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Nokia Corporation (natively Nokia Oyj, referred to as Nokia; stylized as NOKIA) is a Finnish
multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a sovereign state that comprises two or more nat ...
telecommunication Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire A wire is a single usually cylindrical A cylinder (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Gr ...
s, information technology, and
consumer electronics Consumer electronics or home electronics are electronic Electronic may refer to: *Electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vacuum ...
company, founded in 1865. Nokia's main headquarters are in
Espoo Espoo (, ; sv, Esbo; la, Espo) is a city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: R ...

Espoo
,
Finland Finland ( fi, Suomi ; sv, Finland ), officially the Republic of Finland (; ), is a Nordic country in Northern Europe. It shares land borders with Sweden to the west, Russia to the east, Norway to the north, and is defined by the Gulf of B ...

Finland
, in the greater
Helsinki Helsinki ( or ; ; sv, Helsingfors, ; la, Helsingia) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or ...

Helsinki
metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core Urban means "related to a city". In that sense, the term may refer to: * Urban area, geographical area distinct from rural areas * Urban culture, the cul ...
, but the company's actual roots are in the
Tampere Tampere ( , , ; sv, Tammerfors ; la, Tammerforsia) is a city in the Pirkanmaa Regions of Finland, region, located in the western part of Finland. Tampere is the most populous inland city in the Nordic countries; it has a population of 238,140 ...

Tampere
region of
Pirkanmaa Pirkanmaa ( sv, Birkaland, also known as ''Tampere Region'' in government documents; la, Birkaria, link=no), is a region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( physical geography), human impact ch ...
.HS: Nokian juuret ovat Tammerkosken rannalla
(in Finnish)
In 2020, Nokia employed approximately 92,000 people across over 100 countries, did business in more than 130 countries, and reported annual revenues of around €23 billion. Nokia is a
public limited company A public limited company (legally abbreviated to PLC or plc) is a type of public company A public company, publicly traded company, publicly held company, publicly listed company, or public limited company is a whose ownership is organized ...
listed on the
Helsinki Stock Exchange The Nasdaq Helsinki, formerly known as the Helsinki Stock Exchange ( fi, Helsingin Pörssi, sv, Helsingforsbörsen), is a stock exchange located in Helsinki, Finland. Since 3 September 2003, it has been part of Nasdaq Nordic (previously called ...
and
New York Stock Exchange The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE, nicknamed "The Big Board") is an American stock exchange A stock exchange, securities exchange, or bourse is an Exchange (organized market), exchange where stockbrokers and stock trader, traders can buy an ...

New York Stock Exchange
. It is the world's 415th-largest company measured by 2016 revenues according to the ''
Fortune Global 500 The ''Fortune'' Global 500, also known as Global 500, is an annual ranking of the top 500 corporation A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company—authorized by the State (polity), state to act as a single en ...
,'' having peaked at 85th place in 2009. It is a component of the
stock market index In finance, a stock index, or stock market index, is an Index (economics), index that measures a stock market, or a subset of the stock market, that helps investors compare current stock price levels with past prices to calculate market performa ...
. The company has operated in various industries over the past 150 years. It was founded as a
pulp mill , Central Finland A pulp mill is a manufacturing facility that converts wood chips or other Fibre crop, plant fiber source into a thick fiber board which can be shipped to a paper mill for further processing. Wood pulp, Pulp can be manufacture ...
and had long been associated with
rubber Rubber, also called India rubber, latex, Amazonian rubber, ''caucho'', or ''caoutchouc'', as initially produced, consists of polymer A polymer (; Greek ''poly- Poly, from the Greek :wikt:πολύς, πολύς meaning "many" or "much" ...

rubber
and
cables Cable may refer to: Mechanical * Nautical cable A nautical cable is a band of tightly woven and clamped ropes, of a defined cable length, used during the age of sail for deep water anchoring, heavy lifting, ship to ship transfers and towing durin ...
, but since the 1990s has focused on large-scale
telecommunications infrastructure Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire, radio, Optical system, optical or other Electromagnetism, electromagnetic systems. It has its origin in the desire of humans for communication over ...
, technology development, and licensing. Nokia made significant contributions to the
mobile telephony Mobile telephony is the provision of to which may rather than stay in one location. Telephony is supposed to specifically point to a voice-only service or connection, though sometimes the line may blur. Mobile phones connect to a terrestr ...
industry, assisting in the development of the
GSM GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) is a European standard for mobile devices. GSM may also refer to: Education * GSM London, a higher education provider * Guildhall School of Music and Drama The Guildhall School of Music and Drama i ...

GSM
, , and LTE standards. For a decade beginning in 1998, Nokia was the largest worldwide vendor of
mobile phone A mobile phone, cellular phone, cell phone, cellphone, handphone, or hand phone, sometimes shortened to simply mobile, cell or just phone, is a portable telephone A telephone is a telecommunication Telecommunication is the tra ...

mobile phone
s and
smartphone A smartphone is a portable device A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can per ...

smartphone
s. In the later 2000s, however, Nokia suffered from a series of poor management decisions, and soon saw its share of the mobile phone market drop sharply. After a partnership with
Microsoft Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational corporation, multinational technology company, technology corporation which produces Software, computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, and related services. Its best-know ...

Microsoft
and Nokia's subsequent market struggles, Microsoft bought its mobile phone business, creating
Microsoft Mobile Microsoft Mobile was a subsidiary of Microsoft involved in the development and manufacturing of mobile phones. Based in Espoo, Finland, it was established in 2014 following the List of mergers and acquisitions by Microsoft, acquisition of Nokia' ...
as its successor in 2014. After the sale, Nokia began to focus more on its telecommunications infrastructure business and on
Internet of things The Internet of things (IoT) describes the network of physical objects—"things" or objects—that are embedded with sensors, software, and other technologies for the purpose of connecting and exchanging data with other devices and systems over ...

Internet of things
technologies, marked by the divestiture of its
Here Here is an adverb that means "in, on, or at this place". It may also refer to: Software * Here Technologies, a mapping company * Here WeGo (formerly Here Maps), a mobile app and map website by Here Television * Here TV Here TV is an America ...
mapping division and the acquisition of
Alcatel-Lucent Alcatel-Lucent S.A. () was a French/American global telecommunications equipment Telecommunications equipment (also telecoms equipment or communications equipment) is a hardware which is used for the purposes of telecommunication Telecommunic ...

Alcatel-Lucent
, including its
Bell Labs Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named Bell Labs Innovations (1996–2007), AT&T Bell Laboratories (1984–1996) and Bell Telephone Laboratories (1925–1984)) is an American industrial research and scientific development company A company, ab ...
research organization. The company then also experimented with
virtual reality Virtual reality (VR) is a Simulation, simulated experience that can be similar to or completely different from the real world. Applications of virtual reality include entertainment (particularly video games), education (such as medical or mil ...

virtual reality
and
digital health Digital health, which includes digital care programs, is the convergence of digital technologies with health Health is a state of physical, mental and social well-being Well-being, also known as ''wellness'', ''prudential value'' or ''qua ...
, the latter through the purchase of
Withings Withings (pronounced "WITH-things") is a French consumer electronics company headquartered in Issy-les-Moulineaux, France. It also has offices in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, and Hong Kong, and distributes its products worldwide. Withings is kn ...
. The Nokia brand returned to the mobile and smartphone market in 2016 through a licensing arrangement with
HMD Global HMD Global Oy, branded as HMD and Nokia Mobile, is a Finnish mobile phone A mobile phone, cellular phone, cell phone, cellphone, handphone, or hand phone, sometimes shortened to simply mobile, cell or just phone, is a portable telepho ...
. Nokia continues to be a major
patent A patent is a type of intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. Depe ...

patent
licensor for most large mobile phone vendors. As of 2018, Nokia is the world's third-largest network equipment manufacturer. The company was viewed with national pride by
Finns Finns or Finnish people ( fi, suomalaiset, ) are a Baltic Finns, Baltic Finnic ethnic group native to Finland. Finns are traditionally divided into smaller regional groups that span several countries adjacent to Finland, both those who are na ...
, as its mobile phone business made it by far the largest worldwide company and brand from Finland. At its peak in 2000, during the telecoms bubble, Nokia accounted for 4% of the country's
GDP Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, the plentiful money bags handed to King George III are contrasted with the beggar whose legs and arms were amputated, in the left corner">174x174px Money is any ...
, 21% of total exports, and 70% of the
Helsinki Stock Exchange The Nasdaq Helsinki, formerly known as the Helsinki Stock Exchange ( fi, Helsingin Pörssi, sv, Helsingforsbörsen), is a stock exchange located in Helsinki, Finland. Since 3 September 2003, it has been part of Nasdaq Nordic (previously called ...
market
capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowercase (or more formally ''minusc ...
.


History


1865–1967

Nokia's history dates from 1865, when Finnish-Swede
mining engineer 250px, Surface gold mine with haul truck in foreground Mining in the engineering discipline is the extraction of minerals from underneath, above or on the ground. Mining engineering is associated with many other disciplines, such as mineral pro ...
Fredrik Idestam Knut Fredrik Idestam (28 October 1838, Tyrväntö, Grand Duchy of Finland The Grand Duchy of Finland ( fi, Suomen suuriruhtinaskunta; sv, Storfurstendömet Finland; russian: Великое княжество Финляндское, , alternativel ...

Fredrik Idestam
established a
pulp mill , Central Finland A pulp mill is a manufacturing facility that converts wood chips or other Fibre crop, plant fiber source into a thick fiber board which can be shipped to a paper mill for further processing. Wood pulp, Pulp can be manufacture ...
on the shores of the
Tammerkoski Tammerkoski is a channel of rapids in Tampere Tampere (, , ; sv, Tammerfors ; la, Tammerforsia) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and K ...

Tammerkoski
rapids near the town of
Tampere Tampere ( , , ; sv, Tammerfors ; la, Tammerforsia) is a city in the Pirkanmaa Regions of Finland, region, located in the western part of Finland. Tampere is the most populous inland city in the Nordic countries; it has a population of 238,140 ...

Tampere
, Finland (then in the
Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, succeeding the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad that ended the Great Northern War. ...
). A second pulp mill was opened in 1868 near the neighboring town of Nokia, where there were better
hydropower Hydropower (from el, ὕδωρ, "water"), also known as water power, is the use of falling or fast-running water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an , transparent, tasteless, odorless, and , which is the main constituent of 's and th ...
resources. In 1871, Idestam, together with a friend
Leo Mechelin Leopold (Leo) Henrik Stanislaus Mechelin (24 November 1839 in , Finland – 26 January 1914 in , Finland) was a politician, professor, reformer and businessman. A leading defender of the of the , and of the rights of women and minorities, Meche ...

Leo Mechelin
, formed a shared company and called it ''Nokia Ab'' (in
Swedish Swedish or ' may refer to: * Anything from or related to Sweden, a country in Northern Europe * Swedish language, a North Germanic language spoken primarily in Sweden and Finland * Swedish alphabet, the official alphabet used by the Swedish langua ...
, ''Nokia Company'' being the English equivalent), after the site of the second pulp mill. Idestam retired in 1896, making Mechelin the company's chairman; he expanded into
electricity generation Electricity generation is the process of generating electric power from sources of primary energy. For electric utility, utilities in the electric power industry, it is the stage prior to its Electricity delivery, delivery (Electric power transmiss ...
by 1902, which Idestam had opposed. In 1904 Suomen Gummitehdas (''Finnish Rubber Works''), a
rubber Rubber, also called India rubber, latex, Amazonian rubber, ''caucho'', or ''caoutchouc'', as initially produced, consists of polymer A polymer (; Greek ''poly- Poly, from the Greek :wikt:πολύς, πολύς meaning "many" or "much" ...

rubber
business founded by
Eduard Polón Ulrik Wilhelm Eduard Polón (June 16, 1861 – September 30, 1930) was a Finnish business leader and a political patriot during the country's years of oppression. Under his leadership, a rubber industry was launched in the country. He was the foun ...
, established a factory near the town of Nokia and used its name. In 1922, in a now independent Finland, Nokia Ab entered into a partnership with Finnish Rubber Works and
Kaapelitehdas Kaapelitehdas (Finnish language, Finnish for "the Cable Factory", also called simply Kaapeli, sv, Kabelfabriken) is a famous building in Salmisaari, Helsinki, near the bridge to Lauttasaari. It was redeveloped from its industrial use into a cult ...

Kaapelitehdas
(''the Cable Factory''), all now jointly under the leadership of Polón. The rubber company grew rapidly when it moved to the Nokia region in the 1930s to take advantage of the electricity supply, and the cable company soon did too. Nokia at the time also made
respirator A respirator is a device designed to protect the wearer from inhaling hazardous atmospheres, including fumes, vapours, gases Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid Solid is one of the four ...
s for both civilian and military use, from the 1930s well into the early 1990s.


1967–1990

In 1967, the three companies – Nokia, Kaapelitehdas, and Finnish Rubber Works – merged to create a new Nokia Corporation, restructured into four major businesses: forestry, cable, rubber, and electronics. In the early 1970s, it entered the networking and radio industries. Nokia started making military equipment for Finland's defence forces (''Puolustusvoimat''), such as the Sanomalaite M/90 communicator in 1983, and the
M61 gas mask The M-61 is a Finnish Finnish may refer to: * Something or someone from, or related to Finland * Finnish culture * Finnish people or Finns, the primary ethnic group in Finland * Finnish language, the national language of the Finnish people * Finnis ...
first developed in the 1960s. Nokia was now also making professional mobile radios,
telephone switch manually connecting calls with cord pairs at a telephone switchboard A telephone exchange, telephone switch, or central office is a telecommunications Telecommunication is the transmission of information Information can be thought of as ...
es,
capacitors A capacitor is a device that stores electric charge in an electric field An electric field (sometimes E-field) is the physical field that surrounds each electric charge Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it t ...
and
chemicals A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can be touched are ultimately composed of atoms, which ...

chemicals
. After Finland's trade agreement with the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
in the 1960s, Nokia expanded into the Soviet market. It soon widened trade, ranging from automatic
telephone exchange A telephone exchange, telephone switch, or central office is a telecommunications Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire, radio, Optical system, optical, or other Electromagnetism, el ...

telephone exchange
s to
robotics Robotics is an interdisciplinary Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combination of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project). It draws knowledge from several other fields like ...

robotics
among others; by the late 1970s, the Soviet Union became a major market for Nokia, yielding high profits. Nokia also co-operated on scientific technology with the Soviet Union. The U.S. government became increasingly suspicious of that co-operation after the end of the
Cold War The Cold War was a period of geopolitical Geopolitics (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country loc ...
détente and Raúl Castro Raúl Modesto Castro Ruz (; ; born 3 June 1931) is a Cuban retired politician who served as the first secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba, the most senior position in the one-party A one-party state, single-part ...
in the early 1980s. Nokia imported many US-made components and used them in products for the Soviets, and according to U.S. Deputy Minister of Defence,
Richard Perle Richard Norman Perle (born September 16, 1941) is an American political advisor who served as the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Global Strategic Affairs under President Ronald Reagan Ronald Wilson Reagan ( ; February 6, 1911June 5, 2 ...

Richard Perle
, Nokia had a secret co-operation with
The Pentagon The Pentagon is the headquarters Headquarters (commonly referred to as HQ) denotes the location where most, if not all, of the important functions of an organization are coordinated. In the United States The United States of America ...
that allowed the U.S. to keep track of technological developments in the Soviet Union through trading with Nokia. This was a demonstration of Finland trading with both sides, as it was neutral during the Cold War. In 1977, Kari Kairamo became CEO and transformed the company's businesses. By this time, Finland was becoming what has been called "Nordic Japan". Under his leadership, Nokia acquired many companies including television maker Salora in 1984, followed by Swedish electronics and computer maker
Luxor AB Luxor was a Sweden, Swedish home electronics and computer manufacturer located in Motala, established in 1923 and acquired by Nokia in 1985. The brand name is now owned by Turkish company Vestel and is used for televisions sold in the Swedish ma ...
in 1985, and French television maker Oceanic in 1987. This made Nokia the third-largest television manufacturer of Europe (behind
Philips Koninklijke Philips N.V. (in Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer t ...

Philips
and Thomson). The existing brands continued to be used until the end of the television business in 1996. In 1987, Nokia acquired Schaub-Lorenz, the consumer operations of Germany's
Standard Elektrik Lorenz C. Lorenz AG (1880-1958) was a German electrical and electronics firm primarily located in Berlin. It innovated, developed and marketed products for electric lighting, telegraphy Telegraphy is the long-distance transmission of textual messa ...
(SEL), which included its "Schaub-Lorenz" and "Graetz" brands. It was originally part of American conglomerate International Telephone & Telegraph (ITT), and after the acquisition products were sold under the "ITT Nokia" brand, despite SEL's sale to Compagnie Générale d'Electricité (CGE), the predecessor of , in 1986. On 1 April 1988, Nokia bought the Information Systems division of
Ericsson (lit. "Telephone Stock Company of LM Ericsson"), commonly known as Ericsson, is a Swedish Swedish or ' may refer to: * Anything from or related to Sweden, a country in Northern Europe * Swedish language, a North Germanic language spoken pri ...

Ericsson
, which had originated as the
Datasaab:''For the 11th century Persian Sufi scholar Daata Sab, see Ali Hujwiri.'' Datasaab was the computer division of, and later a separate company spun off from, aircraft manufacturer Saab Group, Saab in Linköping, Sweden. Its history dates back to Dec ...
computer division of Swedish aircraft and car manufacturer
Saab Saab or SAAB may refer to: Brands and enterprises * Saab Group Saab AB (originally , later just SAAB and Saab Group) is a Swedish aerospace Aerospace is a term used to collectively refer to the atmosphere and outer space. Aerospace activity is ...
. Ericsson Information Systems made Alfaskop terminals,
typewriter A typewriter is a mechanical Mechanical may refer to: Machine * Mechanical system A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional properties. It may represent human-made or naturally occurring device molecular ...

typewriter
s,
minicomputer A minicomputer, or colloquially mini, is a class of smaller general purpose computers that developed in the mid-1960s and sold for much less than Mainframe computer, mainframe and mid-size computers from IBM and BUNCH, its direct competitors. In ...
s and Ericsson-branded IBM compatible PCs. The merger with Nokia's Information Systems division—which since 1981 had a line of personal computers called
MikroMikko MikroMikko was a Finland, Finnish line of microcomputers released by Nokia, Nokia Corporation's computer division Nokia Data from 1981 through 1987. MikroMikko was Nokia Data's attempt to enter the business computer market. They were especially des ...
—resulted in the name Nokia Data. Nokia also acquired Mobira, a mobile telephony company, which was the foundation of its future mobile phone business. In 1981, Mobira launched the
Nordic Mobile Telephone NMT (''Nordisk MobilTelefoni'' or ''Nordiska MobilTelefoni-gruppen'', ''Nordic Mobile Telephony'' in English) is an automatic cellular phone system specified by Nordic Nordic most commonly refers to: * Nordic countries, written in plural as Nor ...
(NMT) service, the world's first international cellular network and the first to allow international
roaming Roaming is a wireless Wireless communication (or just wireless, when the context allows) is the transfer of information between two or more points that do not use an electrical conductor In physics Physics (from grc, φυσικ ...

roaming
. In 1982, Mobira launched the Mobira Senator car phone, Nokia's first mobile phone. At that time, the company had no interest in producing mobile phones, which the executive board regarded as akin to
James Bond The ''James Bond'' series focuses on a fictional British Secret Service The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), commonly known as MI6, is the foreign intelligence service of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain ...
's gadgets: improbably futuristic and niche devices. After all these acquisitions, Nokia's revenue base became US$2.7 billion. CEO Kairamo committed suicide on 11 December 1988. In 1987,
Kaapelitehdas Kaapelitehdas (Finnish language, Finnish for "the Cable Factory", also called simply Kaapeli, sv, Kabelfabriken) is a famous building in Salmisaari, Helsinki, near the bridge to Lauttasaari. It was redeveloped from its industrial use into a cult ...

Kaapelitehdas
discontinued production of cables at its
Helsinki Helsinki ( or ; ; sv, Helsingfors, ; la, Helsingia) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or ...

Helsinki
factory after 44 years, effectively shutting down the sub-company. File:Mobira 800-NDB.JPG, Mobira 800-NDB non-directional beacon located in the Finnish Air Force signals museum File:Lasersuunnin merivoimien vuosipäivä 2013 Kotka 3.JPG, Nokia MAC 8532 laser rangefinder previously used by Finnish coastal artillery File:Patteriston komentopaikka Hämeenlinna 2.JPG, Hämeenlinna artillery museum display containing fire control officer with Nokia artillery calculator in Finnish artillery battalion command post File:MikroMikko 4 TT m216 Tekniikan museo 02.jpg, Late 1980s MikroMikko 4 TT m216 desktop computer in the Museum of Technology, Helsinki, Finland File:Itt-nokia television and vhs-video.jpeg, ITT Nokia television with an ITT Nokia VCR (ITT/SEL) File:Mobira kaukohakulaite.png, A 1986 Mobira pager


1990–2010

Following Simo Vuorilehto's appointment as CEO, a major restructuring was planned. With 11 groups within the company, Vuorilehto divested industrial units he deemed as un-strategic.
Nokian Tyres Nokian Tyres plc ( fi, Nokian Renkaat Oyj), headquartered in Nokia, Finland, produces tyres for cars, trucks, buses, and heavy-duty equipment. Known for its winter tyres, Nokian is the only tyre manufacturer with its own permanent winter tyre t ...

Nokian Tyres
(''Nokian Renkaat''), a tyre producer originally formed as a division of Finnish Rubber Works in 1932, split away from Nokia Corporation in 1988. Two years later, in 1990, Finnish Rubber Works followed suit. In 1991 Nokia sold its computer division, Nokia Data, to -based
International Computers Limited International Computers Limited (ICL) was a British computer hardware Computer hardware includes the physical parts of a computer, such as the computer case, case, central processing unit (CPU), Computer monitor, monitor, Computer mouse, mou ...
(ICL), the precursor of
Fujitsu Siemens Fujitsu Siemens Computers GmbH was a Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = Imperial Seal of Japan.svg , alt_c ...
. Investors thought of this as financial trouble and Nokia's stock price sank as a result. Finland was now also experiencing its worst recession in living memory, and the
collapse Collapse or its variants may refer to: Concepts * Collapse (structural) * Collapse (topology), a mathematical concept * Collapsing manifold * Collapse, the action of collapsing or telescoping objects * Ecosystem collapse An ecosystem ...
of the Soviet Union, a major customer, made matters worse. Vuorilehto quit in January 1992 and was replaced by
Jorma Ollila Jorma Jaakko Ollila (born 15 August 1950) is a Finnish businessman who was chairman of Royal Dutch Shell from 1 June 2006 to May 2015, and at Nokia, Nokia Corporation chairman from 1999 to 2012 and CEO from 1992 to 2006. He has been a director ...

Jorma Ollila
, who had been the head of the mobile phone business from 1990 and advised against selling that division. Ollila decided to turn Nokia into a ' telecom-oriented' company, and he eventually got rid of divisions like the power business. This strategy proved to be very successful and the company grew rapidly in the following years. Nokia's operating profit went from negative in 1991 to $1 billion in 1995 and almost $4 billion by 1999. Nokia's first fully portable mobile phone after the Mobira Senator was the Mobira Cityman 900 in 1987. Nokia assisted in the development of the
GSM GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) is a European standard for mobile devices. GSM may also refer to: Education * GSM London, a higher education provider * Guildhall School of Music and Drama The Guildhall School of Music and Drama i ...

GSM
mobile standard in the 1980s, and developed the first GSM network with
Siemens Siemens AG ( ) is a German multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, ...

Siemens
, the predecessor to Nokia Siemens Network. The world's first GSM call was made by Finnish prime minister
Harri Holkeri Harri Hermanni Holkeri () (6 January 1937 – 7 August 2011) was a Finns, Finnish statesman representing the National Coalition Party of Finland (Kokoomus / Samlingspartiet). He was the Prime Minister of Finland 1987–1991, speaker of the Unit ...

Harri Holkeri
on 1 July 1991, using Nokia equipment on the 900 MHz band network built by Nokia and operated by
Radiolinja Radiolinja was a Finnish GSM GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) is a European standard for mobile devices. GSM may also refer to: Education * GSM London, a higher education provider * Guildhall School of Music and Drama The Guildh ...
. In November 1992, the
Nokia 1011 The Nokia 1011 (NHE-2X5, NHE-2XN) is the first mass-produced GSM GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) is a European standard for mobile devices. GSM may also refer to: Education * GSM London, a higher education provider * Guildhall Sc ...

Nokia 1011
launched, making it the first commercially available GSM mobile phone. Salora Oy as a Nokia subsidiary ended in 1989 when the division was merged into Nokia-Mobira Oy. The brand continued to be used for televisions until 1995. On 12 June 1996, Nokia announced the sale of its
television Television, sometimes shortened to TV or telly, is a telecommunication Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire A wire is a single usually cylindrical A cylinder (from Gre ...

television
business to Canada/Hong Kong-based Semi-Tech Corporation. The television manufacturing plant in Germany closed down in September 1996. The sale included a factory in
Turku Turku ( ; ; sv, Åbo, ; la, Aboa; russian: Турку, formerly ) is a List of cities and towns in Finland, city and former Capital city, capital on the southwest coast of Finland at the mouth of the Aura (Archipelago Sea), Aura River, in the ...

Turku
, and the rights to use the Nokia,
Finlux Finlux is a brand name used by Turkish Turkish may refer to: * of or about Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe and Western Asia. It shares borders with Greece ...
,
Luxor Luxor (; ar, الأقصر ', , Upper Egyptian pronunciation: ; Sahidic ''Pape'', ) is a city in Upper (southern) Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country This is ...
, Salora, Schaub-Lorenz and Oceanic brands until the end of 1999. Some of these brands were later sold to other companies. Nokia was the first to launch
digital satellite Satellite television is a service that delivers television programming to viewers by relaying it from a communications satellite A communications satellite is an artificial satellite that relays and amplifies radio telecommunication signals via a ...
receivers in the UK, announced in March 1997. In August 1997 Nokia introduced the first digital satellite receiver with
Common Interface DVB-Receiver with Common Interface module In Digital Video Broadcasting, the Common Interface (also called Digital Video Broadcasting, DVB-CI) is a technology which allows decryption of pay TV channels. Pay TV stations want to choose which encryp ...
(CI) support. In 1998 Nokia became the chosen supplier to produce the world's first
digital terrestrial television Digital terrestrial television (DTTV or DTT, or DTTB with "broadcasting") is a technology for terrestrial television Terrestrial television is a type of television broadcasting Broadcasting is the distribution of sound, audio or video c ...
set-top boxes by British Digital Broadcasting (BDB), which was eventually launched as
ONdigital ITV Digital was a British digital terrestrial television broadcaster which launched a pay-TV service on the world's first digital terrestrial television network. Its main shareholders were Carlton Communications plc and Granada plc, owners o ...
. In October 1998, Nokia overtook
Motorola Motorola, Inc. () was an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational sta ...

Motorola
to become the best-selling mobile phone brand, and in December manufactured its 100 millionth mobile phone. A major reason why Nokia grew against its main competitors Motorola and
Ericsson (lit. "Telephone Stock Company of LM Ericsson"), commonly known as Ericsson, is a Swedish Swedish or ' may refer to: * Anything from or related to Sweden, a country in Northern Europe * Swedish language, a North Germanic language spoken pri ...

Ericsson
was that it managed to cater to the consumer youth market and fashion-oriented consumers, most significantly with the
Nokia 5110 The Nokia 5110 is a GSM mobile phone that was introduced by Nokia on 12 April 1998. The 5110, also known as Nokia 5146 on One2One (now T-Mobile), or the nk402 on Orange UK, Orange in the UK, was intended for the consumer market, succeeding Nokia ...

Nokia 5110
and handsets which featured a large range of colourful and replaceable back-covers called Xpress-on. One of the earliest fashion phones in 1992, from Swiss watchmaker
Swatch Swatch (stylized as swatch) is a Swiss Swiss may refer to: * the adjectival form of Switzerland , french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = Federalism, Federal semi-direct democracy ...

Swatch
, was based on Nokia's 101 handset. The company would also form the
Vertu Vertu was a British-based manufacturer and retailer of luxury handmade mobile phones, established by Finnish Finnish may refer to: * Something or someone from, or related to Finland * Finnish culture * Finnish people or Finns, the primary ethni ...
division, creating luxury mobile handsets. Nokia claimed in April 1996 its 447Xav and 447K monitors to be the first with
stereo File:Carsoundstereoshift.png, Time difference in a stereophonic recording of a car going past, 250px Stereophonic sound or, more commonly, stereo, is a method of sound reproduction that recreates a multi-directional, 3-dimensional audible per ...

stereo
speakers and a sub-woofer. In May 1999 Nokia introduced their first
wireless LAN A wireless LAN (WLAN) is a wireless computer network that links two or more devices using wireless communication Wireless communication (or just wireless, when the context allows) is the transfer of information between two or more point ...
products. In January 2000
ViewSonic ViewSonic Corporation is a privately-held multinational electronics company with headquarters in Brea, California Brea (; meaning 'oil' or 'tar' in Spanish) is a city in northern Orange County, California. The population as of the 2010 census ...
acquired Nokia Display Products, the division making
display Display may refer to: Technology * Display device, output device for presenting information, including: ** Cathode ray tube, video display that provides a quality picture, but can be very heavy and deep ** Electronic visual display, output device ...
s for personal computers. On 26 April 2001 Nokia partnered with Telefonica to supply
DSL Digital subscriber line (DSL; originally digital subscriber loop) is a family of technologies that are used to transmit digital data Digital usually refers to something using digits, particularly binary digits. Technology and computing Hardwa ...

DSL
modems and routers in Spain. In 1997, Nokia established a
joint venture A joint venture (JV) is a business entity created by two or more parties, generally characterized by shared ownership Equity sharing is another name for shared ownership or ''co-ownership (disambiguation), co-ownership''. It takes one property, ...
with Brazilian electronics firm Gradiente where they were granted the license to manufacture variants of Nokia mobile phones locally under the Nokia and Gradiente brand names. In 1998, Nokia co-founded Symbian Ltd. led by Psion to create a new operating system for
PDA PDA may refer to: Science and technology * Patron-driven acquisition, a mechanism for libraries to purchase books *Personal digital assistant, a mobile device * Photodiode array, a type of detector * Polydiacetylenes, a family of conducting polym ...
s and smart mobile phones as a successor of
EPOC32 EPOC is a mobile operating system A mobile operating system is an operating system An operating system (OS) is system software System software is software designed to provide a platform for other software. Examples of system software includ ...
. They released the
Nokia 9210 Communicator The Nokia 9210 Communicator is a third-generation Communicator series smartphone A smartphone is a portable device A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out seque ...
running
Symbian OS Symbian is a discontinued mobile operating system A mobile operating system is an operating system An operating system (OS) is system software System software is software designed to provide a platform for other software. Examples of sys ...
in 2001 and later that year created the Symbian
Series 60 The S60 Platform (formerly Series 60 User Interface) is a software platform A computing platform or digital platform is an environment in which a piece of software is executed. It may be the Computer hardware, hardware or the operating system ...
platform, later introducing it with their first
camera phone A camera phone is a mobile phone A mobile phone, cellular phone, cell phone, cellphone, handphone, or hand phone, sometimes shortened to simply mobile, cell or just phone, is a portable telephone A telephone is a telecommunicati ...
, the
Nokia 7650 The Nokia Nokia Corporation (natively Nokia Oyj, referred to as Nokia; stylized as NOKIA) is a Finnish multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multi ...
. Both Nokia and Symbian eventually became the largest
smartphone A smartphone is a portable device A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can per ...

smartphone
hardware and software maker respectively, and in February 2004 Nokia became the largest shareholder of Symbian Ltd. Nokia acquired the entire company in June 2008 and then formed the
Symbian Foundation The Symbian Foundation was a non-profit organisation A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a collective, public o ...
as its successor. In 1998 alone, the company had sales revenue of $20 billion making $2.6 billion profit. By 2000 Nokia employed over 55,000 people, and had a market share of 30% in the mobile phone market, almost twice as large as its nearest competitor,
Motorola Motorola, Inc. () was an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational sta ...

Motorola
. The company was operating in 140 countries as of 1999. It was reported at the time that some people believed Nokia to be a
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
ese company. Between 1996 and 2001, Nokia's turnover increased fivefold, from €6.5 billion to €31 billion. The company would then be known as a successful and innovative maker of
camera phone A camera phone is a mobile phone A mobile phone, cellular phone, cell phone, cellphone, handphone, or hand phone, sometimes shortened to simply mobile, cell or just phone, is a portable telephone A telephone is a telecommunicati ...
s. The was the first camera phone on sale in North America in 2003. In April 2005 Nokia partnered with German camera optics maker
Carl Zeiss AG Carl Zeiss AG (), branded as ZEISS, is a German manufacturer of optical systems and optoelectronics, founded in Jena Jena (; ) is a German List of cities and towns in Germany, city and the second largest city in Thuringia. Together with t ...
. That same month Nokia introduced the Nseries, which would become its flagship line of smartphones for the next six years. The
Nokia N95 The Nokia N95 is a smartphone A smartphone is a portable device A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations autom ...

Nokia N95
introduced in September 2006 became highly successful and was also awarded as "best mobile imaging device" in Europe in 2007. Its successor the featured a
xenon Xenon is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemical elemen ...

xenon
flash, which helped it win the award of "best mobile imaging" device in Europe in 2008. The N93 in 2006 was known for its specialized
camcorder A camcorder is an electronic device originally combining a video camera A video camera is a camera A camera is an optical Optics is the branch of physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗ ...

camcorder
and the twistable design that switches between
clamshell Clamshell may denote anything resembling the bivalve shell of a clam: * Scoop stretcher, another name for this patient transport device * Clamshell design, a form factor used for electronic devices, also known as a "flip" or "flip phone". * Clamshe ...
and a camcorder-like position. They were also well known for the with a high-resolution 12-megapixel sensor in 2010; the 808 PureView in 2012 with a 41-megapixel sensor; and the
Lumia 920 Nokia Lumia 920 is a smartphone A smartphone is a Mobile device, portable device that combines Mobile phone, mobile telephone and Mobile computing, computing functions into one unit. They are distinguished from feature phones by their strong ...

Lumia 920
flagship in 2012 which implemented advanced
PureView Nokia PureView is the branding of a combination of technologies used in cameras of Nokia-branded smartphones, and previously, in phones by Microsoft Mobile Microsoft Mobile was a subsidiary of Microsoft Microsoft Corporation is an America ...
technologies. Nokia was one of the pioneers of
mobile gaming A mobile game is a video game#REDIRECT Video game A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface or input device such as a joystick, game controller, controller, computer keyboard, keyboard, or motion sen ...
due to the popularity of ''
Snake Snakes are elongated, limbless, carnivore, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes . Like all other Squamata, squamates, snakes are ectothermic, amniote vertebrates covered in overlapping Scale (zoology), scales. Many species of snakes ...
'', which came pre-loaded on many products. In 2002, Nokia attempted to break into the handheld gaming market with the N-Gage. Nokia's head of entertainment and media, Ilkka Raiskinen, once quoted "
Game Boy The is an 8-bit computing, 8-bit handheld game console developed and manufactured by Nintendo. The first handheld in the Game Boy family, it was first released in Japan on April 21, 1989. The console was released in North America later the same ...

Game Boy
is for 10-year-olds", stating that N-Gage is more suited to a mature audience. However, the device was a failure, unable to challenge the dominant market leader
Nintendo is a Japanese Multinational corporation, multinational consumer electronics and video game company headquartered in Kyoto, Japan. The company was founded in 1889 as by craftsman Fusajiro Yamauchi and originally produced handmade playing ca ...

Nintendo
. Nokia attempted to revive N-Gage as a platform for their S60 smartphones, which eventually launched in 2008. In Q1 2004, Nokia's mobile phone handset market share steeply dropped to 28.9%, down from 34.6% a year earlier. However, by 2006 the company was steadily gaining again and in Q4 2007 reached its all-time high figure of 40.4%. Its smartphone market share in that quarter was 51%. Nokia was the largest vendor at the time in all regions bar
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
. Nokia launched
mobile TV Mobile television is television Television, sometimes shortened to TV or telly, is a telecommunication Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire A wire is a single usually ...
trials in 2005 in Finland with content provided by public broadcaster
Yle #REDIRECT Yle #REDIRECT Yle Yleisradio Oy ( Finnish), literally ''General Radio'' or ''General Broadcast''; sv, Rundradion Ab; English: Finnish Broadcasting Company; abbr. Yle (), is Finland Finland ( fi, Suomi ; sv, Finland , ), offi ...
. The services are based on the
DVB-H DVB-H (Digital Video Broadcasting - Handheld) is one of three prevalent mobile TV DMB in South Korea Mobile television is television Television (TV), sometimes shortened to tele or telly, is a telecommunication medium used for trans ...
standard. It could be viewed with the widescreen
Nokia 7710 The Nokia 7710 is a smartphone A smartphone is a portable device A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automa ...

Nokia 7710
smartphone with a special accessory enabling it to receive DVB-H signals. Nokia partnered with
Arqiva Arqiva () is a British telecommunication Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire A wire is a single usually cylindrical A cylinder (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece An ...
and O2 to launch trials in the UK in September 2005. In 2005 Nokia developed a
Linux Linux ( or ) is a family of open-source Open source is source code that is made freely available for possible modification and redistribution. Products include permission to use the source code, design documents, or content of the product ...

Linux
-based operating system called
Maemo Maemo is a software platform A computing platform or digital platform is an environment in which a piece of software is executed. It may be the Computer hardware, hardware or the operating system (OS), even a web browser and associated applica ...

Maemo
, which shipped that year on the
Nokia 770 Internet Tablet The Nokia 770 Internet Tablet is a wireless Internet appliance from Nokia, originally announced at the LinuxWorld Summit in New York City on 25 May 2005. It is designed for wireless Internet browsing and email functions and includes software such ...
. On 1 June 2006,
Jorma Ollila Jorma Jaakko Ollila (born 15 August 1950) is a Finnish businessman who was chairman of Royal Dutch Shell from 1 June 2006 to May 2015, and at Nokia, Nokia Corporation chairman from 1999 to 2012 and CEO from 1992 to 2006. He has been a director ...

Jorma Ollila
became the company's chairman and retired as CEO, replaced by
Olli-Pekka Kallasvuo Olli-Pekka Kallasvuo (born 13 July 1953) chaired the committee for World Design Capital Helsinki 2012, and is the former Chairman, Chief Executive Officer and President of Nokia, as well as a former board member of Nokia Networks, Nokia Siemens Ne ...

Olli-Pekka Kallasvuo
. In August 2007, Nokia introduced Ovi, an umbrella name for the company's new Internet services which included the N-Gage platform and the Nokia Music Store. The Ovi Store faced stiff competition against
Apple An apple is an edible fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this fie ...
's
App Store An app store (or app marketplace) is a type of digital distribution Digital distribution (also referred to as content delivery, online distribution, or electronic software distribution (ESD), among others) is the delivery or distribution of di ...

App Store
when it was introduced in 2008. In October 2008 Nokia announced the
Nokia 5800 XpressMusic Nokia 5800 XpressMusic is a smartphone A smartphone is a mobile device that combines cellular and mobile computing functions into one unit. They are distinguished from feature phones by their stronger hardware capabilities and extensive m ...
, the first device to ship with the new touch-centric S60 5th Edition, also known as Symbian^1, the first iteration of the platform since the creation of the Symbian Foundation. In November 2008 Nokia announced it would end mobile phone sales in
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
because of low market share. Nokia's global mobile phone market share peaked in 2008 at 38.6 percent. The same year, Nokia announced the acquisition of Trolltech and its Qt software development. Qt was a central part of Nokia's strategy until 2011, and it was eventually sold in 2012. Nokia briefly returned to the computer market with the Booklet 3G netbook in August 2009.


2010–2014

In late 2009 and in 2010, the music-focused Xseries and consumer-focused Cseries were introduced respectively. In April 2010 Nokia introduced its next flagship mobile device, the
Nokia N8 The Nokia N8 is a touchscreen-based smartphone A smartphone is a mobile device that combines cellular and mobile computing functions into one unit. They are distinguished from feature phones by their stronger hardware capabilities and ex ...

Nokia N8
, which would be the first to run on Symbian^3. However it was delayed for many months which tarnished the company's image, especially after the failure of its previous flagship N97 and tougher competition from
Apple An apple is an edible fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this fie ...
and the rising
Google Google LLC is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational stat ...

Google
. On 10 September 2010,
Olli-Pekka Kallasvuo Olli-Pekka Kallasvuo (born 13 July 1953) chaired the committee for World Design Capital Helsinki 2012, and is the former Chairman, Chief Executive Officer and President of Nokia, as well as a former board member of Nokia Networks, Nokia Siemens Ne ...

Olli-Pekka Kallasvuo
was fired as CEO and it was announced that
Stephen Elop Stephen Elop (born 31 December 1963) is a Canadian Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, legal, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, many (or all) of these ...
from
Microsoft Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational corporation, multinational technology company, technology corporation which produces Software, computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, and related services. Its best-know ...

Microsoft
would take Nokia's CEO position, becoming the first non-Finnish director in Nokia's history. It was claimed that investors pressed Nokia's board to recruit an outsider to shake up management and break from the traditional "Nokia way". Ollila had also announced that he would step down as Nokia chairman by 2012. On 11 March 2011 Nokia announced that it had paid Elop a $6 million signing bonus as "compensation for lost income from his prior employer", on top of his $1.4 million annual salary. The old Symbian OS became completely
open source Open source is source code that is made freely available for possible modification and redistribution. Products include permission to use the source code, design documents, or content of the product. The open-source model is a decentralized softwa ...
in February 2010. However, in November 2010 it was announced that the
Symbian Foundation The Symbian Foundation was a non-profit organisation A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a collective, public o ...
was closing and that Nokia would take back control of the Symbian operating system under closed licensing. By now Nokia was the only remaining company using the platform, along with carrier
NTT DoCoMo is a Japanese mobile phone operator A mobile phone operator, wireless provider, or carrier is a mobile telecommunications company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personality, legal entity representing an association of people, ...
in Japan, after both
Samsung The Samsung Group (or simply Samsung) ( ko, 삼성) is a South Korean Multinational corporation, multinational manufacturing Conglomerate (company), conglomerate headquartered in Samsung Town, Seoul, South Korea. It comprises numerous affil ...

Samsung
and
Sony Ericsson Sony Mobile Communications Inc. ( ja, ソニーモバイルコミュニケーションズ株式会社) was a multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Mult ...
moved to
Android Android may refer to: Science and technology * Android (robot), a humanoid robot or synthetic organism designed to imitate a human * Android (operating system), Google's mobile operating system ** Android (operating system)#Mascot, Unnamed Androi ...

Android
. Meanwhile, in 2010 for Nokia's
Linux Linux ( or ) is a family of open-source Open source is source code that is made freely available for possible modification and redistribution. Products include permission to use the source code, design documents, or content of the product ...

Linux
ambitions, Nokia collaborated with
Intel Intel Corporation is an American multinational corporation A multinational company (MNC) is a corporate A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personalit ...

Intel
to form the
MeeGo MeeGo is a discontinued Linux distribution A Linux distribution (often abbreviated as distro) is an operating system An operating system (OS) is system software System software is software designed to provide a platform for other softwar ...
project, after the merger of Nokia's own
Maemo Maemo is a software platform A computing platform or digital platform is an environment in which a piece of software is executed. It may be the Computer hardware, hardware or the operating system (OS), even a web browser and associated applica ...

Maemo
and Intel's
Moblin Moblin, short for 'mobile Linux Linux ( or ) is a family of open-source Open source is source code that is made freely available for possible modification and redistribution. Products include permission to use the source code, design d ...
. Nokia's Symbian platform that had been the leading smartphone platform in Europe and Asia for many years was quickly becoming outdated and difficult for developers after the advent of
iOS iOS (formerly iPhone OS) is a mobile operating system A mobile operating system is an operating system An operating system (OS) is system software System software is software designed to provide a platform for other software. Examples o ...

iOS
and Android. To counter this, Nokia planned to make their MeeGo Linux operating system, under development, the company's flagship on smartphones. Shortly after Elop's CEO tenure began, the Nokia board green-lit him the ability to change the company's mobile phones strategy, including changing operating systems. Veteran , head of the smartphones division, left the company around this time. His final appearance was at Nokia World 2010 when the
Nokia E7 The Nokia E7-00, also known as Nokia E7, is a business-oriented QWERTY QWERTY () is a keyboard layout, keyboard design for Latin-script alphabets. The name comes from the order of the first six Computer keyboard keys#Key types, keys on the ...
and other Symbian^3 devices were introduced. On 11 February 2011, Nokia announced a "strategic partnership" with
Microsoft Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational corporation, multinational technology company, technology corporation which produces Software, computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, and related services. Its best-know ...

Microsoft
, under which it would adopt
Windows Phone 7 Windows Phone 7 is the first release of the Windows Phone Windows Phone (WP) is a discontinued family of mobile operating systems developed by Microsoft for smartphones as the replacement successor to Windows Mobile and Zune. Windows Phone fea ...

Windows Phone 7
as its primary operating system on smartphones, and integrate its services and platforms with its own, including
Bing Bing most often refers to: * Bing Crosby Harry Lillis "Bing" Crosby Jr. (May 3, 1903 – October 14, 1977) was an American singer, comedian and actor. The first multimedia star, Crosby was one of the most popular and influential musical ...
as search engine, and integration of
Nokia Maps Here Technologies (Trade name, trading as Here) is a Netherlands-based company that provides Data mapping, mapping and location data and related services to individuals and companies. It is majority-owned by a consortium of German automotive comp ...
data into
Bing Maps Bing Maps (previously Live Search Maps, Windows Live Maps, Windows Live Local, and MSN Virtual Earth) is a web mapping service provided as a part of Microsoft's Bing (search engine), Bing suite of search engines and powered by the Bing Maps for Ente ...
. Elop stated that Nokia chose not to use Android because of an apparent inability to "differentiate" its offerings, with critics also noting that his past ties to Microsoft may have also influenced the decision. Although the MeeGo "Harmattan"-based was met with a highly positive reception in 2011, Nokia had already decided to end development on MeeGo and solely focus on its Microsoft partnership, although the CEO said that the N9's "innovations" will live on in the future, which eventually made their way on the
Asha platform The Nokia Asha platform is a mobile operating system (OS) and computing platform designed for low-end borderline smartphones, based on software from Smarterphone which was acquired by Nokia. The platform inherits UI similarities mostly from MeeGo "H ...
in 2013. After the announcement of the Microsoft partnership, Nokia's market share deteriorated; this was due to demand for Symbian dropping when consumers realized Nokia's focus and attention would be elsewhere. The company posted a large loss for the second quarter of 2011 – only their second quarterly loss in 19 years. Nokia's first Windows Phone flagship was the Lumia 800, which arrived in November 2011. Falling sales in 2011, which were not being improved significantly with the Lumia line in 2012, led to consecutive quarters of huge losses. By mid-2012 the company's stock price fell below $2. CEO Elop announced cost-cutting measures in June by shedding 10,000 employees by the end of the year and the closure of the Salo manufacturing plant. The Finnish prime minister also announced that the government wouldn't subsidize the company from an emergency state fund. Around this time Nokia started a new project codenamed "
MeltemiThe etesians ( or ; grc, ἐτησίαι, etēsiai, periodic winds; sometimes found in the Latin language, Latin form etesiae), ''meltemia'' ( el, ετησίες,μελτέμια; pl. of meltemi), or meltem (Turkish language, Turkish) are the stron ...

Meltemi
", a platform for low-end smartphones. With the Microsoft alliance and under Elop's management, Nokia also had a renewed focus on the North American market where Nokia phones were, in stark contrast to the rest of the world, almost irrelevant for many years. This strategy began in January 2012 with the introduction of the
Nokia Lumia 900 The Nokia Lumia 900 is a Windows Phone-powered smartphone, first unveiled on January 9, 2012 by Nokia at Consumer Electronics Show 2012, where it won the Best Smartphone award in January 2012. The phone has 4G LTE support and was released in Apri ...

Nokia Lumia 900
smartphone in partnership with U.S. carrier
AT&T AT&T Inc. is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a ...

AT&T
. In March 2011, Nokia introduced a new corporate typeface called "Pure". On 1 August 2011, Nokia announced that it would adopt a new three-digit naming system for mobile phone products and stop using letters, effectively ending the Nseries, Eseries, and short-lived Cseries. That same day the
Nokia 500 The Nokia 500 is an entry level Symbian Belle smartphone A smartphone is a portable device A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or ...

Nokia 500
was introduced with the new system. Nokia last used three-digit names on analogue phones in the 1990s. When the
Lumia 920 Nokia Lumia 920 is a smartphone A smartphone is a Mobile device, portable device that combines Mobile phone, mobile telephone and Mobile computing, computing functions into one unit. They are distinguished from feature phones by their strong ...

Lumia 920
was announced in September 2012, it was seen by the press as the first high-end Windows Phone that could challenge rivals due to its advanced feature set. Elop said that the positive reaction to it had created a sense of hope and optimism in the company. The company was also making gains in developing countries with its
Asha Asha (; also arta ; Avestan Avestan , also known historically as Zend, comprises two languages: Old Avestan (spoken in the 2nd millennium BCE) and Younger Avestan (spoken in the 1st millennium BCE). The languages are known only from their use ...
series, which were selling strongly. Although Nokia's smartphone sales and market share greatly increased throughout 2013, including in the North American market, it was still not enough to avoid financial losses. Ollila stepped down as chairman on 4 May 2012 and was replaced by Risto Siilasmaa. In September 2013 Nokia announced the sale of its mobile and devices division to Microsoft. The sale was positive for Nokia to avoid further negative financial figures, as well as for Microsoft's CEO
Steve Ballmer Steven Anthony Ballmer (; March 24, 1956) is an American businessman and investor who served as the chief executive officer A chief executive officer (CEO), chief administrator officer, or just chief executive (CE), is one of a number of corporat ...

Steve Ballmer
, who wanted Microsoft to produce more hardware and turn it into a devices and services company. The Nokia chairman, Risto Siilasmaa, described the deal as rationally correct (in the best interests of Nokia shareholders), but emotionally difficult – experts agree that Nokia would have been in a cash crisis had it not sold the division to Microsoft. Analysts believe that Ballmer pushed for the buyout because of fears that Nokia was close to adopting Android and abandoning their alliance with Microsoft. Indeed, in January 2014 the
Nokia X The Nokia X was a mid-tier smartphone announced as part of the Nokia X family in February 2014, running on the Nokia X platform. The device shipped on the same day as the unveiling, with Nokia targeting the product for emerging markets, and was so ...
was introduced which ran on a customised version of Android. It was a surprising and somewhat odd launch coming just weeks away from the finalization of the Microsoft buyout. Others, including Ballmer's successor
Satya Nadella #REDIRECT Satya Nadella #REDIRECT Satya Nadella Satya Narayana Nadella (; born 19 August 1967) is an Indian-American business executive. He is the chief executive officer A chief executive officer (CEO), chief administrator, or just chief ex ...

Satya Nadella
, felt that Microsoft thought merging their software teams with Nokia's hardware engineering and designs would "accelerate" growth of Windows Phone. The sale was completed in April 2014, with
Microsoft Mobile Microsoft Mobile was a subsidiary of Microsoft involved in the development and manufacturing of mobile phones. Based in Espoo, Finland, it was established in 2014 following the List of mergers and acquisitions by Microsoft, acquisition of Nokia' ...
becoming the successor to Nokia's mobile devices division. Nokia also moved from its
headquarters Headquarters (commonly referred to as HQ) denotes the location where most, if not all, of the important functions of an organization are coordinated. In the United States, the corporate headquarters represents the entity at the center or the top ...
to another building complex located at Karaportti. At the time, Ballmer himself was retiring as Microsoft CEO and was replaced by
Satya Nadella #REDIRECT Satya Nadella #REDIRECT Satya Nadella Satya Narayana Nadella (; born 19 August 1967) is an Indian-American business executive. He is the chief executive officer A chief executive officer (CEO), chief administrator, or just chief ex ...

Satya Nadella
, who opposed the Nokia mobile phones purchase, along with chairman
Bill Gates William Henry Gates III (born October 28, 1955) is an American business magnate A business magnate is someone who has achieved great success and enormous wealth through the ownership of multiple lines of enterprise. The term character ...
. The purchased assets from Nokia were eventually written-off by Microsoft in 2015. By 2014, Nokia's global brand value according to Interbrand fell to 98th place, a sharp slide from the 5th place it was in 2009. Nokia's downfall in the mobile phone market has had different explanations from analysts, with many split about the CEO's decision to abandon its in-house operating system and adopting Windows Phone in 2011. Many researchers have concluded that Nokia suffered from deep internal rivalries within the management. Former employees claimed that the management became so swollen by the early success that they grew complacent over time. Some from the Symbian developing team have claimed that the company's upper management rejected hundreds of potential innovations during the 2000s that they proposed, including entirely rewriting Symbian's code. One former Nokia employee claimed that the company was run as a "
Soviet The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a socialist state A socialist state, socialist republic, or socialist country, sometimes referred to as a workers' state or workers' republic, is a sovere ...
-style
bureaucracy The term bureaucracy () may refer both to a body of non-elected governing officials (bureaucrats A bureaucrat is a member of a bureaucracy and can compose the administration of any organization of any size, although the term usually connotes ...

bureaucracy
". In July 2013, Nokia bought
Siemens Siemens AG ( ) is a German multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, ...

Siemens
' stake in the Nokia Siemens Networks joint venture for $2.2 billion, turning it into a wholly owned subsidiary called Nokia Solutions and Networks, until being rebranded as
Nokia Networks Nokia Networks (formerly Nokia Solutions and Networks (NSN) and Nokia Siemens Networks (NSN)) is a multinational corporation, multinational data networking and telecommunications equipment company headquartered in Espoo, Finland, and wholly owne ...
soon after. During Nokia's financial struggles, its profitable networking division with Siemens provided much of its income; thus, the purchase proved to be positive, particularly after the sale of its mobile devices unit.


2014–2016

After the sale of its mobile devices division, Nokia focused on network equipment through
Nokia Networks Nokia Networks (formerly Nokia Solutions and Networks (NSN) and Nokia Siemens Networks (NSN)) is a multinational corporation, multinational data networking and telecommunications equipment company headquartered in Espoo, Finland, and wholly owne ...
. In October 2014, Nokia and
China Mobile China Mobile is the trade name of both China Mobile Limited () and its ultimate controlling shareholder, China Mobile Communications Group Co., Ltd. (, formerly known as China Mobile Communications Corporation, "CMCC"), a Chinese Government-owne ...
signed a US$970 million framework deal for delivery between 2014 and 2015. On 17 November 2014, Nokia Technologies head Ramzi Haidamus disclosed that the company planned to re-enter the consumer electronics business as an
original design manufacturer An original design manufacturer (ODM) is a company that designs and manufactures a product, as specified, that is eventually rebranded by another firm for sale. Such companies allow the firm that owns or licenses the brand A brand is a name, ...
, licensing in-house hardware designs and technologies to third-party manufacturers. Haidamus stated that the Nokia brand was "valuable" but "is diminishing in value, and that's why it is important that we reverse that trend very quickly, imminently". The next day, Nokia unveiled the N1, an Android tablet manufactured by
Foxconn Hon Hai Precision Industry Co., Ltd., trading as A trade name, trading name, or business name is a pseudonym A pseudonym () or alias () (originally: ψευδώνυμος in Greek) is a fictitious name that a person or group assumes for a p ...

Foxconn
, as its first product following the Microsoft sale. Haidamus emphasized that devices released under these licensing agreements would be held to high standards in production quality, and would "look and feel just like Nokia built it". Nokia CEO Rajeev Suri stated that the company planned to re-enter the mobile phone business in this manner in 2016, following the expiration of its non-compete clause with Microsoft. According to Robert Morlino, the spokesman of Nokia Technologies, Nokia planned to follow the brand-licensing model rather than direct marketing of mobile devices due to the sale of its mobile devices division to Microsoft. The company took aggressive steps to revitalize itself, evident through its hiring of software experts, testing of new products and seeking of sales partners. On 14 July 2015, CEO Rajeev Suri confirmed that the company would make a return to the mobile phones market in 2016. On 28 July 2015, Nokia announced OZO, a 360-degrees
virtual reality Virtual reality (VR) is a Simulation, simulated experience that can be similar to or completely different from the real world. Applications of virtual reality include entertainment (particularly video games), education (such as medical or mil ...

virtual reality
camera, with eight 2K optical image sensors. The division behind the product, Nokia Technologies, claimed that OZO would be the most advanced platform. Nokia's press release stated that OZO would be "the first in a planned portfolio of digital media solutions," with more technologic products expected in the future. OZO was fully unveiled on 30 November in
Los Angeles Los Angeles ( ; xgf, Tovaangar; es, Los Ángeles, , ), commonly referred to by the initialism An acronym is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be u ...

Los Angeles
. The OZO, designed for professional use, was intended for retail for US$60,000; however, its price was decreased by $15,000 prior to release, and is listed on its official website as $40,000. On 14 April 2015, Nokia confirmed that it was in talks with the French telecommunications equipment company
Alcatel-Lucent Alcatel-Lucent S.A. () was a French/American global telecommunications equipment Telecommunications equipment (also telecoms equipment or communications equipment) is a hardware which is used for the purposes of telecommunication Telecommunic ...

Alcatel-Lucent
regarding a potential merger. The next day, Nokia announced that it had agreed to purchase Alcatel-Lucent for €15.6 billion in an all-stock deal. CEO Rajeev Suri felt that the purchase would give Nokia a strategic advantage in the development of 5G wireless technologies. The acquisition created a stronger competitor to the rival firms
Ericsson (lit. "Telephone Stock Company of LM Ericsson"), commonly known as Ericsson, is a Swedish Swedish or ' may refer to: * Anything from or related to Sweden, a country in Northern Europe * Swedish language, a North Germanic language spoken pri ...

Ericsson
and
Huawei Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. ( ; ) is a Chinese multinational corporation, multinational technology company, technology corporation headquartered in Shenzhen, Guangdong, China. It designs, develops and sells telecommunications equipment, cons ...
, whom Nokia and Alcatel-Lucent had surpassed in terms of total combined revenue in 2014. Nokia shareholders hold 66.5% of the new combined company, while Alcatel-Lucent shareholders hold 33.5%. The
Bell Labs Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named Bell Labs Innovations (1996–2007), AT&T Bell Laboratories (1984–1996) and Bell Telephone Laboratories (1925–1984)) is an American industrial research and scientific development company A company, ab ...
division was to be maintained, but the Alcatel-Lucent brand would be replaced by Nokia. In October 2015, following approval of the deal by China's Ministry of Commerce, the merger awaited approval by French regulators. Despite the initial intent of selling the submarine cable division separately, Alcatel-Lucent later declared that it would not. The merger closed on 14 January 2016, but was not complete until 3 November 2016. From the acquisition, Nokia is now also the owner of the Alcatel mobile phone brand, which continues to be licensed to
TCL Corporation TCL Technology (originally an abbreviation for Telephone Communication Limited) is a Chinese multinational electronics company headquartered in Huizhou, Guangdong Province. Founded as a state-owned enterprise A state-owned enterpris ...
. On 3 August 2015, Nokia announced that it had reached a deal to sell its
Here Here is an adverb that means "in, on, or at this place". It may also refer to: Software * Here Technologies, a mapping company * Here WeGo (formerly Here Maps), a mobile app and map website by Here Television * Here TV Here TV is an America ...
digital maps division to a consortium of
BMW Bayerische Motoren Werke AG, commonly referred to as BMW (), is a German multinational corporation which produces luxury vehicle A luxury car is a car A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation. Most def ...

BMW
,
Daimler AG Daimler AG (; previously named Daimler-Benz and DaimlerChrysler; commonly known and referred to as Mercedes-Benz or simply Daimler) is a German multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization op ...

Daimler AG
and
Volkswagen Group Volkswagen AG (), known internationally as the Volkswagen Group, is a German multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military bod ...

Volkswagen Group
for €2.8 billion. The deal closed on 3 December 2015.


2016–2019

On 26 April 2016, Nokia announced its intent to acquire French connected health device maker
Withings Withings (pronounced "WITH-things") is a French consumer electronics company headquartered in Issy-les-Moulineaux, France. It also has offices in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, and Hong Kong, and distributes its products worldwide. Withings is kn ...
for US$191 million. The company was integrated into a new Digital Health unit of Nokia Technologies. Nokia later wrote off the cost of the acquisition and in May 2018 the health unit was sold back to Éric Carreel, a Withings co-founder and former CEO. On 18 May 2016, Microsoft Mobile sold its Nokia-branded feature phone business to
HMD Global HMD Global Oy, branded as HMD and Nokia Mobile, is a Finnish mobile phone A mobile phone, cellular phone, cell phone, cellphone, handphone, or hand phone, sometimes shortened to simply mobile, cell or just phone, is a portable telepho ...
, a new company founded by former Nokia executive Jean-Francois Baril, and an associated factory in Vietnam to
Foxconn Hon Hai Precision Industry Co., Ltd., trading as A trade name, trading name, or business name is a pseudonym A pseudonym () or alias () (originally: ψευδώνυμος in Greek) is a fictitious name that a person or group assumes for a p ...

Foxconn
's
FIH Mobile Hon Hai Precision Industry Co., Ltd., trading as A trade name, trading name, or business name is a pseudonym A pseudonym () or alias () (originally: ψευδώνυμος in Greek) is a fictitious name that a person or group assumes for a p ...
subsidiary. Nokia subsequently entered into a long-term licensing deal to make HMD the exclusive manufacturer of Nokia-branded phones and tablets outside Japan, operating in conjunction with Foxconn. The deal also granted HMD the right to essential patents and featurephone software. HMD subsequently announced the Android-based
Nokia 6 The Nokia 6 is a Nokia-branded mid-range smartphone running on Android (operating system), Android. It is the first smartphone from the Finnish company HMD Global, created through the Microsoft Mobile, partial divestment of Nokia's devices divisi ...
smartphone in January 2017. At
Mobile World Congress MWC Barcelona (formerly but still commonly referred to as Mobile World Congress) is an annual trade show A trade fair (trade show, trade exhibition, or trade exposition) is an exhibition organized so that companies A company, abbrevia ...
, HMD additionally unveiled the
Nokia 3 The Nokia 3 is a Nokia-branded entry-level Android (operating system), Android smartphone designed and marketed by HMD Global. It was announced on 26 February 2017, a day before the Mobile World Congress started, along with the Nokia 6, Nokia 5, ...
and
Nokia 5 The Nokia 5 is a mid-range Android Android may refer to: Science and technology * Android (robot), a humanoid robot or synthetic organism designed to imitate a human * Android (operating system), Google's mobile operating system ** Android (ope ...

Nokia 5
smartphones, as well as a
re-imagining A remake is a production of a Film director, film, Television program, television series, video game, or similar form of entertainment that is based upon an earlier production. A remake tells the same Storytelling, story as the original but uses ...

re-imagining
of Nokia's classic feature phone. While Nokia has no investment in the company, they do have some input in the new devices. On 28 June 2016 Nokia demonstrated for the first time a 5G-ready network. In February 2017 Nokia carried out a 5G connection in
Oulu Oulu ( , ; sv, Uleåborg ; la, Uloa) is a city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London ...
, Finland using the 5GTF standard, backed by
Verizon Verizon Communications Inc., commonly known as Verizon, is an American multinational telecommunications Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over , radio, , or other systems. It has its ...
, on
Intel Intel Corporation is an American multinational corporation A multinational company (MNC) is a corporate A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personalit ...

Intel
architecture-based equipment. In July 2017, Nokia and
Xiaomi Xiaomi Corporation (; ), registered in Asia as Xiaomi Inc., is a Chinese designer and manufacturer of consumer electronics Consumer electronics or home electronics are electronic Electronic may refer to: *Electronics Electronics ...

Xiaomi
announced that they have signed a business collaboration agreement and a multi-year patent agreement, including a cross-license to each company's cellular standard-essential patents. In that year, Nokia's brand value was ranked 188th by Brand Finance, a jump of 147 places from 2016. Its rise was attributed to its health portfolio and new mobile phones developed by HMD Global. In January 2018, Nokia signed a deal with
NTT Docomo is a Japanese mobile phone operator A mobile phone operator, wireless provider, or carrier is a mobile telecommunications company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personality, legal entity representing an association of people, ...
, Japan's largest mobile operator, to provide 5G wireless radio base stations in the country by 2020. Later that month, Nokia announced the ReefShark line of 5G
chipset In a computer system, a chipset is a set of electronic components An electronic component is any basic discrete device or physical entity in an electronic system used to affect electrons or their associated fields. Electronic components ar ...

chipset
s, claiming that it triples bandwidth to 84 Gbit/s. In March,
Solidium Solidium Oy is a Finnish state-owned investment company An investment company is a financial institution principally engaged in investing in securities. These companies in the United States are regulated by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commi ...
, the investment arm of the Finnish government, purchased a 3.3% stake in Nokia valued at €844 million. In May, Nokia announced that it had acquired a
California California is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...

California
-based IoT startup, SpaceTime Insight. In January 2019, the Canadian government announced that it would provide C$40 million to support Nokia's research on 5G technology. A 2019 study revealed that Nokia phones performed far better than rivals Samsung, LG, Xiaomi, and Huawei in updating to the latest version of Android. The study, made by Counterpoint Research, found that 96 percent of Nokia phones were either sent with or updated to the latest Android version since
Pie A pie is a baked Baking is a method of preparing food that uses dry heat, typically in an oven, but can also be done in hot ashes, or on hot stones. The most common baked item is bread but many other types of foods are baked. Heat is grad ...

Pie
was released in 2018. Nokia's competitors were found to be all around roughly the 80 percent range.


2020–present

On March 2, 2020, Nokia announced Pekka Lundmark as its new CEO. Later that month, Nokia completed the acquisition of Elenion Technologies, a U.S.-based company focusing on silicon photonics technology to improve economics of advanced optical connectivity products. On May 27, 2020,
Sari BaldaufSari Maritta Baldauf (born 10 August 1955 in Kotka Kotka (; lit. "eagle Eagle is the common name for many large Bird of prey, birds of prey of the family Accipitridae. Eagles belong to several groups of Genus, genera, some of which are closely r ...
succeeded Risto Siilasmaa as chairwoman of the board of directors, and Kari Stadigh was appointed vice chair. In June, Nokia won a 5G contract worth approximately $450 million from
Taiwan Mobile Taiwan Mobile () is a mobile phone operator based in Taiwan. It is the second largest telecom company behind Chunghwa Telecom. History Taiwan Mobile started as part of a strategic divestment from the now defunct Pacific Electric Wire & Cable Co. ...
to build out the telecom operator's next-generation network as the sole supplier. In October, Nokia announced a contract with
NASA The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; ) is an independent agency A regulatory agency or regulatory authority, is a Public benefit corporation Public-benefit corporation is a term that has different meanings in differen ...

NASA
to build a 4G mobile network for astronaut usage on the moon. The $14.1 million contract is through subsidiary Bell Labs, and the program is expected to launch in 2022. During 2020,
Flipkart Flipkart is an Indian e-commerce company, headquartered in Bangalore, Karnataka, India, and incorporated in Singapore as a private company limited by shares, private limited company. The company initially focused on online book sales before ex ...
collaborated with Nokia to market Nokia-branded consumer products in India. These included televisions, a laptop and a range of air conditioners.


Current operations

Nokia is a julkinen osakeyhtiö (public
joint-stock company A joint-stock company is a business entity In law, a legal person is any person or 'thing' (less ambiguously, any legal entity) that can do the things a human person is usually able to do in law – such as enter into contracts, lawsuit, sue ...
) listed on the
Nasdaq Nordic Nasdaq Nordic is the common name for the subsidiaries of Nasdaq, Inc. that provide financial services Financial services are the economic services provided by the finance Finance is the study of financial institutions, financial marke ...
/
Helsinki Helsinki ( or ; ; sv, Helsingfors, ; la, Helsingia) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or ...
and
New York New York most commonly refers to: * New York City, the most populous city in the United States, located in the state of New York * New York (state), a state in the northeastern United States New York may also refer to: Film and television * New ...

New York
stock exchanges. Nokia has played a very large role in the
economy of Finland The economy of Finland is a highly industrialised, mixed economy with a per capita output similar to that of other western European economies such as Economy of France, France, Economy of Germany, Germany and the Economy of the United Kingdom, Un ...
, and it is an important employer in the country, working with multiple local
partners Partner, Partners, The Partner, or, The Partners may refer to: Books *The Partner (Grisham novel), ''The Partner'' (Grisham novel), by John Grisham, 1997 *The Partner (Jenaro Prieto novel), ''The Partner'' (Jenaro Prieto novel), 1928 *The Partners ...
and
subcontractor A subcontractor is an individual or (in many cases) a business Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products (such as goods and services). Simply put, it is "any activity or ent ...
s. Nokia contributed 1.6% to Finland's GDP and accounted for about 16% of the country's exports in 2006. Nokia comprises two business groups along with further subsidiaries and affiliated firms.


Nokia Networks

Nokia Networks Nokia Networks (formerly Nokia Solutions and Networks (NSN) and Nokia Siemens Networks (NSN)) is a multinational corporation, multinational data networking and telecommunications equipment company headquartered in Espoo, Finland, and wholly owne ...
is Nokia Corporation's largest division. It is a multinational data networking and telecommunications equipment company headquartered in Espoo, Finland, and is the world's third-largest telecoms equipment manufacturer, measured by 2017 revenues (after
Huawei Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. ( ; ) is a Chinese multinational corporation, multinational technology company, technology corporation headquartered in Shenzhen, Guangdong, China. It designs, develops and sells telecommunications equipment, cons ...
and
Cisco Cisco Systems, Inc. (Cisco) is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multin ...

Cisco
). In the USA it competes with Ericsson on building 5G networks for operators, while
Huawei Technologies Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. ( ; ) is a Chinese multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * ...
and
ZTE Corporation ZTE Corporation is a People's Republic of China, Chinese partially state-owned technology company that specializes in telecommunication. Founded in 1985, ZTE is listed on both the Hong Kong Stock Exchange, Hong Kong and Shenzhen Stock Exchange ...
were effectively banned. It has operations in around 150 countries. Nokia Networks provides wireless and fixed network infrastructure, communications and networks service platforms and professional services to operators and service providers. It focuses on
GSM GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) is a European standard for mobile devices. GSM may also refer to: Education * GSM London, a higher education provider * Guildhall School of Music and Drama The Guildhall School of Music and Drama i ...

GSM
,
EDGE Edge or EDGE may refer to: Technology Computing * Edge computing Edge computing is a distributed computing paradigm that brings computation and data storage closer to the sources of data. This is expected to improve response times and save bandw ...
, /W-CDMA, LTE and
WiMAX Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) is a family of wireless broadband Wireless broadband is telecommunications technology that provides high-speed wireless Wireless communication (or just wireless, when the context al ...

WiMAX
radio access networks, supporting core networks with increasing IP and multiaccess capabilities and services. The Nokia Siemens Networks (NSN) brand identity was launched at the 3GSM World Congress in
Barcelona Barcelona ( , , ) is a city on the coast of northeastern Spain. It is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Catalonia, as well as the second most populous municipality of Spain. With a population of 1.6 million within ci ...

Barcelona
in February 2007 as a joint venture between Nokia (50.1%) and
Siemens Siemens AG ( ) is a German multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, ...

Siemens
(49.9%), although it is now wholly owned by Nokia. In July 2013, Nokia bought back all shares in Nokia Siemens Networks for a sum of US$2.21 billion and renamed it to Nokia Solutions and Networks, shortly thereafter changed to simply Nokia Networks.


Nokia Technologies

Nokia Technologies is a division of Nokia that develops consumer products and licenses technology including the ''Nokia'' brand. Its focuses are imaging, sensing, wireless connectivity, power management and materials, and other areas such as the IP licensing program. It consists of three labs: Radio Systems Lab, in areas of radio access, wireless local connectivity and radio implementation; Media Technologies Lab, in areas of multimedia and interaction; and Sensor and Material Technologies Lab, in areas of advanced sensing solutions, interaction methods, nanotechnologies and quantum technologies. Nokia Technologies also provides public participation in its development through the ''Invent with Nokia'' program. It was created in 2014 following a restructuring of Nokia Corporation. In November 2014, Nokia Technologies launched its first product, the
Nokia N1 The Nokia N1 is an Android (operating system), Android-powered tablet computer, tablet developed by Nokia. Unveiled on 18 November 2014, it is Nokia's first mobile device since the sale of its original Microsoft Mobile, mobile phone business to ...
tablet computer A tablet computer, commonly shortened to tablet, is a mobile device A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations aut ...
. In July 2015, Nokia Technologies introduced a called OZO, designed for professional content creators and developed in
Tampere Tampere ( , , ; sv, Tammerfors ; la, Tammerforsia) is a city in the Pirkanmaa Regions of Finland, region, located in the western part of Finland. Tampere is the most populous inland city in the Nordic countries; it has a population of 238,140 ...

Tampere
, Finland. With its 8 synchronized shutter sensors and 8 microphones, the product can capture and
spatial audio Surround sound is a technique for enriching the fidelity and depth of Sound recording and reproduction, sound reproduction by using multiple audio channels from speaker (electronics), speakers that surround the listener (surround channels). Its ...
. On 31 August 2016, Ramzi Haidamus announced he would be stepping down from his position as president of Nokia Technologies. Brad Rodrigues, previously head of strategy and business development, assumed the role of interim president. On 30 June 2017, Gregory Lee, previously CEO of
Samsung Electronics Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. (; lit. "tristar electronics", sometimes shortened to SEC and stylized as SΛMSUNG) is a South Korean multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in ...
in North America, was appointed Nokia Technologies CEO and president.


Nokia Bell Labs

Nokia Bell Labs Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named Bell Labs Innovations (1996–2007), AT&T Bell Laboratories (1984–1996) and Bell Telephone Laboratories (1925–1984)) is an American industrial Research and development, research and scientific development S.A. ...
is a research and scientific development firm that was once the R&D arm of the American
Bell System The Bell System was the system of companies, led by the Bell Telephone Company The Bell Telephone Company, a common law joint stock company, was organized in Boston, Massachusetts on July 9, 1877, by Alexander Graham Bell's father-in-law Ga ...
. It became a subsidiary of Nokia Corporation after the takeover of
Alcatel-Lucent Alcatel-Lucent S.A. () was a French/American global telecommunications equipment Telecommunications equipment (also telecoms equipment or communications equipment) is a hardware which is used for the purposes of telecommunication Telecommunic ...

Alcatel-Lucent
in 2016.


NGP Capital

NGP Capital (formerly Nokia Growth Partners) is a global venture capital firm, focusing on investments in the growth stage "
Internet of things The Internet of things (IoT) describes the network of physical objects—"things" or objects—that are embedded with sensors, software, and other technologies for the purpose of connecting and exchanging data with other devices and systems over ...

Internet of things
" (IoT) and
mobile technology Mobile technology is the technology used for cellular communication. Mobile technology has evolved rapidly over the past few years. Since the start of this millennium, a standard mobile device has gone from being no more than a simple two-way pag ...
companies. NGP holds investments throughout the U.S., Europe, China and India. Their portfolio consists of companies in mobile technology including the sectors Connected Enterprise, Digital Health, Consumer IoT, and Connected Car. Following a $350 million funding for IoT companies in 2016, NGP manages $1 billion worth of assets. Nokia had previously promoted innovation through venture sponsorships dating back to 1998 with Nokia Venture Partners, which was renamed BlueRun Ventures and spun off in 2005. Nokia Growth Partners (NGP) was founded in 2005 as a growth stage venture fund as a continuation of the early successes of Nokia Venture Partners. In 2017, the company was renamed to NGP Capital. NGP's largest exits include GanJi,
UCWeb UCWeb Inc. (also known as UC Mobile) is a Chinese mobile Internet company that offers products and services including mobile browser, UC News, and search. Its flagship product, UC Browser, topped the China, Chinese, Indonesia, Indonesian and Ind ...
, Whistle,
Rocket Fuel Rocket propellant is the reaction mass Working mass, also referred to as reaction mass, is a mass Mass is the physical quantity, quantity of ''matter'' in a physical body. It is also a measure (mathematics), measure of the body's ''inerti ...
, Swype, Summit Microelectronics and Netmagic.


Nuage Networks

Nuage Networks is a venture providing
software-defined networking Software-defined networking (SDN) technology is an approach to network management Network management is the process of administering and managing computer network A computer network is a group of computers that use a set of common communicat ...
solutions. It was formed by Alcatel-Lucent in 2013 to develop a software overlay for automating and orchestrating hybrid clouds. It has been part of Nokia following their acquisition of Alcatel-Lucent in 2016. Throughout 2017 Nuage sealed deals with
Vodafone Vodafone Group Plc () is a British Multinational corporation, multinational telecommunications company. Its registered office and global headquarters are in Newbury, Berkshire, England. It predominantly operates services in Asia, Africa, Europe ...
and Telefonica to provide its
SD-WAN SD-WAN is an acronym for software-defined networking (SDN) in a wide area network (WAN). SD-WAN simplifies the management and operation of a WAN by decoupling the networking hardware from its control mechanism. This concept is similar to how sof ...
architecture to their servers. BT had already been a client since 2016. A deal with
China Mobile China Mobile is the trade name of both China Mobile Limited () and its ultimate controlling shareholder, China Mobile Communications Group Co., Ltd. (, formerly known as China Mobile Communications Corporation, "CMCC"), a Chinese Government-owne ...
in January 2017 also used Nuage's software-defined networking technology for 2,000 public cloud servers at existing data centers in China, and another in October 2017 with China Pacific Insurance Company. The company is based in Mountain View, California and the CEO is Sunil Khandekar.


Alcatel Mobile

Alcatel Mobile is a mobile phone brand owned by Nokia since 2016. It has been licensed since 2005 to Chinese company
TCL Tcl (pronounced "tickle" or as an initialism An acronym is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, prac ...
when it was under the ownership of Alcatel (later
Alcatel-Lucent Alcatel-Lucent S.A. () was a French/American global telecommunications equipment Telecommunications equipment (also telecoms equipment or communications equipment) is a hardware which is used for the purposes of telecommunication Telecommunic ...

Alcatel-Lucent
) in a contract until 2024.


HMD Global

HMD Global is a mobile phone company based in Espoo, Finland. The Nokia brand has been licensed by former Nokia employees who founded
HMD Global HMD Global Oy, branded as HMD and Nokia Mobile, is a Finnish mobile phone A mobile phone, cellular phone, cell phone, cellphone, handphone, or hand phone, sometimes shortened to simply mobile, cell or just phone, is a portable telepho ...
and introduced Nokia-branded
Android Android may refer to: Science and technology * Android (robot), a humanoid robot or synthetic organism designed to imitate a human * Android (operating system), Google's mobile operating system ** Android (operating system)#Mascot, Unnamed Androi ...

Android
-based devices to the market in 2017. Nokia has no investment in the company but retains some input in the development of its devices.


Alcatel Submarine Networks

Alcatel Submarine Networks (ASN) is a provider of turnkey undersea network solutions. The business unit develops technology and offers installation services for optical submarine cable network links across the world's oceans.


Corporate affairs


Corporate governance

The control and management of Nokia is divided among the shareholders at a general meeting and the Nokia Group Leadership Team (left), under the direction of the board of directors (right). The chairman and the rest of the Nokia Leadership Team members are appointed by the board of directors. Only the chairman of the Nokia Leadership Team can belong to both the board of directors and the Nokia Group Leadership Team. The Board of Directors' committees consist of the Audit Committee, the Personnel Committee, and the Corporate Governance and Nomination Committee. The operations of the company are managed within the framework set by the Finnish Companies Act, Nokia's Articles of Association, and Corporate Governance Guidelines, supplemented by the board of directors' adopted charters. On 25 November 2019, Nokia announced that it would discontinue the role of Chief Operating Officer (COO) and distribute its functions to other company leaders. As a result, Chief Operating Officer Joerg Erlemeier decided to step down, effective 1 January 2020.


Former corporate officers


Stock

Nokia is a public limited liability company and is the oldest company listed under the same name on the
Helsinki Stock Exchange The Nasdaq Helsinki, formerly known as the Helsinki Stock Exchange ( fi, Helsingin Pörssi, sv, Helsingforsbörsen), is a stock exchange located in Helsinki, Finland. Since 3 September 2003, it has been part of Nasdaq Nordic (previously called ...
, beginning in 1915. Nokia has had a secondary listing on the
New York Stock Exchange The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE, nicknamed "The Big Board") is an American stock exchange A stock exchange, securities exchange, or bourse is an Exchange (organized market), exchange where stockbrokers and stock trader, traders can buy an ...

New York Stock Exchange
since 1994. Nokia shares were delisted from the
London Stock Exchange London Stock Exchange (LSE) is a stock exchange A stock exchange, securities exchange, or bourse is an exchange Exchange may refer to: Places United States * Exchange, Indiana Exchange is an Unincorporated area, unincorporated community ...
in 2003, the
Paris Stock Exchange Euronext Paris is France's securities market, formerly known as the Paris Bourse, which merged with the Amsterdam Amsterdam (, , ) is the Capital of the Netherlands, capital and Municipalities of the Netherlands, most populous city of the ...
in 2004, the
Stockholm Stock Exchange The Nasdaq Stockholm AB, formerly known as the Stockholm Stock Exchange ( sv, Stockholmsbörsen), is a stock exchange located in Frihamnen, Stockholm, Sweden. Founded in 1863, it has become the primary securities exchange of the Nordic countri ...
in 2007 and the
Frankfurt Stock Exchange The Frankfurt Stock Exchange (german: Börse Frankfurt, former German name - FWB) is the world's 12th largest stock exchange A stock exchange, securities exchange, or bourse is an exchange Exchange may refer to: Places United States * ...

Frankfurt Stock Exchange
in 2012. Due to the acquisition of Alcatel-Lucent in 2015, Nokia listed its shares again on the Paris Stock Exchange and was included in the
CAC 40 The CAC 40 (french: CAC quarante ) (''Cotation Assistée en Continu'') is a benchmark French stock market index. The index represents a capitalization-weighted measure of the 40 most significant stocks among the 100 largest market capitalization ...

CAC 40
index on 6 January 2016 but later removed on 18 September 2017. In 2007, Nokia had a market capitalization of €110 billion; by 17 July 2012 this had fallen to €6.28 billion, and by 23 February 2015, it increased to €26.07 billion. Nokia market cap at 2020 was 21.76 billion.


Corporate culture

Nokia's official
corporate culture Historically there have been differences among investigators regarding the definition of organizational culture. Edgar H. Schein, a leading researcher in this field, defined "organizational culture" as comprising a number of features, including a ...
manifesto since the 1990s is called ''The Nokia Way''. It emphasizes the speed and flexibility of decision-making in a flat, networked organization. The official business language of Nokia is English. All documentation is written in English, and is used in official intra-company communication. In 1992, Nokia adopted values that were defined with the key words ''respect'', ''achievement'', ''renewal'' and ''challenge''. In May 2007, the company redefined its values after initiating a series of discussion across its worldwide branches regarding what the new values of the company should be. Based on the employee suggestions, the new values were defined as: ''Engaging You'', ''Achieving Together'', ''Passion for Innovation'' and ''Very Human''. In August 2014, Nokia redefined its values again after the sale of its Devices business, using the original 1992 values again.


Headquarters

Nokia are based at Karaportti in
Espoo Espoo (, ; sv, Esbo; la, Espo) is a city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: R ...

Espoo
, Finland, just outside capital
Helsinki Helsinki ( or ; ; sv, Helsingfors, ; la, Helsingia) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or ...

Helsinki
. It has been their
head office Headquarters (commonly referred to as HQ) denotes the location where most, if not all, of the important functions of an organization are coordinated. In the United States, the corporate headquarters represents the entity at the center or the top ...

head office
since 2014 after moving from the purpose-built Nokia House in Espoo as part of the sale of the mobile phone business to Microsoft. The building in Karaportti was previously the headquarters of NSN (now Nokia Networks).


Awards and recognition

In 2018, Nokia received the Leading Lights award for most innovative cable/video product and was named to Ethisphere's 2018 world's most ethical companies list.


Logo history

File:Nokian logo (1865).svg, ''Nokia Osakeyhtiö'' logo, 1865. File:Nokia logo 1965.svg, ''Nokia Osakeyhtiö'' logo, 1965. File:Suomen Kumitehtaan logo (1965).svg, Finnish Rubber Works ('' Suomen Kumitehdas'') logo, 1965–1986. File:Nokia nuolilogo.svg, Nokia 'Arrows' logo, after merging with the Cable Factory (''
Kaapelitehdas Kaapelitehdas (Finnish language, Finnish for "the Cable Factory", also called simply Kaapeli, sv, Kabelfabriken) is a famous building in Salmisaari, Helsinki, near the bridge to Lauttasaari. It was redeveloped from its industrial use into a cult ...

Kaapelitehdas
'') and Finnish Rubber Works (1966–1992). Used in advertising and products until c. 1997. File:Nokia Connecting People.svg, Nokia introduced its ''"Connecting People"''
advertising slogan Advertising slogans are short phrases used in advertising campaign Advertising is a marketing communication that employs an openly sponsored, non-personal message to promote or sell a product, service or idea.William J. Stanton. ''Fundamenta ...
in 1992, coined by Ove Strandberg. File:Nokia - 2005 logo.svg, New slogan typeface (Nokia Sans font) introduced in 2005. Nokia Sans had been used by Nokia in products since 2002. File:Nokia wordmark.svg, Bold version introduced in 2007. The company stopped using a slogan with its logo in 2011. File:Nokia typefaces.png, History of Nokia's corporate typeface.


Controversies


NSN's provision of intercept capability to Iran

In 2008,
Nokia Siemens Networks Nokia Networks (formerly Nokia Solutions and Networks (NSN) and Nokia Siemens Networks (NSN)) is a multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational f ...
, a joint venture between Nokia and
Siemens AG Siemens AG ( ) is a German multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, ...

Siemens AG
, reportedly provided
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regio ...

Iran
's monopoly telecom company with technology that allowed it to intercept the Internet communications of its citizens. The technology reportedly allowed Iran to use
deep packet inspection Deep packet inspection (DPI) or packet sniffing is a type of data processing that inspects in detail the data being sent over a computer network A computer network is a group of computers that use a set of common communication protocols ove ...
to read and change the content of emails, social media, and online phone calls. The technology "enables authorities to not only block communication but to monitor it to gather information about individuals, as well as alter it for disinformation purposes". During the post-election protests in Iran in June 2009, Iran's Internet access was reported to have slowed to less than a tenth of its normal speeds, which experts suspected was due to using of deep packet inspection. In July 2009, Nokia began to experience a
boycott A boycott is an act of nonviolent Nonviolence is the personal practice of not causing harm to one's self and others under every condition. It may come from the belief that hurting people, animals and/or the environment is unnecessary to achiev ...

boycott
of their products and services in
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regio ...

Iran
. The boycott was led by consumers sympathetic to the post-election protest movement and targeted companies deemed to be collaborating with the regime. Demand for handsets fell and users began shunning . Nokia Siemens Networks asserted in a press release that it provided Iran only with a "lawful intercept capability solely for monitoring of local voice calls" and that it "has not provided any deep packet inspection, web censorship, or Internet filtering capability to Iran".


Lex Nokia

In 2009, Nokia heavily supported a law in Finland that allows companies to monitor their employees' electronic communications in cases of suspected information leaking. Nokia denied rumors that the company had considered moving its head office out of Finland if laws on electronic
surveillance Surveillance is the monitoring of behavior, many activities, or information for the purpose of information gathering, influencing, managing Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization An organization, or org ...

surveillance
were not changed. The Finnish media dubbed the law ''Lex Nokia'' because it was implemented as a result of Nokia's pressure. The law was enacted, but with strict requirements for the implementation of its provisions. No company had used its provisions prior to 25 February 2013, when the Office of Data Protection Ombudsman confirmed that city of
Hämeenlinna Hämeenlinna (; sv, Tavastehus; krl, Hämienlinna; la, Tavastum or ''Croneburgum'') is a List of cities and towns in Finland, city and Municipalities of Finland, municipality of about inhabitants in the heart of the historical province of Tav ...
had recently given the required notice.


Nokia–Apple patent dispute

In October 2009, Nokia filed a lawsuit against
Apple Inc. Apple Inc. is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, ...
in the U.S. District Court of Delaware claiming that Apple infringed on 10 of its patents related to wireless communication including data transfer. Apple was quick to respond with a countersuit filed in December 2009 accusing Nokia of 11 patent infringements. Apple's general counsel,
Bruce Sewell Bruce Sewell was Apple Inc., Apple’s general counsel and senior vice president of Legal and Government Affairs, reporting to CEO Tim Cook. Sewell served on the company’s executive team and oversaw all legal matters, including corporate governan ...
went a step further by stating, "Other companies must compete with us by inventing their own technologies, not just by stealing ours." This resulted in a legal battle between the two telecom majors with Nokia filing another suit, this time with the U.S. International Trade Commission (ITC), alleging Apple had infringed its patents in "virtually all of its mobile phones, portable music players and computers". Nokia went on to ask the court to ban all U.S. imports of the Apple products, including the
iPhone {{Infobox information appliance , name = iPhone , logo = , image = , caption = The front face of an iPhone 13 Pro The iPhone 13 Pro and iPhone 13 Pro Max are smartphones designed and marketed by Apple Inc. They are the flagship smart ...

iPhone
,
Macintosh The Macintosh (mainly Mac since 1998) is a family of personal computer A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use. Personal computers are intended to be op ...

Macintosh
and
iPod The iPod is a line of portable media player A portable media player (PMP) or digital audio player (DAP) is a portable consumer electronics Consumer electronics or home electronics are electronic ( analog or digital) equipment ...

iPod
. Apple countersued by filing a complaint with the ITC in January 2010. In June 2011, Apple settled with Nokia and agreed to an estimated one time payment of $600 million and royalties to Nokia. The two companies also agreed on a cross-licensing patents for some of their patented technologies.


Alleged tax evasion in India

Nokia's Indian subsidiary was charged in January 2013 with non-payment of Indian
Tax Deducted at Source Tax deduction at source (TDS) in India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous country, the List of countries ...
and transgressing
transfer pricing In taxation and accounting, transfer pricing refers to the rules and methods for pricing transactions within and between enterprises under common ownership or control. Because of the potential for cross-border controlled transactions to distort ...
norms in India. The unpaid TDS of 30 billion, accrued during a course of six years, was due to royalty paid by the Indian subsidiary to its parent company.


Nokia 7 Plus data breach

In March 2019, news broke that the company's phones were allegedly sending personal user data to
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

China
over several months. According to investigators, the gadget sent unencrypted data packages including geographical location,
SIM card A SIM card, also known as subscriber identity module or subscriber identification module (SIM), is an integrated circuit An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a ...
number, and the phone's serial number to an unidentified Chinese server every time that "the phone was turned on, the screen activated or unlocked." The data was sufficient to follow the movements and actions of the phone in real time. Nokia brand owner
HMD Global HMD Global Oy, branded as HMD and Nokia Mobile, is a Finnish mobile phone A mobile phone, cellular phone, cell phone, cellphone, handphone, or hand phone, sometimes shortened to simply mobile, cell or just phone, is a portable telepho ...
denied any such transfers had taken place, stating that it was instead the result of an error in the packing process of the phone's software. The Finnish Office of the Data Protection Ombudsman launched an investigation into the matter on the assumption "that personal data has been transferred."


See also

*
Nokia Networks Nokia Networks (formerly Nokia Solutions and Networks (NSN) and Nokia Siemens Networks (NSN)) is a multinational corporation, multinational data networking and telecommunications equipment company headquartered in Espoo, Finland, and wholly owne ...
*
Nokia Nokia Corporation (natively Nokia Oyj, referred to as Nokia; stylized as NOKIA) is a Finnish multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational for ...
– a town in
Pirkanmaa Pirkanmaa ( sv, Birkaland, also known as ''Tampere Region'' in government documents; la, Birkaria, link=no), is a region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( physical geography), human impact ch ...
,
Finland Finland ( fi, Suomi ; sv, Finland ), officially the Republic of Finland (; ), is a Nordic country in Northern Europe. It shares land borders with Sweden to the west, Russia to the east, Norway to the north, and is defined by the Gulf of B ...

Finland
*
Nokia Arena Menora Mivtachim Arena ( he, היכל מנורה מבטחים) is a large multi-purpose sports indoor arena that is located in southern Tel Aviv, Israel. The arena is primarily used to host tennis matches, basketball games, and concerts. It is one o ...
*
Nokian Tyres Nokian Tyres plc ( fi, Nokian Renkaat Oyj), headquartered in Nokia, Finland, produces tyres for cars, trucks, buses, and heavy-duty equipment. Known for its winter tyres, Nokian is the only tyre manufacturer with its own permanent winter tyre t ...

Nokian Tyres
* History of Nokia *
Jolla Jolla Oy (sometimes referred to as Jolla Ltd.) is a Finnish Finnish may refer to: * Something or someone from, or related to Finland * Finnish culture * Finnish people or Finns, the primary ethnic group in Finland * Finnish language, the nationa ...
– a company started by former Nokia employees which develops Linux
Sailfish OS Sailfish OS is a Linux distribution, Linux-based operating system based on free software, and open source projects such as Mer (software distribution), Mer as well as including a closed source User interface, UI. The project is being developed b ...
, a continuation of Linux
MeeGo MeeGo is a discontinued Linux distribution A Linux distribution (often abbreviated as distro) is an operating system An operating system (OS) is system software System software is software designed to provide a platform for other softwar ...
OS * Twig Com – originally Benefon, formerly a mobile phone manufacturer started by former Nokia people, now a maker of personal safety and GPS tracking products *
Microsoft Mobile Microsoft Mobile was a subsidiary of Microsoft involved in the development and manufacturing of mobile phones. Based in Espoo, Finland, it was established in 2014 following the List of mergers and acquisitions by Microsoft, acquisition of Nokia' ...
– the rebranding of Nokia's Device and Services division after acquisition by Microsoft *
HMD Global HMD Global Oy, branded as HMD and Nokia Mobile, is a Finnish mobile phone A mobile phone, cellular phone, cell phone, cellphone, handphone, or hand phone, sometimes shortened to simply mobile, cell or just phone, is a portable telepho ...
– the post-Microsoft continuation of
Android Android may refer to: Science and technology * Android (robot), a humanoid robot or synthetic organism designed to imitate a human * Android (operating system), Google's mobile operating system ** Android (operating system)#Mascot, Unnamed Androi ...

Android
-based Nokia devices


Notes


References


Further reading

* * * * * * * * *


External links

* * {{Authority control 1865 establishments in Finland Technology companies established in 1865 Companies formerly listed on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange Companies formerly listed on the London Stock Exchange Companies in the Euro Stoxx 50 Companies listed on Nasdaq Helsinki Companies listed on Euronext Paris Companies listed on the New York Stock Exchange Display technology companies Finnish brands Mobile phone companies of Finland Multinational companies headquartered in Finland Telecommunications equipment vendors