sodium pentothal
administered for the extraction of an impacted
wisdom tooth A third molar, commonly called wisdom tooth, is one of the three molars The molars or molar teeth are large, flat at the back of the . They are more developed in . They are used primarily to during . The name ''molar'' derives from Latin, ...
, Dick received a home delivery of
Darvon Dextropropoxyphene is an analgesic An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of used to achieve analgesia, relief from . They are distinct from s, which temporarily affect, and in some instances completely eliminate, . Analgesi ...

Darvon
from a young woman. When he opened the door, he was struck by the dark-haired girl's beauty, and was especially drawn to her golden necklace. He asked her about its curious fish-shaped design. As she was leaving, she replied: "This is a sign used by the early Christians." Dick called the symbol the "vesicle pisces". This name seems to have been based on his conflation of two related symbols, the Christian
ichthys The ichthys or ichthus (), from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its p ...

ichthys
symbol (two intersecting arcs delineating a fish in profile), which the woman was wearing, and the
vesica piscis The vesica piscis is a type of lens A lens is a transmissive optical Optics is the branch of physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), m ...

vesica piscis
. Dick recounted that as the sun glinted off the gold pendant, the reflection caused the generation of a "pink beam" of light that mesmerized him. He came to believe the beam imparted wisdom and clairvoyance, and also believed it to be intelligent. On one occasion, he was startled by a separate recurrence of the pink beam, which imparted the information that his infant son was ill. The Dicks rushed the child to the hospital, where the illness was confirmed by professional diagnosis.{{Verify source, date=March 2017 After the woman's departure, Dick began experiencing strange hallucinations. Although initially attributing them to side effects from medication, he considered this explanation implausible after weeks of continued hallucination. He told Charles Platt:
"I experienced an invasion of my mind by a transcendentally rational mind, as if I had been insane all my life and suddenly I had become sane."
Throughout February and March 1974, Dick experienced a series of hallucinations which he referred to as "2-3-74", shorthand for February–March 1974. Aside from the "pink beam", he described the initial hallucinations as
geometric Geometry (from the grc, γεωμετρία; '' geo-'' "earth", '' -metron'' "measurement") is, with arithmetic, one of the oldest branches of mathematics. It is concerned with properties of space that are related with distance, shape, size, ...

geometric
patterns, and, occasionally, brief pictures of Jesus and
ancient Rome In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the earliest historians whose work survives. A historian is a person who stud ...
. As the hallucinations increased in duration and frequency, Dick claimed he began to live two parallel lives—one as himself, "Philip K. Dick", and one as "Thomas", a Christian persecuted by Romans in the first century AD. He referred to the "transcendentally rational mind" as "Zebra", "God" and "
VALIS Valis may refer to: * ''Valis'' (novel series), a series of science fantasy novels by Philip K. Dick ** ''Valis'' (novel), the first novel in the series * ''Valis'' (video game series), a video game series which began in 1986 **''Valis: The Fan ...
" (an acronym for ''Vast Active Living Intelligence System''). He wrote about the experiences, first in the semi-autobiographical novel '' Radio Free Albemuth'', then in ''VALIS'', ''
The Divine Invasion ''The Divine Invasion'' is 1981 science fantasy Science fantasy is a mixed genre within the umbrella of speculative fiction which simultaneously draws upon or combines trope (literature), tropes and elements from both science fiction and fanta ...
'', '' The Transmigration of Timothy Archer'' and the unfinished '' The Owl in Daylight'' (the VALIS trilogy).{{citation needed, date=April 2021 In 1974, Dick wrote a letter to the
FBI The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is the domestic intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for abstraction, logic, understanding, self-awareness, learning, emotional knowledge, reasoning, planning, cre ...

FBI
, accusing various people, including
University of California, San Diego The University of California, San Diego (UC San Diego or, colloquially, UCSD) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization ...
professor
Fredric Jameson Fredric Jameson (born April 14, 1934) is an American literary critic Literary criticism (or literary studies) is the study, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. Modern literary criticism is often influenced by literary theory, whi ...
, of being foreign agents of
Warsaw Pact The Warsaw Treaty Organization (WTO), officially the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, commonly known as the Warsaw Pact (WP), was a collective defense Collective security can be understood as a security arrangement ...
powers. He also wrote that
Stanisław Lem Stanisław Herman Lem (; 12 September 1921 – 27 March 2006) was a Polish writer of science fiction Science fiction (sometimes shortened to sci-fi or SF) is a of which typically deals with and futuristic concepts such as advanced and ...

Stanisław Lem
was probably a false name used by a composite committee operating on orders of the
Communist party A communist party is a political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a particular country's elections. It is common for the members of a party to hold similar ideas about politics, and part ...
to gain control over public opinion."Philip K. Dick: Stanisław Lem is a Communist Committee"
{{Webarchive, url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170921182200/http://culture.pl/en/article/philip-k-dick-stanislaw-lem-is-a-communist-committee , date=September 21, 2017 , Matt Davies, April 29, 2015
At one point, Dick felt he had been taken over by the spirit of the prophet
Elijah Elijah ( ; , meaning "My God In monotheism, monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the supreme being, creator deity, creator, and principal object of Faith#Religious views, faith.Richard Swinburne, Swinburne, R.G. "God" in Ted Honde ...

Elijah
. He believed that an episode in his novel ''
Flow My Tears, the Policeman Said ''Flow My Tears, the Policeman Said'' is a 1974 science fiction novel by American writer Philip K. Dick. The novel is set in a futuristic dystopia where the United States has become a police state in the aftermath of a Second Civil War. The story ...
'' was a detailed retelling of a biblical story from the
Book of Acts The Acts of the Apostles ( grc-koi, Πράξεις Ἀποστόλων, ''Práxeis Apostólōn''; la, Actūs Apostolōrum), often referred to simply as Acts, or formally the Book of Acts, is the fifth book of the New Testament; it tells of the ...
, which he had never read.{{cite web, title = The Religious Affiliation of Science Fiction Writer Philip K. Dick, work = Famous Science Fiction Writers / Famous Episcopalians, publisher = Adherents.com, date = July 25, 2005, url = http://www.adherents.com/people/pd/Philip_K_Dick.html, access-date = April 14, 2008, archive-date = March 30, 2008, archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20080330231324/http://www.adherents.com/people/pd/Philip_K_Dick.html, url-status = usurped He documented and discussed his experiences and faith in a private journal he called his "exegesis", portions of which were later published as '' The Exegesis of Philip K. Dick''. The last novel he wrote was '' The Transmigration of Timothy Archer''; it was published shortly after his death in 1982.{{citation needed, date=April 2021


Personal life

Dick was married five times: * Jeanette Marlin (May to November 1948) * Kleo Apostolides (June 14, 1950 to 1959) * Anne Williams Rubinstein (April 1, 1959 to October 1965) * Nancy Hackett (July 6, 1966 to 1972) * Leslie "Tessa" Busby (April 18, 1973 to 1977) Dick had three children, Laura Archer Dick (born February 25, 1960, to Dick and his third wife, Anne Williams Rubenstein), Isolde Freya Dick (now
Isa Dick Hackett Isa Dick Hackett (born; Isolde Freya Dick; March 15, 1967) is an American producer and writer for Amazon Amazon usually refers to: * Amazons In Greek mythology, the Amazons (Ancient Greek: Ἀμαζόνες ''Amazónes'', singular Ἀμα ...
) (born March 15, 1967, to Dick and his fourth wife, Nancy Hackett), and Christopher Kenneth Dick (born July 25, 1973, to Dick and his fifth wife, Leslie "Tessa" Busby).{{citation needed, date=April 2021 In 1955, Dick and his second wife, Kleo Apostolides, received a visit from the
FBI The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is the domestic intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for abstraction, logic, understanding, self-awareness, learning, emotional knowledge, reasoning, planning, cre ...

FBI
, which they believed to be the result of Kleo's
socialist Socialism is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as the Cognition, cognitive pr ...
views and left-wing activities. The couple briefly befriended one of the FBI agents.Sutin, pp. 83–84 He was physically abusive with his third wife, Anne Williams Rubinstein; after one argument in 1963, he attempted to push her off a cliff in a car, then later claimed she was trying to kill him, and persuaded a psychiatrist to commit her involuntarily. After filing for divorce in 1964, he moved to Oakland to live with a fan, author and editor
Grania Davis Grania Eve Kaiman Davis (July 17, 1943 - April 28, 2017) was an American author and editor of science fiction and fantasy novels and short stories. She was the primary editor of the posthumously published work of her former husband, Avram Davidso ...

Grania Davis
. Shortly after, he attempted suicide by driving off the road while she was a passenger. Dick tried to stay out of the political scene because of high societal turmoil from the
Vietnam War {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Vietnam War , partof = the Indochina Wars The Indochina Wars ( vi, Chiến tranh Đông Dương) were a series of wars fought in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled ...
. Still, he did show some
anti-Vietnam War Opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Vietnam War , partof = the Indochina Wars The Indochina Wars ( vi, Chiến tranh Đông Dương) were a series of ...
and anti-governmental sentiments. In 1968, he joined the "
Writers and Editors War Tax Protest Tax resistance, the practice of refusing to pay taxes that are considered unjust, has probably existed ever since rulers began imposing taxes on their subjects. It has been suggested that tax resistance played a significant role in the collapse of ...
", an anti-war pledge to pay no U.S.
federal income tax Income taxes in the United States are imposed by the Federal government of the United States, federal government, and most State governments in the United States, states. The income taxes are determined by applying a tax rate, which Progressive ...
, which resulted in the
confiscation Confiscation (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to b ...
of his car by the
IRS The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) is the revenue service A revenue service, revenue agency or taxation authority is a government agency responsible for the intake of government revenue, including taxes and sometimes non-tax revenue. ...
.{{citation needed, date=April 2021


Death

On February 17, 1982, after completing an interview, Dick contacted his therapist, complaining of failing eyesight, and was advised to go to a hospital immediately, but did not. The following day, he was found unconscious on the floor of his
Santa Ana, California Santa Ana () is the second most populous city and the county seat of Orange County, California, Orange County, California, in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. The United States Census Bureau estimated its 2019 population at 332,318, making San ...
home, having suffered a stroke. On February 25, 1982, Dick suffered another stroke in the hospital, which led to
brain death Brain death is the complete loss of brain function A brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system In Biology, biology, the nervous system is a Complex system, highly complex part of an animal that coordinates its B ...
. Five days later, on March 2, 1982, he was disconnected from
life support Life support refers to the treatments and techniques performed in an emergency in order to support life after the failure of one or more vital organs. Healthcare providers and emergency medical technician An emergency medical technician (EMT ...
. After his death, Dick's father, Joseph, took his son's ashes to Riverside Cemetery in
Fort Morgan, Colorado Fort Morgan is the List of municipalities in Colorado#Home rule municipality, home rule municipality city that is the county seat and the List of municipalities in Colorado, most populous municipality of Morgan County, Colorado, Morgan County, C ...
, (section K, block 1, lot 56), where they were buried next to his twin sister Jane, who died in infancy. Her tombstone had been inscribed with both of their names at the time of her death, 53 years earlier. He died four months before the release of ''Blade Runner'', the film based on his novel ''
Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? ''Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?'' (retitled ''Blade Runner: Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?'' in some later printings) is a dystopian science fiction novel by American writer Philip K. Dick, first published in 1968. The novel is set ...
''.


Style and works


Themes

Dick's stories typically focus on the fragile nature of what is real and the construction of
personal identity Personal identity is the unique numerical identity In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existence, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, P ...
. His stories often become surreal fantasies, as the main characters slowly discover that their everyday world is actually an illusion assembled by powerful external entities, such as the suspended animation in ''Ubik'', vast political conspiracies or the vicissitudes of an
unreliable narrator An unreliable narrator is a narrator Narration is the use of a written or spoken commentary to convey a story Story or stories may refer to: Common uses * Story, a narrative (an account of imaginary or real people and events) ** Short story ...
. "All of his work starts with the basic assumption that there cannot be one, single, objective reality", writes science fiction author Charles Platt. "Everything is a matter of perception. The ground is liable to shift under your feet. A protagonist may find himself living out another person's dream, or he may enter a drug-induced state that actually makes better sense than the real world, or he may cross into a different universe completely."{{Cite book, last = Platt, first = Charles, author-link = Charles Platt (science-fiction author), title = Dream Makers: The Uncommon People Who Write Science Fiction, publisher = Berkley Publishing, year = 1980, isbn = 0-425-04668-0, url = https://archive.org/details/dreammakers00char Alternate universes and
simulacra A simulacrum (plural: simulacra or simulacrums, from Latin ''wikt:simulacrum#Latin, simulacrum'', which means "likeness, semblance") is a representation or imitation of a person or thing. The word was first recorded in the English language in th ...
are common
plot devices A plot device or plot mechanism is any narrative technique, technique in a narrative used to move the Plot (narrative), plot forward. A clichéd plot device may annoy the reader and a contrived or arbitrary device may confuse the reader, causing ...
, with fictional worlds inhabited by common, working people, rather than galactic elites. "There are no heroes in Dick's books", Ursula K. Le Guin wrote, "but there are heroics. One is reminded of
Dickens Charles John Huffam Dickens (; 7 February 1812 – 9 June 1870) was an English writer and social critic. He created some of the world's best-known fictional characters and is regarded by many as the greatest novelist of the Victorian e ...

Dickens
: what counts is the honesty, constancy, kindness and patience of ordinary people."{{cite web , title = Criticism and analysis, publisher=Gale Research, year = 1996, url = http://www.stud.hum.ku.dk/rydahl/pkd/PKDcritic1.htm, archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20070307193543/http://www.stud.hum.ku.dk/rydahl/pkd/PKDcritic1.htm, archive-date = March 7, 2007, access-date =April 20, 2007 Dick made no secret that much of his thinking and work was heavily influenced by the writings of
Carl Jung Carl Gustav Jung ( ; born Karl Gustav Jung, ; 26 July 1875 – 6 June 1961), was a Swiss psychiatrist A psychiatrist is a physician A physician (American English), medical practitioner (English in the Commonwealth of Nations ...

Carl Jung
.{{Cite book, title=I Am Alive and You Are Dead: A Journey Into the Mind of Philp K. Dick , last=Carrère , first=Emmanuel , year=2004 , publisher=Metropolitan Books , location=New York , isbn=0-8050-5464-2 The Jungian constructs and models that most concerned Dick seem to be the archetypes of the
collective unconscious Collective unconscious (german: kollektives Unbewusstes) refers to the unconscious mind The unconscious mind (or the unconscious) consists of the processes in the mind The mind is the set of faculties responsible for mental phenomena A phe ...
, group projection/hallucination, synchronicities, and personality theory. Many of Dick's protagonists overtly analyze reality and their perceptions in Jungian terms (see '' Lies, Inc.'').{{citation needed, date=April 2021 Dick identified one major theme of his work as the question, "What constitutes the authentic human being?" In works such as ''
Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? ''Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?'' (retitled ''Blade Runner: Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?'' in some later printings) is a dystopian science fiction novel by American writer Philip K. Dick, first published in 1968. The novel is set ...
'', beings can appear totally human in every respect while lacking soul or compassion, while completely alien beings such as Glimmung in '' Galactic Pot-Healer'' may be more humane and complex than their human peers.{{citation needed, date=April 2021 {{quote box , quote= Dick's third major theme is his fascination with war and his fear and hatred of it. One hardly sees critical mention of it, yet it is as integral to his body of work as oxygen is to water. , source= —Steven Owen Godersky , align = right , width = 20% , style = padding:4px; Mental illness was a constant interest of Dick's, and themes of mental illness permeate his work. The character Jack Bohlen in the 1964 novel ''
Martian Time-Slip ''Martian Time-Slip'' is a 1964 science fiction novel by American writer Philip K. Dick. The novel uses the common science fiction concept of a human Colonization of Mars, colony on Mars. However, it also includes the themes of mental illness, Ti ...
'' is an "ex-schizophrenic". The novel '' Clans of the Alphane Moon'' centers on an entire society made up of descendants of lunatic asylum inmates. In 1965, he wrote the essay titled "Schizophrenia and the Book of Changes".Sutin, npg Drug use (including
religious Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/involuntary. Etymology ...
,
recreational Recreation is an activity of leisure Leisure has often been defined as a quality of experience or as free time. Free time is time Time is the continued sequence of existence and event (philosophy), events that occurs in an apparent ...
, and
abuse Abuse is the improper usage or treatment of a thing, often to unfairly or improperly gain benefit. Abuse can come in many forms, such as: physical or verbal maltreatment, injury, assault An assault is the act of inflicting physical harm ...
) was also a theme in many of Dick's works, such as ''
A Scanner Darkly ''A Scanner Darkly'' is a science fiction Science fiction (sometimes shortened to sci-fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction which typically deals with imagination, imaginative and futuristic concepts such as advanced science and tec ...
'' and ''
The Three Stigmata of Palmer Eldritch ''The Three Stigmata of Palmer Eldritch'' is a 1965 science fiction Science fiction (sometimes shortened to sci-fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction which typically deals with imagination, imaginative and futuristic concepts such as ...
''. Dick himself was a drug user for much of his life. According to a 1975 interview in ''
Rolling Stone ''Rolling Stone'' is an American monthly magazine that focuses on music, politics, and popular culture. It was founded in San Francisco, California San Francisco (/Help:IPA/English, ˌsæn fɹənˈsɪskoʊ/; Spanish language, Spanish ...
'',{{cite web, last = Williams, first = Paul, title = The Most Brilliant Sci-Fi Mind on Any Planet: Philip K. Dick, work = Rolling Stone, date = November 6, 1975, url = http://www.philipkdickfans.com/mirror/articles/1974_Rolling_Stone.pdf, access-date = November 10, 2014, archive-date = June 26, 2014, archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20140626113849/http://www.philipkdickfans.com/mirror/articles/1974_Rolling_Stone.pdf, url-status = live Dick wrote all of his books published before 1970 while on
amphetamine Amphetamine (contracted from alpha-methylphenethylamine) is a central nervous system The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living orga ...

amphetamine
s. "''
A Scanner Darkly ''A Scanner Darkly'' is a science fiction Science fiction (sometimes shortened to sci-fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction which typically deals with imagination, imaginative and futuristic concepts such as advanced science and tec ...
'' (1977) was the first complete novel I had written without speed", said Dick in the interview. He also experimented briefly with
psychedelics Psychedelics are a class of hallucinogenic drugs A hallucinogen is a psychoactive agent that often or ordinarily causes hallucinations A hallucination is a perception in the absence of external stimulus (physiology), stimulus that has ...
, but wrote ''
The Three Stigmata of Palmer Eldritch ''The Three Stigmata of Palmer Eldritch'' is a 1965 science fiction Science fiction (sometimes shortened to sci-fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction which typically deals with imagination, imaginative and futuristic concepts such as ...
'' (1965), which ''Rolling Stone'' dubs "the classic
LSD Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), also known colloquially as acid, is a psychedelic drug Psychedelics are a class of hallucinogenic drugs A hallucinogen is a psychoactive agent that often or ordinarily causes hallucinations A ...

LSD
novel of all time", before he had ever tried them. Despite his heavy amphetamine use, however, Dick later said that doctors told him the amphetamines never actually affected him, that his liver had processed them before they reached his brain. Summing up all these themes in ''Understanding Philip K. Dick'', Eric Carl Link discussed eight themes or 'ideas and motifs': Epistemology and the Nature of Reality, Know Thyself, The Android and the Human, Entropy and Pot Healing, The
Theodicy Theodicy () means vindication of God. It is to answer the question of why a good God permits the manifestation of evil, thus resolving the issue of the problem of evil. Some theodicies also address the evidential problem of evil by attempting " ...
Problem, Warfare and Power Politics, The Evolved Human, and 'Technology, Media, Drugs and Madness'.


Pen names

Dick had two professional stories published under the
pen names A pen name, also called a ''nom de plume'' () or a literary double, is a pseudonym A pseudonym () (originally: ψευδώνυμος in Greek) or alias () is a fictitious name that a person or group assumes for a particular purpose, which diffe ...
Richard Phillipps and Jack Dowland. "Some Kinds of Life" was published in October 1953 in ''
Fantastic Universe ''Fantastic Universe'' was a U.S. science fiction magazine which began publishing in the 1950s. It ran for 69 issues, from June 1953 to March 1960, under two different publishers. It was part of the explosion of science fiction magazine publishin ...
'' under byline Richard Phillipps, apparently because the magazine had a policy against publishing multiple stories by the same author in the same issue; "Planet for Transients" was published in the same issue under his own name. The short story " Orpheus with Clay Feet" was published under the pen name Jack Dowland. The protagonist desires to be the muse for fictional author Jack Dowland, considered the greatest science fiction author of the 20th century. In the story, Dowland publishes a short story titled "Orpheus with Clay Feet" under the pen name Philip K. Dick.{{citation needed, date=April 2021 The surname Dowland refers to Renaissance composer John Dowland, who is featured in several works. The title ''
Flow My Tears, the Policeman Said ''Flow My Tears, the Policeman Said'' is a 1974 science fiction novel by American writer Philip K. Dick. The novel is set in a futuristic dystopia where the United States has become a police state in the aftermath of a Second Civil War. The story ...
'' directly refers to Dowland's best-known composition, "Flow, my tears". In the novel ''
The Divine Invasion ''The Divine Invasion'' is 1981 science fantasy Science fantasy is a mixed genre within the umbrella of speculative fiction which simultaneously draws upon or combines trope (literature), tropes and elements from both science fiction and fanta ...
'', the character Linda Fox, created specifically with Linda Ronstadt in mind, is an intergalactically famous singer whose entire body of work consists of recordings of John Dowland compositions.{{citation needed, date=April 2021


Selected works

{{For, a complete bibliography, Philip K. Dick bibliography ''
The Man in the High Castle ''The Man in the High Castle'' is an alternate history novel by American writer Philip K. Dick. Published and set in 1962, the novel takes place fifteen years after a different end to World War II World War II or the Second World Wa ...
'' (1962) is set in an alternate history in which the United States is ruled by the victorious Axis powers. It is the only Dick novel to win a Hugo Award. In 2015 this was adapted into a television series by Amazon Studios. ''
The Three Stigmata of Palmer Eldritch ''The Three Stigmata of Palmer Eldritch'' is a 1965 science fiction Science fiction (sometimes shortened to sci-fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction which typically deals with imagination, imaginative and futuristic concepts such as ...
'' (1965) utilizes an array of science fiction concepts and features several layers of reality and unreality. It is also one of Dick's first works to explore religious themes. The novel takes place in the 21st century, when, under UN authority, mankind has colonized the Solar System's every habitability, habitable planet and moon. Life is physically daunting and psychologically monotonous for most colonists, so the UN must draft people to go to the colonies. Most entertain themselves using "Perky Pat" dolls and accessories manufactured by Earth-based "P.P. Layouts". The company also secretly creates "Can-D", an illegal but widely available hallucinogenic drug allowing the user to "translate" into Perky Pat (if the drug user is a woman) or Pat's boyfriend, Walt (if the drug user is a man). This recreational use of Can-D allows colonists to experience a few minutes of an idealized life on Earth by participating in a collective hallucination.{{citation needed, date=April 2021 ''
Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? ''Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?'' (retitled ''Blade Runner: Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?'' in some later printings) is a dystopian science fiction novel by American writer Philip K. Dick, first published in 1968. The novel is set ...
'' (1968) is the story of a bounty hunter policing the local android population. It occurs on a dying, poisoned Earth de-populated of almost all animals and all "successful" humans; the only remaining inhabitants of the planet are people with no prospects off-world. The 1968 novel is the literary source of the film ''
Blade Runner ''Blade Runner'' is a 1982 science fiction film Science fiction (or sci-fi) is a film genre A film genre is a Genre, stylistic or thematic category for Film, motion pictures based on similarities either in the narrative , narrative elem ...

Blade Runner
'' (1982).^ Sammon, Paul M. (1996). Future Noir: the Making of Blade Runner. London: Orion Media. p. 49. {{ISBN, 0-06-105314-7. It is both a conflation and an intensification of the pivotally Dickian question: "What is real, what is fake? What crucial factor defines humanity as distinctly 'alive', versus those merely alive only in their outward appearance?"{{citation needed, date=April 2021 ''
Ubik ''Ubik'' ( ) is a 1969 in literature, 1969 science fiction novel by American writer Philip K. Dick. The story is set in a future 1992 where psychic powers are utilized in corporate espionage, while Cryonics, cryonic technology allows recently de ...

Ubik
'' (1969) employs extensive psychic telepathy and a suspended state after death in creating a state of eroding reality. A group of psychics is sent to investigate a rival organisation, but several of them are apparently killed by a saboteur's bomb. Much of the following novel flicks between different equally plausible realities and the "real" reality, a state of half-life and psychically manipulated realities. In 2005, ''
Time Time is the continued sequence of existence and event (philosophy), events that occurs in an apparently irreversible process, irreversible succession from the past, through the present, into the future. It is a component quantity of various me ...
'' magazine listed it among the "All-TIME 100 Greatest Novels" published since 1923. ''
Flow My Tears, the Policeman Said ''Flow My Tears, the Policeman Said'' is a 1974 science fiction novel by American writer Philip K. Dick. The novel is set in a futuristic dystopia where the United States has become a police state in the aftermath of a Second Civil War. The story ...
'' (1974) concerns Jason Taverner, a television star living in a dystopian near-future police state. After being attacked by an angry ex-girlfriend, Taverner awakens in a dingy Los Angeles hotel room. He still has his money in his wallet, but his identification cards are missing. This is no minor inconvenience, as security checkpoints (staffed by "pols" and "nats", the police and National Guard) are set up throughout the city to stop and arrest anyone without valid ID. Jason at first thinks that he was robbed, but soon discovers that his entire identity has been erased. There is no record of him in any official database, and even his closest associates do not recognize or remember him. For the first time in many years, Jason has no fame or reputation to rely on. He has only his innate charm and social graces to help him as he tries to find out what happened to his past while avoiding the attention of the pols. The novel was Dick's first published novel after years of silence, during which time his critical reputation had grown, and this novel was awarded the John W. Campbell Memorial Award for Best Science Fiction Novel. It is the only Philip K. Dick novel nominated for both a Hugo and a Nebula Award.{{citation needed, date=April 2021 In an essay written two years before his death, Dick described how he learned from his Episcopal priest that an important scene in ''Flow My Tears, the Policeman Said'' – involving its other main character, the eponymous Police General Felix Buckman, was very similar to a scene in ''Acts of the Apostles'', a book of the New Testament. Film director Richard Linklater discusses this novel in his film ''Waking Life'', which begins with a scene reminiscent of another Dick novel, ''Time Out of Joint''.{{citation needed, date=April 2021 ''
A Scanner Darkly ''A Scanner Darkly'' is a science fiction Science fiction (sometimes shortened to sci-fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction which typically deals with imagination, imaginative and futuristic concepts such as advanced science and tec ...
'' (1977) is a bleak mixture of science fiction and police procedural novels; in its story, an undercover narcotics police detective begins to lose touch with reality after falling victim to Substance D, the same permanently mind-altering drug he was enlisted to help fight. Substance D is instantly addictive, beginning with a pleasant euphoria which is quickly replaced with increasing confusion, hallucinations and eventually total psychosis. In this novel, as with all Dick novels, there is an underlying thread of paranoia and dissociation with multiple realities perceived simultaneously. It was adapted to A Scanner Darkly (film), film by Richard Linklater. ''The Philip K. Dick Reader'' is an introduction to the variety of Dick's short fiction.{{citation needed, date=April 2021 ''
VALIS Valis may refer to: * ''Valis'' (novel series), a series of science fantasy novels by Philip K. Dick ** ''Valis'' (novel), the first novel in the series * ''Valis'' (video game series), a video game series which began in 1986 **''Valis: The Fan ...
'' (1980) is perhaps Dick's most postmodernism, postmodern and autobiographical novel, examining his own unexplained experiences. It may also be his most academically studied work, and was adapted as an opera by Tod Machover. Later works like the VALIS trilogy were heavily autobiographical, many with "two-three-seventy-four" (2-3-74) references and influences. The word
VALIS Valis may refer to: * ''Valis'' (novel series), a series of science fantasy novels by Philip K. Dick ** ''Valis'' (novel), the first novel in the series * ''Valis'' (video game series), a video game series which began in 1986 **''Valis: The Fan ...
is the acronym for ''Vast Active Living Intelligence System''. Later, Dick theorized that VALIS was both a "reality generator" and a means of extraterrestrial communication. A fourth VALIS manuscript, ''Radio Free Albemuth'', although composed in 1976, was posthumously published in 1985. This work is described by the publisher (Arbor House) as "an introduction and key to his magnificent VALIS trilogy".{{citation needed, date=April 2021 Regardless of the feeling that he was somehow experiencing a divine communication, Dick was never fully able to rationalize the events. For the rest of his life, he struggled to comprehend what was occurring, questioning his own sanity and perception of reality. He transcribed what thoughts he could into an eight-thousand-page, one-million-word diary, journal dubbed the ''Exegesis (book), Exegesis''. From 1974 until his death in 1982, Dick spent many nights writing in this journal. A recurring theme in ''Exegesis'' is Dick's hypothesis that history had been stopped in the first century AD, and that "the Roman Empire, Empire never ended". He saw Rome as the pinnacle of materialism and despotism, which, after forcing the Gnosticism, Gnostics underground, had kept the population of Earth enslaved to worldly possessions. Dick believed that VALIS had communicated with him, and anonymously others, to induce the impeachment of U.S. President Richard Nixon, whom Dick believed to be the current Emperor of Rome incarnate. In a 1968 essay titled "Self Portrait", collected in the 1995 book ''The Shifting Realities of Philip K. Dick'', Dick reflects on his work and lists which books he feels "might escape World War Three": ''Eye in the Sky (novel), Eye in the Sky'', ''
The Man in the High Castle ''The Man in the High Castle'' is an alternate history novel by American writer Philip K. Dick. Published and set in 1962, the novel takes place fifteen years after a different end to World War II World War II or the Second World Wa ...
'', ''
Martian Time-Slip ''Martian Time-Slip'' is a 1964 science fiction novel by American writer Philip K. Dick. The novel uses the common science fiction concept of a human Colonization of Mars, colony on Mars. However, it also includes the themes of mental illness, Ti ...
'', ''Dr. Bloodmoney, or How We Got Along After the Bomb'', ''The Zap Gun'', ''The Penultimate Truth'', ''The Simulacra'', ''
The Three Stigmata of Palmer Eldritch ''The Three Stigmata of Palmer Eldritch'' is a 1965 science fiction Science fiction (sometimes shortened to sci-fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction which typically deals with imagination, imaginative and futuristic concepts such as ...
'' (which he refers to as "the most vital of them all"), ''
Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? ''Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?'' (retitled ''Blade Runner: Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?'' in some later printings) is a dystopian science fiction novel by American writer Philip K. Dick, first published in 1968. The novel is set ...
'', and ''
Ubik ''Ubik'' ( ) is a 1969 in literature, 1969 science fiction novel by American writer Philip K. Dick. The story is set in a future 1992 where psychic powers are utilized in corporate espionage, while Cryonics, cryonic technology allows recently de ...

Ubik
''. In a 1976 interview, Dick cited ''A Scanner Darkly'' as his best work, feeling that he "had finally written a true masterpiece, after 25 years of writing".


Adaptations

{{Main, List of adaptations of works by Philip K. Dick


Films

Several of Dick's stories have been made into films. Dick himself wrote a screenplay for an intended film adaptation of ''
Ubik ''Ubik'' ( ) is a 1969 in literature, 1969 science fiction novel by American writer Philip K. Dick. The story is set in a future 1992 where psychic powers are utilized in corporate espionage, while Cryonics, cryonic technology allows recently de ...

Ubik
'' in 1974, but the film was never made. Many film adaptations have not used Dick's original titles. When asked why this was, Dick's ex-wife Tessa said, "Actually, the books rarely carry Phil's original titles, as the editors usually wrote new titles after reading his manuscripts. Phil often commented that he couldn't write good titles. If he could, he would have been an advertising writer instead of a novelist." Films based on Dick's writing had accumulated a total revenue of over US$1 billion by 2009. *''
Blade Runner ''Blade Runner'' is a 1982 science fiction film Science fiction (or sci-fi) is a film genre A film genre is a Genre, stylistic or thematic category for Film, motion pictures based on similarities either in the narrative , narrative elem ...

Blade Runner
'' (1982), based on Dick's 1968 novel ''
Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? ''Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?'' (retitled ''Blade Runner: Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?'' in some later printings) is a dystopian science fiction novel by American writer Philip K. Dick, first published in 1968. The novel is set ...
'', directed by Ridley Scott and starring Harrison Ford and Rutger Hauer. A screenplay had been in the works for years before Scott took the helm, with Dick being extremely critical of all versions. Dick was still apprehensive about how his story would be adapted for the film when the project was finally put into motion. Among other things, he refused to do a novelization of the film. But contrary to his initial reactions, when he was given an opportunity to see some of the special effects sequences of Los Angeles 2019, Dick was amazed that the environment was "exactly as how I'd imagined it!", though Ridley Scott has mentioned he had never even read the source material. Following the screening, Dick and Scott had a frank but cordial discussion of ''Blade Runner''{{'s themes and characters, and although they had wildly differing views, Dick fully backed the film from then on, stating that his "life and creative work are justified and completed by ''Blade Runner''". Dick died from a stroke less than four months before the release of the film. *''Total Recall (1990 film), Total Recall'' (1990), based on the short story "We Can Remember It for You Wholesale", directed by Paul Verhoeven and starring Arnold Schwarzenegger.{{Cite magazine, url=https://www.wired.com/2010/10/7-past-and-future-philip-k-dick-adaptations/, title=7 Past and Future Philip K. Dick Adaptations, first=Robert, last=Capps, magazine=Wired, date=October 7, 2010, via=www.wired.com, access-date=April 5, 2020, archive-date=September 22, 2020, archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200922214306/https://www.wired.com/2010/10/7-past-and-future-philip-k-dick-adaptations/, url-status=live * ''Confessions d'un Barjo'' (1992), titled ''Barjo'' in its English-language release, a French film based on the non-science-fiction novel '' Confessions of a Crap Artist''. * ''Screamers (1995 film), Screamers'' (1995), based on the short story "Second Variety",{{Cite web, url=https://www.irishtimes.com/culture/film/just-because-you-re-paranoid-philip-k-dick-s-troubled-life-1.3243976, title=Just because you're paranoid ... Philip K Dick's troubled life directed by Christian Duguay (director), Christian Duguay and starring Peter Weller. The location was altered from a war-devastated Earth to a distant planet. A sequel, titled ''Screamers: The Hunting'', was released direct-to-video, straight to DVD in 2009. * '' Minority Report'' (2002), based on the short story "The Minority Report", directed by Steven Spielberg and starring Tom Cruise. * ''Impostor (2002 film), Impostor'' (2002), based on the 1953 story "Impostor (short story), Impostor," directed by Gary Fleder and starring Gary Sinise, Vincent D'Onofrio and Madeleine Stowe. The story was also adapted in 1962 for the British television anthology series ''Out of This World (UK TV series), Out of This World''. * ''Paycheck (film), Paycheck'' (2003), directed by John Woo and starring Ben Affleck, based on Dick's Paycheck (short story), short story of the same name. * ''
A Scanner Darkly ''A Scanner Darkly'' is a science fiction Science fiction (sometimes shortened to sci-fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction which typically deals with imagination, imaginative and futuristic concepts such as advanced science and tec ...
'' (2006), directed by Richard Linklater and starring Keanu Reeves, Winona Ryder, and Robert Downey Jr., based on Dick's A Scanner Darkly, novel of the same name. The film was produced using the process of rotoscoping: it was first shot in live-action and then the live footage was animated over. * ''Next (2007 film), Next'' (2007), directed by Lee Tamahori and starring Nicolas Cage, loosely based on the short story "The Golden Man". * '' Radio Free Albemuth'' (2010), directed by John Alan Simon loosely based on the novel '' Radio Free Albemuth''. * ''
The Adjustment Bureau ''The Adjustment Bureau'' is a 2011 American science fiction Science fiction (sometimes shortened to sci-fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction which typically deals with imagination, imaginative and futuristic concepts such as advan ...
'' (2011), directed by George Nolfi and starring Matt Damon, loosely based on the short story "Adjustment Team". * ''Total Recall (2012 film), Total Recall'' (2012), directed by Len Wiseman and starring Colin Farrell, second film adaptation of the short story "We Can Remember It for You Wholesale". * ''Blade Runner 2049'' (2017), directed by Denis Villeneuve and starring Ryan Gosling and Harrison Ford, a sequel to the 1982 film ''Blade Runner'', based on ''Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?''. Future films based on Dick's writing include an animated adaptation of ''The King of the Elves'' from Walt Disney Animation Studios, which was set to be released in the spring of 2016 but is currently still in preproduction; and a film adaptation of ''Ubik'' which, according to Dick's daughter, Isa Dick Hackett, is in advanced negotiation. Ubik was set to be made into a film by Michel Gondry. In 2014, however, Gondry told French outlet Telerama (via Jeux Actu), that he was no longer working on the project. The ''Terminator (franchise), Terminator'' series prominently features the theme of humanoid assassination machines first portrayed in ''Second Variety''. The Halcyon Company, known for developing the ''Terminator (franchise), Terminator'' franchise, acquired right of first refusal to film adaptations of the works of Philip K. Dick in 2007. In May 2009, they announced plans for an adaptation of ''
Flow My Tears, the Policeman Said ''Flow My Tears, the Policeman Said'' is a 1974 science fiction novel by American writer Philip K. Dick. The novel is set in a futuristic dystopia where the United States has become a police state in the aftermath of a Second Civil War. The story ...
''.


Television

It was reported in 2010 that Ridley Scott would produce an The Man in the High Castle (TV series), adaptation of ''
The Man in the High Castle ''The Man in the High Castle'' is an alternate history novel by American writer Philip K. Dick. Published and set in 1962, the novel takes place fifteen years after a different end to World War II World War II or the Second World Wa ...
'' for the BBC, in the form of a mini-series.{{cite news , title=Ridley Scott to return to work of sci-fi icon for BBC mini-series: Blade Runner director to executive produce four-part BBC1 adaptation of Philip K Dick's The Man in the High Castle , last=Sweney , first=Mark , date=October 7, 2010 , newspaper=The Observer , url=https://www.theguardian.com/media/2010/oct/07/ridley-scott-sci-fi-philip-k-dick-bbc-drama , access-date=December 12, 2016 , archive-date=December 2, 2016 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20161202023815/https://www.theguardian.com/media/2010/oct/07/ridley-scott-sci-fi-philip-k-dick-bbc-drama , url-status=live A pilot episode was released on Amazon Prime in January 2015 and The Man in the High Castle (TV series), Season 1 was fully released in ten episodes of about 60 minutes each on November 20, 2015. Premiering in January 2015, the pilot was Amazon's "most-watched since the original series development program began." The next month Amazon ordered episodes to fill out a ten-episode season, which was released in November, to positive reviews. A second season of ten episodes premiered in December 2016, with a third season announced a few weeks later to be released in 2018. In July 2018, it was announced that the series had been renewed for a fourth season. In late 2015, Fox Broadcasting Company, Fox aired ''Minority Report (TV series), Minority Report'', a television series sequel adaptation to the Minority Report (film), 2002 film of the same name based on Dick's short story "The Minority Report" (1956). The show was cancelled after one 10-episode season. In May 2016, it was announced that a 10-part anthology series was in the works. Titled ''Philip K. Dick's Electric Dreams'', the series was distributed by Sony Pictures Television and premiered on
Channel 4 Channel 4 is a British free-to-air Free-to-air (FTA) services are television (TV) and radio services broadcast in clear (unencrypted) form, allowing any person with the FTA Receiver, appropriate receiving equipment to receive the signal and ...
in the United Kingdom and Amazon Video in the United States. It was written by executive producers Ronald D. Moore and Michael Dinner, with executive input from Dick's daughter
Isa Dick Hackett Isa Dick Hackett (born; Isolde Freya Dick; March 15, 1967) is an American producer and writer for Amazon Amazon usually refers to: * Amazons In Greek mythology, the Amazons (Ancient Greek: Ἀμαζόνες ''Amazónes'', singular Ἀμα ...
, and stars Bryan Cranston, also an executive producer.


Stage and radio

Four of Dick's works have been adapted for the stage. One was the opera ''VALIS'', composed and with libretto by Tod Machover, which premiered at the Pompidou Center in Paris on December 1, 1987, with a French libretto. It was subsequently revised and readapted into English, and was recorded and released on CD (Bridge Records BCD9007) in 1988.{{citation needed, date=April 2021 Another was ''
Flow My Tears, the Policeman Said ''Flow My Tears, the Policeman Said'' is a 1974 science fiction novel by American writer Philip K. Dick. The novel is set in a futuristic dystopia where the United States has become a police state in the aftermath of a Second Civil War. The story ...
'', adapted by Linda Hartinian and produced by the New York-based avant-garde company Mabou Mines. It premiered in Boston at the Boston Shakespeare Theatre (June 18–30, 1985) and was subsequently staged in New York and Chicago. Productions of ''Flow My Tears, the Policeman Said'' were also staged by the Evidence Room in Los Angeles in 1999 and by the Fifth Column Theatre Company at the Ovalhouse, Oval House Theatre in London in the same year. A play based on '' Radio Free Albemuth'' also had a brief run in the 1980s.{{clarify, date=April 2021{{citation needed, date=April 2021 In November 2010, a production of ''
Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? ''Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?'' (retitled ''Blade Runner: Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?'' in some later printings) is a dystopian science fiction novel by American writer Philip K. Dick, first published in 1968. The novel is set ...
'', adapted by Edward Einhorn, premiered at the 3LD Art and Technology Center in Manhattan. A radio drama adaptation of Dick's short story "Mr. Spaceship" was aired by the Finnish Broadcasting Company (Yleisradio) in 1996 under the name ''Menolippu Paratiisiin''. Radio dramatizations of Dick's short stories ''Colony'' and ''The Defenders'' were aired by NBC in 1956 as part of the series ''X Minus One''.{{citation needed, date=April 2021 In January 2006, a ''The Three Stigmata of Palmer Eldritch'' (English for ''Trzy stygmaty Palmera Eldritcha'') theatre adaptation premiered in Stary Teatr in Kraków, with an extensive use of lights and laser choreography. In June 2014 the BBC broadcast a two part adaptation of 'Do Androids Dream Of Electric Sheep?' on Radio 4, starring James Purefoy as Rick Deckard.


Comics

Marvel Comics adapted Dick's short story "The Electric Ant" as a Limited series (comics), limited series which was released in 2009. The comic was produced by writer David W. Mack, David Mack (''Daredevil (Marvel Comics series), Daredevil'') and artist Pascal Alixe (''Ultimate X-Men''), with covers provided by artist Paul Pope. "The Electric Ant" had earlier been loosely adapted by Frank Miller and Geof Darrow in their 3-issue mini-series ''Hard Boiled (comics), Hard Boiled'' published by Dark Horse Comics in 1990–1992. In 2009, BOOM! Studios started publishing a 24-issue miniseries comic book adaptation of ''
Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? ''Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?'' (retitled ''Blade Runner: Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?'' in some later printings) is a dystopian science fiction novel by American writer Philip K. Dick, first published in 1968. The novel is set ...
'' ''
Blade Runner ''Blade Runner'' is a 1982 science fiction film Science fiction (or sci-fi) is a film genre A film genre is a Genre, stylistic or thematic category for Film, motion pictures based on similarities either in the narrative , narrative elem ...

Blade Runner
'', the 1982 film adapted from ''Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?'', had previously been adapted to comics as ''A Marvel Comics Super Special: Blade Runner''. In 2011, Dynamite Entertainment published a four-issue miniseries ''Total Recall'', a sequel to the 1990 film ''Total Recall (1990 film), Total Recall'', inspired by Philip K. Dick's short story "We Can Remember It for You Wholesale". In 1990, DC Comics published the official adaptation of the original film as a ''DC Movie Special: Total Recall''.


Alternative formats

In response to a 1975 request from the National Library for the Blind for permission to make use of ''
The Man in the High Castle ''The Man in the High Castle'' is an alternate history novel by American writer Philip K. Dick. Published and set in 1962, the novel takes place fifteen years after a different end to World War II World War II or the Second World Wa ...
'', Dick responded, "I also grant you a general permission to transcribe any of my former, present or future work, so indeed you can add my name to your 'general permission' list." Some of his books and stories are available in braille and other specialized formats through the NLS. {{wikisource, Author:Philip K. Dick, Philip K. Dick As of December 2012, thirteen of Philip K. Dick's early works in the public domain in the United States are available in ebook form from Project Gutenberg. As of December 2019, Wikisource has three of Philip K. Dick's early works in the public domain in the United States available in ebook form which is not from Project Gutenberg.{{citation needed, date=April 2021


Influence and legacy

Lawrence Sutin's 1989 biography of Dick, ''Divine Invasions: A Life of Philip K. Dick'', is considered the standard biographical treatment of Dick's life. In 1993, French writer Emmanuel Carrère published ''Je suis vivant et vous êtes morts'' which was first translated and published in English in 2004 as ''I Am Alive and You Are Dead: A Journey Into the Mind of Philip K. Dick'', which the author describes in his preface in this way:
The book you hold in your hands is a very peculiar book. I have tried to depict the life of Philip K. Dick from the inside, in other words, with the same freedom and empathy – indeed with the same truth – with which he depicted his own characters.
Critics of the book have complained about the lack of fact checking, sourcing, notes and index, "the usual evidence of deep research that gives a biography the solid stamp of authority." It can be considered a non-fiction novel about his life.{{citation needed, date=April 2021 Dick has influenced many writers, including Jonathan Lethem and Ursula K. Le Guin. The prominent literary critic
Fredric Jameson Fredric Jameson (born April 14, 1934) is an American literary critic Literary criticism (or literary studies) is the study, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. Modern literary criticism is often influenced by literary theory, whi ...
proclaimed Dick the "Shakespeare of Science Fiction", and praised his work as "one of the most powerful expressions of the society of Spectacle (critical theory), spectacle and pseudo-event". The author Roberto Bolaño also praised Dick, describing him as "Thoreau plus the death of the American dream". Dick has also influenced filmmakers, his work being compared to films such as the Wachowskis' ''The Matrix'',{{cite web , url=http://www.themodernword.com/SCRIPTorium/dick.html , title=Scriptorium – Philip K. Dick , publisher=Themodernword.com , url-status=dead , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080412044539/http://www.themodernword.com/scriptorium/dick.html , archive-date=April 12, 2008 David Cronenberg's ''Videodrome'',How Hollywood woke up to a dark genius
{dead link, date=July 2021, bot=medic{{cbignore, bot=medic, The Daily Telegraph {{Cite web , url=http://www.telegraph.co.uk/arts/main.jhtml?xml=%2Farts%2F2006%2F07%2F14%2Fbfdick14.xml&page=4 , title=Archived copy , access-date=July 26, 2017 , archive-date=November 11, 2014 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20141111011806/http://www.telegraph.co.uk/arts/main.jhtml?xml=%2Farts%2F2006%2F07%2F14%2Fbfdick14.xml&page=4 , url-status=dead
''eXistenZ'', and ''Spider (2002 film), Spider'', Spike Jonze's ''Being John Malkovich'', ''Adaptation (film), Adaptation'', Michel Gondry's ''Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind'', Alex Proyas's ''Dark City (1998 film), Dark City'', Peter Weir's ''The Truman Show'', Andrew Niccol's ''Gattaca'', ''In Time (film), In Time'', Terry Gilliam's ''12 Monkeys (film), 12 Monkeys'', Alejandro Amenábar's ''Open Your Eyes (1997 film), Open Your Eyes'', David Fincher's ''Fight Club'', Cameron Crowe's ''Vanilla Sky'', Darren Aronofsky's ''Pi (film), Pi'', Richard Kelly (director), Richard Kelly's ''Donnie Darko'' and ''Southland Tales'', Rian Johnson's Looper (film), ''Looper'', Duncan Jones' ''Source Code'', and Christopher Nolan's ''Memento (film), Memento'' and ''Inception''. The Philip K. Dick Society was an organization dedicated to promoting the literary works of Dick and was led by Dick's longtime friend and music journalist Paul Williams (Crawdaddy! creator), Paul Williams. Williams also served as Dick's literary executor for several years after Dick's death and wrote one of the first biographies of Dick, entitled ''Only Apparently Real: The World of Philip K. Dick''. The Philip K. Dick estate owns and operates the production company Electric Shepherd Productions, which has produced the film ''
The Adjustment Bureau ''The Adjustment Bureau'' is a 2011 American science fiction Science fiction (sometimes shortened to sci-fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction which typically deals with imagination, imaginative and futuristic concepts such as advan ...
'' (2011), the TV series ''
The Man in the High Castle ''The Man in the High Castle'' is an alternate history novel by American writer Philip K. Dick. Published and set in 1962, the novel takes place fifteen years after a different end to World War II World War II or the Second World Wa ...
'' and also a Marvel Comics 5-issue adaptation of ''Electric Ant''. Dick was recreated by his fans in the form of a Simulacrum#Philip K. Dick, simulacrum or remote-controlled android (robot), android designed in his likeness. Such simulacra had been themes of many of Dick's works. The Philip K. Dick simulacrum was included on a discussion panel in a San Diego Comic Con presentation about the film adaptation of the novel, ''
A Scanner Darkly ''A Scanner Darkly'' is a science fiction Science fiction (sometimes shortened to sci-fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction which typically deals with imagination, imaginative and futuristic concepts such as advanced science and tec ...
''. In February 2006, an America West Airlines employee misplaced the android's head, and it has not yet been found. In January 2011, it was announced that Hanson Robotics had built a replacement. {{in popular culture, date=October 2019


Film

* BBC2 released in 1994 a biographical documentary as part of its ''Arena (UK TV series), Arena'' arts series called ''Philip K. Dick: A Day in the Afterlife''. * ''The Gospel According to Philip K. Dick'' was a documentary film produced in 2001. * ''The Penultimate Truth About Philip K. Dick'' was another biographical documentary film produced in 2007.{{IMDb title, 1461696, The Penultimate Truth About Philip K. Dick * The 1987 film ''The Trouble with Dick'', in which Tom Villard plays a character named "Dick Kendred" (cf. Philip Kindred Dick), who is a science fiction author * The dialogue of Nikos Nikolaidis' 1987 film ''Morning Patrol'' contains excerpts taken from published works authored by Philip K. Dick. * The Cinema of Spain, Spanish feature film ''Proxima (2007 film), Proxima'' (2007) by Carlos Atanes, where the character ''Felix Cadecq'' is based on Dick * A 2008 film titled ''Your Name Here'', by Matthew Wilder, features Bill Pullman as science fiction author William J. Frick, a character based on Dick{{cite news, last=Koehler, first=Robert, title=Review: 'Your Name Here', url=https://variety.com/2008/film/reviews/your-name-here-2-1200508531/, access-date=April 3, 2014, newspaper=Variety (magazine), Variety, date=July 7, 2008, archive-date=April 7, 2014, archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140407151545/http://variety.com/2008/film/reviews/your-name-here-2-1200508531/, url-status=live{{cite news, last=Fischer, first=Martha, title=Another Dick Biopic!, url=http://news.moviefone.com/2006/08/08/another-dick-biopic/, access-date=April 3, 2014, newspaper=Moviefone, date=August 8, 2006, archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140407071902/http://news.moviefone.com/2006/08/08/another-dick-biopic/, archive-date=April 7, 2014, url-status=dead{{cite news, last=Buchanan, first=Jason, title=Your Name Here (2008), url=https://www.allmovie.com/movie/your-name-here-v468284/, access-date=April 2, 2014, newspaper=AllMovie, archive-date=May 7, 2014, archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140507082320/http://www.allmovie.com/movie/your-name-here-v468284/, url-status=live{{cite news, last=Kemp, first=Cal, title=CineVegas X: Matthew Wilder Interview – 'Your Name Here', url=https://collider.com/entertainment/interviews/article.asp/aid/8239/tcid/1, access-date=April 2, 2014, newspaper=Collider, date=June 17, 2008, archive-date=April 1, 2014, archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140401014210/http://collider.com/entertainment/interviews/article.asp/aid/8239/tcid/1, url-status=live * The 2010 science fiction film ''15 Till Midnight'' cites Dick's influence with an "acknowledgment to the works of" credit. * The ''Prophets of Science Fiction'' episode, Philip K Dick. 2011 Documentary


In fiction

* Michael Bishop (author), Michael Bishop's Michael Bishop (author)#Philip K. Dick is Dead, Alas, ''The Secret Ascension'' (1987; currently published as ''Philip K. Dick Is Dead, Alas''), which is set in an alternative universe where his non-genre work is published but his science fiction is banned by a totalitarian United States in thrall to a demonically possessed Richard Nixon. * The Faction Paradox novel ''Of the City of the Saved ... '' (2004) by Philip Purser-Hallard * The short story "The Transmigration of Philip K" (1984) by Michael Swanwick (to be found in the 1991 collection ''Gravity's Angels'') * In Ursula K. Le Guin's 1971 novel ''The Lathe of Heaven'', whose characters alter reality through their dreams. Two made-for-TV films based on the novel have been made: ''The Lathe of Heaven (film), The Lathe of Heaven'' (1980) and ''Lathe of Heaven (film), Lathe of Heaven'' (2002) * In Thomas M. Disch's ''The Word of God'' (2008) * The comics magazine ''Weirdo (magazine), Weirdo'' published "The Religious Experience of Philip K. Dick" by artist Robert Crumb, R. Crumb in 1986. Though this is not an adaptation of a specific book or story by Dick, it incorporates elements of Dick's experience which he related in short stories, novels, essays, and the ''Exegesis (book), Exegesis''. The story parodies the form of a Chick tract, a type of Evangelicalism, evangelical comic, many of which relate the story of an epiphany leading to a conversion to fundamentalist Christianity. * In the ''Batman Beyond'' episode "Sentries of the Last Cosmos", the character Eldon Michaels claims a typewriter on his desk to have belonged to Philip K. Dick. * In the 1976 alternate history novel ''The Alteration'' by Kingsley Amis, one of the novels-within-a-novel depicted is ''The Man in the High Castle'' (mirroring ''The Grasshopper Lies Heavy'' in the real-life novel), still written by Philip K. Dick. Instead of the novel being set in 1962 in an alternate universe where the Hypothetical Axis victory in World War II, Axis Powers won the Second World War and named for Hawthorne Abendsen, the author of its novel-within-a-novel, it depicts an alternate universe where the Protestant Reformation occurred (events including the continuation of Henry VIII's Schismatic policies by his son, Henry IX, and the creation of an independent North America in 1848), with one character speculating that the titular character was a wizard. * In the Japanese science fiction anime ''Psycho-Pass'', Dick's works are referred to as recommended reading material to help reflect on the current state of affairs of those characters world. * The short film trilogy ''Code 7'' written and directed by Nacho Vigalondo starts with the line "Philip K. Dick presents". The story also contains some other references to Philip K. Dick's body of work.


Music

* "Flow My Tears" is the name of an instrumental by bassist Stuart Hamm, inspired by Dick's novel of the same name. The track is found on his album ''Radio Free Albemuth (album), Radio Free Albemuth'', also named after a Dick novel. * "Flow My Tears, The Policeman Said" and other seminal Ph. K. Dick novels inspired the electronic music concept album "''The Dowland Shores of Philip K. Dick's Universe''" by Levente * "Flow My Tears the Spider Said" is the final song on ''They Were Wrong, So We Drowned'', the second album by experimental Los Angeles punk-rock outfit Liars (band), Liars. * "Nowhere Nothin' Fuckup", the fifth song on Built to Spill's album ''Ultimate Alternative Wavers'', is the title of a song by the main character, Jason Taverner, in ''Flow My Tears, The Policeman Said''. * "Listen to the Sirens", the first song on Tubeway Army's 1978 Tubeway Army (album), debut album has as its first line "flow my tears, the new police song". * American rapper and producer El-P is a noted fan of Dick and other science fiction, as many of Dick's themes, such as paranoia and questions about the nature of reality, feature in El-P's work. A song on the 2002 album ''Fantastic Damage'' is titled "T.O.J." and the chorus makes reference to the Dick work ''Time Out of Joint''. * English singer Hugh Cornwell included an instrumental called "Philip K. Ridiculous" on his 2008 album "Hooverdam". * The World/Inferno Friendship Society's 2011 album ''The Anarchy and the Ecstasy'' includes a song entitled "Canonize Philip K. Dick, OK". * Bloc Party's 2012 album ''Four (Bloc Party album), Four'' contains several references to Dick's work, including a song entitled "V.A.L.I.S.". * German singer Ingo Pohlmann, Pohlmann included a song called "Roy Batty (In Tribute to Philip K. Dick)" on his 2013 album ''Nix ohne Grund''. * Sister (Sonic Youth album), Sister, a Sonic Youth album, "was in part inspired by the life and works of science fiction writer Philip K. Dick". * "What You See" is a song by Faded Paper Figures that pays homage to the literary work of Dick. * The first song on Japancakes' debut album ''If I Could See Dallas'' is titled 'Now Wait For Last Year'. * Janelle Monáe's song "Make the Bus" in her album ''The ArchAndroid'' has the lyrics "You've got 'Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?' under your pillow" at the end of the first stanza. *Blind Guardian's song "Time What is Time" from the 1992 album "Somewhere Far Beyond" is loosely based on the book "Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?". *The Weeknd's song "Snowchild" in his album ''After Hours (The Weeknd album), After Hours'' has the lyrics "Futuristic sex give her Philip K dick" at the beginning of the second stanza. *American band Trivium (band), Trivium's 2020 Album "What the Dead Men Say" and its title track, are a direct reference the short story of the same name.


Radio

* In June 2014, BBC Radio 4 broadcast ''The Two Georges'' by Stephen Keyworth, inspired by the FBI's investigation of Phil and his wife Kleo in 1955, and the subsequent friendship that developed between Phil and FBI Agent Scruggs.


Theater

* The short play ''Kindred Blood in Kensington Gore'' (1992) by Brian W. Aldiss * A 2005 play, ''800 Words: the Transmigration of Philip K. Dick'' by Victoria Stewart, which re-imagines Dick's final days.


Contemporary philosophy

Postmodernism, Postmodernists such as Jean Baudrillard,
Fredric Jameson Fredric Jameson (born April 14, 1934) is an American literary critic Literary criticism (or literary studies) is the study, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. Modern literary criticism is often influenced by literary theory, whi ...
, Laurence Rickels and Slavoj Žižek have commented on Dick's writing's foreshadowing of postmodernity.{{Cite book, last = Myriam Díaz-Diocaretz, Stefan Herbrechter, title = The Matrix in theory, page = 136 , publisher=Rodopi , year=2006 , isbn=978-90-420-1639-2 Jean Baudrillard offers this interpretation:
"It is hyperreal. It is a universe of simulation, which is something altogether different. And this is so not because Dick speaks specifically of simulacra. SF has always done so, but it has always played upon the double, on artificial replication or imaginary duplication, whereas here the double has disappeared. There is no more double; one is always already in the other world, an other world which is not another, without mirrors or projection or utopias as means for reflection. The simulation is impassable, unsurpassable, checkmated, without exteriority. We can no longer move 'through the mirror' to the other side, as we could during the golden age of transcendence."
For his anti-government skepticism, Philip K. Dick was afforded minor mention in ''Mythmakers and Lawbreakers'', a collection of interviews about fiction by anarchist authors. Noting his early authorship of ''The Last of the Masters'', an anarchist-themed novelette, author Margaret Killjoy expressed that while Dick never fully sided with anarchism, his opposition to government centralization and organized religion has influenced Anarcho-Gnosticism, anarchist interpretations of gnosticism.


Video games

* The 3.0 update for the grand strategy video game ''Stellaris (video game), Stellaris'' is named the "Dick" update, following the game's trend of naming updates after science fiction authors. * In ''Serious Sam 4'', Sam "Serious" Stone claims that Philip K. Dick is his favourite author. *The 2016 video game ''Californium (video game), Californium'' was developed as a tribute to Philip K. Dick and his writings to coincide with an Arte's documentary series.


Awards and honors

The Science Fiction and Fantasy Hall of Fame, Science Fiction Hall of Fame inducted Dick in 2005. During his lifetime he received numerous annual literary awards and nominations for particular works. * Hugo Awards ** Best Novel *** 1963 – winner: ''
The Man in the High Castle ''The Man in the High Castle'' is an alternate history novel by American writer Philip K. Dick. Published and set in 1962, the novel takes place fifteen years after a different end to World War II World War II or the Second World Wa ...
'' *** 1975 – nominee: ''
Flow My Tears, the Policeman Said ''Flow My Tears, the Policeman Said'' is a 1974 science fiction novel by American writer Philip K. Dick. The novel is set in a futuristic dystopia where the United States has become a police state in the aftermath of a Second Civil War. The story ...
'' ** Best Novelette *** 1968 – nominee: ''Faith of Our Fathers (short story), Faith of Our Fathers'' * Nebula Awards ** Best Novel *** 1965 – nominee: ''Dr. Bloodmoney''{{cite web , url = http://www.worldswithoutend.com/books_year_index.asp?year=1965 , title = 1965 Award Winners & Nominees , work = Worlds Without End , access-date = June 26, 2009 , archive-date = April 19, 2012 , archive-url = https://www.webcitation.org/672vzb2ak?url=https://www.worldswithoutend.com/books_year_index.asp?year=1965 , url-status = live *** 1965 – nominee: ''
The Three Stigmata of Palmer Eldritch ''The Three Stigmata of Palmer Eldritch'' is a 1965 science fiction Science fiction (sometimes shortened to sci-fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction which typically deals with imagination, imaginative and futuristic concepts such as ...
'' *** 1968 – nominee: ''
Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? ''Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?'' (retitled ''Blade Runner: Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?'' in some later printings) is a dystopian science fiction novel by American writer Philip K. Dick, first published in 1968. The novel is set ...
''{{cite web , url = http://www.worldswithoutend.com/books_year_index.asp?year=1968 , title = 1968 Award Winners & Nominees , work = Worlds Without End , access-date = June 26, 2009 , archive-date = March 16, 2009 , archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20090316125857/http://www.worldswithoutend.com/books_year_index.asp?year=1968 , url-status = live *** 1974 – nominee: ''
Flow My Tears, the Policeman Said ''Flow My Tears, the Policeman Said'' is a 1974 science fiction novel by American writer Philip K. Dick. The novel is set in a futuristic dystopia where the United States has become a police state in the aftermath of a Second Civil War. The story ...
''{{cite web , url = http://www.worldswithoutend.com/books_year_index.asp?year=1974 , title = 1974 Award Winners & Nominees , work = Worlds Without End , access-date = June 26, 2009 , archive-date = March 12, 2019 , archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20190312195551/https://www.worldswithoutend.com/books_year_index.asp?year=1974 , url-status = live *** 1982 – nominee: '' The Transmigration of Timothy Archer''{{cite web , url = http://www.worldswithoutend.com/books_year_index.asp?year=1982 , title = 1982 Award Winners & Nominees , work = Worlds Without End , access-date = June 26, 2009 , archive-date = April 4, 2016 , archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20160404161525/https://www.worldswithoutend.com/books_year_index.asp?Year=1982 , url-status = live * Campbell award (best novel), John W. Campbell Memorial Award ** Best Novel *** 1975 – winner: ''
Flow My Tears, the Policeman Said ''Flow My Tears, the Policeman Said'' is a 1974 science fiction novel by American writer Philip K. Dick. The novel is set in a futuristic dystopia where the United States has become a police state in the aftermath of a Second Civil War. The story ...
'' * British Science Fiction Association Award ** Best Novel *** 1978 – winner: ''
A Scanner Darkly ''A Scanner Darkly'' is a science fiction Science fiction (sometimes shortened to sci-fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction which typically deals with imagination, imaginative and futuristic concepts such as advanced science and tec ...
''{{cite web , url = http://www.worldswithoutend.com/books_year_index.asp?year=1978 , title = 1978 Award Winners & Nominees , work = Worlds Without End , access-date = June 26, 2009 , archive-date = July 9, 2009 , archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20090709212409/http://www.worldswithoutend.com/books_year_index.asp?year=1978 , url-status = live * Graoully d'Or (Festival de Metz, France) ** 1979 – winner: ''
A Scanner Darkly ''A Scanner Darkly'' is a science fiction Science fiction (sometimes shortened to sci-fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction which typically deals with imagination, imaginative and futuristic concepts such as advanced science and tec ...
'' * Kurd-Laßwitz-Preis ** 1985 – winner ''
VALIS Valis may refer to: * ''Valis'' (novel series), a series of science fantasy novels by Philip K. Dick ** ''Valis'' (novel), the first novel in the series * ''Valis'' (video game series), a video game series which began in 1986 **''Valis: The Fan ...
''


Philip K. Dick Award

{{Main, Philip K. Dick Award The Philip K. Dick Award is a List of science fiction awards, science fiction award that annually recognizes the previous year's best SF paperback original published in the U.S. It is conferred at Norwescon, sponsored by the Philadelphia Science Fiction Society, and since 2005 supported by the Philip K. Dick Trust. Winning works are identified on their covers as ''Best Original SF Paperback''. It is currently administered by Pat LoBrutto, John Silbersack, and Gordon Van Gelder.{{cite web , url=http://www.locusmag.com/SFAwards/Db/Pkd.html , title=Philip K. Dick Award , work=The Locus Index to SF Awards: About the Awards , publisher=Locus Publications , access-date=March 22, 2013 , url-status=dead , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090412205849/http://www.locusmag.com/SFAwards/Db/Pkd.html , archive-date=April 12, 2009 The award was inaugurated in 1983, the year after Dick's death. It was founded by Thomas Disch with assistance from David G. Hartwell, Paul Williams (journalist), Paul S. Williams, and Charles N. Brown. Past administrators include Algis J. Budrys and David Alexander Smith.{{citation needed, date=March 2013


See also

{{Portal, Speculative fiction, Literature * Consensus reality * Cyberpunk * Paranoid fiction * Transcendental idealism


References

{{For, secondary bibliography, Philip K. Dick bibliography#Book-length critical studies {{Reflist, 2, refs= {{isfdb name , 23 (ISFDB). Retrieved April 23, 2013. {{cite web , url=http://www.sfhomeworld.org/make_contact/article.asp?articleID=206 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20050326222649/http://www.sfhomeworld.org/make_contact/article.asp?articleID=206 , url-status=dead , archive-date=March 26, 2005 , title=It's Official! Inductees Named for 2005 Hall of Fame Class , access-date=August 19, 2016. Press release March 24, 2005. Science Fiction Museum (''sfhomeworld.org''). Archived March 26, 2005. Retrieved March 22, 2013. "Philip K. Dick"
{{webarchive, url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150327043746/http://www.locusmag.com/SFAwards/Db/NomLit38.html , date=March 27, 2015 . ''The Locus Index to SF Awards: Index of Literary Nominees''. Locus Publications. Retrieved March 22, 2013.


Bibliography

Primary bibliography * ''Precious Artifacts : A Philip K. Dick Bibliography, United States of America and United Kingdom Editions, 1955 – 2012''. Compiled by Henri Wintz and David Hyde. (Wide Books 2012). www.wide-books.com * ''Precious Artifacts 2: A Philip K. Dick Bibliography, The Short Stories, United States, United Kingdom and Oceania, 1952 – 2014''. Compiled by Henri Wintz and David Hyde (Wide Books 2014). www.wide-books.com * ''Precious Artifacts 3 // Precieuses Reliques: A Philip K. Dick Bibliography, The French Editions, 1959–2018'' (bi-lingual). Compiled by Henri Wintz and David Hyde. (Wide Books 2019). www.wide-books.com Secondary bibliography * Philip K. Dick bibliography: Philip K. Dick bibliography#Book-length critical studies, Book-length critical studies * {{cite book , last1=Robinson , first1=Kim Stanley , title=The Novels Of Philip K. Dick , date=1989 , publisher=UMI Research Press , isbn=9780835720144 , edition=Reprint , url=https://books.google.com/books?id=vq9iAAAACAAJ , access-date=14 November 2020 , format=Dissertation{{cite web , title=The Novels Of Philip K. Dick , url=https://www.kimstanleyrobinson.info/node/335 , website=KimStanleyRobinson.info , access-date=14 November 2020 , archive-date=January 27, 2021 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20210127225414/https://www.kimstanleyrobinson.info/node/335 , url-status=live


External links

{{Wikiquote {{Commons category, Philip K. Dick {{Wikisource author * {{StandardEbooks, Standard Ebooks URL=https://standardebooks.org/ebooks/philip-k-dick * {{Gutenberg author , name=Philip K. Dick * {{Internet Archive author , sname=Philip Kindred Dick * {{Librivox author * {{OL author * {{IMDb name * {{isfdb name * {{IBList, type=author, id=95, name=Philip K. Dick * {{sfhof , 930 , Philip K. Dick * {{Find a Grave
Ebooks by Philip K. Dick - Standard Ebooks

The Penultimate Truth About Philip K. Dick
(documentary)

* [https://archive.org/download/PhilipKDickSpeechExcerpts/PhilipKDick_Speech.txt Transcript "If You Find This World Bad, You Should See Some of the Others"] * {{LCAuth, id={{wikidata, property, P244, name=Philip K. Dick, count=164
13 Free Science Fiction Stories by Philip K. Dick (text and audio)

Interview by Kandy Smith 7/18/73

Philip K. Dick addresses Cal State Fullerton science fiction class January 1973
{{Philip K. Dick {{The Minority Report {{Blade Runner {{Authority control {{DEFAULTSORT:Dick, Philip K. Philip K. Dick, 1928 births 1982 deaths 20th-century American essayists 20th-century American novelists 20th-century American philosophers 20th-century American short story writers American alternate history writers American essayists American Episcopalians American male novelists American male short story writers American male non-fiction writers American people of Irish descent American psychological fiction writers American science fiction writers American short story writers American social commentators American tax resisters Berkeley High School (Berkeley, California) alumni Consciousness researchers and theorists Cultural critics Cyberpunk writers Epistemologists Hugo Award-winning writers Hyperreality theorists Metaphysicians Moral philosophers Mystics Platonists Neurological disease deaths in California Novelists from California Novelists from Illinois Ontologists Panentheists People from Fullerton, California People from Marin County, California People from Santa Ana, California People from the San Francisco Bay Area Philosophers from California Philosophers from Illinois Philosophers of art Philosophers of culture Philosophers of education Philosophers of ethics and morality Philosophers of history Philosophers of literature Philosophers of love Philosophers of mind Philosophers of nihilism Philosophers of religion Philosophers of sexuality Philosophers of science Philosophers of technology Political philosophers Postmodern writers Psychedelic drug advocates Pulp fiction writers Science fiction critics Science fiction fans Science Fiction Hall of Fame inductees Social critics Social philosophers Twin people from the United States University of California, Berkeley alumni Weird fiction writers Writers from Chicago Writers from the San Francisco Bay Area 20th-century American male writers