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Sidney Aaron "Paddy" Chayefsky (January 29, 1923 – August 1, 1981) was an American playwright,
screenwriter A screenplay writer (also called screenwriter, scriptwriter, scribe or scenarist) is a writer who practices the craft of screenwriting, writing screenplays on which mass media, such as films, television programs and video games, are based. ...
and novelist. He is the only person to have won three solo
Academy Awards The Academy Awards, better known as the Oscars, are awards for artistic and technical merit for the American and international film industry. The awards are regarded by many as the most prestigious, significant awards in the entertainment in ...
for writing both adapted and original screenplays. He was one of the most renowned dramatists of the Golden Age of Television. His intimate, realistic scripts provided a naturalistic style of television drama for the 1950s, dramatizing the lives of ordinary Americans.
Martin Gottfried Martin Gottfried (October 9, 1933 – March 6, 2014) was an American critic, columnist and author. He was born in Brooklyn, New York. Biography Early career Gottfried was a 1959 graduate of Columbia College in New York City, and attended Colum ...
wrote in ''All His Jazz'' that Chayefsky was "the most successful graduate of television's
slice of life Slice of life is a depiction of mundane experiences in art and entertainment. In theater, slice of life refers to naturalism, while in literary parlance it is a narrative technique in which a seemingly arbitrary sequence of events in a charact ...
school of naturalism." Following his critically acclaimed teleplays, Chayefsky became a noted playwright and novelist. As a screenwriter, he received three
Academy Awards The Academy Awards, better known as the Oscars, are awards for artistic and technical merit for the American and international film industry. The awards are regarded by many as the most prestigious, significant awards in the entertainment in ...
for '' Marty'' (1955), ''
The Hospital ''The Hospital'' is a 1971 American satirical film directed by Arthur Hiller and starring George C. Scott as Dr. Herbert Bock. It was written by Paddy Chayefsky, who was awarded the 1972 Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay. Chayefsky al ...
'' (1971) and ''
Network Network, networking and networked may refer to: Science and technology * Network theory, the study of graphs as a representation of relations between discrete objects * Network science, an academic field that studies complex networks Mathematics ...
'' (1976). The movie ''Marty'' was based on his own television drama about two lonely people finding love. ''Network'' was a satire of the television industry and ''The Hospital'' was also satiric. Film historian David Thomson called ''The Hospital'' "years ahead of its time. Few films capture the disaster of America's self-destructive idealism so well." His screenplay for ''Network'' is often regarded as his
masterpiece A masterpiece, ''magnum opus'' (), or ''chef-d’œuvre'' (; ; ) in modern use is a creation that has been given much critical praise, especially one that is considered the greatest work of a person's career or a work of outstanding creativity, ...
, and has been hailed as "the kind of literate, darkly funny and breathtakingly prescient material that prompts many to claim it as the greatest screenplay of the 20th century." Chayefsky's early stories were frequently influenced by the author's childhood in The Bronx. Chayefsky was part of the inaugural class of inductees into the
Academy of Television Arts & Sciences The Academy of Television Arts & Sciences (ATAS), also colloquially known as the Television Academy, is a professional honorary organization dedicated to the advancement of the television industry in the United States. It is a 501(c)(6) non-prof ...
'
Television Hall of Fame The Television Academy Hall of Fame honors individuals who have made extraordinary contributions to U.S. television. The hall of fame was founded by former Academy of Television Arts & Sciences (ATAS) president John H. Mitchell (1921–1988). In ...
. He received this honor three years after his death, in 1984.


Early life

Sidney Chayefsky was born in the Bronx, New York City, to Russian-Jewish immigrants Harry and Gussie (Stuchevsky) Chayefsky. Harry Chayefsky's father served for twenty-five years in the Russian army so the family was allowed to live in Moscow, while Gussie Stuchevsky lived in a village near Odessa. Harry and Gussie emigrated to the United States in 1907 and 1909 respectively. Harry Chayefsky worked for a New Jersey milk distribution company in which he eventually took a controlling interest and renamed Dellwood Dairies. The family lived in Perth Amboy, New Jersey, and
Mount Vernon, New York Mount Vernon is a city in Westchester County, New York, United States. It is an inner suburb of New York City, immediately to the north of the borough of the Bronx. As of the 2020 census, Mount Vernon had a population of 73,893, making it the ...
, moving temporarily to Bailey Avenue in the
West Bronx The West Bronx is a region in the New York City borough of the Bronx. The region lies west of the Bronx River and roughly corresponds to the western half of the borough. The West Bronx is more densely populated than the East Bronx, and is closer ...
at the time of Sidney Chayefsky's birth while a larger house in Mount Vernon was being completed. He had two older brothers, William and Winn. As a toddler Chayefsky showed signs of being gifted, and could "speak intelligently" at two and a half. His father suffered a financial reversal during the
Wall Street Crash of 1929 The Wall Street Crash of 1929, also known as the Great Crash, was a major American stock market crash that occurred in the autumn of 1929. It started in September and ended late in October, when share prices on the New York Stock Exchange col ...
, and the family moved back to the Bronx. Chayefsky attended a public
elementary school A primary school (in Ireland, the United Kingdom, Australia, Trinidad and Tobago, Jamaica, and South Africa), junior school (in Australia), elementary school or grade school (in North America and the Philippines) is a school for primary e ...
. As a boy, Chayefsky was noted for his verbal ability, which won him friends. He attended
DeWitt Clinton High School , motto_translation = Without Work Nothing Is Accomplished , image = DeWitt Clinton High School front entrance IMG 7441 HLG.jpg , seal_image = File:Clinton News.JPG , seal_size = 124px , ...
, where he served as editor of the school's literary magazine, "The Magpie." He graduated from Clinton in 1939 at age 16 and attended the
City College of New York The City College of the City University of New York (also known as the City College of New York, or simply City College or CCNY) is a public university within the City University of New York (CUNY) system in New York City. Founded in 1847, Ci ...
, graduating with a degree in social sciences in 1943. While at City College he played for the semi-professional football team Kingsbridge Trojans. He studied languages at
Fordham University Fordham University () is a private Jesuit research university in New York City. Established in 1841 and named after the Fordham neighborhood of the Bronx in which its original campus is located, Fordham is the oldest Catholic and Jesuit u ...
during his Army service.


Military service

In 1943, two weeks before his graduation from City College, Chayefsky was drafted into the United States Army, and served in combat in Europe. While in the Army he adopted the nickname "Paddy." The nickname was given spontaneously when he was awakened at dawn for kitchen duty. Although actually Jewish, he asked to be excused to attend Mass. "Sure you do, Paddy," said the officer, and the name stuck. Chayefsky was wounded by a
land mine A land mine is an explosive device concealed under or on the ground and designed to destroy or disable enemy targets, ranging from combatants to vehicles and tanks, as they pass over or near it. Such a device is typically detonated automati ...
while serving with the 104th Infantry Division in the
European Theatre The European theatre of World War II was one of the two main theatres of combat during World War II. It saw heavy fighting across Europe for almost six years, starting with Germany's invasion of Poland on 1 September 1939 and ending with th ...
near
Aachen Aachen ( ; ; Aachen dialect: ''Oche'' ; French and traditional English: Aix-la-Chapelle; or ''Aquisgranum''; nl, Aken ; Polish: Akwizgran) is, with around 249,000 inhabitants, the 13th-largest city in North Rhine-Westphalia, and the 28th ...
,
Germany Germany,, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central Europe. It is the second most populous country in Europe after Russia, and the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is situated betwee ...
. He was awarded the
Purple Heart The Purple Heart (PH) is a United States military decoration awarded in the name of the President to those wounded or killed while serving, on or after 5 April 1917, with the U.S. military. With its forerunner, the Badge of Military Merit, ...
. The wound left him badly scarred, contributing to his shyness around women. While recovering from his injuries in the Army Hospital near
Cirencester Cirencester (, ; see below for more variations) is a market town in Gloucestershire, England, west of London. Cirencester lies on the River Churn, a tributary of the River Thames, and is the largest town in the Cotswolds. It is the home o ...
, England, he wrote the book and lyrics to a musical comedy, ''No T.O. for Love''. First produced in 1945 by the Special Services Unit, the show toured European Army bases for two years. The London opening of ''No T.O. for Love'' at the Scala Theatre in the West End was the beginning of Chayefsky's theatrical career. During the London production of this musical, Chayefsky encountered Joshua Logan, a future collaborator, and
Garson Kanin Garson Kanin (November 24, 1912 – March 13, 1999) was an American writer and director of plays and films. Early life Garson Kanin was born in Rochester, New York; his family later relocated to Detroit then to New York City. He attended ...
, who invited Chayefsky to collaborate with him on a documentary of the Allied invasion, ''
The True Glory ''The True Glory'' (1945) is a co-production of the US Office of War Information and the British Ministry of Information, documenting the victory on the Western Front, from Normandy to the collapse of the Third Reich. Although many individual ...
''.


Career


1940s

Returning to the United States, Chayefsky worked in his uncle's print shop, Regal Press, an experience which provided a background for his later teleplay, ''Printer's Measure'' (1953), as well as his story for the movie ''As Young as You Feel'' (1951). Kanin enabled Chayefsky to spend time working on his second play, ''Put Them All Together'' (later known as ''M is for Mother''), but it was never produced. Producers Mike Gordon and Jerry Bressler gave him a junior writer's contract. He wrote a story, ''The Great American Hoax'', which sold to ''
Good Housekeeping ''Good Housekeeping'' is an American women's magazine featuring articles about women's interests, product testing by The Good Housekeeping Institute, recipes, diet, and health, as well as literary articles. It is well known for the "Good House ...
'' but was never published. Chayefsky went to Hollywood in 1947 with the aim of becoming a screenwriter. His friends
Garson Kanin Garson Kanin (November 24, 1912 – March 13, 1999) was an American writer and director of plays and films. Early life Garson Kanin was born in Rochester, New York; his family later relocated to Detroit then to New York City. He attended ...
and
Ruth Gordon Ruth Gordon Jones (October 30, 1896 – August 28, 1985) was an American actress, screenwriter, and playwright. She began her career performing on Broadway at age 19. Known for her nasal voice and distinctive personality, Gordon gained internat ...
found him a job in the accounting office of Universal Pictures. He studied acting at the Actor's Lab and Kanin got him a bit part in the film '' A Double Life''. He returned to New York, submitted scripts, and was hired as an apprentice scriptwriter by Universal. His script outlines were not accepted and he was fired after six weeks. After returning to New York, Chayefsky wrote the outline for a play that he submitted to the Wiilliam Morris Agency. The agency, treating it as a novella, submitted it to Good Housekeeping magazine. Movie rights were purchased by Twentieth Century Fox, Chayefsky was hired to write the script, and he returned to Hollywood in 1948. But Chayefsky was discouraged by the studio system, which involved rewrites and relegated writers to inferior roles, so he quit and moved back to New York, vowing not to return. During the late 1940s, he began working full-time on short stories and radio scripts, and during that period, he was a gagwriter for radio host Robert Q. Lewis. Chayefsky later recalled, "I sold some plays to men who had an uncanny ability not to raise money."


Early 1950s

During 1951–52, Chayefsky wrote adaptations for radio's '' Theater Guild on the Air'': ''The Meanest Man in the World'' (with James Stewart), ''
Cavalcade of America ''Cavalcade of America'' is an anthology drama series that was sponsored by the DuPont Company, although it occasionally presented musicals, such as an adaptation of ''Show Boat'', and condensed biographies of popular composers. It was initially ...
'', ''Tommy'' (with
Van Heflin Emmett Evan "Van" Heflin Jr. (December 13, 1908 – July 23, 1971) was an American theatre, radio and film actor. He played mostly character parts over the course of his film career, but during the 1940s had a string of roles as a leading man. H ...
and
Ruth Gordon Ruth Gordon Jones (October 30, 1896 – August 28, 1985) was an American actress, screenwriter, and playwright. She began her career performing on Broadway at age 19. Known for her nasal voice and distinctive personality, Gordon gained internat ...
) and ''Over 21'' (with
Wally Cox Wallace Maynard Cox (December 6, 1924 – February 15, 1973) was an American actor. He began his career as a standup comedian and then became the title character of the popular early U.S. television series ''Mister Peepers'' from 1952 to 19 ...
). His play ''The Man Who Made the Mountain Shake'' was noticed by
Elia Kazan Elia Kazan (; born Elias Kazantzoglou ( el, Ηλίας Καζαντζόγλου); September 7, 1909 – September 28, 2003) was an American film and theatre director, producer, screenwriter and actor, described by ''The New York Times'' as "one o ...
, and his wife, Molly Kazan, helped Chayefsky with revisions. It was retitled ''Fifth From Garibaldi'' but was never produced. In 1951, the movie '' As Young as You Feel'' was adapted from a Chayefsky story. He moved into television with scripts for ''
Danger Danger is a lack of safety and may refer to: Places * Danger Cave, an archaeological site in Utah * Danger Island, Great Chagos Bank, Indian Ocean * Danger Island, alternate name of Pukapuka Atoll in the Cook Islands, Pacific Ocean * Danger I ...
'', ''The Gulf Playhouse'' and '' Manhunt''. '' Philco Television Playhouse'' producer Fred Coe saw the ''Danger'' and ''Manhunt'' episodes and enlisted Chayefsky to adapt the story ''It Happened on the Brooklyn Subway'' about a photographer on a New York City Subway train who reunites a concentration camp survivor with his long-lost wife. Chayefsky's first script to be telecast was a 1949 adaptation of Budd Schulberg's ''
What Makes Sammy Run? ''What Makes Sammy Run?'' (1941) is a novel by Budd Schulberg inspired by the life of his father, early Hollywood mogul B. P. Schulberg. It is a rags to riches story chronicling the rise and fall of Sammy Glick, a Jewish boy born in New York's L ...
'' for ''
Philco Philco (an acronym for Philadelphia Battery Company) is an American electronics manufacturer headquartered in Philadelphia. Philco was a pioneer in battery, radio, and television production. In 1961, the company was purchased by Ford and, from ...
''. Since he had always wanted to use a synagogue as backdrop, he wrote ''Holiday Song'', telecast in 1952 and also in 1954. He submitted more work to ''
Philco Philco (an acronym for Philadelphia Battery Company) is an American electronics manufacturer headquartered in Philadelphia. Philco was a pioneer in battery, radio, and television production. In 1961, the company was purchased by Ford and, from ...
'', including '' Printer's Measure'', '' The Bachelor Party'' (1953) and ''The Big Deal'' (1953). The seventh season of ''Philco Television Playhouse'' began September 19, 1954 with E. G. Marshall and Eva Marie Saint in Chayefsky's '' Middle of the Night'', a play which relocated to Broadway theaters 15 months later; In 1956, ''Middle of the Night'' opened on Broadway with Edward G. Robinson and
Gena Rowlands Virginia Cathryn "Gena" Rowlands (born June 19, 1930) is an American retired actress, whose career in film, stage, and television has spanned seven decades. A four-time Emmy and two-time Golden Globe winner, she is known for her collaborations w ...
, and its success led to a national tour. It was filmed by Columbia Pictures in 1959 with Kim Novak and Fredric March.


''Marty'' and fame

In 1953, Chayefsky wrote '' Marty'', which was premiered on '' The Philco Television Playhouse'', with Rod Steiger and
Nancy Marchand Nancy Lou Marchand (June 19, 1928 – June 18, 2000) was an American actress. She began her career in theatre in 1951. She was most famous for her television portrayals of Margaret Pynchon on ''Lou Grant'' and Livia Soprano on ''The Sopranos''. ...
. ''Marty'' is about a decent, hard-working Bronx butcher, pining for the company of a woman in his life but despairing of ever finding true love in a relationship. Fate pairs him with a plain, shy schoolteacher named Clara whom he rescues from the embarrassment of being abandoned by her blind date in a local dance hall. The production, the actors and Chayefsky's naturalistic dialogue received much critical acclaim and influenced subsequent live television dramas. Chayefsky was initially uninterested when producer Harold Hecht sought to buy film rights for ''Marty'' for
Hecht-Hill-Lancaster Hecht-Hill-Lancaster was a production company formed by the actor Burt Lancaster in association with his agent, Harold Hecht, and James Hill. In 1948 Lancaster and Hecht formed Norma Productions (named after his wife), which later became Hecht-La ...
. Chayefsky, still upset by his treatment years before, demanded creative control, consultation on casting, and the same director as in the TV version,
Delbert Mann Delbert Martin Mann Jr. (January 30, 1920 – November 11, 2007) was an American television and film director. He won the Academy Award for Best Director for the film '' Marty'' (1955), adapted from a 1953 teleplay of the same name which he ...
. Surprisingly, Hecht agreed to all of Chayefsky's demands, and named Chayefsky "associate producer" of the film. Chayefsky then requested and was granted "co-director" status, so that he could take over production if Mann was fired. The screenplay was little changed from the teleplay, but with Clara's role expanded. Chayefsky was involved in all casting decisions and had a
cameo role A cameo role, also called a cameo appearance and often shortened to just cameo (), is a brief appearance of a well-known person in a work of the performing arts. These roles are generally small, many of them non-speaking ones, and are commonly eit ...
, playing one of Marty's friends, unseen, in a car. Actress Betsy Blair, playing Clara, faced difficulties because of her affiliation with left-wing causes, and United Artists demanded that she be removed. Chayefsky refused, and her husband
Gene Kelly Eugene Curran Kelly (August 23, 1912 – February 2, 1996) was an American actor, dancer, singer, filmmaker, and choreographer. He was known for his energetic and athletic dancing style and sought to create a new form of American dance accessibl ...
also intervened on her behalf. Blair remained in the cast. In September 1954, after most of the movie had been filmed, the studio ceased production due to accounting and financial difficulties. Producer Harold Hecht encountered resistance to the ''Marty'' project from his partner Burt Lancaster from the beginning, with Lancaster "only tolerating" it. The film had a limited publicity budget. But reviews were glowing, and the film won the
Palme d'Or The Palme d'Or (; en, Golden Palm) is the highest prize awarded at the Cannes Film Festival. It was introduced in 1955 by the festival's organizing committee. Previously, from 1939 to 1954, the festival's highest prize was the Grand Prix du Fe ...
at the 1955
Cannes Film Festival The Cannes Festival (; french: link=no, Festival de Cannes), until 2003 called the International Film Festival (') and known in English as the Cannes Film Festival, is an annual film festival held in Cannes, France, which previews new films o ...
and the
Academy Award for Best Picture The Academy Award for Best Picture is one of the Academy Awards presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) since the awards debuted in 1929. This award goes to the producers of the film and is the only categor ...
, greatly boosting Chayefsky's career.


Late 1950s

After his success with ''Marty'', Chayefsky continued to write for TV and theater as well as films. Chayefsky's ''The Great American Hoax'' was broadcast May 15, 1957 during the second season of ''
The 20th Century Fox Hour ''The 20th Century Fox Hour'' is an American drama anthology series televised in the United States on CBS from 1955 to 1957. Some of the shows in this series were restored, remastered and shown on the Fox Movie Channel in 2002 under the title '' ...
''. His TV play ''The Bachelor Party'' was bought by United Artists and ''The Catered Affair'' was bought by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. Gore Vidal was hired to write the screenplay by MGM, while Chayefsky wrote the ''Bachelor Party''. ''Catered Affair'' did well in Europe but poorly in U.S. theaters, and was not a success. ''Bachelor Party'' was budgeted at $750,000, twice ''Marty'' budget, but received far less acclaim and was viewed by United Artists as artistically inferior. The studio chose instead to promote another Hecht-Hill-Lancaster film, '' Sweet Smell of Success'', which the studio believed to be better. ''Bachelor Party'' turned out to be a commercial failure, and never made a profit. Chayefsky wrote a film adaptation of his Broadway play '' Middle of the Night'', originally writing the female lead role for Marilyn Monroe. She passed on the part, which went to Kim Novak. He also commenced work on '' The Goddess'', the story of the rise and fall of a movie star resembling Monroe. The star of ''The Goddess'',
Kim Stanley Kim Stanley (born Patricia Kimberley Reid; February 11, 1925 – August 20, 2001) was an American actress, primarily in television and theatre, but with occasional film performances. She began her acting career in theatre, and subsequently at ...
, despised the film and refused to publicize it. He and Stanley clashed during production of the film, in which Chayefsky served as producer as well as screenwriter. Despite her requests, Chayefsky refused to change any aspect of the script. Monroe's husband,
Arthur Miller Arthur Asher Miller (October 17, 1915 – February 10, 2005) was an American playwright, essayist and screenwriter in the 20th-century American theater. Among his most popular plays are ''All My Sons'' (1947), ''Death of a Salesman'' (19 ...
believed that the film was based on his wife's life and protested to Chayefsky. The film received positive reviews, and Chayefsky received an Academy Award nomination for his script. A New York Herald Tribune reviewer called the film "a substantial advance in the work of Chayefsky." Chayefsky denied for years that the film was based on Monroe, but Chayefsky's biographer Shaun Considine observes that not only was she the prototype but the film "captured her longing and despair" accurately. In 1958 Chayefsky began adapting ''Middle of the Night'' as a film, and he decided not to use the star of the Broadway version, Edward G.Robinson, with whom he had clashed, choosing instead Frederic March. Elizabeth Taylor initially agreed to appear in the female lead, but dropped out. Kim Novak was ultimately cast in the part. The film was chosen as the American entry at the Cannes Film Festival, but reviews were mixed and the film had only a short run in theaters. '' The Tenth Man'' (1959) marked Chayefsky's second Broadway theatrical success, garnering 1960 Tony Award nominations for Best Play, Best Director (
Tyrone Guthrie Sir William Tyrone Guthrie (2 July 1900 – 15 May 1971) was an English theatrical director instrumental in the founding of the Stratford Festival of Canada, the Guthrie Theater in Minneapolis, Minnesota, and the Tyrone Guthrie Centre at ...
) and Best Scenic Design. Guthrie received another nomination for Chayefsky's '' Gideon'', as did actor Fredric March. Chayefsky's final Broadway theatrical production, a play based on the life of Joseph Stalin, ''The Passion of Josef D'', received unfavorable reviews and ran for only 15 performances.Internet Broadway Database
accessed June 29, 2015.
Although Chayefsky was an early writer for the television medium, he eventually abandoned it, "decrying the lack of interest the networks demonstrated toward quality programming". As a result, during the course of his career, he constantly toyed with the idea of lampooning the television industry, which he succeeded in doing with ''Network''.''Guide to the Paddy Chayefsky Papers, 1907–1998'', New York Public Library for the Performing Arts, 2006 completion


''The Americanization of Emily''

Although Chayefsky wished only to do original screenplays, he was persuaded by producer
Martin Ransohoff Martin Nelson Ransohoff (July 7, 1927 – December 13, 2017) was an American film and television producer, and member of the Ransohoff family. Early life and education Ransohoff was born on July 7, 1927 in New Orleans, LouisianaWilliam Bradford Huie William Bradford Huie (November 13, 1910 – November 20, 1986) was an American writer, investigative reporter, editor, national lecturer, and television host. His credits include twenty-one books that sold over 30 million copies worldwide. In ad ...
's 1959 novel that was eventually filmed with the book's title '' The Americanization of Emily'' (1964). The novel dealt with interservice rivalries prior to the
Normandy landings The Normandy landings were the landing operations and associated airborne operations on Tuesday, 6 June 1944 of the Allied invasion of Normandy in Operation Overlord during World War II. Codenamed Operation Neptune and often referred to as ...
during
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a world war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved the vast majority of the world's countries—including all of the great powers—forming two opposing ...
, with a love story at the center of the plot. Chayefsky agreed to adapting the novel but only if he could fundamentally change the story. He made the titular character more sophisticated, but refusing to be "Americanized" by accepting material goods. William Wyler was initially brought in as the director, but his relationship with Chayefsky deteriorated when he sought to change the script.
William Holden William Holden (born William Franklin Beedle Jr.; April 17, 1918 – November 12, 1981) was an American actor, and one of the biggest box-office draws of the 1950s. Holden won the Academy Award for Best Actor for the film ''Stalag 17'' (1953) ...
was initially cast in the male lead, but that led to conflict when he asked that
Julie Andrews Dame Julie Andrews (born Julia Elizabeth Wells; 1 October 1935) is an English actress, singer, and author. She has garnered numerous accolades throughout her career spanning over seven decades, including an Academy Award, a British Academy Fi ...
be replaced by his then-girlfriend, Capucine.
James Garner James Garner (born James Scott Bumgarner; April 7, 1928 – July 19, 2014) was an American actor. He played leading roles in more than 50 theatrical films, including '' The Great Escape'' (1963) with Steve McQueen; Paddy Chayefsky's ''The Americ ...
, adept at comedy with sophisticated dialogue but originally slated to play a supporting role, replaced Holden and delivered a critically acclaimed performance while
James Coburn James Harrison Coburn III (August 31, 1928 – November 18, 2002) was an American film and television actor who was featured in more than 70 films, largely action roles, and made 100 television appearances during a 45-year career.AllmoviBi ...
took over the part originally meant for Garner. Both James Garner and Julie Andrews always maintained that ''The Americanization of Emily'' was their favorite film of their own work.James Garner of Charlie Rose, ~6' from beginning
/ref> The film opened in August 1964 to superlative reviews but was a box office failure, possibly due to its extremely controversial anti-war stance at the dawn of the Vietnam War. The studio changed the title in the middle of its release, calling it ''Emily...she's super!'' to avoid confusing part of the public with a seven-syllable word in the title. The film has since been praised as a "
vanguard The vanguard (also called the advance guard) is the leading part of an advancing military formation. It has a number of functions, including seeking out the enemy and securing ground in advance of the main force. History The vanguard derives fr ...
anti-war film."


1960s 'fallow period'

The failure of ''Americanization of Emily'' and ''Josef D''. on Broadway shook Chayefsky's confidence, and was the beginning of a what his biographer Shaun Considine calls a "fallow period." He agreed to do novel adaptations, which he had previously shunned, and was hired to adapt the Richard Jessup novel ''The Cincinnati Kid.'' Director
Sam Peckinpah David Samuel Peckinpah (; February 21, 1925 – December 28, 1984) was an American film director and screenwriter. His 1969 Western epic '' The Wild Bunch'' received an Academy Award nomination and was ranked No. 80 on the American Film Institu ...
rejected the script, and Chayefsky was fired. Peckinpah was replaced by Norman Jewison shortly after the film began production. Chayefsky worked for a time on adapting Huie's book ''Three Lives for Mississippi,'' about the murders of three civil rights workers in 1964, and in 1967 was hired to adapt the Broadway musical ''Paint Your Wagon''. He was fired from the film after producing a script that Alan Jay Lerner, the playwright and producer, felt lacked "a musical structure." Chayefsky had his name removed as screenwriter but remained as adapter.


Comeback with ''The Hospital''

In 1969 and 1970. Chayefsky began to consider a film that would be set among the civil unrest taking place at the time. When his wife Susan received poor care at a hospital, he pitched to United Artists a story based at a hospital. To ensure that he had the same kind of creative control given to playwrights, he formed Simcha Productions, named after the Hebrew version of his given name, Sidney. He then commenced research, reading medical books and visiting hospitals. The leading character in the film, Dr. Herbert Bock, included many of Chayefsky's personal traits. Bock had been a "boy genius" who felt bitter and that his life was over. One of the monologues of George C. Scott as Bock in the film, in which Bock says he is miserable and considering suicide, was repeated verbatim from a conversation that Chayefsky had with a business associate during that time. The long speeches written for Bock and other characters by Chayefsky, later praised by critics, met resistance from United Artists executives during the making of the film. The script was described as "too talky" and containing excessive medical terminology. But Chayefsky, as producer, prevailed. He also vetoed the studio's suggestion that
Walter Matthau Walter Matthau (; born Walter John Matthow; October 1, 1920 – July 1, 2000) was an American actor, comedian and film director. He is best known for his film roles in '' A Face in the Crowd'' (1957), '' King Creole'' (1958) and as a coach of a ...
or Burt Lancaster be hired for the lead role, insisting on Scott. Chayefsky worked on the dialogue with
Diana Rigg Dame Enid Diana Elizabeth Rigg (20 July 193810 September 2020) was an English actress of stage and screen. Her roles include Emma Peel in the TV series '' The Avengers'' (1965–1968); Countess Teresa di Vicenzo, wife of James Bond, in '' On ...
, the female lead, but Scott rejected his input. After filming, Chayefsky spoke the opening narration after several actors were rejected for the job. It was supposed to be temporary, but became the one that was used in the film. Although some initial reviews were negative, the film received rave reviews from leading critics, and was a box office hit. Chayefsky won an Academy Award for his script, and his career was revived.


''Network''

Chayefsky believed that television news desensitized viewers to violence and murder, and he was shocked one day when a respected news anchorman "rattled off inanities." He asked his friend, the
NBC News NBC News is the news division of the American broadcast television network NBC. The division operates under NBCUniversal Television and Streaming, a division of NBCUniversal, which is, in turn, a subsidiary of Comcast. The news division's va ...
anchor John Chancellor, if it was possible for an anchorman to go crazy on the air, and Chancellor replied "Every day." Within a week of that conversation, Chayefsky had written the rough draft of a script, centering on an elderly, disillusioned anchor who announces he will commit suicide on the air. In 1974, a local news anchor,
Christine Chubbuck Christine "Chris" Chubbuck (August 24, 1944 – July 15, 1974) was an American television news reporter who worked for stations WTOG and WXLT-TV in Sarasota, Florida. She was the first person to die by suicide on a live television broadca ...
, committed suicide during a broadcast. Chayefsky researched the project by watching hours of television and consulting with NBC executive David Tebet, who allowed Chayefsky to attend programming meetings. He later conducted research at CBS and met with Walter Cronkite. The completed script reflected his research and his personal view, prevalent at the time, that Arabs were "buying up" U.S. corporations. The "mad as hell" speech was a deeply personal statement reflecting the core of Chayefsky's beliefs during the early 1970s. Chayefsky later called it an easy speech to write, reflecting his view that people had a right to get mad. The script encountered difficulty because of film industry concerns that it was too tough on television. Ultimately it was decided that the film would be a co-production of MGM and United Artists, with Chayefsky having complete creative control. The deal was announced in July 1975. George C. Scott was offered the role of Max Schumacher but rejected it, and the role went to William Holden. Chayefsky refused requests by UA and MGM to give the film a "softer" ending, feeling that ending with the Howard Beale character assassinated would alienate audiences. Outside the expected negative reviews from television network film critics, the film was a critical and box office success, winning ten Academy Award nominations, and Chayefsky won his third Academy Award, making him the only three-time solo recipient of a screenwriting Oscar; all the other three-time winners (
Francis Ford Coppola Francis Ford Coppola (; ; born April 7, 1939) is an American film director, producer, and screenwriter. He is considered one of the major figures of the New Hollywood filmmaking movement of the 1960s and 1970s. Coppola is the recipient of five A ...
, Charles Brackett, Woody Allen, and
Billy Wilder Billy Wilder (; ; born Samuel Wilder; June 22, 1906 – March 27, 2002) was an Austrian-American filmmaker. His career in Hollywood spanned five decades, and he is regarded as one of the most brilliant and versatile filmmakers of Classic Hol ...
) shared at least one of their awards with co-writers. When
Peter Finch Frederick George Peter Ingle Finch (28 September 191614 January 1977) was an English-Australian actor of theatre, film and radio. Born in London, he emigrated to Australia as a teenager and was raised in Sydney, where he worked in vaudeville ...
posthumously Posthumous may refer to: * Posthumous award A posthumous award is granted after the recipient has died. Many prizes, medals, and awards can be granted posthumously. Australian actor Heath Ledger, for example, won many awards after his death in ...
won
Best Actor Best Actor is the name of an award which is presented by various film, television and theatre organizations, festivals, and people's awards to leading actors in a film, television series, television film or play. The term most often refers to th ...
, Chayefsky was to accept on his behalf, but he defied the show's producer, William Friedkin, and called Finch's wife Eletha to the stage to accept the award. The film is said to have "presaged the advent of reality television by twenty years" and was a "sardonic satire" of the television industry, dealing with the "dehumanization of modern life."Thompson, David. ''The Whole Equation: A History of Hollywood'', Alfred A. Knopf (2005), p. 328


''Altered States'' and decline

After ''Network'' Chayefsky explored an offer from Warren Beatty to write a film based on the life of John Reed and his book ''
Ten Days That Shook the World ''Ten Days That Shook the World'' (1919) is a book by the American journalist and socialist John Reed. Here, Reed presented a firsthand account of the 1917 Russian October Revolution. Reed followed many of the most prominent Bolsheviks closely ...
''. He agreed to do research, and spent three months exploring the subject of what eventually became the Beatty film '' Reds''. Negotiations with Beatty's lawyers failed. In the spring of 1977, Chayefsky began work on a project delving into "man's search of his true self." The genesis of the idea was a joke with his friends Bob Fosse and Herb Gardner. The three cooked up a joke project to remake ''King Kong'', in which Kong becomes a movie star. The comic project got Chayefsky interested in exploring the origins of the human spirit. That evolved into a project updating the theme of ''
Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde Doctor is an academic title that originates from the Latin word of the same spelling and meaning. The word is originally an agentive noun of the Latin verb 'to teach'. It has been used as an academic title in Europe since the 13th century, w ...
''. Chayefsky conducted research on genetic regression, speaking to doctors and professors of anthropology and human genetics. He then began a rough outline of a story in which the lead character immerses himself in an isolation tank, and with the aid of
hallucinogen Hallucinogens are a large, diverse class of psychoactive drugs that can produce altered states of consciousness characterized by major alterations in thought, mood, and perception as well as other changes. Most hallucinogens can be categorize ...
s regresses to become a prehuman creature. Chayefsky wrote an eighty-seven page treatment and, at the suggestion of Columbia executive Daniel Melnick, he adapted it into a novel Film rights were bought by Columbia Pictures for nearly $1 million, and with the same creative control and financial terms as for ''Network''. Chayefsky suffered greatly from stress while working on the novel, resulting in a heart attack in 1977. The heart attack resulted in strict dietary and lifestyle restrictions. The novel, titled ''Altered States,'' was published by HarperCollins in June 1978 and received mixed reviews. Chayefsky did not promote the book, which he viewed only as a blueprint for the screenplay. Since his contract gave him creative control, Chayefsky participated in the selection of William Hurt and Blair Brown as the leads. Arthur Penn was initially hired as director, but left after disagreements with Chayefsky. He was replaced by Ken Russell. Chayefsky made it clear that he would allow no input into the dialogue or narrative, which Russell felt was too "soppy." Russell was confident that he could get rid of Chayefsky, but found that "the monkey on my back was always there and wouldn't let go." Russell was polite and deferential prior to production but after rehearsals began in 1979 "began to treat Paddy as a nonentity" and was "mean and sarcastic," according to the film's producer
Howard Gottfried Howard Kenneth Gottfried (November 13, 1923 – December 8, 2017) was an American film producer. He produced many films, including ''The Hospital'', ''Network'', ''Torch Song Trilogy'' and '' Suburban Commando''. Gottfried served in the U.S. Arm ...
, who called Russell a "duplicitous, mean man." Chayefsky had the power to fire Russell, but was told by Gottfried that he could only do so if he took over direction himself. He left for New York and continued to monitor production. The actors were not permitted to alter the dialogue. Chayefsky later said that in retaliation the actors were instructed to speak their lines while eating or talking too fast. Russell stated that the fast pace and overlapping dialogue was Chayefsky's idea. Upset by the filming of his screenplay, Chayefsky withdrew from the production of '' Altered States'' and took his name off the credits, substituting the pseudonym Sidney Aaron.


Personality and characteristics

In his book ''Mad as Hell: The Making of Network and the Fateful Vision of the Angriest Man in Movies'', journalist Dave Itzkoff wrote that the Howard Beale character in Network was a product of Chayefsky's many frustrations. Itzkoff wrote: "Where others avoided conflict, he cultivated it and embraced it, His fury nourished him, making him intense and unpredictable, but also keeping him focused and productive." Itzkoff describes Chayefsky as "intensely troubled, a huge egomaniac and control freak, dispirited about the world, wryly comic, and a both present and absent family man." In his biography of Chayefsky's friend Bob Fosse, drama critic
Martin Gottfried Martin Gottfried (October 9, 1933 – March 6, 2014) was an American critic, columnist and author. He was born in Brooklyn, New York. Biography Early career Gottfried was a 1959 graduate of Columbia College in New York City, and attended Colum ...
said Chayefsky was
compact and burly in the bulky way of a schoolyard athlete, with thick dark hair and a bent nose that could pass for a streetfighter's. He was a grown-up with one foot in the boys' clubs of his city youth, a street snob who would not allow the loss of his nostalgia. He was an intellectual competitor, always spoiling for a political argument or a philosophical argument, or any exchange over any issue, changing sides for the fun of the fray. A liberal, he was annoyed by liberals; a proud Jew, he wouldn't let anyone call him a "Jewish writer".
In his biography ''Mad as Hell'', author Shaun Considine says that Chayefsky had a "dual personality". Chayefsky's "Paddy" persona had "character, caprice; it appealed to his sense of swagger" and gave him confidence to stand up for his rights. "Sidney" was the "silent creator" who had the talent and genius. Chayefsky was under psychoanalysis for years, beginning in the late 1950s, to deal with his volatile behavior and rage, which at times was difficult to control.


Political activism


Opposition to McCarthyism

Early in his career, Chayefsky was an opponent of McCarthyism. He signed a telegram signed by other writers and performers protesting federal inaction after a concert featuring Paul Robeson in Peekskill, New York, prompted violence in which 150 persons were injured. As a result, his name appeared in the anti-Communist vigilante publication ''The Firing Line'', published by the
American Legion The American Legion, commonly known as the Legion, is a non-profit organization of U.S. war veterans headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana. It is made up of state, U.S. territory, and overseas departments, and these are in turn made up o ...
. Although Chayefsky feared being subpoeanaed and his career ruined, that never happened. Actress Betsy Blair described Chayefsky as a Social Democrat and as an anti-Marxist. He opposed the Vietnam War as a "stupid and utterly unnecessary war whose principal victim would be the United States" and sent a letter to President Richard Nixon decrying the My Lai Massacre, saying Americans were in danger of turning into "a nation of bad Germans."


Soviet Jews and Israel

In the 1970s Chayefsky worked for the cause of Soviet Jews, and in 1971 went to Brussels as part of an U.S. delegation to the International Conference on Soviet Jewry. Believing that the conference was insufficiently aggressive, he founded a new activist organization in New York, Writers and Artists for Peace in the Middle East. Co-founders included
Colleen Dewhurst Colleen Rose Dewhurst (3 June 1924 – 22 August 1991) was a Canadian-American actress mostly known for theatre roles. She was a renowned interpreter of the works of Eugene O'Neill on the stage, and her career also encompassed film, early dram ...
, Frank Gervasi, Leon Uris, Gerold Frank and
Elie Wiesel Elie Wiesel (, born Eliezer Wiesel ''Eliezer Vizel''; September 30, 1928 – July 2, 2016) was a Romanian-born American writer, professor, political activist, Nobel laureate, and Holocaust survivor. He authored 57 books, written mostly in Fr ...
. Chayefsky believed that "Zionists" was a code word for "Jews" by Marxist anti-Semites. Chayefsky was increasingly interested in Israel at that time. In an interview with '' Women's Wear Daily'' in 1971, he said that he believed that Jews around the world were in imminent danger of genocide. Journalist Dave Itzkoff writes that in the 1970s his views on Israel possessed a "more aggressive and admittedly paranoid streak."Itzkoff, p. 30 He believed that anti-Semitism was rife in the U.S., especially in the New Left, and once physically confronted a heckler who used an anti-Semitic slur during a
David Steinberg David Steinberg (born August 9, 1942) is a Canadian comedian, actor, writer, director, and author. At the height of his popularity, during the late 1960s and mid 1970s, he was one of the best-known comics in the United States. He appeared on ...
performance. While filming ''The Hospital'', Chayefsky commenced work on a film project called "The Habbakuk Conspiracy," which he described as a "study of life within an Arab guerrilla cell on the West Bank of the Jordan." The project was sold to
United Artists United Artists Corporation (UA), currently doing business as United Artists Digital Studios, is an American digital production company. Founded in 1919 by D. W. Griffith, Charlie Chaplin, Mary Pickford, and Douglas Fairbanks, the studio ...
but never filmed, which resulted in lingering resentment toward the studio. Chayefsky composed, without credit, pro-Israel ads for the
Anti-Defamation League The Anti-Defamation League (ADL), formerly known as the Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith, is an international Jewish non-governmental organization based in the United States specializing in civil rights law. It was founded in late Sep ...
at the time of the
Yom Kippur War The Yom Kippur War, also known as the Ramadan War, the October War, the 1973 Arab–Israeli War, or the Fourth Arab–Israeli War, was an armed conflict fought from October 6 to 25, 1973 between Israel and a coalition of Arab states led by ...
in 1973. In the late 1970s Writers and Artists for Peace in the Middle East placed full-page newspaper ads written by Chayefsky attacking the Palestine Liberation Organization for the massacre of Israeli athletes at the
1972 Summer Olympics The 1972 Summer Olympics (), officially known as the Games of the XX Olympiad () and commonly known as Munich 1972 (german: München 1972), was an international multi-sport event held in Munich, West Germany, from 26 August to 11 September 1972. ...
. He rejected
Jane Fonda Jane Seymour Fonda (born December 21, 1937) is an American actress, activist, and former fashion model. Recognized as a film icon, Fonda is the recipient of List of awards and nominations received by Jane Fonda, various accolades including two ...
and
Vanessa Redgrave Dame Vanessa Redgrave (born 30 January 1937) is an English actress and activist. Throughout her career spanning over seven decades, Redgrave has garnered numerous accolades, including an Academy Award, a British Academy Television Award, two ...
for the role of the female lead in ''Network'' because of what he alleged were their "anti-Israel leanings," even though Redgrave was director Sidney Lumet's first choice. Redgrave, accepting the Best Supporting Actress
Academy Award The Academy Awards, better known as the Oscars, are awards for artistic and technical merit for the American and international film industry. The awards are regarded by many as the most prestigious, significant awards in the entertainment in ...
for '' Julia'' at the 1978 Academy Awards, made a statement during her award acceptance speech denouncing protestors who were members of the Jewish Defense League (JDL), led by Rabbi Meir Kahane, who burned an effigy of Redgrave outside the Awards site, picketed the Academy Awards ceremony to protest against her, and had earlier called on 20th Century Fox to denounce Redgrave and promise never to hire her again, saying, "You should be very proud that in the last few weeks you have stood firm and you have refused to be intimidated by the threats of a small bunch of Zionist hoodlums whose behavior is an insult to the stature of Jews all over the world, and to their great and heroic record of struggle against fascism and oppression." Chayefsky, appearing later, upbraided Redgrave and said "a simple 'Thank you' would have sufficed." The Redgrave and Chayefsky remarks prompted controversy.


Family

Chayefsky met his future wife Susan Sackler during his 1940s stay in Hollywood. The couple married in February 1949. Their son Dan was born in 1955. Chayefsky's relationship with his wife was strained for much of their marriage, and she became withdrawn and unwilling to appear with him as he became more prominent. Gwen Verdon, wife of his friend Bob Fosse, only saw Susan Chayefsky five times in her life. Susan Chayefsky suffered from
muscular dystrophy Muscular dystrophies (MD) are a genetically and clinically heterogeneous group of rare neuromuscular diseases that cause progressive weakness and breakdown of skeletal muscles over time. The disorders differ as to which muscles are primarily aff ...
, and Dan Chayefsky described himself to author Dave Itzkoff as "a self-destructive teen who brought more pressure to the family home." Despite an alleged affair with Kim Novak, which resulted in his asking his wife for a divorce, Paddy Chayefsky remained married to Susan Chayefsky until his death, and sought her opinion on his screenplays, including ''Network''. She died in 2000.


Death

Chayefsky contracted
pleurisy Pleurisy, also known as pleuritis, is inflammation of the membranes that surround the lungs and line the chest cavity ( pleurae). This can result in a sharp chest pain while breathing. Occasionally the pain may be a constant dull ache. Other s ...
in 1980 and again in 1981. Tests revealed cancer, but he refused surgery out of fear that surgeons would "cut me up because of that movie I wrote about them," referring to ''The Hospital''. He opted for chemotherapy. He died in a New York hospital on August 1, 1981, aged 58, and was interred in the Sharon Gardens Division of
Kensico Cemetery Kensico Cemetery, located in Valhalla, Westchester County, New York was founded in 1889, when many New York City cemeteries were becoming full, and rural cemeteries were being created near the railroads that served the city. Initially , it wa ...
in Valhalla,
Westchester County, New York Westchester County is located in the U.S. state of New York. It is the seventh most populous county in the State of New York and the most populous north of New York City. According to the 2020 United States Census, the county had a population of ...
. Longtime friend Bob Fosse performed a tap dance at the funeral, as part of a deal he and Chayefsky had made when Fosse was in the hospital for
open-heart surgery Cardiac surgery, or cardiovascular surgery, is surgery on the heart or great vessels performed by cardiac surgeons. It is often used to treat complications of ischemic heart disease (for example, with coronary artery bypass grafting); to cor ...
. If Fosse died first, Chayefsky promised to deliver a tedious eulogy or Fosse would dance at Chayefsky's memorial if he were the one to die first. Fosse would dedicate his final film ''
Star 80 ''Star 80'' is a 1983 American biographical drama film written and directed by Bob Fosse. It was adapted from the Pulitzer Prize-winning ''Village Voice'' article "Death of a Playmate" by Teresa Carpenter and is based on Canadian ''Playboy'' mode ...
'' to Chayefsky in 1983. Chayefsky's personal papers are at the Wisconsin Historical Society and the
New York Public Library for the Performing Arts The New York Public Library for the Performing Arts, Dorothy and Lewis B. Cullman Center, at 40 Lincoln Center Plaza, is located in Manhattan, New York City, at the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts on the Upper West Side, between the Met ...
, Billy Rose Theatre Division.Paddy Chayefsky papers, 1907–1998 (bulk 1952–1981)
held by the Billy Rose Theatre Division,
New York Public Library for the Performing Arts The New York Public Library for the Performing Arts, Dorothy and Lewis B. Cullman Center, at 40 Lincoln Center Plaza, is located in Manhattan, New York City, at the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts on the Upper West Side, between the Met ...


Filmography

*''
The True Glory ''The True Glory'' (1945) is a co-production of the US Office of War Information and the British Ministry of Information, documenting the victory on the Western Front, from Normandy to the collapse of the Third Reich. Although many individual ...
'' (1945) (uncredited) *'' As Young as You Feel'' (1951) (story) *'' Marty'' (1955) *''
The Catered Affair ''The Catered Affair'' (also known as ''Wedding Party'') is a 1956 American comedy-drama film directed by Richard Brooks and produced by Sam Zimbalist from a screenplay by Gore Vidal, based on a 1955 television play by Paddy Chayefsky. The film ...
'' (1956) *'' The Bachelor Party'' (1957) *'' The Goddess'' (1958) *'' Middle of the Night'' (1959) *'' The Americanization of Emily'' (1964) *'' Paint Your Wagon'' (1969) (adaptation) *''
The Hospital ''The Hospital'' is a 1971 American satirical film directed by Arthur Hiller and starring George C. Scott as Dr. Herbert Bock. It was written by Paddy Chayefsky, who was awarded the 1972 Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay. Chayefsky al ...
'' (1971) *''
Network Network, networking and networked may refer to: Science and technology * Network theory, the study of graphs as a representation of relations between discrete objects * Network science, an academic field that studies complex networks Mathematics ...
'' (1976) *'' Altered States'' (1980) (as "Sidney Aaron")


Television and stage plays

;Television (selection) *1950–1955 ''Danger'' *1951–1952 ''Manhunt'' *1951–1960 ''Goodyear Playhouse'' *1952–1954 ''Philco Television Playhouse'' *1952 ''Holiday Song '' *1952 ''The Reluctant Citizen '' *1953 ''Printer's Measure '' *1953 '' Marty'' *1953 ''The Big Deal '' *1953 ''The Bachelor Party'' *1953 '' The Sixth Year'' *1953 ''Catch My Boy On Sunday'' *1954 ''The Mother'' *1954 '' Middle of the Night'' *1955 ''
The Catered Affair ''The Catered Affair'' (also known as ''Wedding Party'') is a 1956 American comedy-drama film directed by Richard Brooks and produced by Sam Zimbalist from a screenplay by Gore Vidal, based on a 1955 television play by Paddy Chayefsky. The film ...
'' *1956 '' The Great American Hoax '' ;Stage *''No T.O. for Love'' (1945) *'' Middle of the Night'' (1956) *'' The Tenth Man'' (1959) *'' Gideon'' (1961) *'' The Passion of Josef D.'' (1964) *'' The Latent Heterosexual'' (originally titled ''The Accountant's Tale'' or ''The Case of the Latent Heterosexual'') (1968)


Novels

*''Altered States: A Novel'' (1978)


Academy Awards


References


Bibliography

* *


External links

*
''The Angry Man''
WNYC: ''On The Media'' audio profile of Paddy Chayefsky, October 27, 2006
Paddy Chayefsky papers
at the
New York Public Library for the Performing Arts The New York Public Library for the Performing Arts, Dorothy and Lewis B. Cullman Center, at 40 Lincoln Center Plaza, is located in Manhattan, New York City, at the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts on the Upper West Side, between the Met ...

Paddy Chayefsky Papers
at the Wisconsin Center for Film and Theater Research. *
Museum of Broadcast Communications: Paddy Chayefsky
{{DEFAULTSORT:Chayefsky, Paddy 1923 births 1981 deaths United States Army personnel of World War II American male screenwriters Best Original Screenplay Academy Award winners City College of New York alumni DeWitt Clinton High School alumni Fordham University alumni People from the Bronx Jewish American dramatists and playwrights Burials at Kensico Cemetery Jewish American military personnel Jewish American screenwriters American people of Ukrainian-Jewish descent Best Screenplay Golden Globe winners Best Screenplay BAFTA Award winners Best Adapted Screenplay Academy Award winners 20th-century American dramatists and playwrights American male dramatists and playwrights 20th-century American male writers Screenwriters from New York (state) 20th-century American screenwriters Landmine victims Military personnel from New York City United States Army soldiers 20th-century American Jews