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The Pauline epistles, also known as Epistles of Paul or Letters of Paul, are the thirteen books of the
New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second division of the Christian biblical canon. It discusses the teachings and person of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus, as w ...

New Testament
attributed to
Paul the Apostle Paul; el, Παῦλος, translit=Paulos; cop, ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; he, פאולוס השליח, name=, group= (born Saul of Tarsus;; ar, بولس الطرسوسي; el, Σαῦλος Ταρσεύς, Saũlos Tarseús; tr, Tarsuslu Pavlus AD ...
, although the authorship of some is in dispute. Among these
epistles An epistle (; el, ἐπιστολή, ''epistolē,'' "letter") is a writing directed or sent to a person or group of people, usually an elegant and formal Didacticism, didactic letter. The epistle genre of letter-writing was common in ancient Eg ...
are some of the earliest extant Christian documents. They provide an insight into the beliefs and controversies of
early Christianity The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion Christianity is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religi ...
. As part of the
canon Canon or Canons may refer to: Places * Canon, Georgia Canon is a city in Franklin County, Georgia, Franklin and Hart County, Georgia, Hart counties in the U.S. state of Georgia (U.S. state), Georgia. The population was 804 at the 2010 census. His ...
of the New Testament, they are foundational texts for both
Christian theology #REDIRECT Christian theology Christian theology is the theology of Christianity, Christian belief and practice. * help them better understand Christian tenets * make comparative religion, comparisons between Christianity and other traditions * C ...
and
ethics Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, m ...
. The
Epistle to the Hebrews The Epistle to the Hebrews, or Letter to the Hebrews, or in the Greek manuscripts, simply To the Hebrews (Πρὸς Ἑβραίους, ''Pros Hebraious'') is one of the books of the New Testament. The text does not mention the name of its author ...

Epistle to the Hebrews
, although it does not bear his name, was traditionally considered Pauline (although
Origen Origen of Alexandria, ''Ōrigénēs''; Coptic language, Coptic: Ϩⲱⲣⲓⲕⲉⲛ Origen's Greek name ''Ōrigénēs'' () probably means "child of Horus" (from , "Horus", and , "born"). ( 184 – 253), also known as Origen Adamantius, was an ...

Origen
,
Tertullian Tertullian (; la, Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus; 155 AD – 220 AD) was a prolific early Christian The history of Christianity concerns the Christianity, Christian religion, Christendom, Christian countries, and the Ch ...

Tertullian
and Hippolytus amongst others, questioned its authorship), but from the 16th century onwards opinion steadily moved against Pauline authorship and few scholars now ascribe it to Paul, mostly because it does not read like any of his other epistles in style and content. Most scholars agree that Paul actually wrote seven of the Pauline epistles ( Galatians, 1 Corinthians,
2 Corinthians The Second Epistle to the Corinthians, commonly referred to as Second Corinthians or in writing 2 Corinthians, is a Pauline epistle of the New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, ...
,
Romans Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, ...
, Philemon,
Philippians The Epistle to the Philippians, commonly referred to as Philippians, is a Pauline epistle of the New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second di ...
,
1 Thessalonians The First Epistle to the Thessalonians, commonly referred to as First Thessalonians or 1 Thessalonians, is a Pauline epistle of the New Testament of the Christian Bible. The epistle is attributed to Paul the Apostle, and is addressed to the churc ...
), but that three of the epistles in Paul's name are
pseudepigraphic Pseudepigrapha (also :wikt:anglicized, anglicized as "pseudepigraph" or "pseudepigraphs") are false attribution, falsely attributed works, texts whose claimed author is not the true author, or a work whose real author attributed it to a figure o ...
( First Timothy,
Second Timothy In the New Testament, the Second Epistle of Paul to Timothy, usually referred to simply as Second Timothy and often written 2 Timothy or II Timothy, is one of the three pastoral epistles traditionally attributed to Paul the Apostle.. It is addresse ...
, and
Titus Titus Caesar Vespasianus ( ; 30 December 39 – 13 September 81 AD) was Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles thro ...
New Testament Letter Structure
fro
Catholic Resources
by Felix Just, S.J.
) and that three other epistles are of questionable authorship ( Second Thessalonians,
Ephesians The Epistle to the Ephesians, also called the Letter to the Ephesians and often shortened to Ephesians, is the tenth book of the New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testa ...
and
Colossians The Epistle of Paul to the Colossians (or simply Colossians) is the twelfth book of the New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second division of ...
). According to some scholars, Paul wrote these letters with the help of a secretary, or
amanuensis An amanuensis () is a person employed to write or type what another dictates or to copy what has been written by another, and also refers to a person who signs a document on behalf of another under the latter's authority. The term is often used ...
, who would have influenced their style, if not their theological content. The Pauline epistles are usually placed between the
Acts of the Apostles The Acts of the Apostles ( grc-koi, Πράξεις Ἀποστόλων, ''Práxeis Apostólōn''; la, Actūs Apostolōrum), often referred to simply as Acts, or formally the Book of Acts, is the fifth book of the New Testament The New Te ...
and the
Catholic epistles The catholic epistles (also called the general epistlesEncarta-encyclopedie Winkler Prins (1993–2002) s.v. "katholieke brieven". Microsoft Corporation/Het Spectrum.) are seven epistle An epistle (; el, ἐπιστολή, ''epistolē,'' "letter ...
in modern editions. Most Greek manuscripts place the General epistles first, and a few minuscules (
175 Year 175 ( CLXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday A common year starting on Saturday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or wikt:bissextile, bissextile year) is a calendar year that contains an additional ...
, 325, 336, and 1424) place the Pauline epistles at the end of the New Testament.


Order

In the order they appear in the New Testament, the Pauline epistles are: This ordering is remarkably consistent in the manuscript tradition, with very few deviations. The evident principle of organization is descending length of the Greek text, but keeping the four Pastoral epistles addressed to individuals in a separate final section. The only anomaly is that Galatians precedes the slightly longer Ephesians. In modern editions, the formally anonymous
Epistle to the Hebrews The Epistle to the Hebrews, or Letter to the Hebrews, or in the Greek manuscripts, simply To the Hebrews (Πρὸς Ἑβραίους, ''Pros Hebraious'') is one of the books of the New Testament. The text does not mention the name of its author ...

Epistle to the Hebrews
is placed at the end of Paul's letters and before the
General epistles The catholic epistles (also called the general epistlesEncarta-encyclopedie Winkler Prins (1993–2002) s.v. "katholieke brieven". Microsoft Corporation/Het Spectrum.) are seven epistles of the New Testament. Listed in order of their appearance in t ...
. This practice was popularized through the 4th century
Vulgate The Vulgate (; also called , ) is a late-4th-century Latin translation of the Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, H ...
by
Jerome Jerome (; la, Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; grc-gre, Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος; – 30 September 420), also known as Jerome of Stridon, was a Christian priest A priest is a religious leader authorize ...

Jerome
, who was aware of ancient doubts about its
authorship An author is the creator or originator of any written work such as a book A book is a medium for recording information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty; it answers the question of "What an entity is" and ...
, and is also followed in most medieval
Byzantine The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople. It surviv ...
manuscripts with hardly any exceptions. The placement of Hebrews among the Pauline epistles is less consistent in the manuscripts: * between Romans and 1 Corinthians (i.e., in order by length without splitting the Epistles to the Corinthians):
Papyrus 46 Papyrus 46 (in the Biblical manuscript#Gregory-Aland, Gregory-Aland numbering), scribal abbreviation \mathfrak46, is an early Greek New Testament manuscript written on papyrus, with its 'most probable date' between 175 and 225.Griffin, Bruce W. (1 ...
and minuscules 103,
455 __NOTOC__ Year 455 (Roman numerals, CDLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Valentinianus and Anthemius (or, less freq ...
, 1961, 1964, 1977, 1994. * between 2 Corinthians and Galatians: minuscules 1930, 1978, and 2248 * between Galatians and Ephesians: implied by the numbering in B. In B, Galatians ends and Ephesians begins on the same side of the same folio (page 1493); similarly 2 Thessalonians ends and Hebrews begins on the same side of the same folio (page 1512). * between 2 Thessalonians and 1 Timothy (i.e., before the Pastorals): א, A, B, C, H, I, P, 0150, 0151, and about 60 minuscules (e.g. 218, 632) * after Philemon: D, 048, E, K, L and the majority of minuscules. * omitted: F and G


Authenticity

In all of these epistles except the
Epistle to the Hebrews The Epistle to the Hebrews, or Letter to the Hebrews, or in the Greek manuscripts, simply To the Hebrews (Πρὸς Ἑβραίους, ''Pros Hebraious'') is one of the books of the New Testament. The text does not mention the name of its author ...

Epistle to the Hebrews
, the author and writer does claim to be Paul. The contested letters may have been written using Paul's name, as it was common to attribute at that point in history. Seven letters (with consensus dates) considered genuine by most scholars: * Galatians (c. 48 AD) *
First Thessalonians The First Epistle to the Thessalonians, commonly referred to as First Thessalonians or 1 Thessalonians, is a Pauline epistle of the New Testament of the Christian Bible. The epistle is attributed to Paul the Apostle, and is addressed to the churc ...
(c. 49–51) *
First Corinthians The First Epistle to the Corinthians ( grc, Α΄ ᾽Επιστολὴ πρὸς Κορινθίους), usually referred to as First Corinthians or 1 Corinthians is a Pauline epistle of the New Testament of the Christian Bible. The epistle is attri ...
(c. 53–54) *
Second Corinthians The Second Epistle to the Corinthians, commonly referred to as Second Corinthians or in writing 2 Corinthians, is a Pauline epistle of the New Testament of the Christian Bible. The epistle is attributed to Paul the Apostle and a co-author named S ...
(c. 55–56) *
Romans Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, ...
(c. 55–57) *
Philippians The Epistle to the Philippians, commonly referred to as Philippians, is a Pauline epistle of the New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second di ...
(c. 57–59 or c. 62) * Philemon (c. 57–59 or c. 62) The letters on which scholars are about evenly divided: * Second Thessalonians (c. 51–52) *
Colossians The Epistle of Paul to the Colossians (or simply Colossians) is the twelfth book of the New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second division of ...
(c. 57–59 or c. 62) *
Ephesians The Epistle to the Ephesians, also called the Letter to the Ephesians and often shortened to Ephesians, is the tenth book of the New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testa ...
(c. 62) The letters thought to be
pseudepigraphic Pseudepigrapha (also :wikt:anglicized, anglicized as "pseudepigraph" or "pseudepigraphs") are false attribution, falsely attributed works, texts whose claimed author is not the true author, or a work whose real author attributed it to a figure o ...
by many scholars (traditional dating given): * First Timothy (c. 62–64) *
Second Timothy In the New Testament, the Second Epistle of Paul to Timothy, usually referred to simply as Second Timothy and often written 2 Timothy or II Timothy, is one of the three pastoral epistles traditionally attributed to Paul the Apostle.. It is addresse ...
(c. 62–65) *
Titus Titus Caesar Vespasianus ( ; 30 December 39 – 13 September 81 AD) was Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles thro ...
(c. 66–67) Finally,
Epistle to the Hebrews The Epistle to the Hebrews, or Letter to the Hebrews, or in the Greek manuscripts, simply To the Hebrews (Πρὸς Ἑβραίους, ''Pros Hebraious'') is one of the books of the New Testament. The text does not mention the name of its author ...

Epistle to the Hebrews
, though anonymous and not really in the form of a letter, has long been included among Paul's collected letters. Although some churches ascribe Hebrews to Paul, neither most of Christianity nor modern scholarship do so.


Lost Pauline epistles

Paul's own writings are sometimes thought to indicate several of his letters that have not been preserved: * A first, or "zeroth", epistle to Corinth, possibly referenced at 1 Corinthians 5:9. * A third epistle to Corinth, also called the Severe Letter, referenced at 2 Corinthians, 2:4 and 2 Corinthians 7:8-9 * An earlier epistle to the Ephesians referenced at Ephesians 3:3-4 * A possible Pauline
Epistle to the Laodiceans The Epistle to the Laodiceans is a lost (although witnessed in Codex Fuldensis) letter of Paul the Apostle Paul the Apostle,; el, Παῦλος, translit=Paulos; cop, ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; he, פאולוס השליח; – AD commonly ...
, referenced at Colossians 4:26


Apocryphal epistles

Several other epistles were attributed to Paul during the course of history, but are now considered
apocrypha Apocrypha (Gr. ἀπόκρυφος, ‘the hidden hings) The biblical Books received by the early Church as part of the Greek version of the Old Testament, but not included in the Hebrew Bible, being excluded by the non-Hellenistic Jews fro ...
l: *
Third Epistle to the Corinthians The Third Epistle to the Corinthians is a text under the name of Paul the Apostle. It is also found in the Acts of Paul, and was framed as Paul's response to the Epistle of the Corinthians to Paul. The earliest extant copy is List of Bodmer Papyri#P ...
, a correspondence of two letters allegedly sent by the Corinthians to Paul, and then a reply letter allegedly sent by Paul to the Church of Corinth. It was considered genuine for some time by the
Syriac Orthodox Church , native_name_lang = syc , image = Syrian Orthodox Patriarchate 2k18.jpg , imagewidth = , alt = Cathedral of Saint George , caption = Cathedral of Saint George, Damascus, Syria ...
and the
Armenian Apostolic Church , native_name_lang = hy , icon = Armenian Apostolic Church logo.png , icon_width = 100px , icon_alt = , image = Էջմիածնի_Մայր_Տաճար.jpg , imagewidth = 250px , al ...
, but is now widely dated in the second half of the 2nd century CE. * Epistle to the Alexandrians, an alleged epistle written by Paul to the Church of
Alexandria Alexandria ( or ; ar, الإسكندرية ; arz, اسكندرية ; Coptic language, Coptic: Rakodī; el, Αλεξάνδρεια ''Alexandria'') is the List of cities and towns in Egypt, third-largest city in Egypt after Cairo and Giza, ...

Alexandria
. It is mentioned in the
Muratorian fragment The Muratorian fragment, also known as the Muratorian Canon or Canon Muratori, is a copy of perhaps the oldest known list of most of the books of the New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, trans ...
(2nd century CE), which denounces it as a spurious work forged by
Marcion of Sinope Marcion of Sinope (; Greek: ; 85 – c. 160) was an early Christian theologian, evangelist, and an important figure in early Christianity The history of Christianity concerns the Christianity, Christian religion, Christendom, Christi ...
. Its text has been lost and nothing is known about its content. * Non-Pauline
Epistle to the Laodiceans The Epistle to the Laodiceans is a lost (although witnessed in Codex Fuldensis) letter of Paul the Apostle Paul the Apostle,; el, Παῦλος, translit=Paulos; cop, ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; he, פאולוס השליח; – AD commonly ...
versions: ** The Marcionite Epistle to the Laodiceans. The Muratorian fragment (2nd century CE) denounces a claimed Epistle to the Laodiceans as a spurious work forged by
Marcion of Sinope Marcion of Sinope (; Greek: ; 85 – c. 160) was an early Christian theologian, evangelist, and an important figure in early Christianity The history of Christianity concerns the Christianity, Christian religion, Christendom, Christi ...
. Its text has been lost and nothing is known about its content. ** The Latin Epistle to the Laodiceans. It is found in some old Latin Bible manuscripts, but is widely considered a forgery, and is largely a copy of verses from the
Epistle to the Philippians The Epistle to the Philippians, commonly referred to as Philippians, is a Pauline epistle of the New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second di ...
. Theories vary, but it was possibly made as a counterforgery to offset the popularity of the Marcionite epistle. * Correspondence of Paul and Seneca, a collection of correspondence claiming to be between Paul and
Seneca the Younger Lucius Annaeus Seneca the Younger (; AD65), usually known as Seneca, was a Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', ...
. They are universally considered a forgery from the 4th century CE.


Collected epistles

finds it likely that Paul first collected his letters for publication himself. It was normal practice in Paul's time for letter-writers to keep one copy for themselves and send a second copy to the recipient(s); surviving collections of ancient letters sometimes originated from the senders' copies, other times from the recipients' copies.Reece, Steve. ''Paul's Large Letters: Pauline Subscriptions in the Light of Ancient Epistolary Conventions.'' London: T&T Clark, 2016. A collection of Paul's letters circulated separately from other early Christian writings and later became part of the New Testament. When the canon was established, the gospels and Paul's letters were the core of what would become the New Testament.


See also

*
Catholic epistles The catholic epistles (also called the general epistlesEncarta-encyclopedie Winkler Prins (1993–2002) s.v. "katholieke brieven". Microsoft Corporation/Het Spectrum.) are seven epistle An epistle (; el, ἐπιστολή, ''epistolē,'' "letter ...
* New Testament athletic metaphors *
New Testament military metaphors The New Testament uses a number of military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typically officially authorized and maintained by a sovereign ...


References


Bibliographic resources

* . "The Problem of Anonymity and Pseudonymity in Christian Literature of the First Two Centuries." ''
Journal of Theological Studies ''The Journal of Theological Studies'' is an academic journal established in 1899 and now published by Oxford University Press in April and October each year. It publishes theological research, scholarship, and interpretation, and hitherto unpublish ...
'' 12 (1961): 39–49. * Bahr, Gordon J. "Paul and Letter Writing in the First Century." ''
Catholic Biblical Quarterly The ''Catholic Biblical Quarterly'' is a refereed peer-reviewed theological journal published by the Catholic Biblical Association of America (CBA) in January, April, July, and October. It was established in 1939 and its circulation in 2010 was ov ...
'' 28 (1966): 465–77. idem, "The Subscriptions in the Pauline Letters." ''
Journal of Biblical Literature The ''Journal of Biblical Literature'' (''JBL'') is one of three academic journal An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of ...
'' 2 (1968): 27–41. * Bauckham, Richard J. "Pseudo-Apostolic Letters." ''
Journal of Biblical Literature The ''Journal of Biblical Literature'' (''JBL'') is one of three academic journal An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of ...
'' 107 (1988): 469–94. * Carson, D.A. "Pseudonymity and Pseudepigraphy." ''Dictionary of New Testament Background''. Eds. Craig A. Evans and Stanley E. Porter. Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 2000. 857–64. * Cousar, Charles B. ''The Letters of Paul''. Interpreting Biblical Texts. Nashville: Abingdon, 1996. * Deissmann, G. Adolf. ''Bible Studies''. Trans. Alexander Grieve. 1901. Peabody: Hendrickson, 1988. * Doty, William G. ''Letters in Primitive Christianity''. Guides to Biblical Scholarship. New Testament. Ed. Dan O. Via, Jr. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1988. * Gamble, Harry Y. "Amanuensis." ''Anchor Bible Dictionary''. Vol. 1. Ed. David Noel Freedman. New York: Doubleday, 1992. * Haines-Eitzen, Kim. "‘Girls Trained in Beautiful Writing’: Female Scribes in Roman Antiquity and Early Christianity." ''
Journal of Early Christian Studies The ''Journal of Early Christian Studies'' is an academic journal An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication in which Scholarly method, scholarship relating to a particular list of academic disciplines, academic discipline is publ ...
'' 6.4 (1998): 629–46. * Kim, Yung Suk. ''A Theological Introduction to Paul's Letters''. Eugene, Oregon: Cascade Books, 2011. * Longenecker, Richard N. "Ancient Amanuenses and the Pauline Epistles." ''New Dimensions in New Testament Study''. Eds. Richard N. Longenecker and Merrill C. Tenney. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1974. 281–97. idem, "On the Form, Function, and Authority of the New Testament Letters." ''Scripture and Truth''. Eds. D.A. Carson and John D. Woodbridge. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1983. 101–14. * Murphy-O’Connor, Jerome. ''Paul the Letter-Writer: His World, His Options, His Skills''. Collegeville, MN: Liturgical, 1995. * Richards, E. Randolph. ''The Secretary in the Letters of Paul''. Tübingen: Mohr, 1991. idem, "The Codex and the Early Collection of Paul’s Letters." ''Bulletin for Bulletin Research'' 8 (1998): 151–66. idem, ''Paul and First-Century Letter Writing: Secretaries, Composition, and Collection''. Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 2004. * Robson, E. Iliff. "Composition and Dictation in New Testament Books." ''
Journal of Theological Studies ''The Journal of Theological Studies'' is an academic journal established in 1899 and now published by Oxford University Press in April and October each year. It publishes theological research, scholarship, and interpretation, and hitherto unpublish ...
'' 18 (1917): 288–301. * Stowers, Stanley K. ''Letter Writing in Greco-Roman Antiquity''. Library of Early Christianity. Vol. 8. Ed. Wayne A. Meeks. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1989. * Wall, Robert W. "Introduction to Epistolary Literature." ''New Interpreter’s Bible''. Vol. 10. Ed. Leander E. Keck. Nashville: Abingdon, 2002. 369–91. * Hart, David Bentley. "The New Testament." New Haven and London: Yale University Press: 2017. 570–74.


External links


The Marcionite Prologues to the Pauline Epistles






{{Authority control Canonical epistles
Christian terminology Words or phrases used to refer to concepts associated with Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings o ...
Collections of letters