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Perception (from the
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an appa ...

Latin
''perceptio'', meaning gathering or receiving) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of
sensory information A sense is a biological system A biological system is a complex biological network, network which connects several biologically relevant entities. Biological organization spans several scales and are determined based different structures dependi ...

sensory information
in order to represent and understand the presented information or environment. All perception involves signals that go through the
nervous system In biology, the classical doctrine of the nervous system determines that it is a Complex system, highly complex part of an animal that coordinates its Behavior, actions and Sense, sensory information by transmitting action potential, signals ...

nervous system
, which in turn result from physical or chemical stimulation of the
sensory system The sensory nervous system is a part of the nervous system In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular bio ...
.Goldstein (2009) pp. 5–7 For example, vision involves
light Light or visible light is electromagnetic radiation within the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visual perception, perceived by the human eye. Visible light is usually defined as having wavelengths in the range of 400–700 nan ...

light
striking the
retina The retina (from la, rete "net") is the innermost, light-sensitive layer of tissue of the eye Eyes are organs of the visual system. They provide living organisms with vision, the ability to receive and process visual detail, as well ...

retina
of the
eye Eyes are organs of the visual system. They provide living organisms with vision, the ability to receive and process visual detail, as well as enabling several photo response functions that are independent of vision. Eyes detect light L ...

eye
; smell is mediated by odor molecules; and
hearing Schematic diagram of the human ear Hearing, or auditory perception, is the ability to perceive Sound, sounds through an organ, such as an ear, by detecting Vibration, vibrations as periodic changes in the pressure of a surrounding medium. Th ...

hearing
involves
pressure waves
pressure waves
. Perception is not only the passive receipt of these
signals
signals
, but it's also shaped by the recipient's
learning Learning is the process of acquiring new , , s, s, , attitudes, and s. The ability to learn is possessed by s, s, and some ; there is also evidence for some kind of learning in certain s. Some learning is immediate, induced by a single event (e ...
,
memory Memory is the faculty of the by which or is , stored, and retrieved when needed. It is the retention of information over time for the purpose of influencing future action. If s could not be remembered, it would be impossible for language, r ...

memory
,
expectation Expectation or Expectations may refer to: Science * Expectation (epistemic) * Expected value, in mathematical probability theory * Expectation value (quantum mechanics) * Expectation–maximization algorithm, in statistics Music * Expectation (alb ...
, and
attention Attention is the behavioral and cognitive process Cognition () refers to "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses". It encompasses many aspects of intellectual funct ...

attention
. Gregory, Richard. "Perception" in Gregory, Zangwill (1987) pp. 598–601. Sensory input is a process that transforms this low-level information to higher-level information (e.g., extracts shapes for
object recognition The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to object recognition: Object recognition – technology in the field of computer vision for finding and identifying objects in an image or video sequence. Humans recogn ...
). The process that follows connects a person's concepts and expectations (or knowledge), restorative and selective mechanisms (such as
attention Attention is the behavioral and cognitive process Cognition () refers to "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses". It encompasses many aspects of intellectual funct ...

attention
) that influence perception. Perception depends on complex functions of the nervous system, but subjectively seems mostly effortless because this processing happens outside conscious awareness. Since the rise of
experimental psychology Experimental psychology refers to work done by those who apply Experiment, experimental methods to psychological study and the processes that underlie it. Experimental psychologists employ human participants and animal subjects to study a great man ...
in the 19th century, psychology's understanding of perception has progressed by combining a variety of techniques.
Psychophysics Psychophysics quantitatively investigates the relationship between physical stimulus (physiology), stimuli and the sensation (psychology), sensations and perceptions they produce. Psychophysics has been described as "the scientific study of the re ...
quantitatively describes the relationships between the physical qualities of the sensory input and perception.
Sensory neuroscience Sensory neuroscience is a subfield of neuroscience Neuroscience (or neurobiology) is the scientific study of the nervous system In Biology, biology, the nervous system is a Complex system, highly complex part of an animal that coordinates ...
studies the neural mechanisms underlying perception. Perceptual systems can also be studied
computation Computation is any type of that includes both al and non-arithmetical steps and which follows a well-defined model (e.g. an ). Mechanical or electronic devices (or, , people) that perform computations are known as ''s''. An especially well-know ...

computation
ally, in terms of the information they process. Perceptual issues in philosophy include the extent to which sensory qualities such as sound, smell or color exist in objective reality rather than in the mind of the perceiver. Although the senses were traditionally viewed as passive receptors, the study of
illusion An illusion is a distortion of the sense A sense is a biological system used by an organism for sensation, the process of gathering information about the world and responding to Stimulus (physiology), stimuli. (For example, in the human body, t ...
s and
ambiguous image Ambiguous images or reversible figures are visual forms which create by exploiting graphical similarities and other properties of interpretation between two or more distinct image forms. These are famous for inducing the phenomenon of . Multi ...
s has demonstrated that the brain's perceptual systems actively and pre-consciously attempt to make sense of their input. There is still active debate about the extent to which perception is an active process of
hypothesis A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation An explanation is a set of statements usually constructed to describe a set of facts which clarifies the causes, context Context may refer to: * Context (language use), the rel ...
testing, analogous to
science Science () is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictions about the universe."... modern science is a discovery as well as an invention. ...

science
, or whether realistic sensory information is rich enough to make this process unnecessary. The
perceptual systemA perceptual system is a computational system (biological or artificial) designed to make inference Inferences are steps in reasoning, moving from premises to logical consequences; etymologically, the word ''wikt:infer, infer'' means to "carry f ...
s of the
brain A brain is an organ Organ may refer to: Biology * Organ (anatomy) An organ is a group of Tissue (biology), tissues with similar functions. Plant life and animal life rely on many organs that co-exist in organ systems. A given organ's tiss ...

brain
enable individuals to see the world around them as stable, even though the sensory information is typically incomplete and rapidly varying. Human and animal brains are structured in a modular way, with different areas processing different kinds of sensory information. Some of these modules take the form of sensory maps, mapping some aspect of the world across part of the brain's surface. These different modules are interconnected and influence each other. For instance,
taste The gustatory system or sense of taste is the sensory system The sensory nervous system is a part of the nervous system responsible for processing sensory information. A sensory system consists of sensory neurons (including the sensory re ...

taste
is strongly influenced by smell. "Percept" is also a term used by
Deleuze and GuattariGilles Deleuze, a French philosopher, and Félix Guattari, a French psychoanalyst and political activist, wrote a number of works together (besides both having distinguished independent careers). Their conjoint works were ''Capitalism and Schizophre ...
to define perception independent from perceivers.


Process and terminology

The process of perception begins with an object in the real world, known as the ''
distal Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans. Terms used generally derive from Latin or Greek language, Greek roots and used to describe something in its standard anatomical position. This ...
stimulus'' or ''distal object''.Goldstein (2009) pp. 5–7 By means of light, sound, or another physical process, the object stimulates the body's sensory organs. These sensory organs transform the input energy into neural activity—a process called '' transduction''.Pomerantz, James R. (2003): "Perception: Overview". In: Lynn Nadel (Ed.), ''Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science'', Vol. 3, London: Nature Publishing Group, pp. 527–537. This raw pattern of neural activity is called the ''proximal stimulus''. These neural signals are then transmitted to the brain and processed. The resulting mental re-creation of the distal stimulus is the ''percept''. To explain the process of perception, an example could be an ordinary shoe. The shoe itself is the distal stimulus. When light from the shoe enters a person's eye and stimulates the retina, that stimulation is the proximal stimulus. The image of the shoe reconstructed by the brain of the person is the percept. Another example could be a ringing telephone. The ringing of the phone is the distal stimulus. The sound stimulating a person's auditory receptors is the proximal stimulus. The brain's interpretation of this as the "ringing of a telephone" is the percept. The different kinds of sensation (such as warmth, sound, and taste) are called ''
sensory modalitiesStimulus modality, also called sensory modality, is one aspect of a stimulus or what is perceived after a stimulus. For example, the temperature modality is registered after heat or cold stimulate a receptor. Some sensory modalities include: light ...
'' or ''stimulus modalities''.


Bruner's model of the perceptual process

Psychologist
Jerome Bruner Jerome Seymour Bruner (October 1, 1915 – June 5, 2016) was an American psychologist A psychologist is a person who studies normal and abnormal mental states, perceptual, cognitive, emotional, and social processes and behavior by experimentin ...
developed a model of perception, in which people put "together the information contained in" a target and a situation to form "perceptions of ourselves and others based on social categories."Alan S. & Gary J. (2011). Perception, Attribution, and Judgment of Others. Organizational Behaviour: Understanding and Managing Life at Work, Vol. 7. This model is composed of three states: # When we encounter an unfamiliar target, we are very open to the informational cues contained in the target and the situation surrounding it. # The first stage doesn't give us enough information on which to base perceptions of the target, so we will actively seek out cues to resolve this ambiguity. Gradually, we collect some familiar cues that enable us to make a rough categorization of the target. (see also
Social Identity Theory Social identity is the portion of an individual's self-concept One's self-concept (also called self-construction, self-identity, self-perspective or self-structure) is a collection of belief A belief is an attitude Attitude may refer to ...
) # The cues become less open and selective. We try to search for more cues that confirm the categorization of the target. We also actively ignore and even distort cues that violate our initial perceptions. Our perception becomes more selective and we finally paint a consistent picture of the target.


Saks and John's three components to perception

According to Alan Saks and Gary Johns, there are three components to perception: #The Perceiver: a person whose awareness is focused on the stimulus, and thus begins to perceive it. There are many factors that may influence the perceptions of the perceiver, while the three major ones include (1) , (2)
emotional state Emotions are biological Biology is the natural science Natural science is a branch of science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and Taxonom ...
, and (3)
experience Experience refers to conscious , an English Paracelsian physician Consciousness, at its simplest, is " sentience or awareness of internal and external existence". Despite millennia of analyses, definitions, explanations and debates by philosoph ...

experience
. All of these factors, especially the first two, greatly contribute to how the person perceives a situation. Oftentimes, the perceiver may employ what is called a "perceptual defense," where the person will only "see what they want to see"—i.e., they will only perceives what they want to perceive even though the stimulus acts on his or her senses. #The Target: the ''object'' of perception; something or someone who is being perceived. The amount of information gathered by the sensory organs of the perceiver affects the interpretation and understanding about the target. #The Situation: the ''environmental'' factors, timing, and degree of stimulation that affect the process of perception. These factors may render a single stimulus to be left as merely a stimulus, not a percept that is subject for brain interpretation.


Multistable perception

Stimuli are not necessarily translated into a percept and rarely does a single stimulus translate into a percept. An ambiguous stimulus may sometimes be transduced into one or more percepts, experienced randomly, one at a time, in a process termed "''
multistable perception frame, Examples of visually ambiguous patterns. From top to bottom: Necker cube, Schroeder stairs and Müller-Lyer illusion. Multistable perception (or bistable perception) is a perceptual phenomenon in which an observer experiences an unpredictabl ...
''." The same stimuli, or absence of them, may result in different percepts depending on subject's culture and previous experiences. Ambiguous figures demonstrate that a single stimulus can result in more than one percept. For example, the Rubin vase can be interpreted either as a vase or as two faces. The percept can bind sensations from multiple senses into a whole. A picture of a talking person on a television screen, for example, is bound to the sound of speech from speakers to form a percept of a talking person.


Types of perception


Vision

In many ways, vision is the primary human sense. Light is taken in through each eye and focused in a way which sorts it on the retina according to direction of origin. A dense surface of photosensitive cells, including rods, cones, and
intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), also called photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGC), or melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs), are a type of neuron A neuron or nerve cell is an electrically ex ...
captures information about the intensity, color, and position of incoming light. Some processing of texture and movement occurs within the neurons on the retina before the information is sent to the brain. In total, about 15 differing types of information are then forwarded to the brain proper via the optic nerve. The timing of perception of a visual event, at points along the visual circuit, have been measured. A sudden alteration of light at a spot in the environment first alters photorecptor cells in the
retina The retina (from la, rete "net") is the innermost, light-sensitive layer of tissue of the eye Eyes are organs of the visual system. They provide living organisms with vision, the ability to receive and process visual detail, as well ...

retina
, which send a signal to the
retina bipolar cell As a part of the retina, bipolar cells exist between photoreceptor cells, photoreceptors (rod cells and cone cells) and Retinal ganglion cell, ganglion cells. They act, directly or indirectly, to transmit signals from the photoreceptors to the gangl ...
layer which, in turn, can activate a retinal ganglion neuron cell (see Visual perception#Transduction). A retinal ganglion cell is a bridging neuron that connects visual retinal input to the visual processing centers within the central nervous system. Light-altered neuron activation occurs within about 5–20 milliseconds in a rabbit retinal ganglion, though in a mouse retinal ganglionn cell the initial spike takes between 40 and 240 milliseconds before the initial activation. The initial activation can be detected by an
action potential In physiology Physiology (; ) is the scientific Science (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the are ...

action potential
spike, a sudden spike in neuron membrane electric voltage. A perceptual visual event measured in humans was the presentation to individuals of an anomalous word. If these individuals are shown a sentence, presented as a sequence of single words on a computer screen, with a puzzling word out of place in the sequence, the perception of the puzzling word can register on an electroencephalogram (EEG). In an experiment, human readers wore an elastic cap with 64 embedded electrodes distributed over their scalp surface. Within 230 milliseconds of encountering the anomalous word, the human readers generated an event-related electrical potential alteration of their EEG at the left occipital-temporal channel, over the left occipital lobe and temporal lobe.


Sound

Hearing (or ''audition'') is the ability to perceive
sound In physics Physics is the that studies , its , its and behavior through , and the related entities of and . "Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular ...

sound
by detecting
vibration Vibration is a mechanical phenomenon whereby oscillation Oscillation is the repetitive variation, typically in time Time is the indefinite continued sequence, progress of existence and event (philosophy), events that occur in an apparentl ...

vibration
s (i.e., ''sonic'' detection). Frequencies capable of being heard by humans are called ''audio'' or ''audible'' ''frequencies'', the range of which is typically considered to be between 20  and 20,000 Hz. Frequencies higher than audio are referred to as , while frequencies below audio are referred to as ''infrasonic''. The
auditory system The auditory system is the sensory system The sensory nervous system is a part of the nervous system responsible for processing sensory information. A sensory system consists of sensory neurons (including the sensory receptor cells), neur ...
includes the , which collect and filter sound waves; the
middle ear The middle ear is the portion of the ear The ear is the organ of hearing and, in mammals, balance. In mammals, the ear is usually described as having three parts—the outer ear The outer ear, external ear, or auris externa is th ...

middle ear
, which transforms the sound pressure (
impedance matching In electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vacuum and matter. It uses active devices to control electron flow by amplifier, amplific ...
); and the
inner ear Inner Ear (established in 2007 in Bodø, Norway) is a Norwegian record label initiated and led by the brothers and jazz musicians Tore Johansen and Roger Johansen (musician), Roger Johansen. They opened Inner Ear to release their music when their ...

inner ear
, which produces neural signals in response to the sound. By the ascending auditory pathway these are led to the
primary auditory cortex The auditory cortex is the part of the temporal lobe The temporal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammal Mammals (from Latin language, Latin , 'breast') are a group of vertebrate animals co ...
within the
temporal lobe The temporal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex The cerebral cortex, also known as the cerebral mantle, is the outer layer of neural tissue of the cerebrum of the brain in humans and other mammals. The cerebral cortex m ...

temporal lobe
of the human brain, from where the auditory information then goes to the
cerebral cortex The cerebral cortex, also known as the cerebral mantle, is the outer layer of neural tissue of the cerebrum of the brain in humans and other mammals. The cerebral cortex mostly consists of the six-layered neocortex, with just 10% consisting of a ...
for further processing. Sound does not usually come from a single source: in real situations, sounds from multiple sources and directions are superimposed as they arrive at the ears. Hearing involves the computationally complex task of separating out sources of interest, identifying them and often estimating their distance and direction.


Touch

The process of recognizing objects through touch is known as ''haptic perception''. It involves a combination of
somatosensory The somatosensory system is a part of the sensory nervous system The sensory nervous system is a part of the nervous system In biology, the classical doctrine of the nervous system determines that it is a Complex system, highly comple ...
perception of patterns on the skin surface (e.g., edges, curvature, and texture) and
proprioception Proprioception ( ), also referred to as kinaesthesia (or kinesthesia), is the sense A sense is a biological system A biological system is a complex biological network, network which connects several biologically relevant entities. Biological ...
of hand position and conformation. People can rapidly and accurately identify three-dimensional objects by touch. This involves exploratory procedures, such as moving the fingers over the outer surface of the object or holding the entire object in the hand. Haptic perception relies on the forces experienced during touch.
Gibson Gibson may refer to: Businesses * Gibson (guitar company) Gibson Brands, Inc. (formerly Gibson Guitar Corporation) is an American manufacturer of guitars The guitar is a fretted musical instrument A musical instrument is a device created ...
defined the haptic system as "the sensibility of the individual to the world adjacent to his body by use of his body." Gibson and others emphasized the close link between body movement and haptic perception, where the latter is ''active exploration.'' The concept of haptic perception is related to the concept of extended physiological proprioception according to which, when using a tool such as a stick, perceptual experience is transparently transferred to the end of the tool.


Taste

Taste (formally known as ''gustation'') is the ability to perceive the
flavor Flavor, or flavour, is the perceptual Perception (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area arou ...

flavor
of substances, including, but not limited to,
food Food is any substance consumed to provide Nutrient, nutritional support for an organism. Food is usually of plant, animal or Fungus, fungal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, protein (nutrient), proteins, vi ...

food
. Humans receive tastes through sensory organs concentrated on the upper surface of the
tongue The tongue is a muscular organ (anatomy), organ in the mouth of a typical tetrapod. It manipulates food for mastication and swallowing as part of the digestive system, digestive process, and is the primary organ of taste. The tongue's upper surfa ...

tongue
, called ''
taste bud Taste buds contain the taste receptor cells, which are also known as gustatory cells. The taste receptor A taste receptor is a type of Receptor (biochemistry), cellular receptor which facilitates the sensation of taste. When food or other su ...

taste bud
s'' or ''gustatory calyculi''. The human tongue has 100 to 150 taste receptor cells on each of its roughly-ten thousand taste buds. Traditionally, there have been four primary tastes:
sweetness Sweetness is a basic taste most commonly perceived Perception (from the Latin ''perceptio'', meaning gathering or receiving) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of Sense, sensory information in order to represent ...

sweetness
, ,
sourness The gustatory system or sense of taste is the sensory system The sensory nervous system is a part of the nervous system responsible for processing sensory information. A sensory system consists of sensory neurons (including the sensory re ...
, and
saltiness The gustatory system or sense of taste is the sensory system The sensory nervous system is a part of the nervous system responsible for processing sensory information. A sensory system consists of sensory neurons (including the sensory re ...
. However, the recognition and awareness of
umami Umami ( from ja, 旨味 ), or savoriness, is one of the five . It has been described as savory and is characteristic of broths and cooked meats. People taste umami through s that typically respond to and , which are widely present in meat b ...

umami
, which is considered the fifth primary taste, is a relatively recent development in
Western cuisine European cuisine comprises the cuisine A cuisine is a style of cooking characterized by distinctive ingredients, techniques and dishes, and usually associated with a specific culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompass ...
. Other tastes can be mimicked by combining these basic tastes, all of which contribute only partially to the sensation and
flavor Flavor, or flavour, is the perceptual Perception (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area arou ...

flavor
of food in the mouth. Other factors include smell, which is detected by the
olfactory epithelium The olfactory epithelium is a specialized epithelium, epithelial tissue inside the nasal cavity that is involved in olfaction, smell. In humans, it measures 9 cm2 and lies on the roof of the nasal cavity about 7 cm above and behind the n ...
of the nose;
texture Texture may refer to: Science and technology * Surface texture, the texture means smoothness, roughness, or bumpiness of the surface of an object * Texture (roads), road surface characteristics with waves shorter than road roughness * Texture (co ...
, which is detected through a variety of
mechanoreceptor A mechanoreceptor, also called mechanoceptor, is a sensory receptor Sensory neurons, also known as afferent neurons, are neurons in the nervous system In Biology, biology, the nervous system is a Complex system, highly complex part of an ...
s, muscle nerves, etc.; and temperature, which is detected by
thermoreceptorA thermoreceptor is a non-specialised sense receptor, or more accurately the receptive portion of a sensory neuron Sensory neurons, also known as afferent neurons, are neurons in the nervous system In Biology, biology, the nervous system ...
s. All basic tastes are classified as either '' appetitive'' or '' aversive'', depending upon whether the things they sense are harmful or beneficial.Why do two great tastes sometimes not taste great together?
scientificamerican.com. Dr. Tim Jacob, Cardiff University. 22 May 2009.


Smell

Smell is the process of absorbing molecules through , which are absorbed by humans through the
nose A nose is a protuberance in vertebrates that houses the nostrils, or nares, which receive and expel air for Respiration (physiology), respiration alongside the mouth. Behind the nose are the olfactory mucosa and the Paranasal sinus, sinuses. Be ...

nose
. These molecules diffuse through a thick layer of
mucus Mucus ( ) is a slippery aqueous secretion produced by, and covering, mucous membrane A mucous membrane or mucosa is a biological membrane, membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs. It consists o ...
; come into contact with one of thousands of
cilia The cilium (; the plural is cilia) is an organelle In cell biology Cell biology (also cellular biology or cytology) is a branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, ...
that are projected from sensory neurons; and are then absorbed into a receptor (one of 347 or so). It is this process that causes humans to understand the concept of smell from a physical standpoint. Smell is also a very interactive sense as scientists have begun to observe that olfaction comes into contact with the other sense in unexpected ways. It is also the most primal of the senses, as it is known to be the first indicator of safety or danger, therefore being the sense that drives the most basic of human survival skills. As such, it can be a catalyst for human behavior on a
subconscious In psychology Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the study of consciousness, conscious and Unconscious mind, unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought. It is an academic discipline of immense sc ...
and
instinct Instinct is the inherent inclination of a living Living or The Living may refer to: Common meanings *Life, a condition that distinguishes organisms from inorganic objects and dead organisms ** extant taxon, Living species, one that is not extinct ...
ive level.


Social

Social perception is the part of perception that allows people to understand the individuals and groups of their social world. Thus, it is an element of social cognition.


Speech

''Speech perception'' is the process by which
spoken language A spoken language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. La ...
is heard, interpreted and understood. Research in this field seeks to understand how human listeners recognize the sound of speech (or ''
phonetics Phonetics is a branch of linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of lang ...

phonetics
'') and use such information to understand spoken language. Listeners manage to perceive words across a wide range of conditions, as the sound of a word can vary widely according to words that surround it and the
tempo In musical terminology This is a list of musical terms that are likely to be encountered in printed scores, music reviews, and program notes. Most of the terms are Italian (see also Italian musical terms used in English Many musical terms ...

tempo
of the speech, as well as the physical characteristics,
accentAccent may refer to: Speech and language * Accent (sociolinguistics), way of pronunciation particular to a speaker or group of speakers * Accent (phonetics), prominence given to a particular syllable in a word, or a word in a phrase ** Pitch accen ...
,
tone Tone may refer to: Color-related * Tone, mix of tint and shade, in painting and color theory * Tone, the lightness Lightness is a visual perception of the luminance (L) of an object. It is often judged relative to a similarly lit object. ...
, and mood of the speaker.
Reverberation Reverberation (also known as reverb), in acoustics Acoustics is a branch of physics that deals with the study of mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids including topics such as vibration, sound, ultrasound and infrasound. A scientist ...
, signifying the persistence of sound after the sound is produced, can also have a considerable impact on perception. Experiments have shown that people automatically compensate for this effect when hearing speech. The process of perceiving speech begins at the level of the sound within the auditory signal and the process of
audition An audition is a sample performance by an actor An actor is a person who portrays a character Character(s) may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''Character'' (novel), a 1936 Dutch novel by Ferdinand Bordewijk * ...
. The initial auditory signal is compared with visual information—primarily lip movement—to extract acoustic cues and phonetic information. It is possible other sensory modalities are integrated at this stage as well. This speech information can then be used for higher-level language processes, such as
word recognition Word recognition, according to Literacy Information and Communication System (LINCS) is "the ability of a reader to recognize written words correctly and virtually effortlessly". It is sometimes referred to as "isolated word recognition" because it ...
. Speech perception is not necessarily uni-directional. Higher-level language processes connected with
morphology Morphology, from the Greek and meaning "study of shape", may refer to: Disciplines * Morphology (archaeology), study of the shapes or forms of artifacts * Morphology (astronomy), study of the shape of astronomical objects such as nebulae, galaxies ...
,
syntax In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the ...

syntax
, and/or
semantics Semantics (from grc, σημαντικός ''sēmantikós'', "significant") is the study of reference Reference is a relationship between objects in which one object designates, or acts as a means by which to connect to or link to, another ...
may also interact with basic speech perception processes to aid in recognition of speech sounds. It may be the case that it is not necessary (maybe not even possible) for a listener to recognize
phoneme In phonology and linguistics, a phoneme is a unit of sound that distinguishes one word from another in a particular language. For example, in most List of dialects of English, dialects of English, with the notable exception of the West Midlan ...
s before recognizing higher units, such as words. In an experiment, Richard M. Warren replaced one phoneme of a word with a cough-like sound. His subjects restored the missing speech sound perceptually without any difficulty. Moreover, they were not able to accurately identify which phoneme had even been disturbed.


Faces

''Facial perception'' refers to cognitive processes specialized in handling
human faces The face is the front of an animal's head that features three of the head's sense organs Sense relates to any of the systems and corresponding organs involved in sensation, i.e. the physical process of responding to Stimulus (physiology), stimu ...
(including perceiving the identity of an individual) and facial expressions (such as emotional cues.)


Social touch

The ''somatosensory cortex'' is a part of the brain that receives and encodes sensory information from receptors of the entire body. Affective, Affective touch is a type of sensory information that elicits an emotional reaction and is usually social in nature. Such information is actually coded differently than other sensory information. Though the intensity of affective touch is still encoded in the primary somatosensory cortex, the feeling of pleasantness associated with affective touch is activated more in the anterior cingulate cortex. Increased Blood-oxygen-level-dependent imaging, blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) contrast imaging, identified during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), shows that signals in the anterior cingulate cortex, as well as the prefrontal cortex, are highly correlated with pleasantness scores of affective touch. Inhibitory transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the primary somatosensory cortex inhibits the perception of affective touch intensity, but not affective touch pleasantness. Therefore, the S1 is not directly involved in processing socially affective touch pleasantness, but still plays a role in discriminating touch location and intensity.


Multi-modal perception

Multi-modal perception refers to concurrent stimulation in more than one sensory modality and the effect such has on the perception of events and objects in the world.


Time (chronoception)

Time perception, Chronoception refers to how the passage of time is perceived and experienced. Although the Time perception, sense of time is not associated with a specific sensory system, the work of psychologists and neuroscientists indicates that human brains do have a system governing the perception of time, composed of a highly distributed system involving the
cerebral cortex The cerebral cortex, also known as the cerebral mantle, is the outer layer of neural tissue of the cerebrum of the brain in humans and other mammals. The cerebral cortex mostly consists of the six-layered neocortex, with just 10% consisting of a ...
, cerebellum, and basal ganglia. One particular component of the brain, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, is responsible for the circadian rhythm (commonly known as one's "internal clock"), while other cell clusters appear to be capable of shorter-range timekeeping, known as an ''ultradian rhythm''. One or more dopaminergic pathways in the central nervous system appear to have a strong modulatory influence on mental chronometry, particularly Interval (time), interval timing.


Agency

''Sense of agency'' refers to the subjective feeling of having chosen a particular action. Some conditions, such as schizophrenia, can cause a loss of this sense, which may lead a person into delusions, such as feeling like a machine or like an outside source is controlling them. An opposite extreme can also occur, where people experience everything in their environment as though they had decided that it would happen. Even in non-Pathology, pathological cases, there is a measurable difference between the making of a decision and the feeling of agency. Through methods such as Neuroscience of free will#Libet experiment, the Libet experiment, a gap of half a second or more can be detected from the time when there are detectable neurological signs of a decision having been made to the time when the subject actually becomes conscious of the decision. There are also experiments in which an illusion of agency is induced in psychologically normal subjects. In 1999, psychologists Daniel Wegner, Wegner and Wheatley gave subjects instructions to move a mouse around a scene and point to an image about once every thirty seconds. However, a second person—acting as a test subject but actually a confederate—had their hand on the mouse at the same time, and controlled some of the movement. Experimenters were able to arrange for subjects to perceive certain "forced stops" as if they were their own choice.


Familiarity

Recognition memory is sometimes divided into two functions by neuroscientists: ''familiarity'' and ''recollection''. A strong sense of familiarity can occur without any recollection, for example in cases of deja vu. The
temporal lobe The temporal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex The cerebral cortex, also known as the cerebral mantle, is the outer layer of neural tissue of the cerebrum of the brain in humans and other mammals. The cerebral cortex m ...

temporal lobe
(specifically the perirhinal cortex) responds differently to stimuli that feel novel compared to stimuli that feel familiar. Firing rate (cells), Firing rates in the perirhinal cortex are connected with the sense of familiarity in humans and other mammals. In tests, stimulating this area at 10–15 Hz caused animals to treat even novel images as familiar, and stimulation at 30–40 Hz caused novel images to be partially treated as familiar. In particular, stimulation at 30–40 Hz led to animals looking at a familiar image for longer periods, as they would for an unfamiliar one, though it did not lead to the same exploration behavior normally associated with novelty. Recent studies on lesions in the area concluded that rats with a damaged perirhinal cortex were still more interested in exploring when novel objects were present, but seemed unable to tell novel objects from familiar ones—they examined both equally. Thus, other brain regions are involved with noticing unfamiliarity, while the perirhinal cortex is needed to associate the feeling with a specific source.


Sexual stimulation

Sexual stimulation is any Stimulation, stimulus (including bodily contact) that leads to, enhances, and maintains sexual arousal, possibly even leading to orgasm. Distinct from the general sense of Perception#Touch, touch, sexual stimulation is strongly tied to Hormone, hormonal activity and chemical triggers in the body. Although sexual arousal may arise without physical stimulation, achieving orgasm usually requires physical sexual stimulation (stimulation of the Krause-Finger Bulboid corpuscle, corpuscles found in erogenous zones of the body.)


Other senses

Other senses enable perception of Balance (ability), body balance, acceleration, gravity, Proprioception, position of body parts, temperature, and pain. They can also enable perception of internal senses, such as suffocation, Gag Reflex, gag reflex, abdominal distension, fullness of rectum and urinary bladder, and sensations felt in the throat and lungs.


Reality

In the case of visual perception, some people can actually see the percept shift in their mind's eye. Others, who are not Picture thinking, picture thinkers, may not necessarily perceive the 'shape-shifting' as their world changes. This esemplastic nature has been demonstrated by an experiment that showed that
ambiguous image Ambiguous images or reversible figures are visual forms which create by exploiting graphical similarities and other properties of interpretation between two or more distinct image forms. These are famous for inducing the phenomenon of . Multi ...
s have multiple interpretations on the perceptual level. This confusing ambiguity of perception is exploited in human technologies such as camouflage and biological mimicry. For example, the wings of European peacock, European peacock butterflies bear Eyespot (mimicry), eyespots that birds respond to as though they were the eyes of a dangerous predator. There is also evidence that the brain in some ways operates on a slight "delay" in order to allow nerve impulses from distant parts of the body to be integrated into simultaneous signals. Perception is one of the oldest fields in psychology. The oldest Quantitative research, quantitative laws in psychology are Weber-Fechner law, Weber's law, which states that the smallest noticeable difference in stimulus intensity is proportional to the intensity of the reference; and Weber-Fechner law, Fechner's law, which quantifies the relationship between the intensity of the physical stimulus and its perceptual counterpart (e.g., testing how much darker a computer screen can get before the viewer actually notices). The study of perception gave rise to the Gestalt psychology, Gestalt School of Psychology, with an emphasis on Holism, holistic approach.


Physiology

A ''sensory system'' is a part of the nervous system responsible for processing Sense, sensory information. A sensory system consists of sensory receptors, neural pathways, and parts of the brain involved in sensory perception. Commonly recognized sensory systems are those for Vision (sense), vision, Hearing (sense), hearing, somatic sensation (touch),
taste The gustatory system or sense of taste is the sensory system The sensory nervous system is a part of the nervous system responsible for processing sensory information. A sensory system consists of sensory neurons (including the sensory re ...

taste
and olfaction (smell), as listed above. It has been suggested that the immune system is an overlooked sensory modality. In short, senses are transducers from the physical world to the realm of the mind. The receptive field is the specific part of the world to which a receptor organ and receptor cells respond. For instance, the part of the world an eye can see, is its receptive field; the light that each Rod cell, rod or Cone cell, cone can see, is its receptive field. Receptive fields have been identified for the visual system,
auditory system The auditory system is the sensory system The sensory nervous system is a part of the nervous system responsible for processing sensory information. A sensory system consists of sensory neurons (including the sensory receptor cells), neur ...
and somatosensory system, so far. Research attention is currently focused not only on external perception processes, but also to "interoception", considered as the process of receiving, accessing and appraising internal bodily signals. Maintaining desired physiological states is critical for an organism's well-being and survival. Interoception is an iterative process, requiring the interplay between perception of body states and awareness of these states to generate proper self-regulation. Afferent sensory signals continuously interact with higher order cognitive representations of goals, history, and environment, shaping emotional experience and motivating regulatory behavior.


Features


Constancy

''Perceptual constancy'' is the ability of perceptual systems to recognize the same object from widely varying sensory inputs. For example, individual people can be recognized from views, such as frontal and profile, which form very different shapes on the retina. A coin looked at face-on makes a circular image on the retina, but when held at angle it makes an elliptical image. In normal perception these are recognized as a single three-dimensional object. Without this correction process, an animal approaching from the distance would appear to gain in size. One kind of perceptual constancy is ''color constancy'': for example, a white piece of paper can be recognized as such under different colors and intensities of light. Another example is ''roughness constancy'': when a hand is drawn quickly across a surface, the touch nerves are stimulated more intensely. The brain compensates for this, so the speed of contact does not affect the perceived roughness. Other constancies include melody, odor, brightness and words. These constancies are not always total, but the variation in the percept is much less than the variation in the physical stimulus. The perceptual systems of the brain achieve perceptual constancy in a variety of ways, each specialized for the kind of information being processed, with Phonemic restoration effect, phonemic restoration as a notable example from hearing.


Grouping (Gestalt)

The ''principles of grouping'' (or ''Gestalt laws of grouping'') are a set of principles in psychology, first proposed by Gestalt psychology, Gestalt psychologists, to explain how humans naturally perceive objects as organized patterns and objects. Gestalt psychologists argued that these principles exist because the mind has an innate disposition to perceive patterns in the stimulus based on certain rules. These principles are Principles of grouping, organized into six categories: # Proximity: the principle of ''Proximity principle, proximity'' states that, Ceteris paribus, all else being equal, perception tends to group stimuli that are close together as part of the same object, and Stimulus (psychology), stimuli that are far apart as two separate objects. # Similarity: the principle of ''Similarity (psychology), similarity'' states that, all else being equal, perception lends itself to seeing stimuli that physically resemble each other as part of the same object and that are different as part of a separate object. This allows for people to distinguish between adjacent and overlapping objects based on their Texture (visual arts)#Visual texture, visual texture and Nominalism, resemblance. # Closure: the principle of ''Closure (psychology), closure'' refers to the mind's tendency to see complete figures or forms even if a picture is incomplete, partially hidden by other objects, or if part of the information needed to make a complete picture in our minds is missing. For example, if part of a shape's border is missing people still tend to see the shape as completely enclosed by the border and ignore the gaps. # Good Continuation: the principle of ''Principles of grouping#Good continuation, good continuation'' makes sense of stimuli that overlap: when there is an intersection between two or more objects, people tend to perceive each as a single uninterrupted object. # Common Fate: the principle of ''Principles of grouping#Common fate, common fate'' groups stimuli together on the basis of their movement. When visual elements are seen moving in the same direction at the same rate, perception associates the movement as part of the same stimulus. This allows people to make out moving objects even when other details, such as color or outline, are obscured. # The principle of ''Principles of grouping#Good form, good form'' refers to the tendency to group together forms of similar shape, pattern, color, etc. Later research has identified additional grouping principles.


Contrast effects

A common finding across many different kinds of perception is that the perceived qualities of an object can be affected by the qualities of context. If one object is extreme on some dimension, then neighboring objects are perceived as further away from that extreme. "Contrast effect#Types, Simultaneous contrast effect" is the term used when stimuli are presented at the same time, whereas ''successive contrast'' applies when stimuli are presented one after another. The contrast effect was noted by the 17th Century philosopher John Locke, who observed that lukewarm water can feel hot or cold depending on whether the hand touching it was previously in hot or cold water. In the early 20th Century, Wilhelm Wundt identified contrast as a fundamental principle of perception, and since then the effect has been confirmed in many different areas. These effects shape not only visual qualities like color and brightness, but other kinds of perception, including how heavy an object feels. One experiment found that thinking of the name "Hitler" led to subjects rating a person as more hostile. Whether a piece of music is perceived as good or bad can depend on whether the music heard before it was pleasant or unpleasant. For the effect to work, the objects being compared need to be similar to each other: a television reporter can seem smaller when interviewing a tall basketball player, but not when standing next to a tall building. In the brain, brightness contrast exerts effects on both neuronal Firing rate (cells), firing rates and Neuronal synchronization, neuronal synchrony.


Theories


Perception as direct perception (Gibson)

Cognitivism (psychology), Cognitive theories of perception assume there is a poverty of Stimulus (physiology), stimulus. This is the claim that wiktionary:sensation, sensations, by themselves, are unable to provide a unique description of the world. Sensations require 'enriching', which is the role of the mental model. The Ecological psychology, perceptual ecology approach was introduced by James J. Gibson, who rejected the assumption of a poverty of stimulus and the idea that perception is based upon sensations. Instead, Gibson investigated what information is actually presented to the perceptual systems. His theory "assumes the existence of stable, unbounded, and permanent stimulus-information in the ambient optic array. And it supposes that the visual system can explore and detect this information. The theory is information-based, not sensation-based." He and the psychologists who work within this paradigm detailed how the world could be specified to a mobile, exploring organism via the lawful projection of information about the world into energy arrays. "Specification" would be a 1:1 mapping of some aspect of the world into a perceptual array. Given such a mapping, no enrichment is required and perception is direct perception, direct.


Perception-in-action

From Gibson's early work derived an ecological understanding of perception known as ''perception-in-action,'' which argues that perception is a requisite property of animate action. It posits that, without perception, action would be unguided, and without action, perception would serve no purpose. Animate actions require both perception and motion, which can be described as "two sides of the same coin, the coin is action." Gibson works from the assumption that singular entities, which he calls ''invariants,'' already exist in the real world and that all that the perception process does is home in upon them. The Constructive perception, constructivist view, held by such philosophers as Ernst von Glasersfeld, regards the continual adjustment of perception and action to the external input as precisely what constitutes the "entity," which is therefore far from being invariant. Glasersfeld considers an ''invariant'' as a target to be homed in upon, and a pragmatic necessity to allow an initial measure of understanding to be established prior to the updating that a statement aims to achieve. The invariant does not, and need not, represent an actuality. Glasersfeld describes it as extremely unlikely that what is desired or Fear processing in the brain, feared by an organism will never suffer change as time goes on. This social constructionist theory thus allows for a needful evolutionary adjustment. A mathematical theory of perception-in-action has been devised and investigated in many forms of controlled movement, and has been described in many different species of organism using the General Tau Theory. According to this theory, "tau information", or time-to-goal information is the fundamental ''percept'' in perception.


Evolutionary psychology (EP)

Many philosophers, such as Jerry Fodor, write that the purpose of perception is knowledge. However, Evolutionary psychology, evolutionary psychologists hold that the primary purpose of perception is to guide action.Gaulin, Steven J. C. and Donald H. McBurney. Evolutionary Psychology. Prentice Hall. 2003. , Chapter 4, pp. 81–101. They give the example of depth perception, which seems to have evolved not to help us know the distances to other objects but rather to help us move around in space. Evolutionary psychologists argue that animals ranging from fiddler crabs to humans use eyesight for Collision avoidance in transportation, collision avoidance, suggesting that vision is basically for directing action, not providing knowledge. Neuropsychology, Neuropsychologists showed that perception systems evolved along the specifics of animals' activities. This explains why bats and worms can perceive different frequency of auditory and visual systems than, for example, humans. Building and maintaining sense organs is metabolically expensive. More than half the brain is devoted to processing sensory information, and the brain itself consumes roughly one-fourth of one's metabolic resources. Thus, such organs evolve only when they provide exceptional benefits to an organism's fitness. Scientists who study perception and sensation have long understood the human senses as adaptations. Depth perception consists of processing over half a dozen visual cues, each of which is based on a regularity of the physical world. Vision evolved to respond to the narrow range of electromagnetic energy that is plentiful and that does not pass through objects. Sound waves provide useful information about the sources of and distances to objects, with larger animals making and hearing lower-frequency sounds and smaller animals making and hearing higher-frequency sounds. Taste and smell respond to chemicals in the environment that were significant for fitness in the environment of evolutionary adaptedness. The sense of touch is actually many senses, including pressure, heat, cold, tickle, and pain. Pain, while unpleasant, is adaptive. An important adaptation for senses is range shifting, by which the organism becomes temporarily more or less sensitive to sensation. For example, one's eyes automatically adjust to dim or bright ambient light. Sensory abilities of different organisms often co-evolve, as is the case with the hearing of echolocating bats and that of the moths that have evolved to respond to the sounds that the bats make. Evolutionary psychologists claim that perception demonstrates the principle of modularity, with specialized mechanisms handling particular perception tasks. For example, people with damage to a particular part of the brain suffer from the specific defect of not being able to recognize faces (''prosopagnosia''). EP suggests that this indicates a so-called face-reading module.


Closed-loop perception

The theory of closed-loop transfer function, closed-loop perception proposes dynamic motor-sensory closed-loop process in which information flows through the environment and the brain in continuous loops.Friston, K. (2010
The free-energy principle: a unified brain theory?
nature reviews neuroscience 11:127-38
Tishby, N. and D. Polani
Information theory of decisions and actions
in Perception-Action Cycle. 2011, Springer. p. 601-636.


Feature Integration Theory

Anne Treisman's Feature Integration Theory (FIT) attempts to explain how characteristics of a stimulus such as physical location in space, motion, color, and shape are merged to form one percept despite each of these characteristics activating separate areas of the cortex. FIT explains this through a two part system of perception involving the preattentive and focused attention stages. The preattentive stage of perception is largely unconscious, and analyzes an object by breaking it down into its basic features, such as the specific color, geometric shape, motion, depth, individual lines, and many others. Studies have shown that, when small groups of objects with different features (e.g., red triangle, blue circle) are briefly flashed in front of human participants, many individuals later report seeing shapes made up of the combined features of two different stimuli, thereby referred to as illusory conjunctions. The unconnected features described in the preattentive stage are combined into the objects one normally sees during the focused attention stage. The focused attention stage is based heavily around the idea of attention in perception and 'binds' the features together onto specific objects at specific spatial locations (see the binding problem).


Other theories of perception

*Empirical theory of perception, Empirical Theory of Perception *Enactivism *Interactive activation and competition networks, The Interactive Activation and Competition Model *Recognition-by-components theory, Recognition-By-Components Theory (Irving Biederman)


Effects on perception


Effect of experience

With experience, organisms can learn to make finer perceptual distinctions, and learn new kinds of categorization. Wine-tasting, the reading of X-ray images and music appreciation are applications of this process in the human sphere. Research has focused on the relation of this to other kinds of learning, and whether it takes place in peripheral Sensory perception, sensory systems or in the brain's processing of sense information. Empirical research show that specific practices (such as yoga, mindfulness, Tai chi, Tai Chi, meditation, Daoshi and other mind-body disciplines) can modify human perceptual modality. Specifically, these practices enable perception skills to switch from the external (exteroceptive field) towards a higher ability to focus on internal signals (''
proprioception Proprioception ( ), also referred to as kinaesthesia (or kinesthesia), is the sense A sense is a biological system A biological system is a complex biological network, network which connects several biologically relevant entities. Biological ...
''). Also, when asked to provide verticality judgments, highly self-transcendent yoga practitioners were significantly less influenced by a misleading visual context. Increasing self-transcendence may enable yoga practitioners to optimize verticality judgment tasks by relying more on internal (vestibular and proprioceptive) signals coming from their own body, rather than on exteroceptive, visual cues. Past actions and events that transpire right before an encounter or any form of stimulation have a strong degree of influence on how sensory stimuli are processed and perceived. On a basic level, the information our senses receive is often ambiguous and incomplete. However, they are grouped together in order for us to be able to understand the physical world around us. But it is these various forms of stimulation, combined with our previous knowledge and experience that allows us to create our overall perception. For example, when engaging in conversation, we attempt to understand their message and words by not only paying attention to what we hear through our ears but also from the previous shapes we have seen our mouths make. Another example would be if we had a similar topic come up in another conversation, we would use our previous knowledge to guess the direction the conversation is headed in.


Effect of motivation and expectation

A ''perceptual set'', also called ''perceptual expectancy'' or just ''set'' is a predisposition to perceive things in a certain way. It is an example of how perception can be shaped by "top-down" processes such as drives and expectations. Perceptual sets occur in all the different senses. They can be long term, such as a special sensitivity to hearing one's own name in a crowded room, or short term, as in the ease with which hungry people notice the smell of food. A simple demonstration of the effect involved very brief presentations of non-words such as "sael". Subjects who were told to expect words about animals read it as "seal", but others who were expecting boat-related words read it as "sail". Sets can be created by motivation and so can result in people interpreting ambiguous figures so that they see what they want to see. For instance, how someone perceives what unfolds during a sports game can be biased if they strongly support one of the teams. In one experiment, students were allocated to pleasant or unpleasant tasks by a computer. They were told that either a number or a letter would flash on the screen to say whether they were going to taste an orange juice drink or an unpleasant-tasting health drink. In fact, an ambiguous figure was flashed on screen, which could either be read as the letter B or the number 13. When the letters were associated with the pleasant task, subjects were more likely to perceive a letter B, and when letters were associated with the unpleasant task they tended to perceive a number 13. Perceptual set has been demonstrated in many social contexts. When someone has a reputation for being funny, an audience is more likely to find them amusing. Individual's perceptual sets reflect their own personality traits. For example, people with an aggressive personality are quicker to correctly identify aggressive words or situations. One classic psychological experiment showed slower reaction times and less accurate answers when a deck of playing cards reversed the color of the Suit (cards), suit symbol for some cards (e.g. red spades and black hearts). Philosopher Andy Clark explains that perception, although it occurs quickly, is not simply a bottom-up process (where minute details are put together to form larger wholes). Instead, our brains use what he calls ''predictive coding''. It starts with very broad constraints and expectations for the state of the world, and as expectations are met, it makes more detailed predictions (errors lead to new predictions, or ''learning processes)''. Clark says this research has various implications; not only can there be no completely "unbiased, unfiltered" perception, but this means that there is a great deal of feedback between perception and expectation (perceptual experiences often shape our beliefs, but those perceptions were based on existing beliefs). Indeed, predictive coding provides an account where this type of feedback assists in stabilizing our inference-making process about the physical world, such as with perceptual constancy examples.


See also


References


Citations


Sources


Bibliography

* Arnheim, R. (1969). ''Visual Thinking''. Berkeley: University of California Press. . * Flanagan, J. R., & Susan Lederman, Lederman, S. J. (2001). "'Neurobiology: Feeling bumps and holes. News and Views", ''Nature'', 412(6845):389–91.
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* Gibson, J. J. (1966). ''The Senses Considered as Perceptual Systems'', Houghton Mifflin. * Gibson, J. J. (1987). ''The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception''. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. * Robles-De-La-Torre, G. (2006). "The Importance of the Sense of Touch in Virtual and Real Environments". IEEE Multimedia,13(3), Special issue on Haptic User Interfaces for Multimedia Systems, pp. 24–30.
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External links



Several different aspects on perception
Richard L Gregory
Theories of Richard. L. Gregory.
Comprehensive set of optical illusions
presented by Michael Bach (vision scientist), Michael Bach.
Optical Illusions
Examples of well-known optical illusions.
The Epistemology of Perception
Article in the ''Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy''
Cognitive Penetrability of Perception and Epistemic Justification
Article in the ''Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy'' {{Authority control Perception, Concepts in epistemology Concepts in ethics Concepts in logic Concepts in metaphysics Cognitive science Critical thinking Experimental psychology Metaphysics of mind Neuropsychological assessment Ontology Philosophy of mind Philosophy of psychology Reality Sensory systems Sources of knowledge Subjective experience Thought Truth Unsolved problems in neuroscience