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''Parasite'' () is a 2019 South Korean
black comedy Black comedy, also known as dark comedy, morbid humor, or gallows humor, is a style of comedy that makes light of subject matter that is generally considered taboo, particularly subjects that are normally considered serious or painful to discu ...
thriller film Thriller film, also known as suspense film or suspense thriller, is a broad film genre that evokes excitement and suspense in the audience. The suspense element found in most films' plots is particularly exploited by the filmmaker in this genre ...
directed by Bong Joon-ho, who co-wrote the screenplay with Han Jin-won and co-produced the film. The film, starring
Song Kang-ho Song Kang-ho (born January 17, 1967) is a South Korean actor. Song made his film debut in '' The Day a Pig Fell into the Well'' (1996), and came to national prominence with a series of critically acclaimed performances, including ''No. 3'' (1997 ...
,
Lee Sun-kyun Lee Sun-kyun (born March 2, 1975) is a South Korean actor. After beginning his career in musical theatre, for many years Lee was relegated to minor and supporting roles onscreen, only getting to play lead characters in one-act dramas on KBS '' ...
,
Cho Yeo-jeong Cho Yeo-jeong (born February 10, 1981) is a South Korean actress. She is best known internationally for her role in the film ''Parasite'' (2019), which won four Academy Awards and became the first non-English language film to win the award for Be ...
, Choi Woo-shik,
Park So-dam Park So-dam (born September 8, 1991) is a South Korean actress. She came into popular recognition in the 2015 film ''The Priests'' and the TV series' ''Cinderella with Four Knights'' (2016) and ''Record of Youth'' (2020). She achieved internationa ...
, Jang Hye-jin, Park Myung-hoon, and Lee Jung-eun, follows a poor family who scheme to become employed by a wealthy family and infiltrate their household by posing as unrelated, highly qualified individuals. The script is based on Bong's source material from a play written in 2013. He later adapted it into a fifteen-page film draft, and it was split into three different drafts by Jin-won. Bong stated that he took inspiration from the 1960 Korean film '' The Housemaid'', and also from the Christine and Léa Papin incident in the 1930s to write the film's screenplay. Filming began in May 2018 and completed that September. The technical crew comprised cinematographer Hong Kyung-pyo, film editor Yang Jin-mo, and composer Jung Jae-il. Darcy Paquet, an American film critic and author, provided English translations for the film's international release. ''Parasite'' premiered at the
2019 Cannes Film Festival The 72nd annual Cannes Film Festival took place from 14 to 25 May 2019. Mexican filmmaker Alejandro González Iñárritu served as jury president. The Palme d'Or went to the South Korean film ''Parasite'', directed by Bong Joon-ho; Bong became t ...
on 21 May 2019, where it became the first Korean film to win the
Palme d'Or The Palme d'Or (; en, Golden Palm) is the highest prize awarded at the Cannes Film Festival. It was introduced in 1955 by the festival's organizing committee. Previously, from 1939 to 1954, the festival's highest prize was the Grand Prix du Fe ...
. It was then released in South Korea by CJ Entertainment on 30 May. The film is considered by many critics to be one of the best films of 2019 and one of the greatest movies of the 21st century. It grossed over $263 million worldwide on a $15.5 million budget. Among its numerous accolades, ''Parasite'' won a leading four awards at the
92nd Academy Awards The 92nd Academy Awards ceremony, presented by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), honored films released in 2019 and took place on February 9, 2020, at the Dolby Theatre in Hollywood, Los Angeles, beginning at 5:00 p ...
:
Best Picture This is a list of categories of awards commonly awarded through organizations that bestow film awards, including those presented by various film, festivals, and people's awards. Best Actor/Best Actress *See Best Actor#Film awards, Best Actress#F ...
, Best Director,
Best Original Screenplay The Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay is the Academy Award for the best screenplay not based upon previously published material. It was created in 1940 as a separate writing award from the Academy Award for Best Story. Beginning with the ...
, and Best International Feature Film, becoming the first non English-language film to win the Academy Award for Best Picture. ''Parasite'' is the first South Korean film to receive Academy Award recognition, along with being one of three films to win both the Palme d'Or and the Academy Award for Best Picture, the first such achievement in over 60 years. It won the
Golden Globe Award for Best Foreign Language Film The Golden Globe Award for Best Foreign Language Film is a Golden Globe Award presented by the Hollywood Foreign Press Association. Until 1986, it was known as the Golden Globe Award for Best Foreign Film, meaning that any non-American film coul ...
and the
BAFTA Award for Best Film Not in the English Language The BAFTA Award for Best Film Not in the English Language is given annually by the British Academy of Film and Television Arts and presented at the British Academy Film Awards. The award was first given at the 36th British Academy Film Awards, rec ...
, and it became the first non English-language film to win the
Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Cast in a Motion Picture The Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Cast (or Ensemble) in a Motion Picture is an award given by the Screen Actors Guild to honor the finest acting achievements in film. Winners and nominees : 1990s 2000s 2010s 2 ...
. A television series, based on the events in the film, is in early development.


Plot

The Kim family live in a semi-basement flat (''banjiha'') in Seoul, have low-income jobs, and struggle for money. Min-hyuk, a university student, gives the family a scholar's rock meant to promise wealth. Leaving to study abroad, he suggests that the Kim's son, Ki-woo, pose as a university student to take over his job as an English language tutor for the daughter of the rich Park family, Da-hye. Ki-woo, posing as a
Yonsei University Yonsei University (; ) is a private research university in Seoul, South Korea. As a member of the " SKY" universities, Yonsei University is deemed one of the three most prestigious institutions in the country. It is particularly respected in th ...
student, is hired by the Park family. The Kim family schemes to get each member a job with the Parks. The Kim daughter, Ki-jung, poses as "Jessica" and, using Ki-woo as a reference, becomes an art therapist to the Parks' young son, Da-song. Ki-jung frames Yoon, Mr Park's driver, by making it appear he had a sexual encounter in the car, then recommends her father, Ki-taek, to take his place. The Kims exploit the peach allergy of the Parks' long-time housekeeper, Moon-gwang, to convince Mrs Park that she has tuberculosis, and hires the Kim mother, Chung-sook, to replace her. Ki-woo begins a secret romantic relationship with Da-hye. When the Parks leave on a camping trip, the Kims revel in the luxuries of the house. Moon-gwang appears at the door, telling Chung-sook she left something in the basement. She enters a hidden entrance to an underground bunker created by the architect and previous homeowner. There, Moon-gwang's husband, Geun-sae, has been secretly living for over four years, hiding from loan sharks. Chung-sook refuses Moon-gwang's pleas to help Geun-sae remain in the bunker, but the eavesdropping Kims accidentally reveal themselves. Moon-gwang films them on her phone and threatens to expose their ruse to the Park family. A severe rainstorm brings the Parks home early, and the Kims scramble to clean up the home and subdue Moon-gwang and Geun-sae before they come home. The Kims trap Geun-sae and Moon-gwang in the bunker. Mrs Park reveals to Chung-sook that Da-song had a seizure-inducing traumatic experience on a previous birthday, when he saw a "ghost" — actually Geun-sae — emerging from the basement at night. Ki-jung, Ki-taek and Ki-woo hide under a table within earshot of Mr and Mrs Park, who have sexual intercourse on the sofa nearby. They overhear Mr Park's comments about Ki-taek's odour. The Kims escape and find their flat flooded with sewer water following the rainstorm, and shelter in a gymnasium with other displaced people. The next day, Mrs Park hosts a house party for Da-song's birthday with the Kim family's assistance. Ki-woo enters the bunker with the scholar's rock to find Geun-sae. Finding Moon-gwang has died from a concussion she received during the brawl, he is attacked by a deranged Geun-sae. He bludgeons his head with the scholars rock and escapes, leaving Ki-woo lying in a pool of blood at the entrance to the basement. Seeking to avenge Moon-gwang, Geun-sae stabs Ki-jung with a kitchen knife in front of the horrified guests. Da-song suffers another traumatic seizure upon seeing Geun-sae, and a struggle breaks out until Chung-sook fatally impales Geun-sae with a barbecue skewer. While Ki-taek tends to Ki-jung, Mr Park orders Ki-taek to drive Da-song to the hospital. In the chaos, Ki-taek, upon seeing Mr Park's disgusted reaction to Geun-sae's odour, angrily murders him with the knife. Ki-taek flees, leaving the rest of the Kim family behind. Weeks later, Ki-woo is recovering from a brain operation. He and Chung-sook are convicted of fraud and put on probation. Ki-jung has died from her injuries, and Ki-taek, wanted by the authorities, cannot be found. Geun-sae is assumed to be an insane homeless man, and neither his nor Ki-taek's motive for the murders are known. Ki-woo spies on the Parks' home, now occupied by a German family unaware of its history, and sees a message in Morse code from a flickering light. Ki-taek, who escaped into the bunker, has buried Moon-gwang in the garden and sends the message every day, hoping Ki-woo will see it. Still living in their basement apartment with his mother, Ki-woo writes a letter to Ki-taek, vowing to earn enough money to purchase the house and reunite with his dad.


Cast

*
Song Kang-ho Song Kang-ho (born January 17, 1967) is a South Korean actor. Song made his film debut in '' The Day a Pig Fell into the Well'' (1996), and came to national prominence with a series of critically acclaimed performances, including ''No. 3'' (1997 ...
as Kim Ki-taek (Mr Kim; ), the father of the Kim family who is hired as Park Dong-ik's chauffeur. *
Lee Sun-kyun Lee Sun-kyun (born March 2, 1975) is a South Korean actor. After beginning his career in musical theatre, for many years Lee was relegated to minor and supporting roles onscreen, only getting to play lead characters in one-act dramas on KBS '' ...
as Park Dong-ik (Nathan; ), the father of the Park family. *
Cho Yeo-jeong Cho Yeo-jeong (born February 10, 1981) is a South Korean actress. She is best known internationally for her role in the film ''Parasite'' (2019), which won four Academy Awards and became the first non-English language film to win the award for Be ...
as Choi Yeon-gyo (Madame; ), the mother of the Park family. * Choi Woo-shik as Kim Ki-woo (Kevin; ), the son of the Kim family who is hired as Da-hye's English tutor. Choi Woo-shik stated that the character is intelligent but does not have the vigour needed to succeed in examinations. *
Park So-dam Park So-dam (born September 8, 1991) is a South Korean actress. She came into popular recognition in the 2015 film ''The Priests'' and the TV series' ''Cinderella with Four Knights'' (2016) and ''Record of Youth'' (2020). She achieved internationa ...
as Kim Ki-jung (Jessica; ), the daughter of the Kim family who is hired as Da-song's art therapist. * Jang Hye-jin as Chung-sook (), the mother of the Kim family who is hired as the housekeeper for the Park family. * Lee Jung-eun as Gook Moon-gwang (), the housekeeper for the Park family, who also worked for the architect and previous owner of the house. Bong Joon-ho said her relationship with the architect and parts of her story "that happen in between the sequences in the film" will be explored in the spin-off television series. * Park Myung-hoon as Oh Geun-sae (), Moon-gwang's husband. * Jung Ji-so as Park Da-hye (), the daughter of the Park family. * Jung Hyeon-jun as Park Da-song (), the son of the Park family. * Park Keun-rok as Yoon (), Park Dong-ik's chauffeur. *
Park Seo-joon Park Seo-joon (born Park Yong-kyu; December 16, 1988) is a South Korean actor. He is best known for his starring roles in the television series ''Kill Me, Heal Me'' (2015), '' She Was Pretty'' (2015), '' Hwarang: The Poet Warrior Youth'' (2016� ...
as Min-hyuk (), Ki-woo's friend. * Jung Yi-seo as Pizza parlour owner.


Production


Development

The idea for ''Parasite'' originated in 2013. While working on ''
Snowpiercer ''Snowpiercer'' () is a 2013 post-apocalyptic science fiction action film based on the French climate fiction graphic novel ''Le Transperceneige'' by Jacques Lob, Benjamin Legrand and Jean-Marc Rochette. The film was directed by Bong Joon-ho a ...
'', Bong was encouraged by a theatre actor friend to write a play. He had been a tutor for the son of a wealthy family in Seoul in his early 20s and considered turning his experience into a stage production. The film's title, ''Parasite'', was selected by Bong as it served a double meaning, which he had to convince the film's marketing group to use. Bong said "Because the story is about the poor family infiltrating and creeping into the rich house, it seems very obvious that ''Parasite'' refers to the poor family, and I think that's why the marketing team was a little hesitant. But if you look at it the other way, you can say that rich family, they're also parasites in terms of labor. They can't even wash dishes, they can't drive themselves, so they leech off the poor family's labor. So both are parasites."


Writing

After completing ''Snowpiercer'', Bong wrote a fifteen-page
film treatment A film treatment (or simply treatment) is a piece of prose, typically the step between scene cards (index cards) and the first draft of a screenplay for a motion picture, television program, or radio play. It is generally longer and more detail ...
for the first half of ''Parasite'', which his production assistant on ''Snowpiercer'', Han Jin-won, turned into three different drafts of the screenplay. After finishing '' Okja'', Bong returned to the project and finished the script. Han Jin-won received credit as a co-writer for the script. Bong said the film was influenced by the 1960 Korean "domestic Gothic" film '' The Housemaid'' in which a middle-class family's stability is threatened by the arrival of a disruptive interloper in the form of household help. The incident of Christine and Léa Papin—two live-in maids who murdered their employers in 1930s France—also served as a source of inspiration to Bong. Bong also considered his own past, where he had tutored for a rich family. Bong said "I got this feeling that I was infiltrating the private lives of complete strangers. Every week I would go into their house, and I thought how fun it would be if I could get all my friends to infiltrate the house one by one." Additionally, Moon-gwang's allergy to peaches was inspired by one of Bong's university friends having this allergy. Darcy Paquet, an American residing in South Korea, served as translator for the English subtitles and worked directly with Bong. Paquet rendered
Jjapaguri Jjapaguri or Chapaguri ( ko, 짜파구리), also known in English as ram-don, is a Korean noodle dish made by a combination of Chapagetti and Neoguri, two types of instant noodles produced by Nongshim. Irene Jiang of ''Insider'' described it as ...
or Chapaguri, a dish cooked by a character in the film, as ''ram-don'', meaning
ramen is a Japanese noodle dish. It consists of served in a broth; common flavors are soy sauce and miso, with typical toppings including , nori (dried seaweed), menma (bamboo shoots), and scallions. Ramen has its roots in Chinese noodle di ...
-
udon Udon ( or ) is a thick noodle made from wheat flour, used in Japanese cuisine. It is a comfort food for many Japanese people. There are a variety of ways it is prepared and served. Its simplest form is in a hot soup as with a mild broth called ...
. It is a mix of Chapagetti and Neoguri produced by Nongshim. The English version of the film shows packages labelled in English "
ramyeon is a Japanese noodle dish. It consists of served in a broth; common flavors are soy sauce and miso, with typical toppings including , nori (dried seaweed), menma (bamboo shoots), and scallions. Ramen has its roots in Chinese noodle dis ...
" and "udon" to highlight to English speakers how the name was created. Paquet believed the word ''ram-don'' did not previously exist as he found no results on Google. On one occasion, Paquet used
Oxford University Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town and only city of Oxfordshire. In 2020, its population was estimated at 151,584. It is north-west of London, south-east of Birmingham and north-east of Bristol. The city is home to th ...
as a reference instead of Seoul National University, and in another, used
WhatsApp WhatsApp (also called WhatsApp Messenger) is an internationally available freeware, cross-platform, centralized instant messaging (IM) and voice-over-IP (VoIP) service owned by American company Meta Platforms (formerly Facebook). It allows use ...
as the messaging application instead of KakaoTalk. Paquet chose Oxford over Harvard because of Bong's affinity for the United Kingdom, and because Paquet believed using Harvard would be "too obvious a choice". Paquet wrote, "In order for humor to work, people need to understand it immediately. With an unfamiliar word, the humor is lost."


Filming

Principal photography for ''Parasite'' began on 18 May 2018, and ended 124 days later on 19 September 2018. Filming took place around
Seoul Seoul (; ; ), officially known as the Seoul Special City, is the capital and largest metropolis of South Korea.Before 1972, Seoul was the ''de jure'' capital of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) as stated iArticle 103 of ...
and in
Jeonju Jeonju () is the 16th largest city in South Korea and the capital of North Jeolla Province. It is both urban and rural due to the closeness of Wanju County which almost entirely surrounds Jeonju (Wanju County has many residents who work in Jeonj ...
. The
director of photography The cinematographer or director of photography (sometimes shortened to DP or DOP) is the person responsible for the photographing or recording of a film, television production, music video or other live action piece. The cinematographer is the ch ...
for the film is Hong Kyung-pyo, a well-known South Korean cinematographer who had worked with other well-known directors.


The Parks' house

The Parks' house was a specially constructed set. The ground floor and the garden were constructed on an empty outdoor lot, while the basement and first floor were constructed on set. "We built the main floor of the house in a backlot and for the second floor it was all green screen outside", explained editor Yang Jin-mo. "When we shot toward the outside from inside, everything beyond the garden was all
VFX Visual effects (sometimes abbreviated VFX) is the process by which imagery is created or manipulated outside the context of a live-action shot in filmmaking and video production. The integration of live-action footage and other live-action foota ...
." Bong, as part of the scripting, had also designed the basic layout of this home. "It's like its own universe inside this film. Each character and each team has spaces that they take over that they can infiltrate, and also secret spaces that they don't know." A fictional architect Namgoong Hyeonja had been introduced as the home's designer and the previous owner before the Parks, and production designer Lee Ha-jun considered the function and form of the house based on how Namgoong would have designed it. The Parks' house was designed and constructed to not only be a beautiful house, but also "a stage that served the precise needs of his camera, compositions, and characters, while embodying his film's rich themes". Lee said, "Since Mr Park's house is built by an architect in the story, it wasn't easy finding the right approach to designing the house...I'm not an architect, and I think there's a difference in how an architect envisions a space and how a production designer does. We prioritize blocking and camera angles while architects build spaces for people to actually live in and thus design around people. So I think the approach is very different." For example, Ha-jun established that Namgoong would have used the first floor's living room to appreciate the garden, so it was built with a single wide window and only spartan seating options for this function. Some of the interior artwork in the house sets were by South Korea artist Seung-mo Park, including existing artwork of hers and some explicitly created for the film. The team designed the home and interiors to make the set amenable for filming at the 2.35:1 aspect ratio, favouring wide and deeper rooms rather than height. Lee said the sun was an important factor when building the outdoor set. "The sun's direction was a crucial point of consideration while we were searching for outdoor lots", explained Lee. "We had to remember the sun's position during our desired time frame and determine the positions and sizes of the windows accordingly. In terms of practical lighting, the DP ong Kyung-pyohad specific requests regarding the colour. He wanted sophisticated indirect lighting and the warmth from tungsten light sources. Before building the set, the DP and I visited the lot several times to check the sun's movement each time, and we decided on the set's location together".


The Kims' apartment

The Kims' semi-basement apartment and its street were also built on set, partially out of necessity for filming the flooding scenes. Lee Ha-jun visited and photographed several abandoned villages and towns in South Korea scheduled to be torn down to help inform the set design. He also created stories for the Kims' neighbours and added details of those residents along the street to improve the authenticity of the street's appearance.


Editing

According to editor Yang Jin-mo, Bong Joon-ho chose to shoot the film without traditional coverage. To give them more editing options with limited shots, they sometimes stitched together different takes of the same shot. Yang edited the film using Final Cut Pro 7, a program not updated since 2011. The principal release and editing of the film was done for release in colour. A black and white version of the film was produced prior to the world premiere in Cannes and debuted on 26 January 2020 at the International Film Festival Rotterdam and was re-screened from 29 to 31 January. It also received a limited release in some countries.


Music

The score was written by South Korean composer Jung Jae-il, which consisted of "minimalist piano pieces, punctuated with light percussion", which sets the film's "tense atmosphere". It also had a baroque texture with excerpts from Handel's opera '' Rodelinda'' and the 1964 Italian song " In ginocchio da te" by
Gianni Morandi Gianni Morandi (; born 11 December 1944) is an Italian pop singer, actor and entertainer. Early life Gian Luigi Morandi was born in a little village called Monghidoro on the Tuscan-Emilian Apennines. His father Renato was active within the ...
also featured in the score. It was recorded mostly through computer sounds. The soundtrack was published and released by
Genie Music Genie Music (), a subsidiary of KT Corporation, is a South Korean company that specializes in the production and distribution of music content. Its music streaming service is the second most used in South Korea with 2.5 million subscribers as ...
and
Stone Music Entertainment Stone Music Entertainment (Hangul: 스톤 뮤직 엔터테인먼트), is a South Korean music distribution company under CJ ENM, along with music streaming store Genie Music. It was one of the largest co-publisher companies in South Korea. The ...
in digital and physical formats on 30 May 2019 in Korea. Internationally, the album was marketed by
Milan Records Milan Records is a record label located in Los Angeles, California specializing in film scores and soundtrack albums. In addition, Milan boasts an extensive electronic catalog which features down-tempo, chillout, and eclectic electronic releases ...
, which released the soundtrack on 11 October 2019. The album was released in English titles, however, the names and nouns are different from the English subtitles as translated by Darcy Paquet. On 14 February 2020, the album was released in double-vinyl published by
Sacred Bones Records Sacred Bones Records is an American independent record label founded in 2007 and based in Brooklyn, New York. The label has released recordings from artists including Zola Jesus, David Lynch, John Carpenter, Blanck Mass, Crystal Stilts, Maris ...
(a division of American film production company, Neon) and Waxwork Records, in several multicolour variants. An original song "" (), written by Joon-ho and performed by Choi Woo-shik, who also played the main character Ki-woo, is featured in the film's end credits. For marketing the international digital releases of the soundtrack, the song was displayed in English as "Soju One Glass", but it was later changed to a grammatically correct title, as to be shortlisted for the
Best Original Song This is a list of categories of awards commonly awarded through organizations that bestow film awards, including those presented by various film, festivals, and people's awards. Best Actor/Best Actress *See Best Actor#Film awards, Best Actress#F ...
category, at the
92nd Academy Awards The 92nd Academy Awards ceremony, presented by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), honored films released in 2019 and took place on February 9, 2020, at the Dolby Theatre in Hollywood, Los Angeles, beginning at 5:00 p ...
.


Themes and interpretations

The main themes of ''Parasite'' are class conflict,
social inequality Social inequality occurs when resources in a given society are distributed unevenly, typically through norms of allocation, that engender specific patterns along lines of socially defined categories of persons. It posses and creates gender c ...
and
wealth disparity There are wide varieties of economic inequality, most notably income inequality measured using the distribution of income (the amount of money people are paid) and wealth inequality measured using the distribution of wealth (the amount of ...
. Film critics and Bong Joon-ho himself have considered the film as a reflection of late-stage capitalism, and some have associated it with the term " Hell Joseon" (Korean: 헬조선), a satirical phrase which posits that living in hell would be akin to living in modern South Korea. This term came about due to high rates of youth unemployment, the intense demands of pursuing
higher education Higher education is tertiary education leading to award of an academic degree. Higher education, also called post-secondary education, third-level or tertiary education, is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after comple ...
, the crisis of home affordability, and the increasing socio-economic gap between the wealthy and poor. In ''Coronavirus Capitalism Goes to the Cinema'', Nulman writes that the etymology of the word 'parasite' originally refers to "person who eats at the table of another", which is presented in one of the scenes of the film. Nulman also notes the connection between parasites and the
Karl Marx Karl Heinrich Marx (; 5 May 1818 – 14 March 1883) was a German philosopher, economist, historian, sociologist, political theorist, journalist, critic of political economy, and socialist revolutionary. His best-known titles are the 1848 ...
quote:
The
capitalist Capitalism is an economic system based on the private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit. Central characteristics of capitalism include capital accumulation, competitive markets, price system, priva ...
… is only capital personified. His soul is the soul of capital. But capital has one sole driving force, the drive to valorize itself, to create
surplus-value In Marxian economics, surplus value is the difference between the amount raised through a sale of a product and the amount it cost to the owner of that product to manufacture it: i.e. the amount raised through sale of the product minus the cost ...
, to make its constant part, the means of production, absorb the greatest possible amount of surplus labor. Capital is dead labor which,
vampire A vampire is a mythical creature that subsists by feeding on the vital essence (generally in the form of blood) of the living. In European folklore, vampires are undead creatures that often visited loved ones and caused mischief or deat ...
-like, lives only by sucking living labor, and lives the more, the more labor it sucks.
The film also analyses the use of connections and qualifications to get ahead, for rich and poor families alike. Some argue that the film's discussion of class relates to
Pierre Bourdieu Pierre Bourdieu (; 1 August 1930 – 23 January 2002) was a French sociologist and public intellectual. Bourdieu's contributions to the sociology of education, the theory of sociology, and sociology of aesthetics have achieved wide influence ...
's concept of habitus. Bong has referred to ''Parasite'' as an upstairs/downstairs or "stairway movie", in which staircases are used as a motif to represent the positions of the families in the homes of the Kims and the Parks, as well as the basement bunker. The semi-basement apartment that the Kims live in is common for poorer Seoul residents due to its lower rent, despite having issues such as mould and increased risk of disease.
Monsoon A monsoon () is traditionally a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with annual latitudinal osci ...
floods such as the one depicted in the film commonly damage these types of residences the most. The film presents class in spatial terms that speak to hierarchy, according to Nulman. According to Bong, the ending implies that Ki-woo will not be able to earn the funds needed to buy the house, as the final shot shows Ki-woo still in the basement flat and recalls the first scene; he described this shot as a "surefire kill" (확인사살), referring to a coup de grace to ensure death. The ending song refers to Ki-woo working to make money to get the house. Choi Woo-shik estimated that it would take approximately 564 years for Ki-woo to earn enough money to purchase the house. Nevertheless, he was optimistic: "I'm pretty sure Ki-woo is one of those bright kids. He'll come up with some idea, and he would just go into the German family's house, and I think he will rescue his father". However, according to many interpretations, this dream subscribes to a
bootstrapping In general, bootstrapping usually refers to a self-starting process that is supposed to continue or grow without external input. Etymology Tall boots may have a tab, loop or handle at the top known as a bootstrap, allowing one to use fingers ...
mentality and is unlikely to be achieved; furthermore, "it does not address the fundamental problem at hand. Even in this fantasy scenario, Ki-taek would still be contained in the house by a legal system that would seek his prosecution and imprisonment. The forces that created and upheld the Kim family's separation would not be undone, merely adapted to". Critics have also considered the themes of
colonialism Colonialism is a practice or policy of control by one people or power over other people or areas, often by establishing colony, colonies and generally with the aim of economic dominance. In the process of colonisation, colonisers may impose the ...
and imperialism. According to Ju-Hyun Park, the film plays out within "the capitalist economic order inaugurated and upheld in Korea by colonial occupation", and the use of English language in the film denotes prestige within that economic system. The Park family's son, Da-song, is obsessed with " Indians" and owns Native American-themed toys and inauthentic replicas. Eugene Nulman makes the link between the 'native' Park family and the invaders - the Kims who bring with them deadly parasites for which the natives have no immunity. Nulman points to the miasma theory of scent carrying disease where it was thought that the natives could catch disease just by smelling the noxious air carried by colonising Spaniards. This connects to the film's theme around the class distinction of smell. Bong has noted that: "I wouldn’t go so far as to say it’s a commentary on what happened in the United States, but it’s related in the sense that this family starts infiltrating the house and they already find a family living there. So you could say it’s a joke in that context. But at the same time, the Native Americans have a very complicated and long, deep history. But in this family, that story is reduced to a young boy's hobby and decoration. The boy’s mother mentions the tent as a U.S. imported good, and I think it’s like the
Che Guevara Ernesto Che Guevara (; 14 June 1928The date of birth recorded on /upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/78/Ernesto_Guevara_Acta_de_Nacimiento.jpg his birth certificatewas 14 June 1928, although one tertiary source, (Julia Constenla, quot ...
T-shirts that people wear. They don’t know the life of the revolutionary figure, they just think it’s a cool T-shirt. That's what happens in our current time: The context and meaning behind these actual things only exists as a surface-level thing". Some critics note the importance of working class solidarity as presented in the film. The problems the Kims find themselves in were a result of a lack of class solidarity with the other poor family, Geun-sae and Moon-gwang. At the climax of the film, Mr Kim becomes aware of his class identity when Mr Park is disgusted with Geun-sae's smell. Others said ''Parasite'' revealed the misfortunes of poor, powerless victims of an indifferent world who are transformed into liberation through the comical effect of mass slaughter.


Release


Theatrical

Neon acquired the US and Canadian rights to the film at the 2018 American Film Market. The film's rights were also pre-sold to German-speaking territories (Koch Films), French-speaking territories (The Jokers) and Japan (Bitters End). The film had its world premiere at the
2019 Cannes Film Festival The 72nd annual Cannes Film Festival took place from 14 to 25 May 2019. Mexican filmmaker Alejandro González Iñárritu served as jury president. The Palme d'Or went to the South Korean film ''Parasite'', directed by Bong Joon-ho; Bong became t ...
on 21 May. It was released in South Korea on 30 May 2019. It was released in Australia and New Zealand by Madman Films on 27 June 2019 (becoming both the highest-ever-grossing Korean film in the region and the distributor's highest-ever-grossing non-English-language film in Australia),. It was screened at the
Toronto International Film Festival The Toronto International Film Festival (TIFF, often stylized as tiff) is one of the largest publicly attended film festivals in the world, attracting over 480,000 people annually. Since its founding in 1976, TIFF has grown to become a perman ...
in Toronto, Canada in September 2019 and released generally in the United States and Canada on 11 October 2019. The film was originally scheduled to be screened as a closing film at FIRST International Film Festival Xining in China on 28 July 2019, but on 27 July, the film festival organisers announced that the screening was cancelled for "technical reasons". It was licensed for the United Kingdom and Ireland by
Curzon Artificial Eye Curzon Film (), formerly known as Artificial Eye or Curzon Artificial Eye, is a British film distributor, specialising in independent, foreign-language and art house films for cinema and home entertainment. History Artificial Eye was founded i ...
at Cannes, and had preview screenings in cinemas nationwide with an interview with Bong Joon-ho shared live by satellite on 3 February 2020, followed by the film's general release on 7 February. Neon expanded the number of North American theatres showing the film from 1,060 to 2,001 starting the weekend of 14 February 2020, following the film's recognition at the Academy Awards, despite the film having already been released on home video in the region. A special IMAX remaster was shown at limited North American theatres during the week of 21 February 2020.


Home media

By December 2019, the film had earned a
net revenue In business and accounting, net income (also total comprehensive income, net earnings, net profit, bottom line, sales profit, or credit sales) is an entity's income minus cost of goods sold, expenses, depreciation and amortization, interest, ...
of from home entertainment, television and foreign sales. On 28 January 2020, ''Parasite'' was released on
Blu-ray The Blu-ray Disc (BD), often known simply as Blu-ray, is a digital optical disc data storage format. It was invented and developed in 2005 and released on June 20, 2006 worldwide. It is designed to supersede the DVD format, and capable of st ...
and
DVD The DVD (common abbreviation for Digital Video Disc or Digital Versatile Disc) is a digital optical disc data storage format. It was invented and developed in 1995 and first released on November 1, 1996, in Japan. The medium can store any kind ...
by Neon, with distribution by
Universal Pictures Home Entertainment Universal Pictures Home Entertainment (formerly Universal Studios Home Entertainment, Universal Studios Home Video, MCA/Universal Home Video, MCA Home Video, MCA Videodisc and MCA Videocassette, Inc.) is the home video distribution division of Am ...
, and on 2 June it was released on
Ultra HD Blu-ray Ultra HD Blu-ray (4K Ultra HD, UHD-BD, or 4K Blu-ray) is a digital optical disc data storage format that is an enhanced variant of Blu-ray. Ultra HD Blu-ray discs are incompatible with existing standard Blu-ray players, though a traditional Bl ...
. On 13 February 2020, it was announced that the film will be released on home media by
The Criterion Collection The Criterion Collection, Inc. (or simply Criterion) is an American home video, home-video distribution company that focuses on licensing, restoring and distributing "important classic and contemporary films." Criterion serves film and media scho ...
. On 15 July 2020, The Criterion Collection announced the release date of 27 October 2020, featuring the long-awaited black and white version. On 24 February 2020, the subscription-based streaming service Hulu announced that it had secured exclusive rights to stream the film in the United States, starting on 8 April 2020. Additionally, Amazon Prime Video began streaming the film outside of the United States on 28 March 2020. In the United Kingdom, it was 2020's best-selling
foreign language film World cinema is a term in film theory that refers to films made outside of the American motion picture industry, particularly those in opposition to the aesthetics and values of commercial American cinema.Nagib, Lúcia. "Towards a positive de ...
on physical
home video Home video is prerecorded media sold or rented for home viewing. The term originates from the VHS and Betamax era, when the predominant medium was videotapes, but has carried over to optical disc formats such as DVD, Blu-ray and streaming me ...
formats.


Black and white edition

A special monochrome version of the film, ''Parasite: Black-and-White Edition'', had its world premiere at the International Film Festival Rotterdam in January 2020 and was released in cinemas in some cities in the United States in the same month. It was released on 24 July 2020 in the United Kingdom and Ireland by Curzon Artificial Eye in cinemas and on-demand simultaneously, and was released on 27 October 2020, in the United States and Canada by The Criterion Collection on DVD and Blu-ray Disc, as part of their special edition rerelease. The black and white transfer of the film was overseen by director Bong Joon-ho and cinematographer Hong Kyung-pyo.


Reception


Box office

''Parasite'' grossed $71.4 million in South Korea, $53.4 million in the United States and Canada, and $133.9 million in other countries, for a worldwide total of $258.7 million. It set a new record for Bong, becoming the first of his films to gross over $100 million worldwide. ''
Deadline Hollywood ''Deadline Hollywood'', commonly known as ''Deadline'' and also referred to as ''Deadline.com'', is an online news site founded as the news blog ''Deadline Hollywood Daily'' by Nikki Finke in 2006. The site is updated several times a day, wit ...
'' calculated the film's net profit as $46.2million. In its native South Korea, ''Parasite'' grossed US$20.7 million on its opening weekend. It would close its box office run with US$72.2 million and more than 10 million admissions, roughly one-fifth of the country's population and ranking first among the year's top five films. In the film's United States opening weekend, it grossed $376,264 from three theatres. Its per-venue average of $125,421 was the best since ''
La La Land ''La La Land'' is a 2016 American romantic musical comedy-drama film written and directed by Damien Chazelle. It stars Ryan Gosling and Emma Stone as a struggling jazz pianist and an aspiring actress, respectively, who meet and fall in love ...
''s in 2016, and the best ever for an international film. It expanded to 33 theatres in its second weekend, making $1.24 million, and then made $1.8 million from 129 theatres in its third. The film made $2.5 million in its fourth weekend and $2.6 million in its fifth. The film's initial theatre count peaked in its sixth weekend at 620, when it made $1.9 million. It continued to hold well over the following weekends, making $1.3 million and $1 million. In its tenth week of release the film crossed the $20 million mark (rare for an international film), making $632,500 from 306 theatres. During the weekend of the Oscars, the film made $1.5 million from 1,060 theatres for a running total of $35.5 million. After Neon's doubling of theatre showings in the week following the Academy Awards, the film made $5.5 million in revenue from the US & Canada, making it one of the biggest Best Picture bumps since ''
Slumdog Millionaire ''Slumdog Millionaire'' is a 2008 British drama film that is a loose adaptation of the novel '' Q & A'' (2005) by Indian author Vikas Swarup. It narrates the story of 18-year-old Jamal Malik from the Juhu slums of Mumbai. Starring Dev Pa ...
'' in 2009 and the biggest in ten years. On 5 February, ''Parasite'' became the first Korean film in nearly 15 years that surpassed one million moviegoers in Japan. In the UK, it broke the record for the opening weekend of a non-English-language film, making £1.4 million ($1.8 million) including previews over its debut weekend, from 135 screens, and in Australia it took in over $1.9 million. In the weekend following its Oscars wins, the film made $12.8 million from 43 countries, bringing its international total to $161 million, and its global running gross over the $200 million mark. Following its Academy Awards success, ''Parasite'' received significant rescreening, generating significant further revenue. The Associated Press reported the biggest "Oscar effect" since 2001 after '' Gladiator'' won the Oscar for Best Picture. ''Parasite''s box office revenue increased by more than 230% compared to the prior week, grossing $2.15 million in a single day. It also ranked No. 1 in Japan, the first Korean film to do so in 15 years. The Motion Picture Distributors Association of Australia announced that $749K worth of cinema tickets were sold in a single weekend, with the film re-entering the top 10 at the local box office more than six months after it debuted in Australian cinemas. ''Parasite'' also surged back to fourth place in South Korea's box office by attracting more than 80,000 viewers.


Critical response

On
review aggregator A review aggregator is a system that collects reviews of products and services (such as films, books, video games, software, hardware, and cars). This system stores the reviews and uses them for purposes such as supporting a website where users ...
Rotten Tomatoes Rotten Tomatoes is an American review-aggregation website for film and television. The company was launched in August 1998 by three undergraduate students at the University of California, Berkeley: Senh Duong, Patrick Y. Lee, and Stephen Wang ...
, ''Parasite'' has an approval rating of based on 474 reviews, with an average rating of . The website's critics consensus reads: "An urgent, brilliantly layered look at timely social themes, ''Parasite'' finds writer-director Bong Joon Ho in near-total command of his craft." On
Metacritic Metacritic is a website that aggregates reviews of films, TV shows, music albums, video games and formerly, books. For each product, the scores from each review are averaged (a weighted average). Metacritic was created by Jason Dietz, Marc ...
, 52 compiled reviews from critics were identified as positive, giving the film a
weighted average The weighted arithmetic mean is similar to an ordinary arithmetic mean (the most common type of average), except that instead of each of the data points contributing equally to the final average, some data points contribute more than others. The ...
score of 96 out of 100, indicating "universal acclaim". On the same site, ''Parasite'' was rated as the best film of 2019 and was ranked 7th among the films with the highest scores of the decade. As of 20 November 2021, it is the 48th highest-rated film of all time on the website. Writing for ''
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' (''the Times'', ''NYT'', or the Gray Lady) is a daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership reported in 2020 to comprise a declining 840,000 paid print subscribers, and a growing 6 million paid d ...
'', A. O. Scott described the film as "wildly entertaining, the kind of smart, generous, aesthetically energized movie that obliterates the tired distinctions between art films and popcorn movies". Bilge Ebiri of ''
Vulture A vulture is a bird of prey that scavenges on carrion. There are 23 extant species of vulture (including Condors). Old World vultures include 16 living species native to Europe, Africa, and Asia; New World vultures are restricted to North and ...
'' magazine wrote that ''Parasite'' is "a work that is itself in a state of constant, agitated transformation—a nerve-racking masterpiece whose spell lingers long after its haunting final image". In his five-star review, Dave Calhoun of '' Time Out'' praised the social commentary in the film, calling the overall work "surprising and fully gripping from beginning to end, full of big bangs and small wonders". ''
Variety Variety may refer to: Arts and entertainment Entertainment formats * Variety (radio) * Variety show, in theater and television Films * ''Variety'' (1925 film), a German silent film directed by Ewald Andre Dupont * ''Variety'' (1935 film), ...
''s Jessica Kiang described the film as "a wild, wild ride", writing that "Bong is back and on brilliant form, but he is unmistakably, roaringly furious, and it registers because the target is so deserving, so enormous, so 2019: ''Parasite'' is a tick fat with the bitter blood of class rage". Joshua Rivera from '' GQ'' gave a glowing review and declared ''Parasite'' to possibly be one of the best films from 2019. Michael Wood writing for the '' London Review of Books'' found its following a theme of class consciousness to be consistent with the director's previous ''Snowpiercer'' stating, "The theme of social ascent, or social difference as a landscape, could hardly be more obvious, but we are beginning to get the movie's idea: not to avoid stereotypes but to keep crashing into them". UK film website TheShiznit awarded an A, noting "it makes you wonder what the inflection point for such behaviour is in a culture where manners and servitude are drilled into those who can't afford not to have them". ''
The A.V. Club ''The A.V. Club'' is an American online newspaper and entertainment website featuring reviews, interviews, and other articles that examine films, music, television, books, games, and other elements of pop-culture media. ''The A.V. Club'' was cre ...
''s A. A. Dowd awarded the film an A− grade, praising the fun and surprising twists. ''Parasite'' ranked first in a survey by
IndieWire IndieWire (sometimes stylized as indieWIRE or Indiewire) is a film industry and review website that was established in 1996. The site's focus was predominantly independent film, although its coverage has grown to "to include all aspects of Holl ...
of over 300 critics, in the Best Film, Best Director, Best Screenplay and Best Foreign Film categories. It also appeared on over 240 critics' year-end top-ten lists, including 77 who ranked it first.


Accolades

''Parasite'' won the
Palme d'Or The Palme d'Or (; en, Golden Palm) is the highest prize awarded at the Cannes Film Festival. It was introduced in 1955 by the festival's organizing committee. Previously, from 1939 to 1954, the festival's highest prize was the Grand Prix du Fe ...
at the
2019 Cannes Film Festival The 72nd annual Cannes Film Festival took place from 14 to 25 May 2019. Mexican filmmaker Alejandro González Iñárritu served as jury president. The Palme d'Or went to the South Korean film ''Parasite'', directed by Bong Joon-ho; Bong became t ...
. It became the first South Korean film to do so, as well as the first film to win with a unanimous vote since '' Blue Is the Warmest Colour'' at the
2013 Cannes Film Festival The 66th Cannes Film Festival took place in Cannes, France, from 15 to 26 May 2013. Steven Spielberg was the head of the jury for the main competition. New Zealand film director Jane Campion was the head of the jury for the Cinéfondation and ...
. At the
77th Golden Globe Awards The 77th Golden Globe Awards honored the best in film and American television of 2019, as chosen by the Hollywood Foreign Press Association. Produced by Dick Clark Productions and the HFPA, the ceremony was broadcast live on January 5, 2020, fro ...
, the film was nominated for three awards, including Best Director and Best Screenplay, and won Best Foreign Language Film, becoming the first ever South Korean film to achieve that feat. It became the second international film to ever be nominated for the
Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Cast in a Motion Picture The Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Cast (or Ensemble) in a Motion Picture is an award given by the Screen Actors Guild to honor the finest acting achievements in film. Winners and nominees : 1990s 2000s 2010s 2 ...
since ''
Life Is Beautiful ''Life Is Beautiful'' ( it, La vita è bella, ) is a 1997 Italian comedy drama film directed by and starring Roberto Benigni, who co-wrote the film with Vincenzo Cerami. Benigni plays Guido Orefice, a Jewish Italian bookshop owner, who emplo ...
'' (1997), and ultimately won the category, making it the first international film to win the prize. ''Parasite'' was also nominated for four awards at the
73rd British Academy Film Awards The 73rd British Academy Film Awards, more commonly known as the BAFAs (or BAFTAs), were held on 2 February 2020 at the Royal Albert Hall in London, honouring the best national and foreign films of 2019. Presented by the British Academy of Film ...
Best Film This is a list of categories of awards commonly awarded through organizations that bestow film awards, including those presented by various film, festivals, and people's awards. Best Actor/Best Actress *See Best Actor#Film awards, Best Actress#F ...
, Best Director,
Best Original Screenplay The Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay is the Academy Award for the best screenplay not based upon previously published material. It was created in 1940 as a separate writing award from the Academy Award for Best Story. Beginning with the ...
, and Best Film Not in the English Language, being the first South Korean film to receive nominations other than for Best Film Not in the English Language, and went on to win Best Original Screenplay and Best Film Not in the English Language. ''Parasite'' was submitted as the South Korean entry for Best International Feature Film for the 92nd Academy Awards, making the December shortlist. It went on to win four awards—
Best Picture This is a list of categories of awards commonly awarded through organizations that bestow film awards, including those presented by various film, festivals, and people's awards. Best Actor/Best Actress *See Best Actor#Film awards, Best Actress#F ...
, Best Director,
Best Original Screenplay The Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay is the Academy Award for the best screenplay not based upon previously published material. It was created in 1940 as a separate writing award from the Academy Award for Best Story. Beginning with the ...
, and Best International Feature Film. ''Parasite'' became the first non-English language film in
Academy Awards The Academy Awards, better known as the Oscars, are awards for artistic and technical merit for the American and international film industry. The awards are regarded by many as the most prestigious, significant awards in the entertainment ind ...
history History (derived ) is the systematic study and the documentation of the human activity. The time period of event before the invention of writing systems is considered prehistory. "History" is an umbrella term comprising past events as well ...
to win Best Picture. ''Parasite'' also became the first South Korean film to be nominated for Best Picture at the Academy Awards and the second East Asian film to receive a nomination for Best Picture since '' Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon'' (2000), and Bong Joon-ho became the fourth Asian person to receive an Academy Award nomination for Best Director, becoming the second to win following
Ang Lee Ang Lee (; born October 23, 1954) is a Taiwanese filmmaker. Born in Pingtung County of southern Taiwan, Lee was educated in Taiwan and later in the United States. During his filmmaking career, he has received international critical and popula ...
. It also received nominations for Best Film Editing and Best Production Design. The film is also the second film to win both the Academy Award for Best Picture and the Palme d'Or at Cannes under the latter's name in sixty-five years since '' Marty'', being the third film to win both grand prizes after the former and '' The Lost Weekend''. At the 56th Grand Bell Awards, Parasite earned a leading 11 nominations with 5 awards (the most for the show) to its name. It won for Best Film, Best Director (for Bong Joon-ho), Best Supporting Actress (for Lee Jung-eun), Best Screenplay (for Bong Joon Ho and Han Jin-Won), and Best Music (for Jung Jae-il). During Bong Joon-ho's acceptance speech at the Oscars, he paused to thank
Martin Scorsese Martin Charles Scorsese ( , ; born November 17, 1942) is an American film director, producer, screenwriter and actor. Scorsese emerged as one of the major figures of the New Hollywood era. He is the recipient of many major accolades, inclu ...
, a co-nominated director, whom Bong recognised as having historical importance to the history of filmmaking which resulted in spontaneous applause from the audience in recognition of Scorsese during his speech. The following day Scorsese sent the director a personal congratulatory letter which Bong reported while on a speaking engagement at the Film at Lincoln Center where Bong stated that he could not share the full letter from Scorsese due to its personal nature. He did, however, share the conclusion of the letter by stating that Scorsese told him that "You've done well. Now rest. But don't rest for too long." Bong then added that Scorsese ended his letter by stating "how he and other directors were waiting for my (Bong's) next movie". The
Associated Press The Associated Press (AP) is an American non-profit news agency headquartered in New York City. Founded in 1846, it operates as a cooperative, unincorporated association. It produces news reports that are distributed to its members, U.S. ne ...
commented that although the
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS, often pronounced ; also known as simply the Academy or the Motion Picture Academy) is a professional honorary organization with the stated goal of advancing the arts and sciences of motio ...
(AMPAS) had previously failed to adequately recognise women filmmakers in the Academy Award nominations, this time it acknowledged diversity. ''
The Wall Street Journal ''The Wall Street Journal'' is an American business-focused, international daily newspaper based in New York City, with international editions also available in Chinese and Japanese. The ''Journal'', along with its Asian editions, is published ...
'' also stated that the film seemed to promise a "more inclusive Oscars" demanded by those who have previously criticised AMPAS. The AP noted that the film's victory, because of its being an Oscar-winning foreign film in a regular Academy category, opens the door for Hollywood to undergo a radical change and a different kind of advancement, as a sceptic worried that if "Parasite won the Oscar for best international film, it probably wouldn't win any other major awards". "The academy gave best picture to the actual best picture", wrote
Justin Chang Justin Choigee Chang (born January 3, 1983) is an American film critic and columnist for the ''Los Angeles Times''. He previously worked for ''Variety''. Early life Justin Chang graduated from the University of Southern California in 2004. Chan ...
of the ''
Los Angeles Times The ''Los Angeles Times'' (abbreviated as ''LA Times'') is a daily newspaper that started publishing in Los Angeles in 1881. Based in the LA-adjacent suburb of El Segundo since 2018, it is the sixth-largest newspaper by circulation in the U ...
'', who continued that the film awards body was "startled ... into recognizing that no country's cinema has a monopoly on greatness". In 2021, the
Writers Guild of America The Writers Guild of America is the joint efforts of two different US labor unions representing TV and film writers: * The Writers Guild of America, East (WGAE), headquartered in New York City and affiliated with the AFL–CIO * The Writers Gu ...
ranked ''Parasite's'' screenplay the fourth greatest of the 21st century so far.


Legacy


Spin-off television series

A six-hour HBO limited series based on the film, with Bong and Adam McKay as executive producers, was announced to be in early development in January 2020. Bong has stated that this will also be entitled ''Parasite'', and will explore stories "that happen in between the sequences in the film". In February 2020,
Mark Ruffalo Mark Alan Ruffalo (; born November 22, 1967) is an American actor and producer best known for playing Bruce Banner / Hulk since 2012 in the superhero franchise of the Marvel Cinematic Universe, and in the television series '' She-Hulk: Attorne ...
was rumoured to star whilst
Tilda Swinton Katherine Matilda Swinton (born 5 November 1960) is a British actress. Known for her roles in independent films and blockbusters, she has received various accolades, including an Academy Award and a British Academy Film Award, in addition t ...
was confirmed as being cast in a lead role. However, in October 2022, Tilda Swinton announced she was no longer involved with the series.


Plans for tourist set

A South Korean local government ( Goyang City) plans to restore the Goyang Aqua Special Shooting Studio set, where the film ''Parasite'' was produced, and use it as a ''Parasite'' movie experience tourism facility. In addition, Goyang City has announced that it will invest $150 million in the development of the Goyang Film Culture Complex by 2026 to accommodate film experience
tourism Tourism is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours. The World Tourism Organization defines tourism mor ...
facilities, additional indoor studios, outdoor set production facilities, inter-Korean video content centres, image research and development companies. However, criticisms have been made about the commercialisation of areas known for poverty in South Korea as tourist destinations without concrete steps being taken to address the issues at hand.


City tourism and food

The Seoul Tourism Organization (STO) has been criticised by South Korea's opposition party and residents of Seoul for introducing a tour route featuring filming locations and stories from the film. The Justice Party claims that it became famous due to the universal recognition of global inequality. However, it sees the development of a tourist attraction based on the film in Seoul as amounting to the further exploitation of poverty. Residents living in ''Parasite'''s filming locations have reportedly complained of a sense of embarrassment and discomfort due to an increase in tourists visiting their neighbourhoods and taking photos of their surroundings, making them feel like "monkeys in a zoo". In response, the local government of Seoul has announced that government funding will prioritise the estimated 1,500 low-income families living in the semi-basement type accommodations featured in the film. People began posting videos on how to make jjapaguri (called "ram-don" in the film's English subtitles) on
YouTube YouTube is a global online video sharing and social media platform headquartered in San Bruno, California. It was launched on February 14, 2005, by Steve Chen, Chad Hurley, and Jawed Karim. It is owned by Google, and is the second mo ...
after the film was distributed. Nongshim, the manufacturer of Chapagetti and Neoguri, also began distributing a singular "Chapaguri" product due to the combination's popularity from the film.


See also

* List of South Korean submissions for the Academy Award for Best International Feature Film *
List of submissions to the 92nd Academy Awards for Best International Feature Film This is a list of submissions to the 92nd Academy Awards for the Best International Feature Film. The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) has invited the film industries of various countries to submit their best film for the Acade ...


Explanatory notes


References


External links

* * *
Script
* * * * *
''Parasite: Notes from the Underground''
an essay by Inkoo Kang at the Criterion Collection {{Authority control 2019 black comedy films 2019 comedy-drama films 2019 films 2019 independent films 2019 thriller films 2010s comedy thriller films 2010s independent films BAFTA winners (films) Best Foreign Film César Award winners Best Foreign Film Guldbagge Award winners Best Foreign Language Film Academy Award winners Best Foreign Language Film BAFTA Award winners Best Foreign Language Film Golden Globe winners Best Picture Academy Award winners Best Picture Blue Dragon Film Award winners CJ Entertainment films Criticism of capitalism Neon (distributor) films Films about con artists Films about families Films about poverty Films about social class Films about the upper class Films about the working class Films directed by Bong Joon-ho Films produced by Bong Joon-ho Films set in 2018 Films set in basement Films set in country houses Films set in South Korea Films shot in Gyeonggi Province Films shot in Seoul Films whose director won the Best Directing Academy Award Films whose writer won the Best Original Screenplay Academy Award Films whose writer won the Best Original Screenplay BAFTA Award Films with screenplays by Bong Joon-ho Home invasions in film IMAX films Independent Spirit Award for Best Foreign Film winners 2010s Korean-language films Madman Entertainment National Society of Film Critics Award for Best Film winners Palme d'Or winners South Korean black comedy films South Korean comedy thriller films South Korean comedy-drama films South Korean independent films 2010s South Korean films Films set in bunkers