EtymologyThe name '' '' was taken from the running through the country. This name was coined on January 8, 1897, by British journalist , who later married , a administrator. The neighbouring Niger takes its name from the same river. The origin of the name ''Niger'', which originally applied to only the middle reaches of the Niger River, is uncertain. The word is likely an alteration of the name ''egerew n-igerewen'' used by inhabitants along the middle reaches of the river around before 19th-century European colonialism.
Prehistoryexcavations revealed ironworking by the 2nd century BC. The transition from times to the was achieved without intermediate production. Others suggest the technology moved west from the , although the Iron Age in the
Early historyThe '' '' highlights an ancient history dating to around 999 AD of the Sahelian city-state of , with other major Hausa cities (or ) of , Hadeija, , , , , and all having recorded histories dating back to the 10th century. With the spread of Islam from the 7th century AD, the area became known as '' '' or as ''Bilad Al Sudan'' (English: Land of the Blacks; : بلاد السودان). Since the populations were partially affiliated with the Arab Muslim culture of , they began and were referred to by the Arabic speakers as ''Al-Sudan'' (meaning "The Blacks") as they were considered an extended part of the . There are early historical references by medieval Arab and Muslim historians and geographers which refer to the Kanem-Bornu Empire as the region's major centre for Islamic civilization. The of the Igbo people consolidated in the 10th century and continued until it lost its sovereignty to the British in 1911. Nri was ruled by the , and the city of Nri is considered to be the foundation of Igbo culture. Nri and Aguleri, where the Igbo creation myth originates, are in the territory of the Umeuri clan. Members of the clan trace their lineages back to the patriarchal king-figure Eri (king), Eri. In West Africa, the oldest bronzes made using the lost wax process were from Igbo-Ukwu, a city under Nri influence. The kingdoms of Ife and Oyo Empire, Oyo in southwestern Nigeria became prominent in the 12th and 14th centuries, respectively. The oldest signs of human settlement at Ife's current site date back to the 9th century, and its material culture includes terracotta and bronze figures.
Pre-colonial eraIn the 16th century, Portuguese discoveries, Portuguese explorers were the first Europeans to begin significant, direct trade with peoples of southern Nigeria, at the port they named Lagos (formerly Eko) and in Calabar along the region Slave Coast of West Africa, Slave Coast. Europeans traded goods with peoples at the coast; coastal trade with Europeans also marked the beginnings of the Atlantic slave trade. The port of Calabar on the historical Bight of Biafra (now commonly referred to as the Bight of Bonny) became one of the largest slave-trading posts in West Africa in the era of the transatlantic slave trade. Other major slaving ports in Nigeria were located in Badagry, Lagos on the Bight of Benin and Bonny Island on the Bight of Biafra. The majority of those enslaved and taken to these ports were captured in raids and wars. Usually, the captives were taken back to the conquerors' territory as forced labour; after time, they were sometimes acculturated and absorbed into the conquerors' society. Slave routes were established throughout Nigeria linking the hinterland areas with the major coastal ports. Some of the more prolific slave-trading kingdoms who participated in the transatlantic slave trade were linked with the Edo's Kingdom of Benin, Benin Empire in the south, Oyo Empire in the southwest, and the Aro Confederacy in the southeast. Benin's power lasted between the 15th and 19th centuries. Oyo, at its territorial zenith in the late 17th to early 18th centuries, extended its influence from western Nigeria to modern-day Togo. In the north, the incessant fighting amongst the Hausa city-states and the decline of the Kanem–Bornu Empire, Bornu Empire gave rise to the Fulani people gaining headway into the region. Until this point, the Fulani a nomadic ethnic group primarily traversed the semi-desert ian region, north of Sudan, with cattle and avoided trade and intermingling with the Sudanic peoples. At the beginning of the 19th century, Usman dan Fodio led Fulani War, a successful jihad against the Hausa Kingdoms founding the centralised Sokoto Caliphate. The empire with Arabic as its official language grew rapidly under his rule and that of List of Sultans of Sokoto, his descendants, who sent out Fula jihads, invading armies in every direction. The vast landlocked empire connected the east with the western Sudan region and made inroads down south conquering parts of the Oyo Empire (modern-day Kwara State, Kwara), and advanced towards the Yorubaland, Yoruba heartland of Ibadan, to reach the Atlantic Ocean. The territory controlled by the empire included much of modern-day northern and central Nigeria. The sultan sent out emirs to establish a suzerainty over the conquered territories and promote Islamic civilization, the emirs in turn became increasingly rich and powerful through trade and slavery. By the 1890s, the largest Slavery in Africa, slave population in the world, about two million, was concentrated in the territories of the Sokoto Caliphate. The use of slave labour was extensive, especially in agriculture. By the time of its break-up in 1903 into various European colonies, the Sokoto Caliphate was one of the largest pre-colonial African states.
British colonizationA changing legal imperative (the Atlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade was outlawed by Britain in 1807) and economic imperative (a desire for political and social stability) led most European powers to support the widespread cultivation of agricultural products, such as the palm, for use in European industry. The Atlantic slave trade was engaged in by European companies until it was outlawed in 1807. After that illegal smugglers purchased slaves along the coast by native slavers. Britain's West Africa Squadron sought to intercept the smugglers at sea. The rescued slaves were taken to Freetown, a colony in West Africa originally established by John Clarkson (abolitionist), Lieutenant John Clarkson for the resettlement of slaves freed by Britain in North America after the American Revolutionary War, American Revolutionary War. Britain intervened in the Lagos kingship power struggle by bombarding Lagos in 1851, deposing the slave-trade-friendly Kosoko, Oba Kosoko, helping to install the amenable Oba Akitoye and signing the Treaty Between Great Britain and Lagos, 1 January 1852, Treaty between Great Britain and Lagos on 1January 1852. United Kingdom, Britain annexed Lagos as a crown colony in August 1861 with the Lagos Treaty of Cession. British missionaries expanded their operations and travelled further inland. In 1864, Samuel Ajayi Crowther became the first African Church of Nigeria, bishop of the Anglican Church. In 1885, British claims to a West African sphere of influence received recognition from other European nations at the Berlin Conference. The following year, it chartered the Royal Niger Company under the leadership of Sir George Taubman Goldie. By the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the company had vastly succeeded in subjugating the independent southern kingdoms along the , the British conquered Benin Empire, Benin in 1897, and, in the Anglo-Aro War (1901–1902), defeated other opponents. The defeat of these states opened up the Niger area to British rule. In 1900, the company's territory came under the direct control of the British government and established the as a British protectorate and part of the British Empire, the foremost world power at the time. By 1902, the British had begun plans to move north into the Sokoto Caliphate. British General Lord Frederick Lugard, 1st Baron Lugard, Frederick Lugard was tasked by the Colonial Office to implement the agenda. Lugard used rivalries between many of the emirs in the southern reach of the caliphate and the central Sokoto administration to prevent any defence as he worked towards the capital. As the British approached the city of Sokoto, Sultan Muhammadu Attahiru I organized a quick defence of the city and fought the advancing British-led forces. The British force quickly won, sending Attahiru I and thousands of followers on a Mahdist ''Hegira, hijra''. In the northeast, the decline of the Kanem–Bornu Empire, Bornu Empire gave rise to the British-controlled Borno Emirate which established Abubakar Garbai of Borno as ruler. In 1903, the British victory in the Battle of Kano (1903), Battle of Kano gave them a logistical edge in Battle of Kwatarkwashi, pacifying the heartland of the Sokoto Caliphate and parts of the former Bornu Empire. On 13 March 1903, at the grand market square of Sokoto, the last Sokoto Grand Vizier, vizier of the caliphate officially conceded to British rule. The British appointed Muhammadu Attahiru II as the new caliph. Lugard abolished the caliphate but retained the title ''sultan'' as a symbolic position in the newly organized . This remnant became known as "Sokoto Sultanate Council". In June 1903, the British defeated the remaining forces of AttahiruI and killed him; by 1906 resistance to British rule had ended. On 1 January 1914, the British formally united the and the Northern Nigeria Protectorate into the Colonial Nigeria, Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria. Administratively, Nigeria remained divided into the Northern and Southern Protectorates and Lagos Colony. Inhabitants of the southern region sustained more interaction, economic and cultural, with the British and other Europeans owing to the coastal economy. Following World War II, in response to the growth of Nigerian nationalism and demands for independence, successive constitutions legislated by the British government moved Nigeria toward self-government on a representative and increasingly federal basis. By the middle of the 20th century, a great Decolonisation of Africa, wave for independence was sweeping across Africa. Christian missions established Western educational institutions in the protectorates. Under Britain's policy of indirect rule and validation of Islamic tradition, the Crown did not encourage the operation of Christian missions in the northern, Islamic part of the country. Some children of the southern elite went to Great Britain to pursue higher education. By independence in 1960, regional differences in modern educational access were marked. The legacy, though less pronounced, continues to the present day. Imbalances between north and south were expressed in Nigeria's political life as well. For instance, northern Nigeria did not outlaw slavery until 1936 whilst in other parts of Nigeria slavery was abolished soon after colonialism. Nigeria gained a degree of self-rule in 1954, and full independence from the United Kingdom on October 1, 1960, as the Federation of Nigeria with Abubakar Tafawa Balewa as its Prime Minister of Nigeria, prime minister, while retaining the Monarchy of the United Kingdom, British monarch, Elizabeth II, as nominal head of state and Queen of Nigeria. Azikiwe replaced the colonial governor-general in November 1960. At independence, the cultural and political differences were sharp among Nigeria's dominant ethnic groups: the in the north, Igbo in the east and Yoruba in the west. The founding government was a coalition of conservative parties: the Northern People's Congress led by Sir Ahmadu Bello, a party dominated by Muslim northerners, and the Igbo and Christian-dominated National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroons led by Nnamdi Azikiwe. The opposition comprised the comparatively liberal Action Group (Nigeria), Action Group, which was largely dominated by the and led by Obafemi Awolowo. An imbalance was created in the polity as the result of the Southern Cameroons#Trust territory, 1961 plebiscite. Southern Cameroons opted to join the Cameroon, Republic of Cameroon while British Cameroon, Northern Cameroons chose to join Nigeria. The northern part of the country became larger than the southern part.
Republican eraFall of the First Republic and Civil War In 1963, the nation established a federal republic, with Azikiwe as its first President of Nigeria, president. The disequilibrium and perceived corruption of the electoral and political process led to two Coup d'état, military coups in 1966. The 1966 Nigerian coup d'état, first coup was in January 1966 and was led mostly by Igbo soldiers under Majors Emmanuel Ifeajuna and Chukwuma Kaduna Nzeogwu. The coup plotters succeeded in assassinating Sir Ahmadu Bello and Abubakar Tafawa Balewa alongside prominent leaders of the Northern Region and also Premier Ladoke Akintola, Samuel Akintola of the Western State (Nigeria), Western Region, but the coup plotters struggled to form a central government. Senate President Nwafor Orizu handed over government control to the Nigerian Army, Army, under the command of another Igbo officer, General Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi. Later, the 1966 Nigerian counter-coup, counter-coup of 1966, supported primarily by Northern military officers, facilitated the rise of Yakubu Gowon as military head of state. Tension rose between north and south; 1966 anti-Igbo pogrom, Igbos in northern cities suffered persecution and many fled to the Eastern Region, Nigeria, Eastern Region. In May 1967, Governor of the Eastern Region, Nigeria, Eastern Region Lt. Colonel C. Odumegwu Ojukwu, Emeka Ojukwu declared the region independent from the federation as a state called the Biafra, Republic of Biafra, under his leadership. This declaration precipitated the Nigerian Civil War, which began as the official Nigerian government side attacked Biafra on 6 July 1967, at Garkem. The 30-month war, with a long siege of Biafra and its isolation from trade and supplies, ended in January 1970.''"Background Paper on Nigeria and Biafra, Declassified Documents Reference System''. Estimates of the List of wars by death toll, number of dead in the former Eastern Region during the 30-month civil war range from one to three million. France, Egypt, the Soviet Union, Britain, Israel, and others were deeply involved in the civil war behind the scenes. Britain and the Soviet Union were the main military backers of the Nigerian government, with Nigeria utilizing air support from Egyptian pilots provided by Gamal Abdel Nasser, while France and Israel aided the Biafrans. The Democratic Republic of the Congo, Congolese government, under President Mobutu Sese Seko, Joseph-Désiré Mobutu, took an early stand on the Biafran secession, voicing strong support for the Nigerian federal government and deploying thousands of troops to fight against the secessionists. Following the war, Nigeria enjoyed an oil boom in the 1970s, during which the country joined and received huge oil revenues. Despite these revenues, the military government did little to improve the standard of living of the population, help small and medium businesses, or invest in infrastructure. As oil revenues fueled the rise of federal subsidies to states, the federal government became the centre of political struggle and the threshold of power in the country. As oil production and revenue rose, the Nigerian government became increasingly dependent on oil revenues and international commodity markets for budgetary and economic concerns. The 1975 Nigerian coup d'état, coup in July 1975, led by Generals Shehu Musa Yar'Adua and Joseph Nanven Garba, Joseph Garba, ousted Gowon, who fled to Britain. The coup plotters wanted to replace Gowon's autocratic rule with a triumvirate of three brigadier generals whose decisions could be vetoed by a Supreme Military Council of Nigeria (1966–1979), Supreme Military Council. For this triumvirate, they convinced General Murtala Muhammed to become military head of state, with General Olusegun Obasanjo as his second-in-command, and General Theophilus Danjuma as the third. Together, the triumvirate introduced austerity measures to stem inflation, established a Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau, replaced all military governors with new officers, and launched "Operation Deadwood" through which they fired 11,000 officials from the civil service. Colonel Buka Suka Dimka launched a 1976 Nigerian coup d'état attempt, February 1976 coup attempt, during which General Murtala Muhammed was assassinated. Dimka lacked widespread support among the military, and his coup failed, forcing him to flee. After the coup attempt, General Olusegun Obasanjo was appointed military head of state. As head of state, Obasanjo vowed to continue Murtala's policies. Aware of the danger of alienating northern Nigerians, Obasanjo brought General Shehu Yar'Adua as his replacement and second-in-command as Vice President of Nigeria, Chief of Staff, Supreme Headquarters completing the military triumvirate, with Obasanjo as head of state and General Theophilus Danjuma as Chief of Army Staff (Nigeria), Chief of Army Staff, the three went on to re-establish control over the Nigerian military juntas of 1966–79 and 1983–99, military regime and organized the military's transfer of power programme: States of Nigeria, states creation and Boundary delimitation, national delimitation, Local government areas of Nigeria, local government reforms and the Constitution of Nigeria#1979 constitution (Second Republic), constitutional drafting committee for a new republic. Second Republic (1979–1983) In 1977, a constituent assembly was elected to draft a new constitution, which was published on September 21, 1978, when the ban on political activity was lifted. The military carefully planned the return to civilian rule putting in place measures to ensure that political parties had broader support than witnessed during the first republic. In 1979, five political parties competed in a series of elections in which Alhaji Shehu Shagari of the National Party of Nigeria (NPN) was elected president. All five parties won representation in the National Assembly. On October 1, 1979, Shehu Shagari was sworn in as the first President of Nigeria, President and Commander-in-Chief of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Obasanjo peacefully transferred power to Shagari, becoming the first head of state in Nigerian history to willingly step down. The Shagari government became viewed as corrupt by virtually all sectors of Nigerian society. In 1983, the inspectors of the state-owned Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation began to notice "the slow poisoning of the waters of this country". In August 1983 Shagari and the NPN were returned to power in a landslide victory, with a majority of seats in the National Assembly and control of 12 state governments. But the elections were marred by violence, and allegations of widespread vote-rigging and electoral malfeasance led to legal battles over the results. There were also uncertainties, such as in the first republic, that political leaders may be unable to govern properly. Military and Third Republic (1983–1999) The 1983 Nigerian coup d'état, 1983 military coup d'état took place on New Year's Eve of that year. It was coordinated by key officers of the Nigerian military and led to the overthrow of the government and the installation of Major General Muhammadu Buhari as head of state. The military coup of Muhammadu Buhari shortly after the regime's re-election in 1984 was generally viewed as a positive development. Buhari promised major reforms, but his government fared little better than its predecessor. General Buhari was overthrown in a 1985 Nigerian coup d'état, 1985 military coup d'état led by General Ibrahim Babangida, who established the Armed Forces Ruling Council (Nigeria), Armed Forces Ruling Council and became military president and commander in chief of the armed forces."Nigeria stays calms as leader toppled in bloodless coup", ''The Globe and Mail'', 28 August 1985. Retrieved 22 February 2007. In 1986, he established the Nigerian Political Bureau of 1986, Nigerian Political Bureau which made recommendations for the transition to the Third Nigerian Republic. In 1989, Babangida started making plans for the transition to the Third Nigerian Republic. Babangida survived the 1990 Nigerian coup d'état attempt, then postponed a promised return to democracy to 1992. He legalized the formation of political parties and formed the two-party system with the Social Democratic Party (Nigeria), Social Democratic Party and National Republican Convention ahead of the 1992 Nigerian parliamentary election, 1992 general elections. He urged all Nigerians to join either of the parties, which Chief Bola Ige referred to as "two leper hands." The two-party state had been a Political Bureau recommendation. After a census was conducted, the Independent National Electoral Commission, National Electoral Commission announced on 24 January 1992, that both 1992 Nigerian parliamentary election, legislative elections to a bicameral National Assembly (Nigeria), National Assembly and a presidential election would be held later that year. The adopted process advocated that any candidate needed to pass through adoption for all elective positions from the local government, state government and federal government.Holman, Michael (24 February 1986), "Nigeria, Politics; Religious Differences Intensify", ''Financial Times''. The 1993 Nigerian presidential election, 1993 presidential election held on 12 June, was the first since the military coup of 1983. The results, though not officially declared by the National Electoral Commission, showed the duo of Moshood Abiola and Baba Gana Kingibe of the Social Democratic Party defeated Bashir Tofa and Sylvester Ugoh of the National Republican Convention by over 2.3 million votes. However, Babangida annulled the elections, leading to massive civilian protests that effectively shut down the country for weeks. In August 1993, Babangida finally kept his promise to relinquish power to a civilian government but not before appointing Ernest Shonekan head of the Cabinet of Ernest Shonekan, interim national government. Babangida's regime has been considered the most corrupt and responsible for creating a culture of corruption in Nigeria. Shonekan's interim government, the shortest in the political history of the country, was overthrown in a 1993 Nigerian coup d'état, coup d'état of 1993 led by General Sani Abacha, who used military force on a wide scale to suppress the continuing civilian unrest. In 1995, the government hanged environmentalist Ken Saro-Wiwa on trumped-up charges in the deaths of four Ogoni people, Ogoni elders. Lawsuits under the American Alien Tort Statute against Royal Dutch Shell and Brian Anderson, the head of Shell's Nigerian operation, settled out of court with Shell continuing to deny liability. Several hundred million dollars in accounts traced to Abacha were discovered in 1999. The regime came to an end in 1998 when the dictator died in the villa. He looted money to offshore accounts in western European banks and defeated coup plots by arresting and bribing generals and politicians. His successor, General Abdulsalami Abubakar, adopted a new constitution on May 5, 1999, which provided for multiparty elections. Fourth Republic (1999–present) On May 29, 1999, Abubakar transferred power to the winner of the 1999 presidential election, former military ruler General Olusegun Obasanjo as the second democratically elected civilian President of Nigeria heralding the beginning of the Fourth Nigerian Republic. This ended almost 33 years of military rule from 1966 until 1999, excluding the short-lived second republic (between 1979 and 1983) by military dictators who seized power in coups d'état and counter-coups. Although the elections that brought Obasanjo to power and for a second term in the 2003 Nigerian presidential election, 2003 presidential election were condemned as unfree and unfair, Nigeria has shown marked improvements in attempts to tackle government corruption and hasten development. Conflict in the Niger Delta, Ethnic violence for control over the oil-producing Niger Delta region and an Boko Haram insurgency, insurgency in the northeast are some of the issues facing the country. Umaru Musa Yar'Adua, Umaru Yar'Adua of the People's Democratic Party (Nigeria), People's Democratic Party came into power in the 2007 Nigerian general election, general election of 2007. The international community, which had been observing Nigerian elections to encourage a free and fair process, condemned this one as being severely flawed. President Olusegun Obasanjo acknowledged fraud and other electoral "lapses" but said the result reflected opinion polls. In a national television address in 2007, he added that if Nigerians did not like the victory of his handpicked successor, they would have an opportunity to vote again in four years. Yar'Adua died on May 5, 2010. Goodluck Jonathan was sworn in as Yar'Adua's successor, becoming the 14th head of state. Jonathan went on to win the 2011 Nigerian presidential election, 2011 presidential election, with the international media reporting the elections as having run smoothly with relatively little violence or voter fraud, in contrast to previous elections. Ahead of the 2015 Nigerian general election, general election of 2015, a merger of the biggest opposition parties – the Action Congress of Nigeria, the Congress for Progressive Change, the All Nigeria Peoples Party (a faction of the All Progressives Grand Alliance), and the new PDP (a faction of serving governors of the ruling People's Democratic Party) – formed the All Progressives Congress. In the 2015 presidential election, former military head of state General Muhammadu Buhari – who had previously contested in the 2003, 2007, and 2011 presidential elections—defeated incumbent Jonathan of the People's Democratic Party (Nigeria), People's Democratic Party by over two million votes, ending the party's sixteen-year rule in the country and marking the first time in the history of Nigeria that an incumbent president lost to an opposition candidate. Observers generally praised the election as being fair. Jonathan was generally praised for conceding defeat and limiting the risk of unrest. In the 2019 Nigerian general election, 2019 presidential election, Buhari was re-elected for a second term in office defeating his closet rival Atiku Abubakar.
PoliticsNigeria is a federal republic modelled after the United States, with executive power exercised by the President of Nigeria, President. The president is both head of state and Head of government, head of the federal government; the president is Direct election, elected by popular vote to a maximum of two four-year terms. The president's power is checked by a Senate of Nigeria, Senate and a House of Representatives (Nigeria), House of Representatives, which are combined in a Bicameralism, bicameral body called the National Assembly (Nigeria), National Assembly. The Senate is a 109-seat body with three members from each state and one from the capital region of Abuja; members are elected by popular vote to four-year terms. The House contains 360 seats, with the number of seats per state determined by population. Ethnocentrism, tribalism, religious persecution, and prebendalism have plagued Nigerian politics both before and after independence in 1960. All major parties have practised vote-rigging and other means of coercion to remain competitive. In the period before 1983 election, a report prepared by the National Institute of Policy and Strategic Studies showed that only the 1959 and 1979 elections were held without systemic rigging. In 2012, Nigeria was estimated to have lost over $400 billion to Corruption in Nigeria, corruption since independence. Kin-selective altruism is prevalent in Nigerian politics, resulting in tribalist efforts to concentrate Federal power to a particular region of their interests. Because of the above issues, Nigeria's political parties are Pan-nationalism, pan-national and secular in character (though this does not preclude the continuing preeminence of the dominant ethnicities). The two major political parties are the People's Democratic Party (Nigeria), People's Democratic Party of Nigeria and the All Progressives Congress, with twenty registered minor opposition parties. Hausa-Fulani, Yoruba and Igbo are the three largest ethnic groups in Nigeria and have maintained historical preeminence in Nigerian politics; competition amongst these three groups has fueled animosity. Following the bloody civil war, nationalism has seen an increase in the southern part of the country leading to active secessionist movements such as the Oodua Peoples Congress and the Movement for the Actualization of the Sovereign State of Biafra, though these groups are generally small and not representative of the entire ethnic group.
LawThe country has a Judiciary, judicial branch, with the highest court being the Supreme Court of Nigeria. There are three distinct systems of law in Nigeria: * Common law, derived from its British colonial past, and development of its own after independence; * Customary law, derived from indigenous traditional norms and practice, including the dispute resolution meetings of pre-colonial Yorubaland secret societies such as the Oyo Mesi and Ogboni, as well as the Ekpe and Okonko of Igboland and Ibibio people, Ibibioland; * Sharia law, used only in the predominantly Muslim northern states of the country. It is an Islamic legal system that had been used long before the colonial administration.
MilitaryThe Nigerian military is charged with protecting the Federal Republic of Nigeria, promoting Nigeria's global security interests, and supporting peacekeeping efforts, especially in West Africa. This is in support of the doctrine sometimes called Pax Nigeriana. The Nigerian Military consists of an Nigerian Army, army, a Nigerian Navy, navy, and an Nigerian Air Force, air force. The military in Nigeria has played a major role in the country's history since independence. Various juntas have seized control of the country and ruled it through most of its history. Its last period of military rule ended in 1999 following the sudden death of Sani Abacha in 1998. His successor, Abdulsalam Abubakar, handed over power to the democratically elected government of Olusegun Obasanjo the next year. As Africa's most populated country, Nigeria has repositioned its military as a peacekeeping force on the continent. Since 1995, the Nigerian military, through ECOMOG mandates, has been deployed as peacekeepers in Liberia (1997), Ivory Coast (1997–1999), and Sierra Leone (1997–1999).O'Loughlin, Ed (11 March 1998
Foreign RelationsUpon gaining independence in 1960, Nigeria made African unity the centrepiece of its foreign policy and played a leading role in the fight against the apartheid government in South Africa. One exception to the African focus was Nigeria's close relationship developed with Israel throughout the 1960s. Israel sponsored and oversaw the construction of Nigeria's parliament buildings. Nigeria's foreign policy was put to the test in the 1970s after the country emerged united from its civil war. It supported movements against white minority governments in the Southern Africa sub-region. Nigeria backed the African National Congress by taking a committed tough line about the South African government and their military actions in southern Africa. Nigeria was a founding member of the Organisation of African Unity, Organisation for African Unity (now the ) and has tremendous influence in West Africa and Africa on the whole. Nigeria founded regional cooperative efforts in West Africa, functioning as the standard-bearer for the (ECOWAS) and ECOMOG (especially during the Liberia and Sierra Leone civil wars) - which are economic and military organizations, respectively. With this Africa-centered stance, Nigeria readily Congo Crisis, sent troops to the Congo at the behest of the United Nations shortly after independence (and has maintained membership since that time). Nigeria also supported several Pan-African and pro-self government causes in the 1970s, including garnering support for Angola's Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola, MPLA, SWAPO in Namibia, and aiding opposition to the minority governments of Mozambican War of Independence, Portuguese Mozambique, and Rhodesian Bush War, Rhodesia. Nigeria retains membership in the Non-Aligned Movement. In late November 2006, it organised an Africa-South America Summit in to promote what some attendees termed "South-South" linkages on a variety of fronts. Nigeria is also a member of the International Criminal Court and the . It was temporarily expelled from the latter in 1995 when ruled by the Sani Abacha, Abacha regime. Nigeria has remained a key player in the Petroleum industry, international oil industry since the 1970s and maintains membership in , which it joined in July 1971. Its Petroleum industry in Nigeria, status as a major petroleum producer figures prominently in its sometimes volatile international relations with Developed country, developed countries, notably the United States, and with developing countries. Since 2000, China–Nigeria relations, China-Nigerian trade relations have risen exponentially. There has been an increase in total trade of over 10,384 million dollars between the two nations from 2000 to 2016. However, the structure of the China-Nigerian trade relationship has become a major political issue for the Nigerian state. This is illustrated by the fact that Chinese exports account for around 80 per cent of total bilateral trade volumes. This has resulted in a serious Balance of trade, trade imbalance, with Nigeria importing ten times more than it exports to China. Subsequently, Nigeria's economy is becoming over-reliant on cheap imports to sustain itself, resulting in a clear decline in Nigerian Industry under such arrangements. Continuing its Africa-centered foreign policy, Nigeria introduced the Idea of a Currency union, single currency for West Africa known as the Eco (currency), Eco under the presumption that it would be led by the Nigerian naira, naira, but on December 21, 2019; List of heads of state of Ivory Coast, Ivorian President Alassane Ouattara along with Emmanuel Macron and multiple other Economic Community of West African States, UEMOA States, announced that they would merely rename the CFA franc instead of replacing the currency as originally intended. As of 2020, the Eco currency has been delayed to 2025.
Administrative DivisionsNigeria is divided into States of Nigeria, thirty-six states and one Federal Capital Territory, which are further sub-divided into 774 Local government areas of Nigeria, local government areas. In some contexts, the states are aggregated into Geopolitical zones of Nigeria, six geopolitical zones: North West (Nigeria), North West, North East (Nigeria), North East, North Central, Nigeria, North Central, South West (Nigeria), South West, South East (Nigeria), South East, and South South (Nigeria), South-South. Nigeria has five cities with a population of over a million (from largest to smallest): , , Ibadan, Benin City and Port Harcourt. Lagos is the List of most populous cities in Africa, largest city in Africa, with a population of over List of metropolitan areas by population, 12 million in its urban area.
GeographyNigeria is located in western Africa on the and has a total area of , making it the world's List of countries and dependencies by area, 32nd-largest country. Its borders span , and it shares borders with Benin (), Niger (), Chad (), and Cameroon (including the separatist Ambazonia) . Its coastline is at least . Nigeria lies between latitudes 4th parallel north, 4° and 14th parallel north, 14°N, and longitudes 2nd meridian east, 2° and 15th meridian east, 15°E. The highest point in Nigeria is Chappal Waddi at . The main rivers are the Niger River, Niger and the Benue River, Benue, which converge and empty into the Niger Delta. This is one of the world's largest river deltas and the location of a large area of Central African mangroves. Nigeria's most expansive topographical region is that of the valleys of the Niger and Benue river valleys (which merge and form a Y-shape). To the southwest of the Niger is a "rugged" Highland (geography), highland. To the southeast of the Benue are hills and mountains, which form the Mambilla Plateau, the highest plateau in Nigeria. This plateau extends through the border with , where the montane land is part of the Bamenda Highlands of Cameroon.
ClimateNigeria has a varied landscape. The far south is defined by its tropical rainforest climate, where annual rainfall is per year. In the southeast stands the Obudu Plateau. Coastal plains are found in both the southwest and the southeast. Mangrove swamps are found along the coast. The area near the border with Cameroon close to the coast is rich rainforest and part of the Cross–Sanaga–Bioko coastal forests, Cross-Sanaga-Bioko coastal forests ecoregion, an important centre for biodiversity. It is a habitat for the Drill (animal), drill primate, which is found in the wild only in this area and across the border in Cameroon. The areas surrounding Calabar, Cross River State, also in this forest, are believed to contain the world's largest diversity of butterflies. The area of southern Nigeria between the Niger and the Cross River (Nigeria), Cross Rivers has lost most of its forest because of development and harvesting by increased population, with it being Cross–Niger transition forests, replaced by grassland. Everything in between the far south and the far north is savannah (insignificant tree cover, with grasses and flowers located between trees). Rainfall is more limited to between per year. The savannah zone's three categories are Guinean forest–savanna mosaic, Guinean forest-savanna mosaic, Sudan savannah, and Sahel savannah. Guinean forest-savanna mosaic is plains of tall grass interrupted by trees. Sudan savannah is similar but with shorter grasses and shorter trees. Sahel savannah consists of patches of grass and sand, found in the northeast. In the Sahel region, rain is less than per year, and the Sahara, Sahara Desert is encroaching. In the dry northeast corner of the country lies Lake Chad, which Nigeria shares with Niger, Chad and Cameroon.
Plant EcologyNigeria has numerous tree species, of which the majority of them are native while few are exotic. A high percentage of man-made forests in the country is dominated by exotic species. This culminated from the assumption that exotic trees are fast-growing. However, studies have also investigated the growth of indigenous trees in with that of exotic species. Due to overexploitation, the remaining natural ecosystems and primary forests in Nigeria are restricted to the protected areas which include one biosphere reserve, seven national parks, one World Heritage site, 12 Strict Nature Reserves (SNRs), 32 game reserves/wildlife sanctuaries, and hundreds of forest reserves. These are in addition to several ex-situ conservation sites such as arboreta, botanical gardens, zoological gardens, and gene banks managed by several tertiary and research institutions Many countries in Africa are affected by Invasive Alien Species (IAS). In 2004, the IUCN–World Conservation Union identified 81 IAS in South Africa, 49 in Mauritius, 37 in Algeria and Madagascar, 35 in Kenya, 28 in Egypt, 26 in Ghana and Zimbabwe, and 22 in Ethiopia. However, very little is known about IAS in Nigeria, with most technical reports and literature reporting fewer than 10 invasive plants in the country. Aside from plant invaders, ''Black rat, Rattus rattus'' and Avian influenza virus were also considered IAS in Nigeria.United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). Invasive Alien Species. ''In'': African Environment Outlook 2: Our Environment, Our Wealth The initial entry of IAS into Nigeria was mainly through exotic plant introductions by the colonial rulers either for forest tree plantations or for ornamental purposes. The entry of exotic plants into Nigeria during the post-independence era was encouraged by increasing economic activity, the commencement of commercial oil explorations, the introduction through ships, and the introduction of ornamental plants by commercial floriculturists. In the semi-arid and dry sub-humid savannas of West Africa, including Nigeria, numerous species of herbaceous dicots especially from the genera ''Crotalaria'', ''Alysicarpus'', ''Cassia'' and ''Ipomoea, Ipomea'' are known to be widely used in livestock production. Quite often they are plucked or cut and fed either as fresh or conserved fodders. The utilization of these and many other herbs growing naturally within the farm environment is opportunistic. Many other species native to Nigeria, including soybean and its varieties, serve as an important source of oil and protein in this region. There are also many plants with medicinal purposes that are used to aid the therapy in many organs. Some of these vegetations include ''Euphorbiaceae'', which serve the purpose of aiding malaria, gastrointestinal disorders respectively and many other infections. Different stress factors such as droughts, low soil nutrients and susceptibility to pests have contributed to Maize plantations being an integral part of agriculture in this region. As industrialization has increased, it has also put species of trees in the forest at risk of air pollution and studies have shown that in certain parts of Nigeria, trees have shown tolerance and grow in areas that have a significant amount of air pollution
Environmental IssuesNigeria's Delta region, home of the large oil industry, experiences serious oil spills and other environmental problems, which has caused Conflict in the Niger Delta, conflict in the Delta region. Waste management including sewage treatment, the linked processes of deforestation and Soil retrogression and degradation, soil degradation, and climate change or global warming are the major environmental problems in Nigeria. Waste management presents problems in a megacity like Lagos and other major Nigerian cities which are linked with economic development, population growth and the inability of municipal councils to manage the resulting rise in industrial and domestic waste. This waste management problem is also attributable to unsustainable environmental management lifestyles of Kubwa, Abuja, Kubwa community in the Federal Capital Territory, where there are habits of indiscriminate disposal of waste, dumping of waste along or into the canals, sewerage systems that are channels for water flows, and the like. Haphazard industrial planning, increased urbanisation, poverty and lack of competence of the municipal government are seen as the major reasons for high levels of waste pollution in major cities of the country. Some of the solutions have been disastrous to the environment, resulting in untreated waste being dumped in places where it can pollute waterways and Groundwater in Nigeria, groundwater. In 2005, Nigeria had the highest rate of deforestation in the world, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the . That year, 12.2%, the equivalent of 11,089,000 hectares had been forested in the country. Between 1990 and 2000, Nigeria lost an average of 409,700 hectares of forest every year equal to an average annual deforestation rate of 2.4%. Between 1990 and 2005, in total Nigeria lost 35.7% of its forest cover or around 6,145,000 hectares. Nigeria had a 2019 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 6.2/10, ranking it 82nd globally out of 172 countries. In the year 2010, thousands of people were inadvertently Zamfara State lead poisoning outbreak, exposed to lead-containing soil from informal gold mining within the northern state of Zamfara. While estimates vary, it is thought that upwards of 400 children died of acute lead poisoning, making this perhaps the largest lead poisoning fatality outbreak ever encountered.
EconomyNigeria's mixed economy is the largest in Africa, the List of countries by GDP (nominal), 26th-largest in the world by nominal GDP, and 25th-largest by purchasing power parity, PPP. It is a lower-middle-income economy, with its abundant supply of natural resources, well-developed financial, legal, communications, transport sectors and Nigerian Stock Exchange. Economic development has been hindered by years of Military dictatorship, military rule, corruption, and mismanagement. The restoration of democracy and subsequent economic reforms have successfully put Nigeria back on track towards achieving its full economic potential. Next to petroleum, the second-largest source of foreign exchange earnings for Nigeria are remittances sent home by Nigerians living abroad. During the oil boom of the 1970s, Nigeria accumulated a significant foreign debt to finance major infrastructural investments. With the fall of oil prices during the 1980s oil glut, Nigeria struggled to keep up with its loan payments and eventually defaulted on its principal debt repayments, limiting repayment to the interest portion of the loans. Arrears and penalty interest accumulated on the unpaid principal, which increased the size of the debt. After negotiations by the Nigerian authorities, in October 2005 Nigeria and its Paris Club creditors reached an agreement under which Nigeria repurchased its debt at a discount of approximately 60%. Nigeria used part of its oil profits to pay the residual 40%, freeing up at least $1.15 billion annually for poverty reduction programmes. Nigeria made history in April 2006 by becoming the first African country to completely pay off its debt (estimated $30 billion) owed to the Paris Club.
Agriculture, about 30% of Nigerians are employed in agriculture. Agriculture used to be the principal foreign exchange earner of Nigeria. Major crops include beans, sesame, cashew nuts, cassava, cocoa beans, Bambara groundnut, groundnuts, gum arabic, kolanut, maize (corn), melon, millet, palm kernels, palm oil, Plantain (cooking), plantains, rice, rubber, sorghum, soybeans and Yam (vegetable), yams. Cocoa bean, Cocoa is the leading non-oil foreign exchange earner. Rubber is the second-largest non-oil foreign exchange earner. Before the Nigerian civil war, Nigeria was self-sufficient in food. Agriculture has failed to keep pace with Nigeria's rapid population growth, and Nigeria now relies upon food imports to sustain itself. The Nigerian government promoted the use of inorganic fertilizers in the 1970s. In August 2019, Nigeria closed its border with Benin and other neighbouring countries to stop rice smuggling into the country as part of efforts to boost local production.
Petroleum And MiningNigeria is the 12th largest producer of petroleum in the world, the 8th largest exporter, and has the 10th largest proven reserves. Petroleum plays a large role in the Nigerian economy, accounting for 40% of GDP and 80% of government earnings. However, agitation for better resource control in the Niger Delta, its main oil-producing region, has led to disruptions in oil production and prevents the country from exporting at 100% capacity. The Niger Delta Nembe Creek oil field was discovered in 1973 and produces from middle Miocene River delta, deltaic sandstone-shale in an anticline Petroleum trap, structural trap at a depth of . In June 2013, Shell announced a strategic review of its operations in Nigeria, hinting that assets could be divested. While many international oil companies have operated there for decades, by 2014 most were making moves to divest their interests, citing a range of issues including oil theft. In August 2014, Shell said it was finalising its interests in four Nigerian oil fields. Nigeria has a total of 159 Petroleum reservoir, oil fields and 1,481 Oil well, wells in operation according to the Department of Petroleum Resources.''Environmental Resources Managers Ltd, Niger Delta Environmental Survey Final Report Phase I; Volume I: Environmental and Socio-Economic Characteristics (Lagos: Niger Delta Environmental Survey, September 1997)'' The most productive region of the nation is the coastal Niger Delta Basin (geology), Niger Delta Basin in the Niger Delta or "south-south" region which encompasses 78 of the 159 oil fields. Most of Nigeria's oil fields are small and scattered, and as of 1990, these small fields accounted for 62.1% of all Nigerian production. This contrasts with the sixteen largest fields which produced 37.9% of Nigeria's petroleum at that time.''Nigeria: The Political Economy of Oil'' (Khan, Ahmad) In addition to its petroleum resources, Nigeria also has a wide array of underexploited mineral resources which include natural gas, coal, bauxite, tantalite, gold, tin, iron ore, limestone, niobium, lead and zinc. Despite huge deposits of these natural resources, the mining industry in Nigeria is still in its infancy.
Services And TourismNigeria has a highly developed financial services sector, with a mix of local and international banks, asset management companies, brokerage houses, insurance companies and brokers, private equity funds and investment banks. Nigeria has one of the fastest-growing telecommunications markets in the world, with major emerging market operators (like MTN Group, MTN, 9mobile, Airtel and Globacom) basing their largest and most profitable centres in the country. Nigeria's ICT sector has experienced a lot of growth, representing 10% of the nation's GDP in 2018 as compared to just 1% in 2001. Lagos is regarded as one of the largest technology hubs in Africa with its thriving tech ecosystem. Several startups like Paystack, Interswitch, Bolt and Piggyvest are leveraging technology to solve issues across different sectors. Tourism in Nigeria centres largely on events, because of the country's ample amount of ethnic groups, but also includes rain forests, savannah, waterfalls, and other natural attractions. Abuja is home to several parks and green areas. The largest, Millennium Park (Abuja), Millennium Park, was designed by architect Manfredi Nicoletti and officially opened in December 2003. After the re-modernization project achieved by the administration of Governor Raji Babatunde Fashola, Lagos is gradually becoming a major tourist destination. Lagos is currently taking steps to become a global city. The 2009 Eyo carnival (a yearly festival originating from Iperu, Ogun, Iperu Remo, Ogun State) was a step toward world city status. Currently, Lagos is primarily known as a business-oriented and fast-paced community. Lagos has become an important location for African and black cultural identity. Many festivals are held in Lagos; festivals vary in offerings each year and may be held in different months. Some of the festivals ar
Manufacturing And TechnologyNigeria has a manufacturing industry that includes leather and textiles (centred in Kano, Abeokuta, Onitsha, and Lagos). Nigeria currently has an indigenous auto manufacturing company, Innoson Vehicle Manufacturing located in Nnewi. It produces buses and SUVs. Car manufacturing (for the French car manufacturer Peugeot as well as for the English truck manufacturer Bedford Vehicles, Bedford, now a subsidiary of General Motors), T-shirts, plastics and processed food. In this regard, some foreign vehicle manufacturing companies like Nissan have made known their plans to have manufacturing plants in Nigeria. Ogun State, Ogun is considered to be Nigeria's current industrial hub, as most factories are located in Ogun and more companies are moving there, followed by Lagos. Nigeria has a few electronic manufacturers like Zinox, the first branded Nigerian computer, and manufacturers of electronic gadgets such as tablet PCs. In 2013, Nigeria introduced a policy regarding import duty on vehicles to encourage local manufacturing companies in the country. The city of Aba, Abia, Aba in the south-eastern part of the country is well known for handicrafts and shoes, known as "Aba made".
EnergyNigeria's primary energy consumption was about 108 Tonne of oil equivalent, Mtoe in 2011. Most of the energy comes from traditional biomass and waste, which account for 83% of total primary production. The rest is from fossil fuels (16%) and hydropower (1%). Since independence, Nigeria has tried to develop a domestic nuclear industry for energy. Since 2004, Nigeria has had a Chinese-origin research reactor at Ahmadu Bello University and has sought the support of the International Atomic Energy Agency to develop plans for up to 4,000 MWe of nuclear capacity by 2027 according to the National Program for the Deployment of Nuclear Power for Generation of Electricity. In 2007, President Umaru Musa Yar'Adua, Umaru Yar'Adua urged the country to embrace nuclear power to meet its growing energy needs. In 2017, Nigeria signed the UN treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons. In April 2015, Nigeria began talks with Russia's state-owned Rosatom to collaborate on the design, construction and operation of four nuclear power plants by 2035, the first of which will be in operation by 2025. In June 2015, Nigeria selected two sites for the planned construction of the nuclear plants. Neither the Nigerian government nor Rosatom would disclose the specific locations of the sites, but it is believed that the nuclear plants will be sited in Akwa Ibom State and Kogi State. The sites are planned to house two plants each. In 2017 agreements were signed for the construction of the Itu nuclear power plant.
TransportationNigeria suffers from a lack of adequate transportation infrastructure. As of 1999, its 194,394 kilometres of road networks are the main means of transportation, of which (including of expressways) are paved roads and 134,326 kilometres are unpaved roads of city, town and village roads. The railways have undergone a massive revamping with projects such as the Lagos–Kano Standard Gauge Railway, Lagos-Kano Standard Gauge Railway being completed connecting northern cities of Kano, Kaduna, Abuja, Ibadan and Lagos. There are 54 airports in Nigeria; the principal airports are Murtala Muhammed International Airport in Lagos and Nnamdi Azikiwe International Airport in Abuja. Three other international airports are Mallam Aminu Kano International Airport in , Akanu Ibiam International Airport in Enugu and Port Harcourt International Airport in Port Harcourt. As with other transportation facilities, the airports suffer from a poor reputation for safety and operational efficiency.
TelecommunicationsAccording to the National Bureau of Statistics in 2020, Nigeria has about 136,203,231 internet users out of an estimated population of 205,886,311. This implies that as of 2020, 66 per cent of the Nigerian population are connected to the internet and using it actively. Although Nigerians are using the internet for educational, social networking, and entertainment purposes, the internet has also become a tool for mobilizing political protests in Nigeria. However, the Nigerian government has become threatened by how its citizens are using the internet to influence governance and political changes. Using various measures including but not limited to Illegal arrest, taking down of websites, passport seizures, and restricted access to bank accounts, the Nigerian Government punishes citizens for expressing themselves on the internet and working to stifle internet freedom. Due to how the Nigerian government is responding to internet freedom among other things such as limitations to internet access and violations of users rights, Nigeria ranked 26th out of the 65 countries evaluated for internet freedom in the Freedom House 2020 Index.
Government satellitesThe government has recently begun expanding this infrastructure to National Space Research and Development Agency, space-based communications. Nigeria has a space satellite that is monitored at the Nigerian National Space Research and Development Agency Headquarters in Abuja. The Nigerian government has commissioned the overseas production and launch of four satellites. NigComSat-1 was the first Nigerian satellite built, was Nigeria's third satellite, and Africa's first communication satellite. It was launched in 2007 aboard a Chinese Long March 3B Launch vehicle, carrier rocket, from the Xichang Satellite Launch Center in China. The spacecraft was operated by NIGCOMSAT, NigComSat and the National Space Research and Development Agency, Nigerian Space Research and Development Agency. On 11 November 2008, NigComSat-1 failed in orbit after running out of power because of an anomaly in its solar array. It was based on the Chinese Dongfanghong program, DFH-4 satellite bus and carries a variety of transponders: four C band (IEEE), C-band; fourteen Ku band, Ku-band; eight Ka band, Ka-band; and two L band, L-band. It was designed to provide coverage to many parts of Africa, and the Ka-band transponders would also cover Italy. The satellite was launched from Russia on 27 September 2003. Nigeriasat-1 was part of the worldwide Disaster Monitoring Constellation System. The primary objectives of the Nigeriasat-1 were: to give early warning signals of environmental disaster; to help detect and control desertification in the northern part of Nigeria; to assist in demographic planning; to establish the relationship between malaria vectors and the environment that breeds malaria and to give early warning signals on future outbreaks of meningitis using remote sensing technology; to provide the technology needed to bring education to all parts of the country through distant learning, and to aid in conflict resolution and border disputes by mapping out state and International borders. NigeriaSat-2, Nigeria's second satellite, was built as a high-resolution earth satellite by Surrey Space Technology Limited, a United Kingdom-based satellite technology company. It has 2.5-metre resolution panchromatic (very high resolution), 5-metre multispectral (high resolution, NIR red, green and red bands), and 32-metre multispectral (medium resolution, NIR red, green and red bands) antennas, with a ground receiving station in . The NigeriaSat-2 spacecraft alone was built at a cost of over £35 million. This satellite was launched into orbit by a military base in China. On 10 November 2008 (0900 GMT), the satellite was reportedly switched off for analysis and to avoid a possible collision with other satellites. According to Nigerian Communications Satellite Limited, it was put into "emergency mode operation to effect mitigation and repairs". The satellite eventually failed after losing power on 11 November 2008. On 24 March 2009, the Nigerian Federal Ministry of Science and Technology, NigComSat Ltd. and CGWIC signed another contract for the in-orbit delivery of the NigComSat-1R satellite. NigComSat-1R was also a DFH-4 satellite, and the replacement for the failed NigComSat-1 was successfully launched into orbit by China in Xichang on 19 December 2011. The satellite was stated to have a positive impact on national development in various sectors such as communications, internet services, health, agriculture, environmental protection and national security. Nigeria EduSat-1, NigeriaEduSat-1 was a satellite designed, built, and owned by the Federal University of Technology Akure (FUTA), in conjunction with Nigeria's National Space Research and Development Agency and Japan's Kyushu Institute of Technology. It was equipped with 0.3-megapixel and 5-megapixel cameras, and with the rest of the satellite, the fleet took images of Nigeria. The satellite transmitted songs and poems as an outreach project to generate Nigerian interest in science. The signal could be received by amateur radio operators. The satellite constellation also conducted measurements of the atmospheric density above the Earth. The satellite cost about US$500,000 to manufacture and launch.
DemographicsThe estimates that the population of Nigeria in was at , distributed as 51.7% rural and 48.3% urban, and with a population density of 167.5 people per square kilometre. Around 42.5% of the population were 14 years or younger, 19.6% were aged 15–24, 30.7% were aged 25–54, 4.0% were aged 55–64, and 3.1% were aged 65 years or older. The median age in 2017 was 18.4 years. Nigeria is the World population, seventh most populous country in the world. The birth rate is 35.2-births/1,000 population and the death rate is 9.6 deaths/1,000 population as of 2017, while the total fertility rate is 5.07 children born/woman. Nigeria's population increased by 57 million from 1990 to 2008, a 60% growth rate in less than two decades.CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion
Ethnic groupsNigeria has more than 250 ethnic groups, with varying languages and customs, creating a country of rich ethnic diversity. The three largest ethnic groups are the , and , together accounting for more than 70% of the population, while the Edo people, Edo, Ijaw people, Ijaw, Fula people, Fulɓe, Kanuri people, Kanuri, Urhobo people, Urhobo-Isoko, Ibibio people, Ibibio, Ebira people, Ebira, Nupe people, Nupe, Gbagyi people, Gbagyi, Jukun people (West Africa), Jukun, Igala people, Igala, Idoma people, Idoma and Tiv people, Tiv comprise between 25 and 30%; other minorities make up the remaining 5%."Nigeria" in ''Geographica: The complete Atlas of the world'', Random House, 2002, The Middle Belt of Nigeria is known for its diversity of ethnic groups, including the Atyap people, Atyap, Berom people, Berom, Goemai, Igala, Kofyar people, Kofyar, Pyem, and Tiv. The official population count of each of Nigeria's ethnicities is disputed as members of different ethnic groups believe the census is rigged to give a particular group (usually believed to be northern groups) numerical superiority. There are small minorities of British, American, Non-resident Indian and person of Indian origin, Indian, Chinese people in Nigeria, Chinese (est. 50,000), White Zimbabweans, white Zimbabwean, Japanese, Greek, Syrian and Lebanese immigrants. Immigrants also include those from other West African or East African nations. These minorities mostly reside in major cities such as Lagos and Abuja, or the Niger Delta as employees for the major oil companies. Several Cubans settled in Nigeria as political refugees following the Cuban Revolution. In the middle of the 19th century, several ex-slaves of Afro-Cubans, Afro-Cuban and Afro-Brazilians, Afro-Brazilian descent and emigrants from Sierra Leone established communities in Lagos and other regions of Nigeria. Many ex-slaves came to Nigeria following the emancipation of slaves in the Americas. Many of the immigrants, sometimes called Saro people, Saro (immigrants from Sierra Leone) and Brazilians in Nigeria, Amaro (ex-slaves from Brazil) later became prominent merchants and missionaries in these cities.
Languages521 languages have been spoken in Nigeria; nine of them are extinct. In some areas of Nigeria, ethnic groups speak more than one language. The official language of Nigeria, English, was chosen to facilitate the cultural and linguistic unity of the country, owing to the influence of British colonisation which ended in 1960. Many French speakers from surrounding countries have influenced the English spoken in the border regions of Nigeria and some Nigerian citizens have become fluent enough in French to work in the surrounding countries. The French spoken in Nigeria may be mixed with some native languages. French may also be mixed with English. The major languages spoken in Nigeria represent three major families of languages of Africa: the majority are Niger–Congo languages, Niger-Congo languages, such as Igbo language, Igbo, Yoruba language, Yoruba, Ijaw languages, Ijaw, Fula language, Fulfulde, Ogoni languages, Ogoni, and Edo language, Edo. Kanuri language, Kanuri, spoken in the northeast, primarily in Borno State, Borno and Yobe State, is part of the Nilo-Saharan languages, Nilo-Saharan family, and Hausa language, Hausa is an Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language. Even though most ethnic groups prefer to communicate in their languages, English as the official language is widely used for education, business transactions and official purposes. English as a first language is used by only a small minority of the country's urban elite, and it is not spoken at all in some rural areas. Hausa is the most widely spoken of the three main languages spoken in Nigeria. With the majority of Nigeria's populace in the rural areas, the major languages of communication in the country remain indigenous languages. Some of the largest of these, notably Yoruba and Igbo, have derived standardised languages from several different dialects and are widely spoken by those ethnic groups. Nigerian Pidgin, Nigerian Pidgin English, often known simply as "Pidgin" or "Broken" (Broken English), is also a popular lingua franca, though with varying regional influences on dialect and slang. The pidgin English or Nigerian English is widely spoken within the Niger Delta Region.
ReligionNigeria is a religiously diverse society, with Islam and Christianity being the most widely professed religions. Nigerians are nearly equally divided into Muslims and Christians, with a tiny minority of adherents of traditional African religions and other religions.CIA Factbook: Nigeri
HealthHealth care delivery in Nigeria is a concurrent responsibility of the three tiers of government in the country, and the private sector. Nigeria has been reorganising its health system since the Bamako Initiative of 1987, which formally promoted community-based methods of increasing accessibility of drugs and health care services to the population, in part by implementing user fees. The new strategy dramatically increased accessibility through community-based health care reform, resulting in more efficient and equitable provision of services. A comprehensive approach strategy was extended to all areas of health care, with subsequent improvement in the health care indicators and improvement in health care efficiency and cost. HIV/AIDS in Nigeria, HIV/AIDS rate in Nigeria is much lower compared to the other African nations such as Botswana or South Africa whose prevalence (percentage) rates are in the double digits. , the HIV prevalence rate among adults ages 15–49 was 1.5 per cent. The life expectancy in Nigeria is 54.7 years on average, and 71% and 39% of the population have access to improved water sources and improved sanitation, respectively. , the infant mortality is 74.2 deaths per 1,000 live birth (human), live births. In 2012, a new bone marrow donor program was launched by the University of Nigeria to help people with leukaemia, lymphoma, or sickle cell disease to find a compatible donor for a life-saving Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, bone marrow transplant, which cures them of their conditions. Nigeria became the second African country to have successfully carried out this surgery. In the Western African Ebola virus epidemic, 2014 Ebola outbreak, Nigeria was the first country to effectively contain and eliminate the Ebola threat that was ravaging three other countries in the West African region; the unique method of contact tracing employed by Nigeria became an effective method later used by countries such as the United States when Ebola threats were discovered. The Nigerian health care system is continuously faced with a shortage of doctors known as "Human capital flight, brain drain", because of emigration by skilled Nigerian doctors to North America and Europe. In 1995, an estimated 21,000 Nigerian doctors were practising in the United States alone, which is about the same as the number of doctors working in the Nigerian public service. Retaining these expensively trained professionals has been identified as one of the goals of the government.
EducationEducation in Nigeria is overseen by the Federal Ministry of Education (Nigeria), Ministry of Education. Local government areas of Nigeria, Local authorities take responsibility for implementing policy for state-controlled public education and state schools at a regional level. The education system is divided into kindergarten, primary education, secondary education and tertiary education. After the 1970s oil boom, tertiary education was improved so it would reach every subregion of Nigeria. 68% of the Nigerian population is literate, and the rate for men (75.7%) is higher than that for women (60.6%). Nigeria provides free, government-supported education, but attendance is not compulsory at any level, and certain groups, such as nomads and the handicapped, are under-served. The education system consists of six years of primary school, three years of junior secondary school, three years of senior secondary school, and four, five or six years of university education leading to a bachelor's degree. The government has majority control of university education. Tertiary education in Nigeria consists of universities (public and private), polytechnics, monotechnics, and colleges of education. The country has a total of 138 universities, with 40 federally owned, 39 state-owned, and 59 privately owned. Nigeria was ranked 117th in the Global Innovation Index in 2020, down from 114th in 2019.
CrimeNigeria is home to a Organized crime in Nigeria, substantial network of organised crime, active especially in Illegal drug trade, drug trafficking, shipping heroin from Asian countries to Europe and America; and cocaine from South America to Europe and South Africa. Various Confraternities in Nigeria, Nigerian confraternities or student "campus cults" are active in both organised crime and political violence as well as providing a network of corruption within Nigeria. As confraternities have extensive connections with political and military figures, they offer excellent alumni networking opportunities. The Supreme Vikings Confraternity, for example, boasts that twelve members of the Rivers State House of Assembly are cult members. In lower levels of society, there are the "area boys", organised gangs mostly active in Lagos who specialise in a mugging and small-scale drug dealing. Gang violence in Lagos resulted in 273 civilians and 84 policemen being killed from August 2000 to May 2001. There is some piracy in the Gulf of Guinea, with attacks directed at all types of vessels. Consistent with the rise of Nigeria as an increasingly dangerous hot spot, 28 of the 30 seafarers kidnapped globally between January and June 2013 were in Nigeria. Internationally, Nigeria is infamous for a form of bank fraud dubbed ''419'', a type of advance-fee scam (named after Section 419 of the Nigerian Penal Code) along with the "Nigerian scam", a form of confidence trick practised by individuals and criminal syndicates. These scams involve a complicit Nigerian bank (the laws being set up loosely to allow it) and a scammer who claims to have money he needs to obtain from that bank. The victim is talked into exchanging bank account information on the premise that the money will be transferred to them and they will get to keep a cut. In reality, money is taken out instead, or large fees (which seem small in comparison with the imaginary wealth to be gained) are deducted. In 2003, the Nigerian Economic and Financial Crimes Commission was created to combat this and other forms of organised financial crime, and in some cases, it has succeeded in bringing the crime bosses to justice and even managing to return the stolen money to victims. Nigeria has been Corruption in Nigeria, pervaded by political corruption. Nigeria was ranked 136 out of 182 countries in Transparency International's 2014 Corruption Perceptions Index. More than $400 billion were stolen from the treasury by Nigeria's leaders between 1960 and 1999. In 2015, incumbent President Muhammadu Buhari said corrupt officials have stolen $150 billion from Nigeria in the last 10 years.
PovertyPoverty in Nigeria, Nigeria poverty rates have gone down significantly in the 2010s because of economic growth. The World Bank states Nigeria has had a 7.4% economic growth in July 2019 which has been their highest yet since th
Human RightsNigeria's human rights record remains poor. According to the U.S. Department of State, the most significant human rights problems are the use of excessive force by security forces, impunity for abuses by security forces, arbitrary arrests, prolonged pretrial detention, judicial corruption and executive influence on the judiciary, rape, torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment of prisoners, detainees and suspects; harsh and life‑threatening prison and detention centre conditions; human trafficking for prostitution and forced labour, societal violence and vigilante killings, Child labour in Nigeria, child labour, child abuse and Child sexual abuse in Nigeria, child sexual exploitation, Domestic violence in Nigeria, domestic violence, discrimination based on ethnicity, region and religion. Nigeria is a state party of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women It also has signed the Maputo Protocol, an international treaty on women's rights, and the African Union Women's Rights Framework. Discrimination based on sex is a significant human rights issue. Forced marriages are common. Child marriage in Nigeria, Child marriage remains common in Northern Nigeria; 39% of girls are married before age 15, although the Marriage Rights Act banning marriage of girls below 18 years old was introduced on a federal level in 2008. There is rampant Polygamy in Nigeria, polygamy in Northern Nigeria. Submission of the wife to her husband and Domestic violence in Nigeria, domestic violence are common. Women have fewer land rights. Maternal death, Maternal mortality was at 814 per 100,000 live births in 2015. Female genital mutilation in Nigeria, Female genital mutilation is common, although a ban was implemented in 2015. In Nigeria, at least half a million suffer from Urogenital fistula, vaginal fistula, largely as a result of lack of medical care. Early marriages can result in the fistula. Gender inequality in Nigeria, Women face a large amount of inequality politically in Nigeria, being subjugated to a bias that is Sexism, sexist and reinforced by socio-cultural, economic and oppressive ways. Women throughout the country were only politically Emancipation, emancipated in 1979. Yet husbands continue to dictate the votes for many women in Nigeria, which upholds the patriarchal system. Most workers in the Informal economy, informal sector are women. Women's representation in government since independence from Britain is very poor. Women have been reduced to sideline roles in appointive posts throughout all levels of government and still make up a tiny minority of elected officials. But nowadays with more education available to the public, Nigerian women are taking steps to have more active roles in the public, and with the help of different initiatives, more businesses are being started by women. Under the Sharia in Nigeria, Shari'a penal code that applies to Muslims in twelve northern states, offences such as alcohol consumption, LGBT rights in Nigeria, homosexuality, infidelity and theft carry harsh sentences, including amputation, lashing, stoning and long prison terms. According to a 2013 survey by the Pew Research Center, 98% of Nigerians believe homosexuality should not be accepted by society.
LiteratureNigerian citizens have authored many influential works of post-colonial literature in the English language. Nigeria's best-known writers are Wole Soyinka, the first African Nobel Prize in Literature, Nobel Laureate in Literature, and Chinua Achebe, best known for the novel ''Things Fall Apart'' (1958) and his controversial critique of Joseph Conrad. Other Nigerian List of Nigerian writers, writers and List of Nigerian poets, poets who are well known internationally include J. P. Clark, John Pepper Clark, Ben Okri, Cyprian Ekwensi, Buchi Emecheta, Helon Habila, T. M. Aluko, Isaac Delano, Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, Daniel O. Fagunwa, Femi Osofisan and Ken Saro-Wiwa, who was executed in 1995 by the military regime. Critically acclaimed writers of a younger generation include Adaobi Tricia Nwaubani, Chris Abani, Sefi Atta, Helon Habila, Helen Oyeyemi, Nnedi Okorafor, Kachi A. Ozumba, Sarah Ladipo Manyika, and Chika Unigwe.
Music And FestivalsNigeria has had a huge role in the development of various genres of Music of Africa, African music, including West African Highlife, Palm-wine music, Jùjú music, JuJu, Afrobeat, Afrobeats, which fuses native rhythms with techniques that have been linked to the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Congo, Brazil, Cuba, Jamaica and worldwide. Many late 20th-century musicians such as Fela Kuti have famously fused cultural elements of various indigenous music with African-American jazz and Soul music, soul to form Afrobeat which has in turn influenced hip hop music. Jùjú music, JuJu music, which is percussion music fused with traditional music from the Yoruba nation and made famous by King Sunny Adé, is from Nigeria. Fuji music, a Yoruba percussion style, was created and popularised by Mr Fuji, Alhaji Sikiru Ayinde Barrister. Afan Music was invented and popularised by the Ewu-born poet and musician Umuobuarie Igberaese. There is a budding African hip hop, hip-hop movement in Nigeria. Kennis Music, the self-proclaimed number-one record label in Africa, and one of Nigeria's biggest record label have a roster almost entirely dominated by hip-hop artists. In November 2008, Nigeria's music scene (and that of Africa) received international attention when MTV hosted the continent's first African music awards show in Abuja. Additionally, the first music video played on MTV Base Africa (the 100th station on the MTV network) was Tuface, Tuface Idibia's pan-African hit "African Queen". Notable musicians from Nigeria include Sade Adu, King Sunny Adé, Onyeka Onwenu, Dele Sosimi, Adewale Ayuba, Ezebuiro Obinna, Ebenezer Obey, Femi Kuti, Lagbaja, Dr Alban, Bola Abimbola, Tuface, Tuface Idibia, Aṣa, Nneka (singer), Nneka, Wale (rapper), Wale, P Square, Wizkid, Skepta, Davido, Burna Boy and D'Banj. There are many festivals in Nigeria, some of which date to the period before the arrival of the major religions in this ethnically and culturally diverse society. The main Muslim and Christian festivals are often celebrated in ways that are unique to Nigeria or unique to the people of a locality. The Nigerian Tourism Development Corporation has been working with the states to upgrade the traditional festivals, which may become important sources of tourism revenue.
CinemaThe Nigerian film industry is known as Nollywood (a Blend word, blend of ''Nigeria'' and Hollywood) and is now the largest producer of movies in the world takeover from India's Bollywood. Nigerian film studios are based in , , Enugu forming a major portion of the local economy of these cities. Cinema of Nigeria, Nigerian Cinema Is Africa's Largest Movie Industry In Terms Of Both Value And The Number Of Movies Produced Per Year. Although Nigerian films have been produced since the 1960s, the country's film industry has been aided by the rise of affordable Digital cinema, digital filming and editing technologies. The 2009 thriller film ''The Figurine'' heightened the media attention towards the New Nigerian Cinema revolution. The film was a critical and commercial success in Nigeria, and it was also screened in international film festivals. The 2010 film ''Ijé'' by Chineze Anyaene, overtook ''The Figurine'' to become the List of highest-grossing films in Nigeria, highest-grossing Nigerian film; a record it held for four years until it was overtaken in 2014 by ''Half of a Yellow Sun (film), Half of a Yellow Sun''(2013). By 2016, this record was held by ''The Wedding Party (2016 film), The Wedding Party'', a film by Kemi Adetiba. By the end of 2013, the film industry reportedly hit a record-breaking revenue of ₦1.72 trillion (US$4.1 billion). As of 2014, the industry was worth ₦853.9 billion (US$5.1 billion), making it the third most valuable film industry in the world behind the United States and India. It contributed about 1.4% to Nigeria's economy; this was attributed to the increase in the number of quality films produced and more formal distribution methods. T.B. Joshua's Emmanuel TV, originating from Nigeria, is one of the most viewed television stations across Africa.
ComedyThe Nigerian comedy industry keep increasing their exposure by hosting independent comedy shows and comedy competitions in Nigeria and abroad. Comedy, Nigeria comedy industry is the largest comedy industry in Africa, it is now the 3rd largest Entertainment industry in Nigeria after (Nollywood and Music of nigeria) worth an estimated ₦50 billion annually. In addition, comedians are also taking their exposure and growth into their own hands by producing Sketch comedy, comdey skits and making it available to the general public through social media. Notable comedians from Nigeria include Alibaba Akpobome, Ali Baba, Julius Agwu, Okey Bakassi, Basketmouth, Bovi, Buchi (comedian), Buchi, Ayo Makun, Igosave, I Go Dye, Princess, Helen Paul, Akpororo, kenny Blaq, Broda Shaggi, Taaooma, Gloria Oloruntobi, Maraji, Lasisi Elenu, Mr Macaroni, Woli Arole, Emmanuella, Mark Angel (comedian), Mark Angel.
CuisineNigerian cuisine, like West African cuisine in general, is known for its richness and variety. Many different spices, herbs, and flavourings are used in conjunction with palm oil or Peanut, groundnut oil to create deeply flavoured sauces and soups often made very hot with chili pepper, chilli peppers. Nigerian feasts are colourful and lavish, while aromatic market and roadside snacks cooked on barbecues or fried in oil are plentiful and varied.
SportFootball is largely considered Nigeria's national sport, and the country has its own Nigeria Professional Football League, Premier League of football. Nigeria national football team, Nigeria's national football team, known as the "Super Eagles", has made the FIFA World Cup, World Cup on six occasions 1994 FIFA World Cup, 1994, 1998 FIFA World Cup, 1998, 2002 FIFA World Cup, 2002, 2010 FIFA World Cup, 2010, 2014 FIFA World Cup, 2014, and 2018 FIFA World Cup, 2018. In April 1994, the Super Eagles ranked 5th in the FIFA World Rankings, the highest-ranking achieved by an African football team. They won the Africa Cup of Nations, African Cup of Nations in 1980 African Cup of Nations, 1980, 1994 African Cup of Nations, 1994, and 2013 Africa Cup of Nations, 2013, and have also hosted the U-17 & U-20 World Cup. They won the gold medal for football in the 1996 Summer Olympics (in which they beat Argentina) becoming the first African football team to win gold in Olympic football. The nation's 1993 FIFA U-17 World Championship, 1993 Nigeria national under-17 football team, cadet team produced some international players notably Nwankwo Kanu, a two-time African footballer of the year who won the European UEFA Champions League, Champions League with Ajax Amsterdam and later played with F.C. Internazionale Milano, Inter Milan, Arsenal F.C., Arsenal, West Bromwich Albion F.C., West Bromwich Albion and Portsmouth F.C., Portsmouth. Other players who graduated from the junior teams are Nduka Ugbade, Jonathan Akpoborie, Victor Ikpeba, Celestine Babayaro, Wilson Oruma and Taye Taiwo. Some other famous Nigerian footballers include Mikel John Obi, Obafemi Martins, Vincent Enyeama, Yakubu (footballer), Yakubu, Rashidi Yekini, Peter Odemwingie and Jay-Jay Okocha. Nigeria is also involved in other sports such as basketball, cricket and track and field. Boxing is also an important sport in Nigeria; Dick Tiger and Samuel Peter are both former World Champions. In March 2021, the global governing body FIBA ranked Nigeria as Africa's top men's basketball nation. Nigeria men's national basketball team, Nigeria's national basketball team made the headlines internationally when it became the first African team to beat the United States men's national basketball team, United States men's national team. In earlier years, Nigeria qualified for the Basketball at the 2012 Summer Olympics, 2012 Summer Olympics as it beat heavily favoured world elite teams such as Greece men's national basketball team, Greece and Lithuania men's national basketball team, Lithuania. Nigeria has been home to numerous internationally recognised basketball players in the world's top leagues in America, Europe and Asia. These players include Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame, Basketball Hall of Famer Hakeem Olajuwon, and later National Basketball Association, NBA draft picks Solomon Alabi, Yinka Dare, Obinna Ekezie, Festus Ezeli, Al-Farouq Aminu, Olumide Oyedeji and others. The Nigerian Premier League (basketball), Nigerian Premier League has become one of the biggest and most-watched basketball competitions in Africa. The games have aired on ''Kwese TV'' and have averaged a viewership of over a million people. Nigeria made history by qualifying the first Bobsleigh, bobsled team for the Winter Olympic Games, Winter Olympics from Africa when their women's two-person team qualified for Bobsleigh at the 2018 Winter Olympics, the bobsled competition at the 2018 Winter Olympics, XXIII Olympic Winter Games. In the early 1990s, Scrabble was made an official sport in Nigeria. By the end of 2017, there were around 4,000 players in more than 100 clubs in the country. In 2015, Wellington Jighere became the first African player to win World Scrabble Championship. In 2018, the Nigerian Curling Federation was established to introduce a new sport to the country with the hope of getting the game to be a part of the curriculum at the elementary, high school, and university levels respectively. At the 2019 World Mixed Doubles Curling Championship in Norway, Nigeria won their first international match beating France 8–5. Nigeria featured women's and men's national teams in beach volleyball that competed at the 2018–2020 CAVB Beach Volleyball Continental Cup. The country's U21 national teams qualified for the 2019 FIVB Beach Volleyball U21 World Championships.
See also* Index of Nigeria-related articles * Outline of Nigeria * Telephone numbers in Nigeria * Deportation of West African migrants from Nigeria
Further reading* * Dibua, Jeremiah I. ''Modernization and the crisis of development in Africa: the Nigerian experience'' (Routledge, 2017). *Ekundare, Olufemi R.
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