HistoryThe Oromo remained independent until the last quarter of the 19th century, when they lost their sovereignty. From 1881 to 1886, conducted several unsuccessful invasion campaigns against their territory. The Arsi Oromo demonstrated fierce resistance against this n conquest, putting up stiff opposition against an enemy equipped with modern European firearms. They were ultimately defeated in 1886. In , the Aanolee massacre took place on 6 September 1886, in which Emperor 's army massacred 11,000 Oromo in one day, cutting women's breasts and men's hands. In 2014, a monument has been erected to remember the victims. In the 1940s some Arsi Oromo together with people from joined the Kulub movement, an affiliate of the that opposed Amhara Christian domination of . The Ethiopian government violently suppressed these ethno-religious movements. During the 1970s the Arsi formed alliances with . In 1967, the of outlawed the (MTSHA), an Oromo social movement, and conducted mass arrests and executions of its members. The group's leader, Colonel General , who was a prominent military officer, was among those arrested. The actions by the regime sparked outrage among the Oromo community, ultimately leading to the formation of the in 1973. The Oromos perceived the rule of Emperor as oppressive, as the was banned from education and use in administration, and speakers were privately and publicly mocked. The Amhara culture dominated throughout the eras of military and monarchic rule. Both the imperial and the government relocated numerous into southern Ethiopia, including the present day Oromia region, in order to alleviate drought in the north of the country. They also served in government administration, courts, church and even in school, where were eliminated and replaced by Amharic. Further disruption under the Derg regime came through the forced concentration and resettlement of peasant communities in fewer villages. The Abyssinian elites perceived the Oromo identity and languages as opposing the expansion of an Ethiopian national identity. In the early 1990s, the began to . The OLF failed to maintain strong alliances with the other two rebel groups at the time: the (EPLF) and the (TPLF). In 1990, the TPLF created an umbrella organization for several rebel groups in Ethiopia, the (EPRDF). The EPRDF's Oromo subordinate, the (OPDO) was seen as an attempted replacement for the OLF. On 28 May 1991, the EPRDF seized power and established a . The EPRDF and the OLF pledged to work together in the new government; however, they were largely unable to cooperate, as the OLF saw the OPDO as an EPRDF ploy to limit their influence. In 1992, the OLF announced that it was withdrawing from the transitional government because of "harassment and ssassinations of its members". In response, the EPRDF sent soldiers to destroy OLA camps. Despite initial victories against the EPRDF, the OLF were eventually overwhelmed by the EPRDF's superior numbers and weaponry, forcing OLA soldiers to use instead of traditional tactics. In the late 1990s, most of the OLF's leaders had escaped Ethiopia, and the land originally administered by the OLF had been seized by the Ethiopian government, now led by the EPRDF. Prior to the establishment of present-day Addis Ababa the location was called Finfinne in , a name which refers to the presence of hot springs. The area was previously inhabited by various Oromo clans. In 2000, Oromia's capital was moved from Addis Ababa to Adama. Because this move sparked considerable controversy and protests among Oromo students, the (OPDO), part of the ruling coalition, on 10 June 2005, officially announced plans to move the regional capital back to Addis Ababa. Further protests sparked on 25 April 2014, against the , then resumed on 12 September 2015 and continued into 2016, when renewed across Ethiopia, centering around the Oromia region. Dozens of protesters were killed in the first days of the protests and internet service was cut in many parts of the region. In 2019, the festival was celebrated in Addis Ababa after 150 years of being banned. During 's premiership, Addis Ababa and its vicinities underwent . ''Sheger'' is the nickname of Addis Ababa and this project is aimed to enhance the green coverage and beauty of the city. In 2018, Abiy initiated a project called "Riverside" planned to expand riverbanks for , from the to the Akaki river.
GeographyOromia includes the former along with portions of the former , , , and provinces. Oromia shares a boundary with almost every region of Ethiopia except for the . These boundaries have been disputed in a number of cases, most notably between Oromia and the . One attempt to resolve the dispute between the two regions was the October 2004 referendum held in about 420 s in 12 across five zones of the Somali Region. According to the official results of the referendum, about 80% of the disputed areas have fallen under Oromia administration, though there were allegations of in many of them. The results led over the following weeks to minorities in these kebeles being pressured to leave. In Oromiya, estimates based on figures given by local district and kebele authorities suggest that 21,520 people have become s (IDPs) in border districts, namely , , and in the and s. Federal authorities believe that this number may be overstated by as much as 11,000. In Doba, the put the number of IDPs at 6,000. There are also more than 2,500 displaced persons in Mieso. In addition, there were reports of people being displaced in the border area of Moyale and Borena zones due to this conflict. Towns in the region include , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , and , among many others.
DemographicsAt the time of the 2007 census conducted by the of Ethiopia (CSA), Oromia region had a total population of 26,993,933, consisting of 13,595,006 men and 13,398,927 women; urban inhabitants numbered 3,317,460 or 11.3% of the population. With an estimated area of , the region had an estimated population density of . For the entire region 5,590,530 households were counted, which resulted in an average for the region of 4.8 persons to a household, with urban households having on average 3.8 and rural households 5.0 people. The projected population for 2017 was 35,467,001. In the previous census, conducted in 1994, the region's population was reported to be 17,088,136; urban inhabitants number 621,210 or 14% of the population. According to the CSA, , 32% of the population had access to , of whom 23.7% were rural inhabitants and 91.03% were urban. Values for other reported common indicators of the for Oromia include the following: 19.9% of the inhabitants fall into the lowest wealth quintile; adult literacy for men is 61.5% and for women 29.5%; and the regional is 76 infant deaths per 1,000 live births, which is about the same as the nationwide average of 77; at least half of these deaths occurred in the infants' first month of life.
Languagesis written with Latin characters known as ''Qubee'', only formally adopted in 1991 after various other Latin-based orthographies had been used previously. Oromo is one of the official working languages of Ethiopia and is also the working language of several of the states within the Ethiopian federal system including Oromia, and regional states and of the in the . It is a language of primary education in Oromia, Harari and of the in the . It is used as an internet language for federal websites along with . There are more than 33.8% Oromo speakers in Ethiopia and it is considered the most widely spoken language in Ethiopia. It is also the most widely spoken and the fourth-most widely spoken , after Arabic, and s. Forms of Oromo are spoken as a first language by more than 35 million Oromo people in Ethiopia and by an additional half-million in parts of northern and eastern Kenya. It is also spoken by smaller numbers of emigrants in other African countries such as South Africa, Libya, Egypt and Sudan. Besides first language speakers, a number of members of other ethnicities who are in contact with the Oromo speak it as a second language. See, for example, , -speaking and the -speaking in northwestern, eastern and south Oromia.
EconomyOromia is a major contributor to Ethiopia's main exports - gold, coffee, khat and cattle. Lega Dembi in , owned by has exported more than 5000 kilograms of gold, followed by Tulu Kapi gold deposit in . Awoday in is the biggest market of exporting to and . Oromia also has more abundant livestock than any other region of Ethiopia, including camels. It is also the largest producer of cereals and coffee. The CSA reported that, from 2004 to 2005, 115,083 tons of coffee were produced in Oromia, based on inspection records from the Ethiopian Coffee and Tea Authority. This represents 50.7% of the total production in Ethiopia. Farmers in the Region had an estimated total of 17,214,540 cattle (representing 44.4% of Ethiopia's total cattle), 6,905,370 sheep (39.6), 4,849,060 goats (37.4%), 959,710 horses (63.25%), 63,460 mules (43.1%), 278,440 asses (11.1%), 139,830 camels (30.6%), 11,637,070 poultry of all species (37.7%), and 2,513,790 (57.73%). According to a March 2003 publication, the average rural household has 1.14 hectares of land compared to the national average of 1.01 hectares. 24% of the population work in non-farm related jobs compared to the national average of 25%.
Educational institutions* * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
List of presidents of Oromia Region
Administrative zonesOromia is subdivided into 21 administrative zones:
See also*, cultural custom and social relations