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New York is a
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
in the
Northeastern United States The Northeastern United States (also referred to as the American Northeast, the Northeast, and the East Coast) is a geographical region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of ...
. It is sometimes called New York State to distinguish it from its largest city,
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
. With a total area of , New York is the 27th largest state geographically. Its population of more than 20 million people makes it the fourth most populous state in the United States as of 2020, with approximately 44% living in New York City and 40% on
Long Island Long Island is a densely populated island in the southeast part of the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous Unit ...
. The state is bordered by
New Jersey New Jersey is a U.S. state, state in the Mid-Atlantic States, Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern United States, Northeastern regions of the United States. It is bordered on the north and east by the state of New York (state), New York; on the ea ...
and
Pennsylvania Pennsylvania ( , elsewhere ; pdc, Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a landlocked A landlocked country is a country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastlines lie on endorheic basi ...

Pennsylvania
to the south, and
Connecticut Connecticut () is the southernmost state in the New England region of the United States. As of the 2010 United States census, 2010 Census, it has the highest per-capita income, second-highest level of List of U.S. states and territories by H ...
,
Massachusetts Massachusetts (, ), officially the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * T ...

Massachusetts
, and
Vermont Vermont () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in ...

Vermont
to the east; it has a
maritime border A maritime boundary is a conceptual division of the Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life. About 29% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continent A continent is ...
with
Rhode Island Rhode Island (, like ''road''), officially the State of Rhode Island, is a state in the New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States The Northeastern United States (also referred to as t ...
, east of Long Island, as well as an
international border Borders are geographic Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method ...
with the
Canadian provinces The provinces and territories of Canada are sub-national divisions within the geographical areas of Canada under the jurisdiction of the Constitution of Canada, Canadian Constitution. In the 1867 Canadian Confederation, three provinces of Britis ...
of
Quebec ) , image_shield=Armoiries du Québec.svg , image_flag=Flag of Quebec.svg , coordinates= , AdmittanceDate=July 1, 1867 , AdmittanceOrder=1st, with New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , ...

Quebec
to the north and
Ontario ("Loyal she began, loyal she remains") , Label_map = yes , image_map = Ontario in Canada 2.svg , map_alt = Map showing Ontario's location east/central of Canada. , coordinates = , cap ...

Ontario
to the northwest. New York City (NYC) is the
most populous city The United Nations uses three definitions for what constitutes a city, as not all cities in all jurisdictions are classified using the same criteria. Cities may be defined as the city proper, cities proper, the extent of their urban area, or the ...
in the United States, and two-thirds of the state's population lives in the
New York metropolitan area The New York metropolitan area, also commonly referred to as the Tri-State area, is the largest metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated core city, urban core and its less-populated surro ...
. NYC is home to the
United Nations Headquarters The United Nations is Headquarters, headquartered in New York City in a complex designed by a board of architects led by Wallace Harrison and built by the architectural firm Harrison & Abramovitz. The complex has served as the official headquarter ...

United Nations Headquarters
, and has been described as the
cultural Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior Social behavior is behavior among two or more organisms within the same species, and encompasses any behavior in which one member affects the other. This is due to an int ...
,
financial Finance is a term for the management, creation, and study of money and investments. Pamela Drake and Frank Fabozzi (2009)What Is Finance?/ref> Specifically, it deals with the questions of how an individual, company or government acquires money ...

financial
,
and
media Media may refer to: Physical means Communication * Media (communication), tools used to deliver information or data ** Advertising media, various media, content, buying and placement for advertising ** Broadcast media, communications deliv ...
capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city. The next five most populous cities in the state are ,
Yonkers Yonkers () is a city in Westchester County, New York Westchester County is located in the U.S. state of New York. It is the seventh most populated county in New York and the most populated north of New York City. According to the 2010 U.S. ...
, ,
Syracuse Syracuse may refer to: Places Italy *Syracuse, Sicily Syracuse ( ; it, Siracusa , or scn, Seragusa, label=none ; lat, Syrācūsae ; grc-att, wikt:Συράκουσαι, Συράκουσαι, Syrákousai ; grc-dor, wikt:Συράκοσ ...
, and the
state capital Below is an index of pages containing lists of capital cities A capital or capital city is the municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-gov ...
of Albany. New York has a diverse geography. The southern part of the state is in the
Atlantic coastal plain Wheat field near Centreville on the Eastern Shore of Maryland, with flat terrain typical of the Atlantic coastal plain The Atlantic coastal plain is a physiographic region Physiographic regions of the world are a means of defining Earth ...

Atlantic coastal plain
and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower
Hudson River Valley The Hudson Valley (also known as the Hudson River Valley) comprises the valley of the Hudson River The Hudson River is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or anothe ...

Hudson River Valley
. The larger
Upstate New York Upstate New York is a geographic region consisting of the portion of New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department ...
region comprises several ranges of the wider
Appalachian Mountains The Appalachian Mountains, often called the Appalachians, are a mountain range, system of mountains in eastern North America. The Appalachians first formed roughly 480 million years ago during the Ordovician, Ordovician Period. They once reache ...

Appalachian Mountains
, and the
Adirondack Mountains The Adirondack Mountains () form a massif In geology, a massif ( or ) is a section of a planet's Crust (geology), crust that is demarcated by geologic fault, faults or Lithospheric flexure, flexures. In the Plate tectonics, movement of the cr ...
in the northeastern lobe of the state. The north–south Hudson River Valley and the east–west
Mohawk River The Mohawk River is a U.S. Geological Survey. National Hydrography Dataset high-resolution flowline dataThe National Map accessed October 3, 2011 river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocea ...

Mohawk River
Valley bisect these more mountainous regions.
Western New York Western New York (WNY) is the westernmost region of the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primari ...

Western New York
is part of the
Great Lakes region The Great Lakes region of North America is a bi-national Canada, Canadian–United States, American region that includes portions of the eight U.S. states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York (state), New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania ...

Great Lakes region
and borders on the Great Lakes of
Lake Ontario Lake Ontario (french: Lac Ontario) is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. It is surrounded on the north, west, and southwest by the Canadian province of Ontario, and on the south and east by the U.S. state of New York (state), New Yo ...

Lake Ontario
and
Lake Erie Lake Erie (; french: Lac Érié) is the fourth largest lake A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, surrounded by land, apart from any river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowin ...

Lake Erie
, as well as
Niagara Falls Niagara Falls is a group of three waterfalls at the southern end of Niagara Gorge, spanning the Canada–United States border, border between the Provinces and territories of Canada, province of Ontario in Canada and the U.S. state, state o ...

Niagara Falls
. The central part of the state is dominated by the
Finger Lakes The Finger Lakes are a group of eleven long, narrow, roughly north–south lakes in an area called the ''Finger Lakes region'' in New York, in the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U ...

Finger Lakes
, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York was one of the original
thirteen colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colonies or the Thirteen American Colonies, were a group of Kingdom of Great Britain, British colonies on the Atlantic coast of North America. Founded in the 17th and 18th centuries, th ...
forming the United States. The area of present-day New York had been inhabited by tribes of the
Algonquians The Algonquian are one of the most populous and widespread North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be described as the northern subcont ...
and the
Iroquois The Iroquois ( or ) or Haudenosaunee (; "People of the Longhouse") are an indigenous Indigenous may refer to: *Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous pe ...

Iroquois
confederacy
Native Americans Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native Americans in the United States * Indigenous peoples in Canada, the indigenous p ...
for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans arrived. French colonists and
Jesuit missionaries The Society of Jesus (SJ; la, Societas Iesu) is a religious order A religious order is a lineage of communities and organizations of people who live in some way set apart from society in accordance with their specific religious devotion, usu ...
arrived southward from
Montreal Montreal ( ; officially Montréal, ) is the second-most populous city in Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of . Its extend from the to the and northward into the , covering , making it the world's . Its southern and w ...

Montreal
for trade and
proselytizing Proselytism () is the act or fact of religious conversion Religious conversion is the adoption of a set of beliefs identified with one particular religious denomination A religious denomination is a subgroup within a religion Religion ...
. In 1609, the region was visited by
Henry Hudson Henry Hudson ( 1565 – disappeared 23 June 1611) was an English sea explorer and navigator A navigator is the person on board a ship or aircraft responsible for its navigation Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the process ...
sailing for the
Dutch East India Company The Dutch East India Company, officially the United East India Company ( nl, Vereenigde Oost Indische Compagnie; VOC), was a multinational corporation A multinational company (MNC) is a corporate A corporation is an organization—u ...

Dutch East India Company
. The
Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Dutch Castle Places * ...

Dutch
built
Fort Nassau The name Fort Nassau was used by the Dutch in the 17th century for several fortifications, mostly trading stations, named for the House of Orange-Nassau. It was also the name of a British fort, which was formerly a Dutch fort. Forts of this name i ...
in 1614 at the confluence of the
Hudson Hudson may refer to: People * Hudson (given name) * Hudson (surname) Places Argentina * Hudson, Buenos Aires Province, a town in Berazategui Partido Australia * Hudson, Queensland, a locality in the Cassowardy Coast Region Canada * H ...

Hudson
and
MohawkMohawk may refer to: Related to Native Americans *Mohawk people, an indigenous people of North America (Canada and New York) *Mohawk language, the language spoken by the Mohawk people *Mohawk hairstyle, from a hairstyle once thought to have been tr ...

Mohawk
rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany later developed. The Dutch soon also settled
New Amsterdam New Amsterdam ( nl, Nieuw Amsterdam, or ) was a 17th-century Dutch settlement established at the southern tip of Manhattan Manhattan (), known regionally as the City and the urban core of the New York metropolitan area, is the most dense ...
and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multiethnic colony of
New Netherland New Netherland ( nl, Nieuw Nederland; la, Nova Belgica or ) was a 17th-century colony of the Dutch Republic The United Provinces of the Netherlands, or United Provinces (officially the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands), commonly ...
, a center of trade and immigration.
England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies northwest of England and the to the southwest. England is separated from by the to the east and the to the south. The country cover ...

England
seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664, with the Dutch recapturing their colony in 1673 before definitively ceding it to the English as a part of the
Treaty of WestminsterTreaty of Westminster may refer to: *Treaty of Westminster (1153), also known as the Treaty of Wallingford *Treaty of Westminster (1462), also known as the Treaty of Westminster-Ardtornish *Treaty of Westminster (1511), an alliance during the War o ...
the following year. During the
American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the Revolutionary War and the American War of Independence, was initiated by delegates from thirteen American colonies of British America British America comprised the colon ...
(1775–1783), a group of colonists of the
Province of New York The Province of New York (1664–1776) was a British proprietary colony A proprietary colony was a type of English colony mostly in North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all wi ...
attempted to take control of the British colony and eventually succeeded in establishing independence. In the early 19th century, New York's development of its interior, beginning with the
Erie Canal The Erie Canal is a canal that traverses east–west through upstate New York, upstate New York (state), New York, eastern United States, as part of the cross-state route of the New York State Canal System (formerly known as the New York State ...

Erie Canal
, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the east coast and built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013:
Times Square Times Square is a major commercial intersection, tourist destination, entertainment center, and in the section of , at the junction of and . Brightly lit by numerous billboards and advertisements, it stretches from West to West Streets, an ...

Times Square
,
Central Park Central Park is an urban park in New York City located between the Upper West Side, Upper West and Upper East Sides of Manhattan. It is the List of New York City parks, fifth-largest park in the city by area, covering . It is the most visited ...

Central Park
,
Niagara Falls Niagara Falls is a group of three waterfalls at the southern end of Niagara Gorge, spanning the Canada–United States border, border between the Provinces and territories of Canada, province of Ontario in Canada and the U.S. state, state o ...

Niagara Falls
, and
Grand Central Terminal Grand Central Terminal (GCT; also referred to as Grand Central Station or simply as Grand Central) is a commuter rail Commuter rail, or suburban rail, is a service that primarily operates within a , connecting to a from adjacent ...

Grand Central Terminal
. New York is also home to the
Statue of Liberty The Statue of Liberty (''Liberty Enlightening the World''; French: ''La Liberté éclairant le monde'') is a List of colossal sculpture in situ, colossal neoclassical sculpture on Liberty Island in New York Harbor in New York City, in the Un ...

Statue of Liberty
. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of
creativity Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something new and valuable is formed. The created item may be intangible (such as an idea In common usage and in philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, suc ...

creativity
and
entrepreneurship Entrepreneurship is the creation or extraction of value. With this definition, entrepreneurship is viewed as change, generally entailing risk beyond what is normally encountered in starting a business, which may include other values than simply ...
,
social tolerance Toleration is the allowing, permitting, or acceptance Acceptance in human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and intelligence a ...
, and
environmental sustainability Sustainability is the capacity to endure in a relatively ongoing way across various domains of life. In the 21st century, it refers generally to the capacity for Earth's biosphere The biosphere (from Greek βίος ''bíos'' "life" and ...
. New York has approximately 200 colleges and universities, including the
State University of New York The State University of New York (SUNY ) is a system of public colleges and universities in New York (state), New York State. It is the List of largest universities and university networks by enrollment, largest comprehensive system of university ...
. Several universities in New York have been ranked among the top 100 in the nation and world.


History


Native American history

The tribes in what is now New York were predominantly
Haudenosaunee The Iroquois ( or ) or Haudenosaunee (; "People of the Longhouse") are an Indigenous peoples of the Americas, indigenous Confederation#Indigenous confederations in North America, confederacy in northeast North America. They were known during t ...
and
Algonquian Algonquin or Algonquian—and the variation Algonki(a)n—may refer to: Indigenous peoples *Algonquian languages, a large subfamily of Native American languages in a wide swath of eastern North America from Canada to Virginia **Algonquin languag ...
.
Long Island Long Island is a densely populated island in the southeast part of the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous Unit ...
was divided roughly in half between the
Wampanoag The Wampanoag , also rendered Wôpanâak, are a Native American people. They were a loose confederation of several tribes in the 17th century, but today Wampanoag people encompass five officially recognized tribes. The Mashpee Wampanoag Tribe a ...
and
Lenape The Lenape (, , or Lenape ), also called the Leni Lenape, Lenni Lenape and Delaware people, are an indigenous people of the Northeastern Woodlands Indigenous peoples of the Northeastern Woodlands include Native American tribes The term ...
. The Lenape also controlled most of the region surrounding
New York Harbor New York Harbor is at the mouth of the Hudson River where it empties into New York Bay near the East River tidal estuary, and then into the Atlantic Ocean on the east coast of the United States. It is one of the largest Harbor#Natural harbors, ...

New York Harbor
. North of the Lenape was a third Algonquian nation, the
Mohican The Mohican ( or , alternate spelling: Mahican) are an Eastern Algonquian The Eastern Algonquian languages constitute a subgroup of the Algonquian languages. Prior to European contact, Eastern Algonquian consisted of at least 17 languages, wh ...
s. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the
MohawkMohawk may refer to: Related to Native Americans *Mohawk people, an indigenous people of North America (Canada and New York) *Mohawk language, the language spoken by the Mohawk people *Mohawk hairstyle, from a hairstyle once thought to have been tr ...
, the original
Iroquois The Iroquois ( or ) or Haudenosaunee (; "People of the Longhouse") are an indigenous Indigenous may refer to: *Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous pe ...

Iroquois
and the
Petun The Petun (from french: pétun), also known as the Tobacco people or Tionontati ("People Among the Hills/Mountains"), were an indigenous Indigenous may refer to: *Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Abo ...
. South of them, divided roughly along
Appalachia Appalachia () is a cultural region 's map of native American cultural areas within the territory of the United States (1948) as defined by Melville J. Herskovits influence , homelands of the Celtic languages The Celtic languages ( ...
, were the
Susquehannock The Susquehannock people, also called the Conestoga by English settlers, are Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South Am ...

Susquehannock
and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in
King Philip's War King Philip's War (sometimes called the First Indian War, Metacom's War, Metacomet's War, Pometacomet's Rebellion, or Metacom's Rebellion) was an armed conflict in 1675–1678 between indigenous inhabitants of New England and New England coloni ...
, a joint effort of many
New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States The Northeastern United States (also referred to as the American Northeast, the Northeast, and the East Coast) is a geographical region In geography G ...

New England
tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip
Metacomet Metacomet (1638 – August 12, 1676), also known as Pometacom, Metacom, and by his adopted English name King Philip,
, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the
Abenaki The Abenaki (Abnaki, Abinaki, ''Alnôbak'') are a Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native American ...
and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into
West Virginia West Virginia () is a U.S. state, state in the Appalachian region, Appalachian, Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic and Southeastern United States, Southeastern regions of the United States.The United States Census Bureau, Census Burea ...
at an earlier time. They may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most
militaristic Militarism is the belief or the desire of a government or a people that a state should maintain a strong military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for w ...
. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes. The Mohawk were also known for refusing white settlement on their land and discriminating any of their people who converted to
Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic, Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of Jesus, Jesus of Nazareth. It is the Major religious groups, world's ...

Christianity
. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock briefly conquered the Lenape in the 1600s. The most devastating event of the century, however, was the
Beaver Wars The Beaver Wars, also known as the Iroquois Wars or the French and Iroquois Wars (french: Guerres franco-iroquoises), encompass a series of conflicts fought intermittently during the 17th century in North America. They were battles for economic do ...
. From approximately 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other. The aim was to control more land for animal trapping, a career most natives had turned to in hopes of trading with whites first. This completely changed the ethnography of the region, and most large game was hunted out before whites ever fully explored the land. Still, afterward, the Iroquois Confederacy offered shelter to refugees of the
Mascouten The Mascouten (also ''Mascoutin'', ''Mathkoutench'', ''Muscoden,'' or ''Musketoon'') were a tribe of Algonquian-speaking Native Americans located in the Midwest. They are believed to have dwelt on both sides of the Mississippi River The Missi ...
, Erie, Chonnonton,
Tutelo The Tutelo (also Totero, Totteroy, Tutera; Yesan in Tutelo) were Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Nati ...
, Saponi, and Tuscarora nations. In the 1700s, the Iroquoian peoples would also merge with the Mohawk during the French-Indian War and take in the remaining Susquehannock of Pennsylvania after they were decimated in war. Most of these other groups blended in until they ceased to exist. Then, after the American Revolution, a large group of them split off and returned to Ohio, becoming known as the
Mingo The Mingo people are an Iroquoian The Iroquoian languages are a language family of indigenous peoples of North America The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the inhabitants of the Americas before the arrival of the European coloniz ...

Mingo
Seneca. The current six tribes of the Iroquois Confederacy are the Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, Tuscarora and Mohawk. The Iroquois fought for both sides during the
Revolutionary WarRevolutionary War(s) may refer to: * American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), the armed conflict between Great Britain and 13 of its North American colonies, which had declared themselves the independent United States of America * French Revolution ...
; afterwards many pro-British Iroquois migrated to Canada. Today, the Iroquois still live in several reservations in Upstate New York. Meanwhile, the Lenape formed a close relationship with
William Penn William Penn (14 October 1644 – 30 July 1718) was an English writer and religious thinker belonging to the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers), and founder of the Province of Pennsylvania, a North American colony of English overseas poss ...

William Penn
. However, upon Penn's death, his sons managed to take over much of their lands and banish them to Ohio. When the U.S. drafted the
Indian Removal Act The Indian Removal Act was signed into law on May 28, 1830, by United States President Andrew Jackson Andrew Jackson (March 15, 1767 – June 8, 1845) was an American lawyer, soldier, and statesman who served as the seventh preside ...
, the Lenape were further moved to Missouri, whereas their cousins, the Mohicans, were sent to Wisconsin. Also, in 1778, the United States relocated the Nanticoke from the Delmarva Peninsula to the former Iroquois lands south of Lake Ontario, though they did not stay long. Mostly, they chose to migrate into Canada and merge with the Iroquois, although some moved west and merged with the Lenape.


16th century

In 1524,
Giovanni da Verrazzano Giovanni da Verrazzano ( , , often misspelled Verrazano in English; 1485–1528) was an Italian (Florentine) explorer Exploration is the act of searching for the purpose of discovery Discovery may refer to: * Discovery (observation) Di ...
, an Italian explorer in the service of the
French crown The monarchs of the Kingdom of France The Kingdom of France ( fro, Reaume de France, frm, Royaulme de France, french: link=no, Royaume de France) was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe. It was among the most powerful s ...
, explored the Atlantic coast of North America between the
Carolinas The Carolinas are the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It c ...

Carolinas
and
Newfoundland Newfoundland and Labrador (, ) is the easternmost provinces and territories of Canada, province of Canada, in the country's Atlantic Canada, Atlantic region. It is composed of the island of Newfoundland (island), Newfoundland and the continental ...

Newfoundland
, including
New York Harbor New York Harbor is at the mouth of the Hudson River where it empties into New York Bay near the East River tidal estuary, and then into the Atlantic Ocean on the east coast of the United States. It is one of the largest Harbor#Natural harbors, ...

New York Harbor
and
Narragansett Bay Narragansett Bay is a bay and estuary on the north side of Rhode Island Sound covering , of which is in Rhode Island. The bay forms New England's largest estuary, which functions as an expansive natural harbor and includes a small archipelago. Smal ...

Narragansett Bay
. On April 17, 1524, Verrazzano entered
New York Bay New York Bay is the large body of water surrounding the river mouth, mouth of the Hudson River where it empties into the Atlantic Ocean. It is shared by the states of New York (state), New York and New Jersey in the United States. A New York Harbo ...
, by way of the strait now called
the Narrows __NOTOC__ The Narrows is the tidal strait separating the borough (New York City), boroughs of Staten Island, New York, Staten Island and Brooklyn, New York, Brooklyn in New York City, United States. It connects the Upper New York Bay and Lower ...

the Narrows
into the northern bay which he named Santa Margherita, in honor of the King of France's
sister A sister is a woman A woman is an adult female Female (symbol: ♀) is the sex of an organism, or a part of an organism, that produces non-mobile ovum, ova (egg cells). Barring rare medical conditions, most female mammals, including fema ...

sister
. Verrazzano described it as "a vast coastline with a deep delta in which every kind of ship could pass" and he adds: "that it extends inland for a league and opens up to form a beautiful lake. This vast sheet of water swarmed with native boats." He landed on the tip of Manhattan and possibly on the furthest point of Long Island. Verrazzano's stay was interrupted by a storm which pushed him north towards
Martha's Vineyard Martha's Vineyard (Massachusett language, Wampanoag: ; often simply called the Vineyard) is an island located south of Cape Cod in Massachusetts in the United States in North America that is known for being a popular summer colony. Martha's Vi ...
. In 1540, French traders from New France built a on Castle Island, within present-day Albany; it was abandoned the following year due to flooding. In 1614, the Dutch, under the command of Hendrick Corstiaensen, rebuilt the French , which they called
Fort Nassau The name Fort Nassau was used by the Dutch in the 17th century for several fortifications, mostly trading stations, named for the House of Orange-Nassau. It was also the name of a British fort, which was formerly a Dutch fort. Forts of this name i ...
. Fort Nassau was the first Dutch settlement in North America, and was located along the Hudson River, also within present-day Albany. The small fort served as a trading post and warehouse. Located on the Hudson River flood plain, the rudimentary "fort" was washed away by flooding in 1617, and abandoned for good after
Fort Orange (New Netherland) Fort Orange ( nl, Fort Oranje) was the first permanent Dutch settlement in New Netherland New Netherland ( nl, Nieuw Nederland; la, Nova Belgica or ) was a 17th-century colony of the Dutch Republic that was located on what is now the eas ...

Fort Orange (New Netherland)
was built nearby in 1623.


17th century

Henry Hudson's 1609 voyage marked the beginning of European involvement with the area. Sailing for the
Dutch East India Company The Dutch East India Company, officially the United East India Company ( nl, Vereenigde Oost Indische Compagnie; VOC), was a multinational corporation A multinational company (MNC) is a corporate A corporation is an organization—u ...

Dutch East India Company
and looking for a passage to Asia, he entered the
Upper New York Bay Upper New York Bay, or Upper Bay, is the traditional heart of the Port of New York and New Jersey The Port of New York and New Jersey is the port district In Canada and the United States, a port authority (less commonly a port district) i ...
on September 11 of that year. Word of his findings encouraged Dutch merchants to explore the coast in search for profitable fur trading with local Native American tribes. During the 17th century, Dutch
trading post A trading post, trading station, or trading house, also known as a factory, was an establishment or settlement where goods and services could be traded. Typically the location of the trading post would allow people from one geographic area to tr ...
s established for the trade of pelts from the Lenape, Iroquois, and other tribes were founded in the colony of
New Netherland New Netherland ( nl, Nieuw Nederland; la, Nova Belgica or ) was a 17th-century colony of the Dutch Republic The United Provinces of the Netherlands, or United Provinces (officially the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands), commonly ...
. The first of these trading posts were Fort Nassau (1614, near present-day Albany); Fort Orange (1624, on the
Hudson River The Hudson River is a river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York (state), New York in the United States. It originates in the Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York and flows southward through the Hudson Valley ...

Hudson River
just south of the current city of Albany and created to replace Fort Nassau), developing into settlement
Beverwijck Beverwijck ( ; ), often written using the pre-reform orthography Beverwyck, was a fur-trading community north of Fort Orange on the Hudson River in New Netherland that was renamed and developed as Albany, New York, after the England, English too ...
(1647), and into what became Albany;
Fort Amsterdam Fort Amsterdam was a fort on the southern tip of Manhattan at the confluence of the Hudson River, Hudson and East River, East rivers. It was the administrative headquarters for the Dutch and then English/British rule of the colony of New Netherl ...

Fort Amsterdam
(1625, to develop into the town
New Amsterdam New Amsterdam ( nl, Nieuw Amsterdam, or ) was a 17th-century Dutch settlement established at the southern tip of Manhattan Manhattan (), known regionally as the City and the urban core of the New York metropolitan area, is the most dense ...
which is present-day New York City); and Esopus, (1653, now
Kingston Kingston may refer to: Places * List of places called Kingston, including the four most populated: ** Kingston, Jamaica ** City of Kingston, Victoria, Australia ** Kingston, Ontario, Canada ** Kingston upon Thames, England Animals * Kingston (ho ...
). The success of the
patroon In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Wash ...
ship of
Rensselaerswyck The Manor of Rensselaerswyck, Manor Rensselaerswyck, Van Rensselaer Manor, or just simply Rensselaerswyck ( nl, Rensselaerswijck ), was the name of a colonial estate—specifically, a Dutch patroonship and later an English manor—owned by the v ...
(1630), which surrounded Albany and lasted until the mid-19th century, was also a key factor in the early success of the colony. The English captured the colony during the
Second Anglo-Dutch War The Second Anglo-Dutch War or the Second Dutch War (4 March 1665 – 31 July 1667; nl, Tweede Engelse Oorlog "Second English War") was a conflict between Kingdom of England, England and the Dutch Republic partly for control over the seas an ...
and governed it as the
Province of New York The Province of New York (1664–1776) was a British proprietary colony A proprietary colony was a type of English colony mostly in North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all wi ...
. The city of New York was recaptured by the Dutch in 1673 during the
Third Anglo-Dutch War The Third Anglo-Dutch War, or Third Dutch War ( nl, Derde Engelse Zeeoorlog), was a naval conflict between England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies northwest of En ...
(1672–1674) and renamed New Orange. It was returned to the English under the terms of the
Treaty of WestminsterTreaty of Westminster may refer to: *Treaty of Westminster (1153), also known as the Treaty of Wallingford *Treaty of Westminster (1462), also known as the Treaty of Westminster-Ardtornish *Treaty of Westminster (1511), an alliance during the War o ...
a year later.


18th century, the American Revolution, and statehood

The
Sons of Liberty The Sons of Liberty was a term broadly applied to loosely organized revolutionary bands in the Thirteen American Colonies to advance the rights of the European colonists and to fight taxation by the British government. It played a major role ...

Sons of Liberty
were organized in
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
during the 1760s, largely in response to the oppressive Stamp Act passed by the
British Parliament The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the supreme legislative body A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind ...
in 1765. The
Stamp Act Congress The Stamp Act Congress (October 7 – 25, 1765), also known as the Continental Congress of 1765, was a meeting held in New York, New York, consisting of representatives from some of the British colonies in North America. It was the first gat ...
met in the city on October 19 of that year, composed of representatives from across the
Thirteen Colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colonies or the Thirteen American Colonies, were a group of Kingdom of Great Britain, British colonies on the Atlantic coast of North America. Founded in the 17th and 18th centuries, th ...
who set the stage for the
Continental Congress The Continental Congress was a series of legislative bodies A legislature is a deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) who use parliamentary procedure Parliamentary procedure is ...
to follow. The Stamp Act Congress resulted in the
Declaration of Rights and Grievances In response to the Stamp and Tea Acts, the Declaration of Rights and Grievances was a document written by the Stamp Act Congress The Stamp Act Congress (October 7 – 25, 1765), also known as the Continental Congress of 1765, was a meeting he ...
, which was the first written expression by representatives of the Americans of many of the rights and complaints later expressed in the
United States Declaration of Independence The United States Declaration of Independence is the pronouncement adopted by the Second Continental Congress The Second Continental Congress was a meeting of delegates from the Thirteen Colonies in America which united in the American Re ...

United States Declaration of Independence
. This included the right to
representative government Representative democracy, also known as indirect democracy or representative government, is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected persons representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy Image:Landsgemeinde Gla ...
. At the same time, given strong commercial, personal and sentimental links to
Britain Britain usually refers to: * United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United ...

Britain
, many New York residents were
Loyalist Loyalism, in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. ...
s. The
Capture of Fort Ticonderoga The capture of Fort Ticonderoga occurred during the American Revolutionary War on May 10, 1775, when a small force of Green Mountain Boys led by Ethan Allen and Colonel Benedict Arnold surprised and captured the fort's small Kingdom of Great Brit ...
provided the cannon and gunpowder necessary to force a
British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Crown Dependencies. ** Britishness, the British identity and common culture * British English, ...

British
withdrawal from the
Siege of Boston The siege of Boston (April 19, 1775 – March 17, 1776) was the opening phase of the . militiamen prevented the movement by land of the , which was ed in what was then the peninsular city of , . Both sides had to deal with resource, supply, and ...
in 1775. New York was the only colony not to vote for independence, as the delegates were not authorized to do so. New York then endorsed the United States Declaration of Independence, Declaration of Independence on July 9, 1776. The New York Constitution, New York State Constitution was framed by a Constitutional convention (political meeting), convention which assembled at White Plains, New York, White Plains on July 10, 1776, and after repeated adjournments and changes of location, finished its work at
Kingston Kingston may refer to: Places * List of places called Kingston, including the four most populated: ** Kingston, Jamaica ** City of Kingston, Victoria, Australia ** Kingston, Ontario, Canada ** Kingston upon Thames, England Animals * Kingston (ho ...
on Sunday evening, April 20, 1777, when the Constitution of New York, 1777, new constitution drafted by John Jay was adopted with but one dissenting vote. It was not submitted to the people for ratification. On July 30, 1777, George Clinton (vice president), George Clinton was inaugurated as the first Governor of New York at Kingston. About a third of the battles of the
American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the Revolutionary War and the American War of Independence, was initiated by delegates from thirteen American colonies of British America British America comprised the colon ...
took place in New York; the first major one (and largest of the entire war) was the Battle of Long Island, a.k.a. ''Battle of Brooklyn'', in August 1776. After their victory, the British occupied New York City, making it their military and political base of operations in North America for the duration of the conflict, and consequently the focus of General George Washington's Intelligence operations in the American Revolutionary War, intelligence network. On the notorious British HMS Jersey (1736), prison ships of Wallabout Bay, more American combatants died of intentional neglect than were killed in combat in every battle of the war combined. Both sides of combatants lost more soldiers to disease than to outright wounds. The first of two major British armies were captured by the Continental Army at the Battles of Saratoga, Battle of Saratoga in 1777, a success that influenced France to ally with the revolutionaries. The state constitution was enacted in 1777. New York became the 11th state to ratify the United States Constitution, on July 26, 1788. In an attempt to retain their sovereign nation, sovereignty and remain an independent nation positioned between the new United States and British North America, four of the Iroquois, Iroquois Nations fought on the side of the British; only the Oneida people, Oneida and their dependents, the Tuscarora, allied themselves with the Americans. In retaliation for attacks on the frontier led by Joseph Brant and Loyalist Mohawk people, Mohawk forces, the Sullivan Expedition of 1779 destroyed nearly 50 Iroquois villages, adjacent croplands and winter stores, forcing many refugees to British-held Niagara. As allies of the British, the Iroquois were forced out of New York, although they had not been part of treaty negotiations. They resettled in Canada after the war and were given land grants by the Crown. In the treaty settlement, the British ceded most Indian lands to the new United States. Because New York made treaty with the Iroquois without getting Congressional approval, some of the land purchases have been subject to land claim suits since the late 20th century by the federally recognized tribes. New York put up more than of former Iroquois territory for sale in the years after the Revolutionary War, leading to rapid development in Upstate New York. As per the Treaty of Paris (1783), Treaty of Paris, the last vestige of British authority in the former
Thirteen Colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colonies or the Thirteen American Colonies, were a group of Kingdom of Great Britain, British colonies on the Atlantic coast of North America. Founded in the 17th and 18th centuries, th ...
—their troops in New York City—departed in 1783, which was long afterward celebrated as Evacuation Day (New York), Evacuation Day. New York City was the national capital under the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, the first national government. That organization was found to be insufficient, and prominent New Yorker Alexander Hamilton advocated a new government that would include an executive, national courts, and the power to tax. Hamilton led the Annapolis Convention (1786) that called for the Philadelphia Convention, which drafted the United States Constitution, in which he also took part. The new government was to be a strong Federation, federal national government to replace the relatively weaker confederation of individual states. Following heated debate, which included the publication of the now quintessential constitutional interpretation—''The Federalist Papers''—as a series of installments in New York City newspapers, New York was the 11th state to ratify the United States Constitution, on July 26, 1788. New York remained the national capital under the new constitution until 1790, and was the site of the inauguration of President George Washington, the drafting of the United States Bill of Rights, and the first session of the United States Supreme Court. Both the Dutch and the British imported African slaves as laborers to the city and colony; New York had the second-highest population of slaves after Charleston, South Carolina. Slavery was extensive in New York City and some agricultural areas. The state passed a law for the gradual abolitionism, abolition of slavery soon after the Revolutionary War, but the last slave in New York was not freed until 1827.


19th century

Transportation in Western New York was by expensive wagons on muddy roads before canals opened up the rich farm lands to long-distance traffic. Governor DeWitt Clinton promoted the
Erie Canal The Erie Canal is a canal that traverses east–west through upstate New York, upstate New York (state), New York, eastern United States, as part of the cross-state route of the New York State Canal System (formerly known as the New York State ...

Erie Canal
, which connected New York City to the Great Lakes by the
Hudson River The Hudson River is a river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York (state), New York in the United States. It originates in the Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York and flows southward through the Hudson Valley ...

Hudson River
, the new canal, and the rivers and lakes. Work commenced in 1817, and the
Erie Canal The Erie Canal is a canal that traverses east–west through upstate New York, upstate New York (state), New York, eastern United States, as part of the cross-state route of the New York State Canal System (formerly known as the New York State ...

Erie Canal
opened in 1825. Packet boats pulled by horses on tow paths traveled slowly over the canal carrying passengers and freight. Farm products came in from the Midwest, and finished manufactured goods moved west. It was an engineering marvel which opened up vast areas of New York to commerce and settlement. It enabled Great Lakes port cities such as and to grow and prosper. It also connected the burgeoning agricultural production of the Midwest and shipping on the Great Lakes, with the port of New York City. Improving transportation, it enabled additional population migration to territories west of New York. After 1850, railroads largely replaced the canal. New York City was a major port, ocean port and had extensive traffic importing cotton from the American South, South and exporting manufacturing goods. Nearly half of the state's exports were related to cotton. Southern cotton factors, planters and bankers visited so often that they had favorite hotels. At the same time, activism for abolitionism was strong upstate, where some communities provided stops on the Underground Railroad. Upstate, and New York City, gave strong support for the American Civil War, in terms of finances, volunteer soldiers, and supplies. The state provided more than 370,000 soldiers to the Union (American Civil War), Union armies. Over 53,000 New Yorkers died in service, roughly one of every seven who served. However, Irish draft riots in 1862 were a significant embarrassment.


Immigration

Since the early 19th century, New York City has been the largest port of entry for Immigration to the United States, legal immigration into the United States. In the United States, the Federal government of the United States, federal government did not assume direct jurisdiction for immigration until 1890. Prior to this time, the matter was delegated to the individual states, then via contract between the states and the federal government. Most immigrants to New York would disembark at the bustling docks along the Hudson and East Rivers, in the eventual Lower Manhattan. On May 4, 1847, the New York State Legislature created the Board of Commissioners of Immigration to regulate immigration. The first permanent immigration depot in New York was established in 1855 at Castle Clinton, Castle Garden, a converted War of 1812 era fort located within what is now Battery Park, at the tip of Lower Manhattan. The first immigrants to arrive at the new depot were aboard three ships that had just been released from quarantine. Castle Garden served as New York's immigrant depot until it closed on April 18, 1890, when the federal government assumed control over immigration. During that period, more than eight million immigrants passed through its doors (two of every three U.S. immigrants). When the federal government assumed control, it established the Immigration and Naturalization Service, Bureau of Immigration, which chose the three-acre Ellis Island in Upper New York Bay, Upper New York Harbor for an entry depot. Already federally controlled, the island had served as an ammunition depot. It was chosen due its relative isolation with proximity to New York City and the rail lines of Jersey City, New Jersey, via a short ferry ride. While the island was being developed and expanded via land reclamation, the federal government operated a temporary depot at the Barge Office at the Battery. Ellis Island opened on January 1, 1892, and operated as a central immigration center until the Immigration Act of 1924, National Origins Act was passed in 1924, reducing immigration. After that date, the only immigrants to pass through were displaced persons or war refugees. The island ceased all immigration processing on November 12, 1954, when the last person detained on the island, Norwegians, Norwegian seaman Arne Peterssen, was released. He had overstayed his shore leave and left on the 10:15a.m. Manhattan-bound ferry to return to his ship. More than twelve million immigrants passed through Ellis Island between 1892 and 1954. More than a hundred million Americans across the United States can trace their ancestry to these immigrants. Ellis Island was the subject of a contentious and long-running border and jurisdictional dispute between New York State and the State of New Jersey, as both claimed it. The issue was settled in 1998 by the Supreme Court of the United States, U.S. Supreme Court which ruled that the original island was New York State territory and that the balance of the added after 1834 by landfill was in New Jersey. The island was added to the National Park Service system in May 1965 by President Lyndon B. Johnson and is still owned by the federal government as part of the Statue of Liberty National Monument. Ellis Island was opened to the public as a museum of immigration in 1990.


September 11, 2001

On September 11, 2001, two of four hijacked planes were flown into the Twin Towers of the original World Trade Center (1973–2001), World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan, and the towers collapsed. 7 World Trade Center also collapsed due to damage from fires. The other buildings of the World Trade Center complex were damaged beyond repair and demolished soon thereafter. The collapse of the Twin Towers caused extensive damage and resulted in the deaths of 2,753 victims, including 147 aboard the two planes. Since September11, most of Lower Manhattan has been restored. In the years since, over 7,000 rescue workers and residents of the area have developed several life-threatening illnesses, and some have died. A memorial at the site, the National September 11 Memorial & Museum, was opened to the public on September11, 2011. A permanent museum later opened at the site on March 21, 2014. Upon its completion in 2014, the new One World Trade Center became the List of tallest buildings in New York City, tallest skyscraper in the Western Hemisphere, at , meant to symbolize the year American Revolutionary War, America gained its independence, 1776. From 2006 to 2018, 3 World Trade Center, 4 World Trade Center, 7World Trade Center, the World Trade Center Transportation Hub, Liberty Park, and Borough of Manhattan Community College#Fiterman Hall and the September 11 attacks, Fiterman Hall were completed. St. Nicholas Greek Orthodox Church and Performing Arts Center (Manhattan), Ronald O. Perelman Performing Arts Center are under construction at the World Trade Center site.


Hurricane Sandy, 2012

On October 29 and 30, 2012, Hurricane Sandy caused extensive destruction of the state's shorelines, ravaging portions of New York City,
Long Island Long Island is a densely populated island in the southeast part of the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous Unit ...
, and southern Westchester with record-high storm surge, with severe flooding and high winds causing power outages for hundreds of thousands of New Yorkers, and leading to gasoline shortages and disruption of mass transit systems. The storm and its profound effects have prompted the discussion of constructing seawalls and other coastal management, coastal barriers around the shorelines of New York City and Long Island to minimize the risk from another such future event. Such risk is considered highly probable due to global warming and sea level rise, rising sea levels.


COVID-19 pandemic, 2020

On March 1, 2020, New York had its first confirmed case of COVID-19 pandemic in the United States, COVID-19. Since March 28, New York had the highest number of confirmed cases of any state in the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States, United States; California and Texas outpaced the state as of February 1, 2021. Nearly 50 percent of known national cases were in the state as of March 2020, with one-third of total known U.S. cases being in New York City. From May 19–20, Western New York and the Capital District, New York, Capital Region entered Phase1 of reopening. On May 26, the Hudson Valley began Phase1, and New York City partially reopened on June 8. During July 2020, a federal judge ruled Cuomo and De Blasio exceeded authority by limiting religious gatherings to 25% when others operated at 50% capacity. On Thanksgiving Eve, the U.S. Supreme Court blocked additional religious restrictions imposed by Cuomo for areas with high infection rates. New York's government released a new seal, coat of arms, and flag in April during the pandemic, adding "''E pluribus unum"'' below the state's motto. A bill utilizing newly designed flag, arms and seal went into effect in September.


Geography

The state of New York covers a total area of 54,555 square miles (141,297 km2) and ranks as the List of U.S. states and territories by area, 27th largest state by size.
Accessed October 5, 2021.
The highest elevation in New York is Mount Marcy in the Adirondacks of North Country (New York), Northern New York, at above sea level; while the state's lowest point is at sea level, on the Atlantic Ocean in Downstate New York. In contrast with New York City's urban landscape, the vast majority of the state's geographic area is dominated by meadows, forests, rivers, farms, mountains, and lakes. Most of the southern part of the state rests on the Allegheny Plateau, which extends from the southeastern United States to the Catskill Mountains; the section in New York State is known as the Southern Tier. The rugged
Adirondack Mountains The Adirondack Mountains () form a massif In geology, a massif ( or ) is a section of a planet's Crust (geology), crust that is demarcated by geologic fault, faults or Lithospheric flexure, flexures. In the Plate tectonics, movement of the cr ...
, with vast tracts of wilderness, lie west of the Lake Champlain Valley. The Great Appalachian Valley dominates eastern New York and contains Lake Champlain Valley as its northern half and the Hudson Valley as its southern half within the state. The Tug Hill region arises as a cuesta east of
Lake Ontario Lake Ontario (french: Lac Ontario) is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. It is surrounded on the north, west, and southwest by the Canadian province of Ontario, and on the south and east by the U.S. state of New York (state), New Yo ...

Lake Ontario
. The state of New York contains a part of the Marcellus shale, which extends into Ohio and Pennsylvania. ''Upstate'' and ''Downstate'' are often used informally to distinguish New York City or its greater metropolitan area from the rest of New York State. The placement of a boundary between the two is a matter of great contention. Unofficial and loosely defined regions of Upstate New York include the Southern Tier, which often includes the counties along the border with Pennsylvania, and the North Country (New York), North Country, which can mean anything from the strip along the Canada–U.S. border to everything north of the Mohawk River.


Water


''Borders''

Of New York State's total area, 13.6% consists of water. Much of New York's boundaries are in water, as is true for New York City: four of its Borough (New York City), five boroughs are situated on three islands at the mouth of the
Hudson River The Hudson River is a river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York (state), New York in the United States. It originates in the Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York and flows southward through the Hudson Valley ...

Hudson River
: Manhattan, Manhattan Island; Staten Island; and
Long Island Long Island is a densely populated island in the southeast part of the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous Unit ...
, which contains Brooklyn and Queens at its western end. The state's borders include a water boundary in (clockwise from the west) two Great Lakes (
Lake Erie Lake Erie (; french: Lac Érié) is the fourth largest lake A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, surrounded by land, apart from any river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowin ...

Lake Erie
and
Lake Ontario Lake Ontario (french: Lac Ontario) is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. It is surrounded on the north, west, and southwest by the Canadian province of Ontario, and on the south and east by the U.S. state of New York (state), New Yo ...

Lake Ontario
, which are connected by the Niagara River); the provinces of
Ontario ("Loyal she began, loyal she remains") , Label_map = yes , image_map = Ontario in Canada 2.svg , map_alt = Map showing Ontario's location east/central of Canada. , coordinates = , cap ...

Ontario
and
Quebec ) , image_shield=Armoiries du Québec.svg , image_flag=Flag of Quebec.svg , coordinates= , AdmittanceDate=July 1, 1867 , AdmittanceOrder=1st, with New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , ...

Quebec
in Canada, with New York and Ontario sharing the Thousand Islands archipelago within the Saint Lawrence River, while most of its border with Quebec is on land; it shares Lake Champlain with the
New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States The Northeastern United States (also referred to as the American Northeast, the Northeast, and the East Coast) is a geographical region In geography G ...

New England
state of
Vermont Vermont () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in ...

Vermont
; the New England state of
Massachusetts Massachusetts (, ), officially the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * T ...

Massachusetts
has mostly a land border; New York extends into Long Island Sound and the Atlantic Ocean, sharing a water border with
Rhode Island Rhode Island (, like ''road''), officially the State of Rhode Island, is a state in the New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States The Northeastern United States (also referred to as t ...
, while
Connecticut Connecticut () is the southernmost state in the New England region of the United States. As of the 2010 United States census, 2010 Census, it has the highest per-capita income, second-highest level of List of U.S. states and territories by H ...
has land and sea borders. Except for areas near the
New York Harbor New York Harbor is at the mouth of the Hudson River where it empties into New York Bay near the East River tidal estuary, and then into the Atlantic Ocean on the east coast of the United States. It is one of the largest Harbor#Natural harbors, ...

New York Harbor
and the Upper Delaware River, New York has a mostly land border with two Mid-Atlantic states, Mid-Atlantic states,
New Jersey New Jersey is a U.S. state, state in the Mid-Atlantic States, Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern United States, Northeastern regions of the United States. It is bordered on the north and east by the state of New York (state), New York; on the ea ...
and
Pennsylvania Pennsylvania ( , elsewhere ; pdc, Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a landlocked A landlocked country is a country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastlines lie on endorheic basi ...

Pennsylvania
. New York is the only state that includes within its borders parts of the Great Lakes and the Atlantic Ocean.


''Drainage''

The
Hudson River The Hudson River is a river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York (state), New York in the United States. It originates in the Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York and flows southward through the Hudson Valley ...

Hudson River
begins near Lake Tear of the Clouds and flows south through the eastern part of the state, without draining Lakes Lake George (New York), George or Lake Champlain, Champlain. Lake George empties at its north end into Lake Champlain, whose northern end extends into Canada, where it drains into the Richelieu River and then ultimately the Saint Lawrence River. The western section of the state is drained by the Allegheny River and rivers of the Susquehanna River, Susquehanna and Delaware River systems.
Niagara Falls Niagara Falls is a group of three waterfalls at the southern end of Niagara Gorge, spanning the Canada–United States border, border between the Provinces and territories of Canada, province of Ontario in Canada and the U.S. state, state o ...

Niagara Falls
is shared between New York and Ontario as it flows on the Niagara River from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario. The Delaware River Basin Compact, signed in 1961 by New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and the federal government, regulates the utilization of water of the Delaware system.


Climate

In general, New York has a humid continental climate, though under the Köppen climate classification, New York City has a humid subtropical climate. Weather in New York is heavily influenced by two continental air masses: a warm, humid one from the southwest and a cold, dry one from the northwest. Downstate New York, comprising New York City, Long Island, and lower portions of the Hudson Valley, has rather hot summers with some periods of high humidity and cold, damp winters which are relatively mild compared to temperatures in Upstate New York due to the downstate region's lower elevation, proximity to the Atlantic Ocean, and relatively lower latitude.
Upstate New York Upstate New York is a geographic region consisting of the portion of New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department ...
experiences warm summers, marred by only occasional, brief intervals of sultry conditions, with long and cold winters. Western New York, particularly the Tug Hill region, receives heavy lake-effect snows, especially during the earlier portions of winter, before the surface of Lake Ontario itself is covered by ice. The summer climate is cool in the Adirondacks, Catskills, and at higher elevations of the Southern Tier. Buffalo and its metropolitan area are described as climate change havens for their weather pattern in Western New York. Summer daytime temperatures range from the high 70s to low 80s°F (25 to 28°C), over most of the state. In the majority of winter seasons, a temperature of or lower can be expected in the northern highlands (Northern Plateau) and or colder in the southwestern and east-central highlands of the Southern Tier. New York had a record-high temperature of 108°F (42.2°C) on July 22, 1926. Its record-lowest temperature during the winter was −52°F (−46.7°C) in 1979.


Climate change


Flora and fauna

Some species that can be found in this state are american ginseng, Nitellopsis obtusa, starry stonewort, Hydrilla, waterthyme, water chestnut, Toxicodendron radicans, eastern poison ivy, Toxicodendron vernix, poison sumac, Heracleum mantegazzianum, giant hogweed, Heracleum maximum, cow parsnip and Urtica dioica, common nettle. There are more than 20 mammal species, more than 20 bird species, some species of amphibians, and several reptile species. Species of mammals that are part of New York are white-footed mouse, North American least shrew, little brown bat, muskrat, eastern gray squirrel, eastern cottontail, American ermine, groundhog, striped skunk, Fisher (animal), fisher, North American river otter, raccoon, bobcat, coyote, red fox, white-tailed deer, moose, and American black bear. Some species of birds in New York are the Common pheasant, ring-necked pheasant, northern bobwhite, ruffed grouse, wild turkey, blue jay, eastern bluebird (the state bird), American robin, and black-capped chickadee. Birds of prey that are present in the state are great horned owls, bald eagles, red-tailed hawks, American kestrels, and northern harriers. Waterfowl like mallards, wood ducks, canvasbacks, American black ducks, Canada goose, Canada geese, and blue-winged teals can be found in the region. Maritime or shore birds of New York are great blue heron, killdeers, northern cardinals, American herring gulls, and common terns. Reptiles species that can be seen in land areas of New York are queen snake, massasauga, hellbender, diamondback terrapin, spotted turtle, and Blanding's turtle. Species of turtles that can be found in the sea are green sea turtle, loggerhead sea turtle, leatherback sea turtle and Kemp's ridley sea turtle.
New York Harbor New York Harbor is at the mouth of the Hudson River where it empties into New York Bay near the East River tidal estuary, and then into the Atlantic Ocean on the east coast of the United States. It is one of the largest Harbor#Natural harbors, ...

New York Harbor
and the
Hudson River The Hudson River is a river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York (state), New York in the United States. It originates in the Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York and flows southward through the Hudson Valley ...

Hudson River
constitute an estuary, making New York state home to a Marine life of New York–New Jersey Harbor Estuary, rich array of marine life including shellfish—such as oysters and clams—as well as fish, microorganisms, and sea-birds.


Regions

Due to its long history, New York has several overlapping and often conflicting definitions of regions within the state. The regions are also not fully definable due to colloquial use of regional labels. The Empire State Development Corporation, New York State Department of Economic Development provides two distinct definitions of these regions. It divides the state into ten economic regions, which approximately correspond to terminology used by residents: #
Western New York Western New York (WNY) is the westernmost region of the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primari ...

Western New York
#
Finger Lakes The Finger Lakes are a group of eleven long, narrow, roughly north–south lakes in an area called the ''Finger Lakes region'' in New York, in the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U ...

Finger Lakes
# Southern Tier # Central New York # North Country (New York), North Country # Mohawk Valley # Capital District, New York, Capital District # Hudson Valley #
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
#
Long Island Long Island is a densely populated island in the southeast part of the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous Unit ...
The department also groups the counties into eleven regions for tourism purposes: # Chautauqua–Allegheny # Niagara Frontier #
Finger Lakes The Finger Lakes are a group of eleven long, narrow, roughly north–south lakes in an area called the ''Finger Lakes region'' in New York, in the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U ...

Finger Lakes
# Thousand Islands # Central New York Region, Central-Leatherstocking Region #
Adirondack Mountains The Adirondack Mountains () form a massif In geology, a massif ( or ) is a section of a planet's Crust (geology), crust that is demarcated by geologic fault, faults or Lithospheric flexure, flexures. In the Plate tectonics, movement of the cr ...
# Capital District, New York, Capital District # Catskill Mountains # Hudson Valley #
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
#
Long Island Long Island is a densely populated island in the southeast part of the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous Unit ...


State parks

New York has many state parks and two major forest preserves. Niagara Falls State Park, established in 1885, is the oldest state park in the United States and the first to be created via eminent domain. In 1892, Adirondack Park, roughly the size of the state of
Vermont Vermont () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in ...

Vermont
and the largest state park in the United States,''Largest Park Area in the Contiguous U.S. Remains Open to Visitors, Thursday, October 3, 2013.''
Regional Office of Sustainable Tourism / Lake Placid CVB. Retrieved July 26, 2014.
was established and given state constitutional protection to remain "forever wild" in 1894. The park is larger than Yellowstone National Park, Yellowstone, Everglades National Park, Everglades, Glacier National Park (U.S.), Glacier, and Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon national parks combined. It is larger than the Yellowstone National Park, Yellowstone, Yosemite National Park, Yosemite, Grand Canyon, Glacier National Park (U.S.), Glacier, and Olympic National Parks combined. The Catskill Park was protected in legislation passed in 1885, which declared that its land was to be conserved and never put up for sale or lease. Consisting of of land, the park is a habitat for deer, minks, and fishers. There are some 400 American black bear, black bears living in the region. The state operates numerous campgrounds, and there are over of multi-use trails in the Park. The 1797 Montauk Point Light, Montauk Lighthouse, commissioned under President of the United States, President George Washington, is a major tourist attraction in Montauk State Park at the easternmost tip of
Long Island Long Island is a densely populated island in the southeast part of the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous Unit ...
. Hither Hills State Park, also on the South Fork (Long Island), South Fork of Long Island, offers camping and is a popular destination with surfcasting sport fishermen.


National parks, monuments, and historic landmarks

New York State is well represented in the National Park Service, National Park System with 22 national parks, which received 16,349,381 visitors in 2011. In addition, there are four National Heritage Area, national heritage areas, 27 National Natural Landmark, national natural landmarks, 262 National Historic Landmark, national historic landmarks, and 5,379 listings on the National Register of Historic Places. Some major areas, landmarks, and monuments are listed below. * The Statue of Liberty National Monument includes Ellis Island and the
Statue of Liberty The Statue of Liberty (''Liberty Enlightening the World''; French: ''La Liberté éclairant le monde'') is a List of colossal sculpture in situ, colossal neoclassical sculpture on Liberty Island in New York Harbor in New York City, in the Un ...

Statue of Liberty
. The statue, designed by Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi, Frédéric Bartholdi and formally named ''Liberty Enlightening the World'', was a gift from France to the United States to mark the Centennial of the Declaration of Independence of the United States, American Declaration of Independence; it was dedicated in New York Harbor on October 28, 1886. It has since become an icon of the United States and the concepts of democracy and freedom. * The African Burial Ground National Monument in Lower Manhattan is the only national monument dedicated to Americans of African ancestry. It preserves a site containing the remains of more than 400 Ethnic groups of Africa, Africans buried during the late 17th and 18th centuries in a portion of what was the largest colonial-era cemetery for people of African descent, both free and enslaved, with an estimated tens of thousands of remains interred. The site's excavation and study were called "the most important historic urban archeological project in the United States".''African Burial Ground''
General Services Administration, accessed February 10, 2012
* Fire Island National Seashore is a United States List of United States national lakeshores and seashores, national seashore that protects a section of Fire Island, an approximately long barrier island separated from the mainland of
Long Island Long Island is a densely populated island in the southeast part of the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous Unit ...
by the Great South Bay. The island is part of Suffolk County, New York, Suffolk County. * Gateway National Recreation Area is more than of water, salt marsh, wetlands, islands, and shoreline at the entrance to New York Harbor, the majority of which lies within New York. Including areas on Long Island and in New Jersey, it covers more area than that of two Manhattan islands. * General Grant National Memorial is the final resting place of President Ulysses S. Grant and is the largest mausoleum in North America. * Hamilton Grange National Memorial preserves the home of Alexander Hamilton, Caribbean immigrant and orphan who rose to be a United States founding father and associate of George Washington. * The Home of Franklin D. Roosevelt National Historic Site, established in 1945, preserves the Springwood estate in Hyde Park, New York. Springwood was the birthplace, lifelong home, and burial place of the 32nd President of the United States, Franklin D. Roosevelt. * Niagara Falls National Heritage Area was designated by the United States Congress, U.S. Congress in 2008; it stretches from the western boundary of Wheatfield, New York to the mouth of the Niagara River on Lake
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Ontario
, including the communities of Niagara Falls, Youngstown, and Lewiston. It includes Niagara Falls State Park and Fort Niagara, Colonial Niagara Historic District. It is managed in collaboration with the state. * Saratoga National Historical Park preserves the site of the Battles of Saratoga, the first significant United States Armed Forces, American military victory of the
American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the Revolutionary War and the American War of Independence, was initiated by delegates from thirteen American colonies of British America British America comprised the colon ...
. In 1777, American forces defeated a major British Army, which led France to recognize the independence of the United States, and enter the war as a decisive military ally of the struggling Americans. * Stonewall National Monument, in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Lower Manhattan, is the first U.S. national monument dedicated to LGBT rights in the United States, LGBTQ rights, designated on June 24, 2016. The monument comprises the Stonewall Inn, commonly recognized to be the cradle of the gay liberation movement as the site of the 1969 Stonewall Riots; the adjacent Christopher Street, Christopher Park; and surrounding streets and sidewalks. * Manhattan's Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace National Historic Site is also the childhood home of President Theodore Roosevelt, the only president born in New York City until Donald Trump.


Administrative divisions

New York is divided into 62 County (United States), counties. Aside from the five counties of New York City, each of these counties is subdivided into town#New York, towns and city, cities, incorporated under state law. Towns can contain incorporated villages or unincorporated hamlet (place)#New York, hamlets. New York City is divided into five borough (New York City), boroughs, each coterminous with a county. The major cities of the state developed along the key transportation and trade routes of the early 19th century, including the
Erie Canal The Erie Canal is a canal that traverses east–west through upstate New York, upstate New York (state), New York, eastern United States, as part of the cross-state route of the New York State Canal System (formerly known as the New York State ...

Erie Canal
and railroads paralleling it. Today, the New York Thruway acts as a modern counterpart to commercial water routes. Downstate New York (Geography of New York City, New York City,
Long Island Long Island is a densely populated island in the southeast part of the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous Unit ...
, and the southern portion of the Hudson Valley) can be considered to form the central core of the Northeast megalopolis, an urbanized region stretching from New Hampshire to Virginia.


Cities and towns

There are 62 cities in New York. The largest city in the state and the most populous city in the United States is New York City, which comprises five counties (each coextensive with a borough (New York City), borough): Bronx, New York County (Manhattan), Queens, Kings County (Brooklyn), and Richmond County (Staten Island). New York City is home to more than two-fifths of the state's population. Albany, the state capital, is the sixth-largest city in New York State. The smallest city is Sherrill, New York, in Oneida County, New York, Oneida County. Hempstead, New York, Hempstead is the most populous town (New York), town in the state; if it were a city, it would be the second largest in New York State, with more than 700,000 residents. New York contains 13 metropolitan areas, as defined by the U.S. Census Bureau. Major metro areas include New York City, , , the Capital District, New York, Capital District ( Albany, Schenectady, New York, Schenectady, and Troy, New York, Troy), Poughkeepsie, New York, Poughkeepsie,
Syracuse Syracuse may refer to: Places Italy *Syracuse, Sicily Syracuse ( ; it, Siracusa , or scn, Seragusa, label=none ; lat, Syrācūsae ; grc-att, wikt:Συράκουσαι, Συράκουσαι, Syrákousai ; grc-dor, wikt:Συράκοσ ...
, Utica, New York, Utica, and Binghamton, New York, Binghamton.


Demographics


Population

Having been the most populous state in the U.S. for a century and a half, from the 1810s until 1962, New York is now in fourth place behind California, Texas, and Florida. Growth has been distributed unevenly. The New York City metropolitan area is growing, along with Saratoga County, New York, Saratoga County and , while cities such as and
Syracuse Syracuse may refer to: Places Italy *Syracuse, Sicily Syracuse ( ; it, Siracusa , or scn, Seragusa, label=none ; lat, Syrācūsae ; grc-att, wikt:Συράκουσαι, Συράκουσαι, Syrákousai ; grc-dor, wikt:Συράκοσ ...
, which have been losing population for decades, have actually grown according to the 2020 census. New York City gained more residents between April 2010 and July 2018 (223,615) than any other U.S. city. According to immigration statistics, the state is a leading recipient of migrants from around the globe. In 2008 New York had the second-largest international immigrant population in the country among U.S. states, at 4.2million; most reside in and around New York City, due to its size, high profile, vibrant economy, and cosmopolitanism, cosmopolitan culture. New York has a pro-sanctuary city law. The United States Census Bureau tabulated in the 2020 United States census, 2020 census that the population of New York was 20,215,751 on April 1, 2020, a 4.3% increase since the 2010 United States census, 2010 census. Despite the abundance of open land in the state, New York's population is very urban, with 92% of residents living in an urban area, predominantly in the New York City metropolitan area. Two-thirds of the state's population resides in the New York City metropolitan area. New York City is the most populous city in the United States, with an estimated record high population of 8,622,698 in 2017, incorporating more immigration into the city than emigration since the 2010 United States census. At least twice as many people live in New York City as in the second-most populous U.S. city, Los Angeles, and within a smaller area.
Long Island Long Island is a densely populated island in the southeast part of the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous Unit ...
alone accounted for a census-estimated 7,838,722 residents in 2015, representing 39.6% of New York State's population. Of the total statewide population, 6.5% of New Yorkers were under five years of age, 24.7% under 18, and 12.9% were 65 or older.


Race and ethnicity

Hispanics or Latin Americans of any race were 17.6% of the population in 2010; 5.5% Puerto Ricans, Puerto Rican, 4.4% Dominican American, Dominican, 2.4% were of Mexican American, Mexican, 0.4% Cuban American, Cuban, and 9.4% other Hispanic or Latin American origin. According to the American Community Survey, the largest ancestry White Americans, White American groups were Italian American, Italian (13.0%), Irish American, Irish (12.1%), German Americans, German (10.3%), American ancestry, American (5.4%), and English American, English (5.2%). The state's most populous racial group, non-Hispanic white, declined as a proportion of the state population from 94.6% in 1940 to 58.3% in 2010. , 55.6% of New York's population younger than age1 were minorities. New York's robustly increasing Jews, Jewish population, the largest outside of Israel, was the highest among states both by percentage and by absolute number in 2012. It is driven by the high reproductive rate of Orthodox Judaism, Orthodox Jewish families, particularly in Brooklyn and communities of the Hudson Valley. New York is home to the Demographics of Asian Americans, second-largest Asian American population and the List of U.S. states by African-American population, fourth-largest Black or African American population in the United States. New York's Black and African population increased by 2.0% between 2000 and 2010, to 3,073,800. In 2019, the Black and African American population increased to an estimated 3,424,002. The Black or African American population is in a state of flux, as New York is the largest recipient of immigrants from Africa, while established Blacks and African Americans are migrating out of New York to the New Great Migration, southern United States. The New York City neighborhood of Harlem has historically been a major cultural capital for Blacks and African Americans of sub-Saharan descent, and Bedford–Stuyvesant, Brooklyn, Bedford-Stuyvesant in Brooklyn has the largest such population in the United States. Meanwhile, New York's Asian population increased by a notable 36% from 2000 to 2010, to 1,420,244; in 2019, its population grew to an estimated 1,579,494. Queens, in New York City, is home to the state's largest Asian American population and is the most ethnic diversity, ethnically diverse county in the United States and the most ethnically diverse urban area in the world. New York's growing Hispanic and Latin American population numbered 3,416,922 in 2010, a 19% increase from the 2,867,583 enumerated in 2000. In 2020, it numbered an estimated 3,811,000. Queens is home to the largest Andes, Andean (Colombian American, Colombian, Ecuadorian American, Ecuadorian, Peruvian American, Peruvian, and Bolivian American, Bolivian) populations in the United States. In addition, New York has the largest Puerto Rican people, Puerto Rican, Dominican American, Dominican, and Jamaican American populations in the continental United States. The Overseas Chinese, Chinese population constitutes the fastest-growing nationality in New York State, which is the top destination for new Chinese immigrants, and large-scale Chinese emigration, Chinese immigration continues into the state. Multiple natural satellite, satellites of the original Chinatown, Manhattan, Manhattan Chinatown, in Chinatown, Brooklyn, Brooklyn, and around Chinatown, Flushing, Flushing, Queens, are thriving as traditionally urban enclaves, while also expanding rapidly eastward into suburban Nassau County, New York, Nassau County, on
Long Island Long Island is a densely populated island in the southeast part of the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous Unit ...
. Long Island, including Queens and Nassau County, is also home to several Curry Hill, Little Indias and a large Koreatown, Long Island, Koreatown, with large and growing attendant populations of Indian Americans and Korean Americans, respectively. Brooklyn has been a destination for West Indian immigrants of African descent, as well as Asian Indian immigrants. The annual New York City India Day Parade, held on or approximately every August 15 since 1981, is the world's largest Indian Independence Day parade outside of India. In the 2000 U.S. census, New York had the largest Italian American population, composing the largest self-identified ancestral group in Staten Island and Long Island, followed by Irish Americans. Albany and the Mohawk Valley also have large communities of ethnic Italians and Irish Americans, reflecting 19th and early 20th-century immigration. According to the American Community Survey, New York had the largest Greek Americans, Greek American population too, which counts 148,637 people (0.7% of the state). In and Western New York, German Americans comprise the largest ancestry. In the North Country (New York), North Country of New York, French Canadians represent the leading ethnicity, given the area's proximity to
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Quebec
. Americans of English American, English ancestry are present throughout all of upstate New York, reflecting early colonial and later immigrants.


Languages

In 2019, the U.S. Census Bureau reported 69.5% of New York's population aged 5 years and older only spoke English language, English, with 30.6% speaking a language other than English. Spanish language, Spanish remained the second most spoken non-English language with 2,758,925 speakers. Other Indo-European languages were spoken by 1,587,798 residents, and Asian and Pacific Islander languages were spoken by 948,959 people. At the American Community Survey's 2017 estimates, nearly six million residents spoke a language other than English. Approximately 1,249,541 New York residents spoke Spanish, 386,290 Chinese language, Chinese, 122,150 Russian language, Russian, 63,615 Haitian Creole, 62,219 Bengali language, Bengali, and 60,405 Korean language, Korean. In 2018, 12,756,975 aged 5years and older spoke English alone and 10,415,395 aged 18 and older only spoke English. Spanish-speaking households by majority were not limited English-speaking. An estimated 2.7million households with residents aged5 and older spoke Spanish. Chinese, Slavic, and French language, French languages were the following largest household languages spoken in 2018. In 2010, 70.72% (12,788,233) of New York residents aged five and older reported speaking only English at home, while 14.44% (2,611,903) spoke Spanish, 2.61% (472,955) Chinese (which includes Cantonese and Standard Chinese, Mandarin), 1.20% (216,468) Russian, 1.18% (213,785) Italian language, Italian, 0.79% (142,169) French-based creole languages, French Creole, 0.75% (135,789) French, 0.67% (121,917) Yiddish language, Yiddish, 0.63% (114,574) Korean, and Polish language, Polish was spoken by 0.53% (95,413) of the population over the age of five. In total, 29.28% (5,295,016) of New York's population aged five and older reported speaking a language other than English. In 2010, the most common American English dialects spoken in New York, besides General American English, were the New York dialect, New York City area dialect (including New York Latino English and New Jersey English dialects#North Jersey English, North Jersey English), the Western New England dialect, Western New England accent around Albany, and Inland Northern American English in Buffalo and western New York State. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York City, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world.


Sexual orientation and gender identity

Roughly 3.8 percent of the state's adult population self-identifies as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender. This constitutes a total LGBT adult population of 570,388 individuals. In 2010, the number of same-sex couple households stood at roughly 48,932. New York was the fifth state to license Same-sex marriage in New York, same-sex marriages, after New Hampshire. Michael Bloomberg, the Mayor of New York City, said "same-sex marriages in New York City have generated an estimated $259million in economic impact and $16million in City revenues" in the first year after enactment of the Marriage Equality Act. Same-sex marriage in New York, Same-sex marriages in New York were legalized on June 24, 2011, and were authorized to take place beginning thirty days thereafter. New York City is also home to the largest transgender population in the United States, estimated at 25,000 in 2016. The annual New York City Pride March (or New York City LGBT Pride March, gay pride march, pride parade) traverses southward down Fifth Avenue in Manhattan, ending at Greenwich Village, and rivals the Sao Paulo Gay Pride Parade as the largest pride parade in the world, attracting tens of thousands of participants and millions of sidewalk spectators each June. The Stonewall riots were a series of spontaneous, violent demonstrations by members of the LGBT community, gay community against a police raid that took place in the early morning hours of June 28, 1969, at the Stonewall Inn in the Greenwich Village neighborhood within Lower Manhattan. They are widely considered to constitute the single most important event leading to the gay liberation movement, and the modern fight for LGBT rights. In June 2017, plans were announced for the first official monument to LGBT individuals commissioned by the State of New York, in contrast to the Stonewall National Monument, which was commissioned by the U.S. federal government. The state monument was planned to be built in Hudson River Park in Manhattan, near the waterfront Hudson River piers which have served as historically significant symbols of New York's central role as a meeting place and a safe haven for LGBT communities. Also as of 2017, plans were advancing by the State of New York to host the largest international LGBT pride celebration in 2019, known as Stonewall 50 – WorldPride NYC 2019, to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Stonewall Riots. In New York City, the Stonewall 50–WorldPride NYC 2019 events produced by Heritage of Pride were enhanced through a partnership made with the I Love New York, I LOVE NY program's LGBT division and included a welcome center during the weeks surrounding the Stonewall 50 / WorldPride events that was open to all. Additional commemorative arts, cultural, and educational programing to mark the 50th anniversary of the rebellion at the Stonewall Inn took place throughout the city and LGBT rights by country or territory, the world; Stonewall 50 – WorldPride NYC 2019 was the largest New York City Pride March, LGBT pride celebration held in history, drawing an estimated five million people. Brooklyn Liberation March, the largest transgender rights, transgender-rights demonstration in LGBTQ history, took place on June 14, 2020, stretching from Grand Army Plaza to Fort Greene, Brooklyn, focused on supporting Black transgender lives, drawing an estimated 15,000 to 20,000 participants.


Religion

The majority of New York's religious population are Christian (60%), followed by the irreligious (27%), Judaism (7%), Islam (2%), Eastern religions, Buddhism and Hinduism (1% each), and other faiths (0.5%). Before the 1800s, Protestant sects dominated the religious life of New York, although religion did not play as large a role in the public life of New Netherland as it did in
New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States The Northeastern United States (also referred to as the American Northeast, the Northeast, and the East Coast) is a geographical region In geography G ...

New England
, with its Puritan population. Historically, New York served as the foundation for Burned-over district, new Christian denominations in the Second Great Awakening. Non-Western Christian traditions and non-Christian religions did not grow for much of the state's history because immigration was predominantly from Western Europe (which at the time was dominated by Western Christianity and favored by the quotas in federal immigration law). The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 removed the quotas, allowing for the growth of other religious groups. The Catholic Church, Roman Catholic Church is the largest Christian denomination in New York (31%). The largest Roman Catholic diocese is the Latin Church's Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New York, Archdiocese of New York. The largest Eastern Catholic diocese is the Ruthenian Catholic Eparchy of Passaic of the Ruthenian Greek Catholic Church. The United Methodist Church is the largest Mainline Protestant denomination and second largest overall, followed by the Episcopal Church (United States), Episcopal Church in the U.S. and other Continuing Anglican movement, Continuing Anglican bodies. The Presbyterian Church (USA), Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, and American Baptist Churches USA were the following largest Mainline denominations. Mainline Protestants together make up 11% of Christians in the state as of 2014. In Evangelical Protestantism the Baptists, Nondenominational Christianity, non-denominational Protestants, and Pentecostalism, Pentecostals were the largest groups. The National Baptist Convention, USA, Inc., National Baptist Convention (USA) and Progressive National Baptist Convention were the largest historically black Protestant churches in New York. Roughly 10% of Christians in New York are Evangelical Protestants. The Eastern Orthodox Church, Eastern and Oriental Orthodox Churches, Oriental Orthodox collectively comprised 1% of the religious demographic alongside Jehovah's Witnesses and List of Christian denominations, other Christians. Non-Christian religions accounted for 12% of the population. Judaism is the second largest religion as of 2014. In 2010, 588,500 practiced Orthodox Judaism. A little over 392,953 professed Islam. The Powers Street Mosque in New York City was the first Muslim organization in the state. New York is also home to the oldest Zoroastrianism, Zoroastrian fire temple in the United States. Less than 1% of New York's population practice New Age and Modern Paganism, contemporary paganism. Native American religions are also a prominent minority. The irreligious are a growing community in the New York City metropolitan area. Statewide, 17% practice nothing in particular and 5% each are Atheism, atheists and agnostic.


Economy

New York's Comparison between U.S. states and countries by GDP (nominal), gross state product in 2018 was US$1.7trillion. If New York State were an independent nation, it would rank as the 11th largest economy in the world. However, in 2019, the multi-state, New York City-centered List of Metropolitan Statistical Areas, metropolitan statistical area produced a gross metropolitan product (GMP) of US$2 trillion, ranking first nationally by a wide margin and behind the gross domestic product, GDP of only nine nations.


Wall Street

Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District, Manhattan, Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York City has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world. Lower Manhattan is the third-largest central business district in the United States and is home to the New York Stock Exchange, on Wall Street, and the NASDAQ, at One Liberty Plaza, 165 Broadway, representing the world's largest and second largest stock exchanges, respectively, as measured both by overall average daily trading volume and by total market capitalization of their listed companies in 2013. Investment banking fees on Wall Street totaled approximately $40billion in 2012, while in 2013, senior New York City bank officers who manage risk management, risk and compliance functions earned as much as $324,000 annually. In fiscal year 2013–14, Wall Street's securities industry generated 19% of New York State's tax revenue. New York City remains the largest global center for trading in public equity and security (finance), debt capital markets, driven in part by the size and Financial Development Index, financial development of the U.S. economy. New York also leads in hedge fund management; List of private equity firms, private equity; and the monetary volume of mergers and acquisitions. Several Investment Banking, investment banks and investment management, investment managers headquartered in Manhattan are important participants in other global financial centers. New York is also the principal commercial banking center of the United States. Many of the world's largest media conglomerates are also based in the city. Manhattan contained approximately 520million square feet (48.1million m2) of office space in 2013, making it the largest office market in the United States, while Midtown Manhattan is the largest central business district in the nation.


Silicon Alley

Silicon Alley, centered in New York City, has evolved into a metonym for the sphere encompassing the New York City metropolitan region's entrepreneurship ecosystem, high technology and entrepreneurship ecosystem; in 2015, Silicon Alley generated over $7.3billion in venture capital investment. High tech industries including digital media, biotechnology, software development, game design, and other fields in information technology are growing, bolstered by New York City's position at the terminus of several transatlantic telephone cable, transatlantic fiber optic trunk lines, its intellectual capital, as well as its growing outdoor wireless network, wireless connectivity. In December 2014, New York State announced a $50million venture-capital fund to encourage enterprises working in biotechnology and Materials science, advanced materials; according to Governor Andrew Cuomo, the seed money would facilitate entrepreneurs in bringing their research into the marketplace. On December 19, 2011, then Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg announced his choice of Cornell University and Technion-Israel Institute of Technology to build a two billion dollar graduate school of applied sciences on Roosevelt Island in Manhattan, with the goal of transforming New York City into the world's premier technology capital.


Tech Valley

Albany, Saratoga County, New York, Saratoga County, Rensselaer County, New York, Rensselaer County, and the Hudson Valley, collectively recognized as eastern New York's Tech Valley, have experienced significant growth in the computer hardware side of the high-technology industry, with great strides in the nanotechnology sector, digital electronics design, and water- and electricity-dependent integrated circuit, integrated microchip circuit manufacturing, involving companies including IBM and its Thomas J. Watson Research Center, and the three foreign-owned firms, GlobalFoundries, Samsung, and Taiwan Semiconductor, among others. The area's high technology ecosystem is supported by technologically focused academia, academic institutions including Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and the State University of New York Polytechnic Institute, SUNY Polytechnic Institute. In 2015, Tech Valley, straddling both sides of the Adirondack Northway and the New York Thruway, generated over $163million in venture capital investment. The area is important in the field of photographic processing, photographic processing and imaging as well as business incubator, incubating an increasingly diverse high technology sphere encompassing STEM fields, similarly in part the result of private startup company, startup enterprises collaborating with major academic institutions, including the University of Rochester and Cornell University. Westchester County, New York, Westchester County has developed a burgeoning biotechnology, biotechnology sector in the 21st century, with over a billion dollars in planned private investment as of 2016. In April 2021, GlobalFoundries, a company specializing in the semiconductor industry, moved its headquarters from Silicon Valley, California to its most advanced semiconductor, semiconductor-chip manufacturing facility in Saratoga County, New York, Saratoga County near a section of the Adirondack Northway, in Malta, New York.
Accessed May 19, 2021.


Media and entertainment

Creative industries, which are concerned with generating and distributing knowledge and information, such as new media, digital media, film production, film and television production, advertising, fashion, design, and architecture, account for a growing share of employment, with New York City possessing a strong competitive advantage in these industries. , New York State was offering tax incentives of up to $420million annually for filmmaking within the state, the most generous such tax rebate among the U.S. states. New York has also attracted higher-wage visual effects, visual-effects employment by further augmenting its tax credit to a maximum of 35% for performing post-production, post-film production work in Upstate New York. The filmed entertainment industry has been growing in New York, contributing nearly $9billion to the New York City economy alone as of 2015.


Tourism

''I Love New York'' (stylized ''I ❤ NY'') is a slogan, a logo and state song that are the basis of an advertising campaign and has been used since 1977 to promote tourism in the state of New York, including New York City. The trademarked logo is owned by Empire State Development Corporation, New York State Empire State Development. The Broadway League reported that Broadway shows sold approximately $1.27billion worth of tickets in the 2013–2014 season, an 11.4% increase from $1.139billion in the 2012–2013 season. Attendance in 2013–2014 stood at 12.21million, representing a 5.5% increase from the 2012–2013 season's 11.57million.


Exports

New York exports a wide variety of goods such as prepared foods, computers and consumer electronics, electronics, cut diamonds, and other commodities. In 2007, the state exported a total of $71.1billion worth of goods, with the five largest foreign export markets being Canada ($15billion), the United Kingdom ($6billion), Switzerland ($5.9billion), Israel ($4.9billion), and Hong Kong ($3.4billion). New York's largest imports are oil, gold, aluminum, natural gas, electricity, rough diamonds, and lumber. The state also has a large manufacturing sector that includes printing and the production of garments, mainly in New York City; and furs, railroad equipment, automobile parts, and bus line vehicles, concentrated in Upstate regions. New York is the nation's third-largest grape producing state, and second-largest wine producer by volume, behind California. The southern
Finger Lakes The Finger Lakes are a group of eleven long, narrow, roughly north–south lakes in an area called the ''Finger Lakes region'' in New York, in the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U ...

Finger Lakes
hillsides, the Hudson Valley, the North Fork, Suffolk County, New York, North Fork of Long Island, and the southern shore of Lake Erie are the primary grape- and wine-growing regions in New York, with many vineyards. In 2012, New York had 320 wineries and 37,000 grape bearing acres, generating full-time employment for nearly 25,000 and annual wages over $1.1billion, and yielding $4.8billion in direct economic impact from New York grapes, grape juice, and wine and grape products.


Agriculture

The Agriculture in New York, New York agriculture industry is a major producer overall, ranking among the top five states for agricultural products including maple syrup, apples, cherries, cabbage, New York dairy industry, dairy products, onions, and potatoes. The state is the largest producer of cabbage in the U.S. The state has about a quarter of its land in farms and produced $3.4billion in agricultural products in 2001. The south shore of Lake Ontario provides the right mix of soils and microclimate for many apple, cherry, plum, pear and peach orchards. Apples are also grown in the Hudson Valley and near Lake Champlain. A moderately sized saltwater commercial fishing, commercial fishery is located along the Atlantic side of Long Island. The principal catches by value are clams, lobsters, squid, and flounder.


Energy

In 2017, New York State consumed 156,370-Kilowatt hour, gigawatthours (GWh) of electrical energy. Downstate regions (Hudson Valley, New York City, and Long Island) consumed 66% of that amount. Upstate regions produced 50% of that amount. The peak load in 2017 was 29,699 MW. The resource capability in 2017 was 42,839 MW. The New York energy law#NYISO, NYISO's market monitor described the average all-in wholesale electric price as a range (a single value was not provided) from $25 per MWh to $53 per MWh for 2017.


Education

At the level of higher education in the United States, post-secondary education, the statewide public university system is the
State University of New York The State University of New York (SUNY ) is a system of public colleges and universities in New York (state), New York State. It is the List of largest universities and university networks by enrollment, largest comprehensive system of university ...
(SUNY). The SUNY system consists of 64 community colleges, technical colleges, undergraduate colleges, and doctoral-granting institutions. The SUNY system has four "university centers": University at Albany, SUNY, Albany (1844), University at Buffalo, Buffalo (1846), Binghamton University, Binghamton (1946), and Stony Brook University, Stony Brook (1957). The SUNY system is home to three academic medical centers: Renaissance School of Medicine at Stony Brook University in
Long Island Long Island is a densely populated island in the southeast part of the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous Unit ...
, State University of New York Upstate Medical University#Norton College of Medicine, Norton College of Medicine at State University of New York Upstate Medical University, SUNY Upstate Medical University in
Syracuse Syracuse may refer to: Places Italy *Syracuse, Sicily Syracuse ( ; it, Siracusa , or scn, Seragusa, label=none ; lat, Syrācūsae ; grc-att, wikt:Συράκουσαι, Συράκουσαι, Syrákousai ; grc-dor, wikt:Συράκοσ ...
, and SUNY Downstate Medical Center in Brooklyn. Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University are among the most prominent of the larger higher education institutions in New York, all of them leading, world-renowned private universities and members of the Association of American Universities, the pre-eminent group of research universities in the United States. Other notable large private universities include Syracuse University and Fordham University. Smaller notable private institutions of higher education include University of Rochester, Rockefeller University, Mercy College (New York), Mercy College, New York Institute of Technology, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Yeshiva University, and Hofstra University. There are also a multitude of postgraduate degree, postgraduate-level schools in New York State, including Medical School, medical, Law School, law, and engineering schools. United States Military Academy, West Point, the service academy of the United States Army, U.S. Army, is located just south of Newburgh (city), New York, Newburgh, on the west bank of the
Hudson River The Hudson River is a river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York (state), New York in the United States. It originates in the Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York and flows southward through the Hudson Valley ...

Hudson River
. The federal United States Merchant Marine Academy, Merchant Marine Academy is at Kings Point, New York, Kings Point on
Long Island Long Island is a densely populated island in the southeast part of the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous Unit ...
. A number of selective private liberal arts institutions are located in New York. Among them are Bard College, Barnard College, Colgate University, Hamilton College, Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Marist College, Sarah Lawrence College, Skidmore College, Union College, and Vassar College. Two of these schools, Barnard and Vassar, are members of the elite Seven Sisters (colleges), Seven Sisters, originally all women's colleges with ties to the Ivy League. Barnard is affiliated with Columbia University, its Manhattan neighbor, and Vassar became coeducational in 1969 after declining an offer to merge with Yale University. New York is also home to what are widely regarded as the best performing arts schools in the world. The Juilliard School, located in the Upper West Side of Manhattan, is one of the world's leading music and dance schools. The Eastman School of Music, a professional school within the University of Rochester, was ranked first among U.S. music schools by ''U.S. News & World Report'' for five consecutive years. The University of the State of New York accredits and sets standards for elementary, middle-level, and secondary education in the state, while the New York State Education Department oversees public schools and controls their standardized tests. The New York City Department of Education manages the New York City Public Schools system. In 1894, reflecting general racial discrimination then, the state passed a law that allowed communities to set up separate schools for children of African-American descent. In 1900, the state passed another law requiring integrated schools. During the 2013 fiscal year, New York spent more on public education per pupil than any other state, according to U.S. Census Bureau statistics.


Transportation

New York has one of the most extensive and one of the oldest transportation infrastructures in the country. Engineering challenges posed by the complex terrain of the state and the unique infrastructural issues of New York City brought on by urban crowding have had to be overcome perennially. Population expansion of the state has followed the path of the early waterways, first the
Hudson River The Hudson River is a river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York (state), New York in the United States. It originates in the Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York and flows southward through the Hudson Valley ...

Hudson River
and
Mohawk River The Mohawk River is a U.S. Geological Survey. National Hydrography Dataset high-resolution flowline dataThe National Map accessed October 3, 2011 river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocea ...

Mohawk River
, then the
Erie Canal The Erie Canal is a canal that traverses east–west through upstate New York, upstate New York (state), New York, eastern United States, as part of the cross-state route of the New York State Canal System (formerly known as the New York State ...

Erie Canal
. In the 19th century, railroads were constructed along the river valleys, followed by the New York State Thruway in the 20th century. The New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT) is the department of the government of New York (state), government of New York responsible for the development and operation of highways, Rail transport, railroads, mass transit systems, ports, waterways, and aviation facilities within New York State. The NYSDOT is headquartered at 50 Wolf Road in Colonie, New York, Colonie, Albany County, New York, Albany County. The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ) is a joint venture between the states of New York and New Jersey and authorized by the U.S. Congress, established in 1921 through an interstate compact, that oversees much of the regional transportation infrastructure, including bridges, tunnels, airports, and seaports, within the geographical jurisdiction of the Port of New York and New Jersey. This port district is generally encompassed within a radius of the Statue of Liberty National Monument.. Accessed July 19, 2015. The Port Authority is headquartered at 4 World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan. In addition to the well known New York City Subway system—which is confined within New York City—four suburban commuter railroad systems enter and leave the city: the Long Island Rail Road, Metro-North Railroad, Port Authority Trans-Hudson, and five of New Jersey Transit Rail Operations, New Jersey Transit's rail lines. The New York City Department of Transportation (NYCDOT) is the agency of the government of New York City responsible for the management of much of New York City's own transportation infrastructure. Other cities and towns in New York have urban and regional public transportation. In Buffalo, the Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority runs the Buffalo Metro Rail light-rail system; in Rochester, the Rochester Subway operated from 1927 until 1956, but fell into disuse as state and federal investment went to highways. The New York State Department of Motor Vehicles (NYSDMV or DMV) is the governmental agency responsible for registering and vehicle inspection, inspecting automobiles and other motor vehicles, as well as licensing drivers in the State of New York. , the NYSDMV has 11,284,546 drivers licenses on file and 10,697,644 vehicle registrations in force. All gasoline-powered vehicles registered in New York State are required to have an emission standard, emissions inspection every 12 months, in order to ensure that environmental quality controls are working to prevent air pollution. Diesel-powered vehicles with a gross weight rating over 8,500 pounds that are registered in most Downstate New York counties must get an annual emissions inspection. All vehicles registered in New York State must get an annual safety inspection. Portions of the transportation system are intermodal passenger transport, intermodal, allowing travelers to switch easily from one mode of transportation to another. One of the most notable examples is AirTrain JFK which allows rail passengers to travel directly to airport terminal, terminals at John F. Kennedy International Airport as well as to the underground New York City Subway system.


Government

The Government of New York embodies the governmental structure of the State of New York as established by the New York State Constitution. It is composed of three branches: executive branch, executive, legislative branch, legislative, and judicial branch, judicial. The Governor of New York, governor is the state's chief executive and is assisted by the Lieutenant Governor of New York, lieutenant governor. Both are elected on the same ticket. Additional elected officers include the New York Attorney General, attorney general and the New York State Comptroller, comptroller. The Secretary of State of New York, secretary of state, formerly an elected officer, is currently appointed by the governor. The New York State Legislature is bicameral and consists of the New York State Senate and the New York State Assembly. The state assembly consists of 150 members, while the state senate varies in its number of members, currently having 63. The legislature is empowered to make laws, subject to the governor's power to veto a bill. However, the veto may be overridden by the legislature if there is a two-thirds majority in favor of overriding in each house. The permanent laws of a general nature are codification (law), codified in the ''Consolidated Laws of New York''. The highest court of appeal in the Judiciary of New York, Unified Court System is the New York State Court of Appeals, Court of Appeals whereas the primary felony trial court is the New York County Court, County Court (or the New York Supreme Court, Supreme Court in New York City). The New York Supreme Court also acts as the intermediate appellate court for many cases, and the local courts handle a variety of other matters including small claims, traffic ticket cases, and local zoning matters, and are the starting point for all criminal cases. The New York City courts make up the largest local court system. The administrative divisions of New York, state is divided into counties, cities, towns, and villages, all of which are municipal corporations with respect to their own governments, as well as various corporate entities that serve single purposes that are also local governments, such as school districts, fire districts, and New York state public-benefit corporations, frequently known as ''authorities'' or ''development corporations''. Each municipal corporation is granted varying home rule powers as provided by the New York Constitution. The state also has 10 Indian reservations. There have been several movements regarding Partition and secession in New York, secession from the state of New York. Proposals have included a state of
Long Island Long Island is a densely populated island in the southeast part of the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous Unit ...
, consisting of everything on the island outside New York City; a state called Niagara, the Western New York, western counties of New York state; the northern counties of New York state called
Upstate New York Upstate New York is a geographic region consisting of the portion of New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department ...
; making the city of New York a state; a proposal for a new Peconic County on eastern Long Island; and for the borough of Staten Island to secede from New York City.


Capital punishment

Capital punishment in the United States, Capital punishment was reintroduced in 1995 under the George Pataki#Death penalty, Pataki administration, but the statute was declared unconstitutional in 2004, when the New York Court of Appeals ruled in ''People v. LaValle'' that it violated the New York Constitution, state constitution. The remaining death sentence was commuted by the court to life imprisonment in 2007, in ''People v. John Taylor'', and the death row was disestablished in 2008, under executive order from Governor David Paterson. No execution has taken place in New York since 1963. Legislative efforts to amend the statute have failed, and death sentences are no longer sought at the state level, though certain crimes that fall under the jurisdiction of the federal government are subject to the Capital punishment by the United States federal government, federal death penalty.


Federal representation

New York is represented by Chuck Schumer and Kirsten Gillibrand in the United States Senate. There are New York's congressional districts, twenty-seven congressional districts, the nation's third equal highest number of congressional districts, equal with Florida and behind California's 53 and Texas's 36. As of 2021, nineteen districts are represented by members of the Democratic Party, while eight are represented by Republicans. Representation was reduced from 29 in 2013 due to the state's slower overall population growth relative to the overall national population growth. New York has 29 Electoral College (United States), electoral votes in national presidential elections, a drop from its peak of 47 votes from 1933 to 1953. The state has a strong imbalance of payments with the federal government. According to the Office of the New York State Comptroller, New York State received 91 cents in services for every $1 it sent in taxes to the U.S. federal government in the 2013 fiscal year; New York ranked in 46th place in the federal balance of payments to the state on a per capita basis.


Politics

As of April 2016, Democratic Party (United States), Democrats represented a plurality of voters in New York State, constituting more than twice as many voter registration, registered voters as any other political party affiliation Independent politician, or lack thereof.NYSVoter Enrollment by County, Party Affiliation and Status
Accessed April 30, 2016.
Since the second half of the 20th century, New York has generally supported candidates belonging to the Democratic Party in national elections. Democratic presidential candidate Barack Obama won New York State by over 25 percentage points in both 2012 and 2008. New York City, as well as the state's other major urban locales, including Albany, Buffalo, Rochester, Yonkers, and Syracuse, are significant Democratic strongholds, with Modern liberalism in the United States, liberal politics. Rural portions of upstate New York, however, are generally more conservative than the cities and tend to favor Republican Party (United States), Republicans. Heavily populated suburban areas downstate, such as Westchester County and Long Island, were solidly Republican until the 1990s, and have since shifted to primarily supporting the Democratic Party. New York City is the most important source of political fundraising in the United States for both major parties. Four of the top five zip codes in the nation for political contributions are in Manhattan. The top zip code, 10021 on the Upper East Side, generated the most money for the 2000 presidential campaigns of both George W. Bush and Al Gore. New York State has the distinction of being the home state for both major-party nominees in three United States presidential election, presidential elections. The 1904 United States presidential election, 1904 presidential election saw former New York Governor and incumbent President Theodore Roosevelt face Alton B. Parker, chief judge of the New York Court of Appeals. The 1944 United States presidential election, 1944 presidential election had Franklin D. Roosevelt, following in his cousin Theodore's footsteps as former New York Governor and incumbent president running for re-election against then-current New York Governor Thomas E. Dewey. In the 2016 United States presidential election, 2016 presidential election, former United States Senator from New York Hillary Clinton, a resident of Chappaqua, New York, Chappaqua, was the Democratic Party (United States), Democratic Party nominee. The Republican Party (United States), Republican Party nominee was businessman Donald Trump, a resident of Manhattan and a native of Queens. New York City is an important center for international diplomacy. The
United Nations Headquarters The United Nations is Headquarters, headquartered in New York City in a complex designed by a board of architects led by Wallace Harrison and built by the architectural firm Harrison & Abramovitz. The complex has served as the official headquarter ...

United Nations Headquarters
has been situated on the Midtown East, East Side of Midtown Manhattan since 1952.


Sports

New York State is geographically home to one National Football League team, the Buffalo Bills, based in the Buffalo suburb of Orchard Park (town), New York, Orchard Park. Although the New York Giants and New York Jets represent the New York metropolitan area, New York City metropolitan area and were previously located in New York City, they play in MetLife Stadium, located in East Rutherford, New Jersey. New York also has two Major League Baseball teams, the New York Yankees (based in the Bronx) and the New York Mets (based in Queens). Minor league baseball teams also play in the State of New York, including the Long Island Ducks, and the Brooklyn Cyclones, downstate, and the Rochester Red Wings, the Binghamton Rumble Ponies, the Syracuse Mets, the Auburn Doubledays, the Batavia Muckdogs, the Hudson Valley Renegades and the Buffalo Bisons upstate. New York is home to three National Hockey League franchises: the New York Rangers in Manhattan, the New York Islanders in Nassau County in Long Island, and the Buffalo Sabres in Buffalo. New York has two National Basketball Association teams, the New York Knicks in Manhattan, and the Brooklyn Nets in Brooklyn. New York is the home of a Major League Soccer franchise, New York City FC, currently playing in the Bronx. Although the New York Red Bulls represent the New York City metropolitan area, they play in Red Bull Arena (New Jersey), Red Bull Arena in Harrison, New Jersey. New York hosted the 1932 Winter Olympics, 1932 and 1980 Winter Olympics at Lake Placid, New York, Lake Placid. The 1980 Games are known for the USA–USSR ice hockey match dubbed the "Miracle on Ice", in which a group of American college students and amateurs defeated the heavily favored Soviet national ice hockey team 4–3 and went on to win the gold medal against Finland. Along with St. Moritz, Switzerland and Innsbruck, Austria, Lake Placid is one of the three cities to have hosted the Winter Olympic Games twice. New York City New York City bid for the 2012 Summer Olympics, bid for the 2012 Summer Olympics but lost to London. Several U.S. national sports halls of fame are or have been situated in New York. The National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum is located in Cooperstown, Otsego County, New York, Otsego County. The National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame in Saratoga Springs, New York, Saratoga Springs, Saratoga County, New York, Saratoga County, honors achievements in the sport of thoroughbred horse racing. The physical facility of the National Soccer Hall of Fame in Oneonta, New York, Oneonta, also in Otsego County, closed in 2010, although the organization itself has continued inductions. The annual US Open (tennis), United States Open Tennis Championships is one of the world's four Grand Slam (tennis), Grand Slam tennis tournaments and is held at the USTA National Tennis Center, National Tennis Center in Flushing Meadows–Corona Park in the New York City borough of Queens. New York state is also home to many intercollegiate division1 sports programs. The
State University of New York The State University of New York (SUNY ) is a system of public colleges and universities in New York (state), New York State. It is the List of largest universities and university networks by enrollment, largest comprehensive system of university ...
's flagship University at Buffalo are the Buffalo Bulls. Syracuse University's intercollegiate teams are the Syracuse Orange.


See also

* Index of New York (state)-related articles * Outline of New York


Notes


References


Further reading

* *


External links


New York State Guide, from the Library of Congress
* * {{coord, 42.9538, -75.5268, dim:300000_region:US-NY_type:adm1st, name=State of New York, display=title New York (state), 1788 establishments in the United States Articles containing video clips Northeastern United States States and territories established in 1788 States of the East Coast of the United States States of the United States Contiguous United States