HOME

TheInfoList




New Urbanism is an
urban design While many assume urban design is about the process of designing and shaping the physical features of cities A city is a large human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a comm ...
movement which promotes environmentally friendly habits by creating
walkable Walkability is a measure of how friendly an area is for walking Walking (also known as ambulation) is one of the main gait Gait is the pattern of Motion (physics), movement of the limb (anatomy), limbs of animals, including Gait (human), huma ...
neighbourhoods containing a wide range of housing and job types. It arose in the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
in the early 1980s, and has gradually influenced many aspects of
real estate development Real estate development, or property development, is a business process, encompassing activities that range from the renovation and re-lease of existing buildings to the purchase of raw Real Estate, land and the sale of developed land or parcel ...
,
urban planning Urban planning, also known as regional planning, town planning, city planning, or rural planning, is a technical and political process that is focused on the development and design A design is a plan or specification for the construction o ...
, and municipal
land-use Land use involves the management and modification of natural environment The natural environment or natural world encompasses all life, living and non-living things occurring nature, naturally, meaning in this case not Artificiality, artifi ...
strategies. New urbanism attempts to address the ills associated with urban sprawl and post-Second World War suburban development. New Urbanism is strongly influenced by urban design practices that were prominent until the rise of the automobile prior to
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
; it encompasses ten basic principles such as traditional neighbourhood design (TND) and
transit-oriented development In urban planning Urban planning, also known as regional planning, town planning, city planning, or rural planning, is a technical and political process that is focused on the development and design A design is a plan or specification ...
(TOD). These ideas can all be circled back to two concepts: building a sense of community and the development of ecological practices. The organizing body for New Urbanism is the Congress for the New Urbanism, founded in 1993. Its foundational text is the ''Charter of the New Urbanism'', which begins: New Urbanists support
regional planning Regional planning deals with the efficient placement of land-use caused by numerous roads near the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore Land use involves the management and modification of natural environment or wilderness Wilderness or ...
for open space; context-appropriate
architecture upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted), Plan of the second floor (attic storey) of the Hôtel de Brionne in Paris – 1734. Architecture (Latin ''archi ...

architecture
and planning; adequate provision of infrastructure such as sporting facilities, libraries and community centres; and the balanced development of jobs and housing. They believe their strategies can reduce traffic congestion by encouraging the population to ride bikes, walk, or take the train. They also hope that this set up will increase the supply of affordable housing and rein in
suburban sprawl Urban sprawl (also known as suburban sprawl or urban encroachment) is the unrestricted growth in many urban area An urban area, or built-up area, is a human settlement with a high population density and infrastructure of built environment. U ...
. The '' Charter of the New Urbanism'' also covers issues such as historic preservation, safe streets,
green building Green building (also known as green construction or sustainable building) refers to both a structure and the application of processes that are environmentally responsible Ecosophy or ecophilosophy (a portmanteau of ecological philosophy) is a ...

green building
, and the re-development of
brownfield land In urban planning Urban planning, also known as regional planning, town planning, city planning, or rural planning, is a technical and political process that is focused on the development and design A design is a plan or specification ...
. The ten Principles of Intelligent Urbanism also phrase guidelines for New Urbanist approaches. Architecturally, New Urbanist developments are often accompanied by
New Classical New classical macroeconomics, sometimes simply called new classical economics, is a school of thought in macroeconomics that builds its analysis entirely on a neoclassical economics, neoclassical framework. Specifically, it emphasizes the importan ...
,
postmodern Postmodernism is an intellectual stance or mode of discourse defined by an attitude of skepticism Skepticism (American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known a ...
, or
vernacular A vernacular or vernacular language refers to the language or dialect that is spoken by people that are inhabiting a particular country or region. The vernacular is typically the native language, normally Spoken language, spoken informally rath ...
styles, although that is not always the case. The movement's principles are reflected in the field of
Complementary architecture Complementary architecture is a movement in contemporary architecture Contemporary architecture is the architecture File:Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted).jpg, uprig ...
.


Background

Until the mid 20th century, cities were generally organized into and developed around mixed-use walkable neighborhoods. For most of human history this meant a city that was entirely walkable, although with the development of
mass transit Public transport (also known as public transportation, public transit, mass transit, or simply transit) is a system of transport Transport (in British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language ...

mass transit
the reach of the city extended outward along transit lines, allowing for the growth of new pedestrian communities such as
streetcar suburb A streetcar suburb is a residential community A residential community is a community A community is a social unit (a group of living things) with commonality such as Norm (social), norms, religion, values, Convention (norm), customs, or Iden ...
s. But with the advent of cheap automobiles and favorable government policies, attention began to shift away from cities and towards ways of growth more focused on the needs of the car. Specifically, after World War II
urban planning Urban planning, also known as regional planning, town planning, city planning, or rural planning, is a technical and political process that is focused on the development and design A design is a plan or specification for the construction o ...
largely centered around the use of municipal
zoning Zoning is a method of urban planning Urban planning, also known as regional planning, town planning, city planning, or rural planning, is a technical and political process that is focused on the development and design A design is a plan ...
ordinances to segregate residential from commercial and industrial development, and focused on the construction of low-density single-family detached houses as the preferred housing format for the growing
middle class The middle class is a class Class or The Class may refer to: Common uses not otherwise categorized * Class (biology), a taxonomic rank * Class (knowledge representation), a collection of individuals or objects * Class (philosophy), an an ...
. The physical separation of where people live from where they work, shop and frequently spend their recreational time, together with low housing density, which often drastically reduced population density relative to historical norms, made automobiles indispensable for practical transportation and contributed to the emergence of a culture of
automobile dependency Automobile dependency or car dependency is the concept that some city layouts cause automobiles A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle A motor vehicle, also known as motorized vehicle or automotive vehicle, is a self-propelle ...
. This new system of development, with its rigorous separation of uses, arose after
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
and became known as "conventional suburban development" or pejoratively as
urban sprawl Urban sprawl (also known as suburban sprawl or urban encroachment) is the unrestricted growth in many urban area An urban area, or built-up area, is a human settlement with a high population density and infrastructure of built environment. ...
. The majority of U.S. citizens now live in
suburb A suburb (or suburban area or suburbia) is a commercial Commercial may refer to: * a dose of advertising conveyed through media (such as - for example - radio or television) ** Radio advertisement ** Television advertisement * (adjective ...
an communities built in the last fifty years, and automobile use per capita has soared. Although New Urbanism as an organized movement would only arise later, a number of activists and thinkers soon began to criticize the
modernist Modernism is both a philosophical movement A philosophical movement refers to the phenomenon defined by a group of philosophers A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and ...
planning techniques being put into practice. Social philosopher and historian
Lewis Mumford Lewis Mumford (October 19, 1895 – January 26, 1990) was an American historian, sociologist, philosopher of technology, and literary critic Literary criticism (or literary studies) is the study, evaluation Evaluation is a system ...
criticized the "anti-urban" development of post-war America. ''
The Death and Life of Great American Cities ''The Death and Life of Great American Cities'' is a 1961 book by writer and activist Jane Jacobs Jane Jacobs (''née'' Butzner; May 4, 1916 – April 25, 2006) was an American-Canadian journalist, author, theorist, and activist who influe ...
,'' written by
Jane Jacobs Jane Jacobs (''née'' Butzner; May 4, 1916 – April 25, 2006) was an American-Canadian journalist, author, theorist, and activist who influenced urban studies, sociology, and economics. Her book, ''The Death and Life of Great American Cities ...

Jane Jacobs
in the early 1960s, called for planners to reconsider the single-use housing projects, large car-dependent thoroughfares, and segregated commercial centers that had become the "norm". In the 1960s, architect François Spoerry developed the concept of "soft architecture" that he applied to Port Grimaud, a new marina in the south of France. The success of this project had a considerable influence and led to many new projects of soft architecture like Port Liberté in
New Jersey New Jersey is a U.S. state, state in the Mid-Atlantic States, Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern United States, Northeastern regions of the United States. It is bordered on the north and east by the state of New York (state), New York; on the ea ...
or
Le Plessis-Robinson Le Plessis-Robinson () is a commune An intentional community is a voluntary residential community designed from the start to have a high degree of group cohesiveness, social cohesion and teamwork. The members of an intentional community ty ...
in France. Rooted in these early dissenters, the ideas behind New Urbanism began to solidify in the 1970s and 80s with the urban visions and theoretical models for the reconstruction of the "European" city proposed by architect
Léon Krier
Léon Krier
, and the
pattern language A pattern language is an organized and coherent set of ''patterns'', each of which describes a problem and the core of a solution that can be used in many ways within a specific field of expertise. The term was coined by architect Christopher Alexa ...
theories of
Christopher Alexander Christopher Wolfgang Alexander (born 4 October 1936 in Vienna Vienna ( ; german: Wien ; bar, Wean, label= ) is the , largest city, and one of of . Vienna is Austria's , with about 2 million inhabitants (2.6 million within the , nearly ...

Christopher Alexander
. The term "new urbanism" itself started being used in this context in the mid-1980s, but it wasn't until the early 1990s that it was commonly written as a proper noun capitalized. In 1991, the Local Government Commission, a private nonprofit group in
Sacramento, California ) , image_map = Sacramento County California Incorporated and Unincorporated areas Sacramento Highlighted.svg , mapsize = 250x200px , map_caption = Location within Sacramento ...

Sacramento, California
, invited architects
Peter Calthorpe Peter Calthorpe (born 1949) is a San Francisco San Francisco (/Help:IPA/English, ˌsæn fɹənˈsɪskoʊ/; Spanish language, Spanish for "Francis of Assisi, Saint Francis"), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is a cultural, com ...
, Michael Corbett, Andrés Duany, Elizabeth Moule,
Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk (born December 20, 1950) is an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), ...

Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk
, Stefanos Polyzoides, and Daniel Solomon to develop a set of community principles for land use planning. Named the '' Ahwahnee Principles'' (after
Yosemite National Park Yosemite National Park ( ) is an American national park#REDIRECT National park A national park is a park in use for Conservation (ethic), conservation purposes, created and protected by national governments. Often it is a reserve of natur ...

Yosemite National Park
's
Ahwahnee Hotel The Ahwahnee Hotel is a conference and resort hotels, grand hotel in Yosemite National Park, California, on the floor of Yosemite Valley. It was built by the Yosemite Park and Curry Company and opened for business in 1927. The hotel is constr ...

Ahwahnee Hotel
), the commission presented the principles to about one hundred government officials in the fall of 1991, at its first Yosemite Conference for Local Elected Officials. Calthorpe, Duany, Moule, Plater-Zyberk, Polyzoides, and Solomon founded the Chicago-based Congress for the New Urbanism in 1993. The CNU has grown to more than three thousand members, and is the leading international organization promoting New Urbanist design principles. It holds annual Congresses in various U.S. cities. In 2009, co-founders Elizabeth Moule, Hank Dittmar, and Stefanos Polyzoides authored the Canons of Sustainable Architecture and Urbanism to clarify and detail the relationship between New Urbanism and sustainability. The Canons are "a set of operating principles for human settlement that reestablish the relationship between the art of building, the making of community, and the conservation of our natural world". They promote the use of passive heating and cooling solutions, the use of locally obtained materials, and in general, a "culture of permanence". New Urbanism is a broad movement that spans a number of different disciplines and geographic scales. And while the conventional approach to growth remains dominant, New Urbanist principles have become increasingly influential in the fields of planning, architecture, and public policy.


Defining elements

File:New Urbanism.jpg, New Urbanism Andrés Duany and
Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk (born December 20, 1950) is an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), ...

Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk
, two of the founders of the Congress for the New Urbanism, observed mixed-use streetscapes with corner shops, front porches, and a diversity of well-crafted housing while living in one of the
Victorian Victorian or Victorians may refer to: 19th century * Victorian era, British history during Queen Victoria's 19th-century reign ** Victorian architecture ** Victorian house ** Victorian decorative arts ** Victorian fashion ** Victorian literature ...
neighborhoods of
New Haven, Connecticut New Haven is a coastal city in the U.S. state of Connecticut. It is located on New Haven Harbor on the northern shore of Long Island Sound in New Haven County, Connecticut, and is part of the New York City metropolitan area. With a population ...
. They and their colleagues observed patterns including the following: * The neighborhood has a discernible center. This is often a square or a green and sometimes a busy or memorable street corner. A transit stop would be located at this center. * Most of the dwellings are within a five-minute walk of the center, an average of roughly . * There are a variety of dwelling types — usually houses,
rowhouse In architecture and city planning, a terrace or terraced house (British English, UK) or townhouse (American English, US) is a form of medium-density housing that originated in Europe in the 16th century, whereby a row of attached dwellings party ...
s, and
apartment An apartment (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of variety (linguistics), varieties of the English language native to the United S ...

apartment
s — so that younger and older people,
single Single may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media * Single (music), a song release Songs * Single (Natasha Bedingfield song), "Single" (Natasha Bedingfield song), 2004 * Single (New Kids on the Block and Ne-Yo song), "Single" (New Kids on the ...
s and families, the poor and the wealthy may find places to live. * At the edge of the neighborhood, there are shops and offices of sufficiently varied types to supply the weekly needs of a household. * A small ancillary building or
garage apartmentA garage apartment is an apartment built within the walls of, or on top of, the garage of a house. The garage may be attached or a separate building from the main house, but will have a separate entrance and may or may not have a communicating door t ...
is permitted within the backyard of each house. It may be used as a rental unit or place to work (for example, an office or craft workshop). * An elementary school is close enough so that most children can walk from their home. * There are small playgrounds accessible to every dwelling — not more than a tenth of a mile away. * Streets within the neighborhood form a connected network, which disperses traffic by providing a variety of pedestrian and vehicular routes to any destination. * The streets are relatively narrow and shaded by rows of trees. This slows traffic, creating an environment suitable for pedestrians and bicycles. * Buildings in the neighborhood center are placed close to the street, creating a well-defined outdoor room. * Parking lots and garage doors rarely front the street. Parking is relegated to the rear of buildings, usually accessed by alleys. * Certain prominent sites at the termination of street vistas or in the neighborhood center are reserved for civic buildings. These provide sites for community meetings, education, and religious or cultural activities.


Terminology

Several terms are viewed either as synonymous, included in, or overlapping with the New Urbanism. The terms Neotraditional Development or Traditional Neighborhood Development are often associated with the New Urbanism. These terms generally refer to complete New Towns or new neighborhoods, often built in traditional architectural styles, as opposed to smaller infill and redevelopment projects. The term Traditional Urbanism has also been used to describe the New Urbanism by those who object to the "new" moniker. The term "Walkable Urbanism" was proposed as an alternative term by developer and professor Christopher Leinberger. Many debate whether
Smart Growth Smart growth is an urban planning Planning is the process A process is a series or set of Action (philosophy), activities that interact to produce a result; it may occur once-only or be recurrent or periodic. Things called a process include: B ...
and the New Urbanism are the same or whether substantive differences exist between the two; overlap exists in membership and content between the two movements. Placemaking is another term that is often used to signify New Urbanist efforts or those of like-minded groups. The term Transit-Oriented Development is sometimes cited as being coined by prominent New Urbanist
Peter Calthorpe Peter Calthorpe (born 1949) is a San Francisco San Francisco (/Help:IPA/English, ˌsæn fɹənˈsɪskoʊ/; Spanish language, Spanish for "Francis of Assisi, Saint Francis"), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is a cultural, com ...
and is heavily promoted by New Urbanists. The term
sustainable development Sustainable development is the organizing principle for meeting human development goals while simultaneously sustaining the ability of natural systems to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services Social forestry in India, Social ...

sustainable development
is sometimes associated with the New Urbanism as there has been an increasing focus on the environmental benefits of New Urbanism associated with the rise of the term sustainability in the 2000s, however, this has caused some confusion as the term is also used by the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization aiming to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harm ...

United Nations
and
Agenda 21 Agenda 21 is a non-binding action planAn action plan is a detailed plan A plan is typically any diagram or list of steps with details of timing and resources, used to achieve an Goal, objective to do something. It is commonly understood as a ...
to include
human development Human development may refer to: * Development of the human body * Developmental psychology * Human development (economics) * Human Development Index, an index used to rank countries by level of human development * Human evolution, the prehistoric ...
issues (e.g.,
developing country A developing country is a sovereign state A sovereign state is a polity, political entity represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law defines sovereign states as having a perman ...
) that exceed the scope of
land development Land development is altering the landscape A landscape is the visible features of an area of , its s, and how they integrate with or man-made features.''New Oxford American Dictionary''. A landscape includes the physical elements of ly defi ...
intended to be addressed by the New Urbanism or
Sustainable Urbanism Sustainable urbanism is both the study of cities and the practices to build them (urbanism Urbanism is the study of how inhabitants of urban areas, such as towns and cities, interact with the built environment. It is a direct component of discip ...
. The term "livability" or "livable communities" was popular under the
Obama administration Barack Obama Barack Hussein Obama II ( ; born August 4, 1961) is an American politician and attorney who served as the 44th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and ...
, though it dates back at least to the mid-1990s when the term was used by the Local Government Commission. Planning magazine discussed the proliferation of "urbanisms" in an article in 2011 titled "A Short Guide to 60 of the Newest Urbanisms". Several New Urbanists have popularized terminology under the umbrella of the New Urbanism including
Sustainable Urbanism Sustainable urbanism is both the study of cities and the practices to build them (urbanism Urbanism is the study of how inhabitants of urban areas, such as towns and cities, interact with the built environment. It is a direct component of discip ...
and Tactical Urbanism (of which Guerrilla Urbanism can be viewed as a subset). The term Tactical Urbanism was coined by Frenchman Michel de Certau in 1968 and revived in 2011 by New Urbanist Mike Lydon and the co-authors of the Tactical Urbanism Guide. In 2011
Andres Duany Andres or Andrés may refer to: *Andres, Illinois, an unincorporated community in Will County, Illinois, United States *Andres, Pas-de-Calais, a commune in Pas-de-Calais, France *Andres (name) *Hurricane Andres *Andres (song), "Andres" (song), a ...
authored a book that used the term Agrarian Urbanism to describe an agriculturally-focused subset of New Urbanist town design. In 2013 a group of New Urbanists led by CNU co-founder
Andres Duany Andres or Andrés may refer to: *Andres, Illinois, an unincorporated community in Will County, Illinois, United States *Andres, Pas-de-Calais, a commune in Pas-de-Calais, France *Andres (name) *Hurricane Andres *Andres (song), "Andres" (song), a ...
began a research project under the banner of Lean Urbanism which purported to provide a bridge between Tactical Urbanism and the New Urbanism. Other terms have surfaced in reaction to the New Urbanism intended to provide a contrast, alternative to, or a refinement of the New Urbanism. Some of these terms include Everyday Urbanism by Harvard Professor Margaret Crawford, John Chase, and John Kaliski, Ecological Urbanism, and True Urbanism by architect Bernard Zyscovich.
Landscape urbanism Landscape urbanism is a theory of urban design arguing that the city is constructed of interconnected and ecologically rich horizontal field conditions, rather than the arrangement of objects and buildings. Landscape Urbanism, like Infrastructural ...
was popularized by Charles Waldheim who explicitly defined it as in opposition to the New Urbanism in his lectures at Harvard University. ''Landscape Urbanism and its Discontents'', edited by Andres Duany and Emily Talen, specifically addressed the tension between these two views of
urbanism Urbanism is the study of how inhabitants of urban areas, such as town A town is a human settlement In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the ...
.


Organizations

The primary organization promoting the New Urbanism in the United States is the
Congress for the New Urbanism New Urbanism is an urban design movement which promotes environmentally friendly habits by creating Walkability, walkable neighbourhoods containing a wide range of housing and job types. It arose in the United States in the early 1980s, and has ...
(CNU). The Congress for the New Urbanism is the leading organization promoting walkable, mixed-use neighborhood development, sustainable communities and healthier living conditions. CNU members promote the principles of CNU's Charter and the hallmarks of New Urbanism, including: * Livable streets arranged in compact, walkable blocks. * A range of housing choices to serve people of diverse ages and income levels. * Schools, stores and other nearby destinations reachable by walking, bicycling or transit service. * An affirming, human-scaled public realm where appropriately designed buildings define and enliven streets and other public spaces. The CNU has met annually since 1993 when they held their first general meeting in
Alexandria, Virginia Alexandria is an independent city An independent city or independent town is a city or town that does not form part of another general-purpose local government entity (such as a province). Historical precursors In the Holy Roman Empire ...

Alexandria, Virginia
, with approximately one hundred attendees. By 2008 the Congress was drawing two to three thousand attendees to the annual meetings. The CNU began forming local and regional chapters circa 2004 with the founding of the New England and Florida Chapters. By 2011 there were 16 official chapters and interest groups for 7 more. , Canada hosts two full CNU Chapters, one in Ontario (CNU Ontario), and one in British Columbia (Cascadia) which also includes a portion of the north-west US states. While the CNU has international participation in Canada, sister organizations have been formed in other areas of the world including the Council for European Urbanism (CEU), the Movement for Israeli Urbanism (MIU) and the Australian Council for the New Urbanism. By 2002 chapters of Students for the New Urbanism began appearing at universities including the
Savannah College of Art and Design Savannah College of Art and Design (SCAD) is a Private school, private Nonprofit organization, nonprofit art school with locations in Savannah, Georgia; Atlanta, Atlanta, Georgia; and Lacoste, Vaucluse, Lacoste, France. Founded in 1978 to prov ...

Savannah College of Art and Design
,
University of Georgia , mottoeng = To teach and to inquire into the nature of things.'To serve' was later added to the motto without changing the seal, so the university motto in English now is "To teach, to serve, and to inquire into the nature of thi ...
,
University of Notre Dame The University of Notre Dame du Lac, known simply as Notre Dame ( ) or ND, is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British ...
, and the
University of Miami The University of Miami (informally referred to as UM, Miami, UMiami, U of M or The U) is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdo ...
. In 2003, a group of younger professionals and students met at the 11th Congress in Washington, D.C. and began developing a "Manifesto of the Next Generation of New Urbanists". The Next Generation of New Urbanists held their first major session the following year at the 12th meeting of the CNU in Chicago in 2004. The group has continued meeting annually with a focus on young professionals, students, new member issues, and ensuring the flow of fresh ideas and diverse viewpoints within the New Urbanism and the CNU. Spinoff projects of the Next Generation of the New Urbanists include the Living Urbanism publication first published in 2008 and the first Tactical Urbanism Guide. The CNU has spawned publications and research groups. Publications include the ''New Urban News'' and the ''New Town Paper''. Research groups have formed independent nonprofits to research individual topics such as the Form-Based Codes Institute, The National Charrette Institute and the Center for Applied Transect Studies. In the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
New Urbanist and European urbanism principles are practised and taught by
The Prince's Foundation for the Built Environment The Prince's Foundation (formerly The Prince of Wales's Institute of Architecture until 2001, The Prince's Foundation for the Built Environment until 2012, and The Prince's Foundation for Building Community until 2018) is an educational charity esta ...
. Around the world, other organisations promote New Urbanism as part of their remit, such as
INTBAU The International Network for Traditional Building, Architecture & Urbanism (INTBAU) is an international organization established in 2001. The organization arose from a research project initiated in 2000 at The Prince's Foundation for the Built E ...
, A Vision of Europe, Council for European Urbanism, and others. The CNU and other national organizations have also formed partnerships with like-minded groups. Organizations under the banner of
Smart Growth Smart growth is an urban planning Planning is the process A process is a series or set of Action (philosophy), activities that interact to produce a result; it may occur once-only or be recurrent or periodic. Things called a process include: B ...
also often work with the Congress for the New Urbanism. In addition the CNU has formed partnerships on specific projects such as working with the
United States Green Building Council The U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), co-founded by Mike Italiano, David Gottfried and Rick Fedrizzi in 1993, is a private 501(c)3, membership-based non-profit organization that promotes sustainability in building design, construction, and o ...
and the
Natural Resources Defense Council The Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) is a United States-based 501(c)(3) A 501(c)(3) organization is a corporation, trust, unincorporated association, or other type of organization exempt from federal income tax under section 501(c)(3) ...
to develop the
LEED for Neighborhood Development LEED for Neighborhood Development (LEED-ND), where "LEED" stands for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) is a green building certification program used worldwide. Developed by the ...
standards, and with the
Institute of Transportation Engineers The Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) is an international educational and scientific association of transportation professionals who are responsible for meeting mobility and safety needs. ITE facilitates the application of technology and ...
to develop a Context Sensitive Solutions (CSS) Design manual.


Film

The New Urbanism Film Festival was held in 2013 and 2014 in Los Angeles to highlight films and short films about the New Urbanism and related topics. The 2011 film ''
Urbanized ''Urbanized'' is a documentary film A documentary film or documentary is a non-fictional film, motion-picture intended to "document reality, primarily for the purposes of instruction, education, or maintaining a Recorded history, historical r ...
'' by Gary Hustwit featured then CNU Board Chair Ellen Dunham-Jones and other urban thinkers on the international story of urbanization including the New Urbanist efforts in the United States. The 2004 documentary '' The End of Suburbia: Oil Depletion and the Collapse of the American Dream'' argues that the depletion of oil will result in the demise of the sprawl-type development.


Criticism

New Urbanism has drawn both praise and criticism from all parts of the
political spectrum A political spectrum is a system to characterize and classify different political positions Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision makin ...

political spectrum
. It has been criticized both for being a social engineering scheme and for failing to address social equity and for both restricting private enterprise and for being a deregulatory force in support of private sector developers. Journalist Alex Marshall has decried New Urbanism as essentially a marketing scheme that repackages conventional suburban sprawl behind a façade of nostalgic imagery and empty, aspirational slogans. In a 1996 article in ''Metropolis'' magazine, Marshall denounced New Urbanism as "a grand fraud". The attack continued in numerous articles, including an opinion column in the ''Washington Post'' in September of the same year, and in Marshall's first book
''How Cities Work: Suburbs, Sprawl, and the Roads Not Taken''
Critics have asserted that the effectiveness claimed for the New Urbanist solution of mixed income developments lacks statistical evidence. Independent studies have supported the idea of addressing poverty through mixed-income developments, but the argument that New Urbanism produces such diversity has been challenged from findings from one community in Canada. Some parties have criticized the New Urbanism for being too accommodating of motor vehicles and not going far enough to promote cleaner modes of travelling such as walking, cycling, and public transport. The Charter of the New Urbanism states that "communities should be designed for the pedestrian and transit as well as the car". Some critics suggest that communities should exclude the car altogether in favor of car-free developments. Steve Melia proposes the idea of "filtered permeability" (see
Permeability (spatial and transport planning) Permeability or connectivity describes the extent to which urban forms permit (or restrict) movement of people or vehicles in different directions. The terms are often used interchangeably, although differentiated definitions also exist (see belo ...
) which increases the connectivity of the pedestrian and cycling network resulting in a time and convenience advantage over drivers while still limiting the connectivity of the vehicular network and thus maintaining the safety benefits of cul de sacs and horseshoe loops in resistance to property crime. In response to critiques of a lack of evidence for the New Urbanism's claimed environmental benefits, a rating system for neighborhood environmental design, LEED-ND, was developed by the U.S. Green Building Council,
Natural Resources Defense Council The Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) is a United States-based 501(c)(3) A 501(c)(3) organization is a corporation, trust, unincorporated association, or other type of organization exempt from federal income tax under section 501(c)(3) ...
, and the
Congress for the New Urbanism New Urbanism is an urban design movement which promotes environmentally friendly habits by creating Walkability, walkable neighbourhoods containing a wide range of housing and job types. It arose in the United States in the early 1980s, and has ...
(CNU), to quantify the sustainability of New Urbanist neighborhood design. New Urbanist and board member of CNU Doug Farr has taken a step further and coined
Sustainable Urbanism Sustainable urbanism is both the study of cities and the practices to build them (urbanism Urbanism is the study of how inhabitants of urban areas, such as towns and cities, interact with the built environment. It is a direct component of discip ...
, which combines New Urbanism and LEED-ND to create walkable, transit-served urbanism with high performance buildings and infrastructure. Criticizing the lack of evidence for low greenhouse gas emissions results, Susan Subak has pointed out that while New Urbanism emphasizes walkability and building variety, it is the scale of dwellings, especially the absence of large houses that may determine successful, low carbon outcomes at the community level. New Urbanism has been criticized for being a form of centrally planned, large-scale development, "instead of allowing the initiative for construction to be taken by the final users themselves". It has been criticized for asserting universal principles of design instead of attending to local conditions.


Examples


United States

New Urbanism is having a growing influence on how and where metropolitan regions choose to grow. At least fourteen large-scale planning initiatives are based on the principles of linking transportation and land-use policies, and using the neighborhood as the fundamental building block of a region.
Miami, Florida Miami (), officially the City of Miami, is a metropolis located in in southeastern , . With a population of 467,963 as of the , it is the 44th-largest city in the United States and the core of the nation's eighth-largest metropolitan area. Th ...

Miami, Florida
has adopted the most ambitious New Urbanist-based zoning code reform yet undertaken by a major U.S. city. More than six hundred new towns, villages, and neighborhoods, following New Urbanist principles, have been planned or are currently under construction in the U.S. Hundreds of new, small-scale, urban and suburban infill projects are under way to reestablish walkable streets and blocks. In Maryland and several other states, New Urbanist principles are an integral part of ''
smart growth Smart growth is an urban planning Planning is the process A process is a series or set of Action (philosophy), activities that interact to produce a result; it may occur once-only or be recurrent or periodic. Things called a process include: B ...
'' legislation. In the mid-1990s, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) adopted the principles of the New Urbanism in its multibillion-dollar program to rebuild public housing projects nationwide. New Urbanists have planned and developed hundreds of projects in infill locations. Most were driven by the private sector, but many, including HUD projects, used public money. Prospect New Town Founded in the mid-1990s,
Prospect New Town Prospect New Town is a New Urbanism, New Urbanist housing development located on the southern edge of the city of Longmont, Colorado, Longmont in Boulder County, Colorado, Boulder County, Colorado, in the United States. The first full-scale new ur ...
is Colorado's first full-scale New Urbanist community. Developer Kiki Wallace worked the firm of Duany Plater Zyberk & Company to develop the neighborhood that was formerly his family's tree farm. Currently in its final phase of development, the neighborhood is intended to have a population of approximately 2,000 people in 585 units on 340 lots. The development includes a
town center A town centre is the commerce, commercial or geographical centre or core area of a town. Town centres are traditionally associated with shopping or retail. They are also the centre of communications with major public transport hubs such as train ...

town center
interwoven into the center of the residential area, with businesses ranging from restaurants to professional offices. The streets are oriented to maximize the view of the mountains, and the traditional town center is no more than five minutes on foot from any place in the neighborhood.


University Place in Memphis

In 2010, University Place in
Memphis, Tennessee Memphis is a city along the Mississippi River in southwestern Shelby County, Tennessee, United States. Its 2020 population was 633,104, making it Tennessee's List of largest cities and towns in Tennessee by population, second-most populous city ...
became the second only U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) LEED certified neighborhood. LEED ND (neighborhood development) standards integrates principles of smart growth, urbanism and green building and were developed through a collaboration between USGBC, Congress for the New Urbanism, and the
Natural Resources Defense Council The Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) is a United States-based 501(c)(3) A 501(c)(3) organization is a corporation, trust, unincorporated association, or other type of organization exempt from federal income tax under section 501(c)(3) ...
. University Place, developed by
McCormack Baron Salazar McCormack Baron Salazar is a United States, U.S. real estate development firm based in St. Louis, Missouri specializing in economically integrated urban neighborhoods with more than $4.23 billion invested in affordable and mixed-income housi ...
, is a 405-unit, , mixed-income, mixed use, multigenerational, HOPE VI grant community that revitalized the severely distressed Lamar Terrace public housing site.


The Cotton District

The Cotton District in Starkville, Mississippi was the first New Urbanist development, begun in 1968 long before the New Urbanism movement was organized. The District borders Mississippi State University, and consists mostly of residential rental units for college students along with restaurants, bars and retail. The Cotton District got its name because it is built in the vicinity of an old cotton mill.


Seaside

Seaside, Florida, the first fully New Urbanist town, began development in 1981 on 80 acres (324,000 m²) of Florida Panhandle coastline. It was featured on the cover of the ''The Atlantic, Atlantic Monthly'' in 1988, when only a few streets were completed, and has become internationally famous for its architecture, and the quality of its streets and public spaces. Seaside is now a tourist destination and appeared in the 1998 movie ''The Truman Show''. Lots sold for $15,000 in the early 1980s, and slightly over a decade later, the price had escalated to about $200,000. Today, most lots sell for more than $1 million, and some houses top $5 million.


Mueller Community

The Mueller Community is located on the site of the former Robert Mueller Municipal Airport in Austin, Texas, which closed in 1999. Per the developer, the value of the Mueller development upon completion will be $1.3 billion, and will comprise 4.2 million square feet of non-residential development, of retail space, 4,600 homes, and of open space. An estimated 10,000 permanent jobs within the development will have been created by the time it is complete. The Mueller Community also has more electric cars per capita than any other neighborhood in the United States – a fact partially attributable to an incentive program.


Stapleton

The site of the former Stapleton International Airport in Denver and Aurora, Colorado, closed in 1995, is now being redeveloped by Forest City Enterprises.Vincent, Roger and Groves, Martha (October 18, 2003
"L.A.'s Urban Model"
''Los Angeles Times''. Retrieved 12 October 2016
Stapleton is expected to be home to at least 30,000 residents, six schools and 2 million square feet (180,000 m²) of retail. Construction began in 2001. Northfield Stapleton, one of the development's major retail centers, recently opened.


San Antonio

In 1997 San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, as part of a new master plan, created new regulations called the Unified Development Code (UDC), largely influenced by New Urbanism. One feature of the UDC is six unique land development patterns that can be applied to certain districts: Conservation Development, Commercial Center Development, Office or Institutional Campus Development, Commercial Retrofit Development, Tradition Neighborhood Development, Transit Oriented Development. Each district has specific standards and design regulation. The six development patterns were created to reflect existing development patterns.


Mountain House

Mountain House, San Joaquin County, California, Mountain House, one of the latest New Urbanist projects in the United States, is a new town located near Tracy, California. Construction started in 2001. Mountain House will consist of 12 villages, each with its own elementary school, park, and commercial area. In addition, a future train station, transit center and bus system are planned for Mountain House.


Mesa del Sol

Mesa del Sol, New Mexico—the largest New Urbanist project in the United States—was designed by architect
Peter Calthorpe Peter Calthorpe (born 1949) is a San Francisco San Francisco (/Help:IPA/English, ˌsæn fɹənˈsɪskoʊ/; Spanish language, Spanish for "Francis of Assisi, Saint Francis"), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is a cultural, com ...
, and is being developed by Forest City Enterprises. Mesa del Sol may take five decades to reach full build-out, at which time it should have 38,000 residential units, housing a population of 100,000; a industrial office park; four town centers; an urban center; and a downtown that would provide a twin towns and sister cities, twin city within Albuquerque, New Mexico, Albuquerque.


I'On

Located in Mount Pleasant, South Carolina, I'On is a traditional neighborhood development, mixed with a new urbanism styled architecture, reflecting on the building designs of the nearby downtown areas of Charleston, South Carolina. Founded on April 30, 1995, I'On was designed by the town planning firms of Dover, Kohl & Partners and Duany Plater-Zyberk & Company, and currently holds over 750 single family homes. Features of the community include extensive sidewalks, shared public greens and parks, trails and a grid of narrow, traffic calming streets. Most homes are required to have a front porch of not less than eight feet (2.46 m) in depth. Floor heights of 10 feet (3.1 m), raised foundations and smaller lot sizes give the community a Urban density, dense, vertical feel.


Haile Plantation

Haile Plantation, Florida, is a 2,600-household () development of regional impact southwest of the city of Gainesville, within Alachua County. Haile Village Center is a traditional neighborhood center within the development. It was originally started in 1978 and completed in 2007. In addition to the 2,600 homes the neighborhood consists of two merchant centers (one a New England narrow street village and the other a chain grocery strip mall). There are also two public elementary schools and an 18-hole golf course.


Celebration, Florida

In June 1996, the The Walt Disney Company, Walt Disney Company unveiled its 5,000 acre (20 km²) town of Celebration, Florida, Celebration, near Orlando, Florida. Celebration opened its downtown in October 1996, relying heavily on the experiences of Seaside, whose downtown was nearly complete. Disney shuns the label New Urbanism, calling Celebration simply a "town". Celebration's Downtown has become one of the area's most popular tourist destinations making the community a showcase for New Urbanism as a prime example of the creation of a "sense of place".


Jersey City

The construction of the Hudson Bergen Light Rail in Hudson County, New Jersey has spurred transit-oriented development. In Jersey City, New Jersey, Jersey City, two projects are planned to transform brownfield sites, both of which have required remediation of toxic waste by previous owners. Bayfront, Jersey City, Bayfront, once site of a Honeywell plant is a site on the Hackensack River, and is nearby the planned West Campus of New Jersey City University. Canal Crossing, Jersey City, Canal Crossing, named for the former Morris Canal, was once partially owned by PPG Industries, and is a site west of Liberty State Park.


Old York Village, Chesterfield Township, New Jersey

The sparsely developed agricultural Chesterfield Township, New Jersey, Township of Chesterfield in
New Jersey New Jersey is a U.S. state, state in the Mid-Atlantic States, Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern United States, Northeastern regions of the United States. It is bordered on the north and east by the state of New York (state), New York; on the ea ...
covers approximately and has made farmland preservation a priority since the 1970s. Chesterfield has permanently preserved more than of farmland through state and county programs and a township-wide transfer of development credits program that directs future growth to a designated "receiving area" known as Old York Village. Old York Village is a neo-traditional, new urbanism town on incorporating a variety of housing types, neighborhood commercial facilities, a new elementary school, civic uses, and active and passive open space areas with preserved agricultural land surrounding the planned village. Construction began in the early 2000s and a significant percentage of the community is now complete. Old York Village was the winner of the American Planning Association National Outstanding Planning Award in 2004.


Civita

Civita (San Diego, California), Civita is a Sustainable development, sustainable, Transportation, transit-oriented master-planned village under development in the Mission Valley, San Diego, Mission Valley area of San Diego, San Diego, California,
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
. Located on a former quarry site, the Urban planning, urban-style village is organized around a community park that cascades down the terraced property. Civita development plans call for of parks and open space, 4,780 residences (including approximately 478 Affordable housing, affordable units), an approximately Lifestyle center (retail), retail center, and for an office/business campus. Sudberry Properties, the developer of Civita, incorporated numerous
green building Green building (also known as green construction or sustainable building) refers to both a structure and the application of processes that are environmentally responsible Ecosophy or ecophilosophy (a portmanteau of ecological philosophy) is a ...

green building
practices in the Civita design. In 2009, Civita achieved a Stage 1 Gold rating for the U.S. Green Building Council, Green Building Council's 2009 LEED-ND (Neighborhood Development) pilot and received the California Governor's Environmental and Economic Leadership Award. In 2010, Civita was designated as a California Catalyst Community by the California Department of Housing and Community Development to support innovation and test sustainable strategies that reflect the interdependence of environmental, economic, and community health.


Del Mar Station

Del Mar Station, which won a Congress for the New Urbanism Charter Award in 2003, is a
transit-oriented development In urban planning Urban planning, also known as regional planning, town planning, city planning, or rural planning, is a technical and political process that is focused on the development and design A design is a plan or specification ...
surrounding a prominent Los Angeles Metro Rail, Metro Rail Del Mar station, stop on the L Line (Los Angeles Metro), Gold Line, which connects Los Angeles and Pasadena. Located at the southern edge of downtown Pasadena, it serves as a gateway to the city with 347 apartments, out of which 15% are affordable units. Approximately of retail is linked with a network of public plazas, paseos and private courtyards. The , $77 million project sits above a 1,200-car multi-level subterranean parking garage, with 600 spaces dedicated to transit. The light rail right of way, detailed as a public street, bisects the site. It was designed by Moule & Polyzoides.


Norfolk VA East Beach

Norfolk, VA, East Beach. designed and built in the style of traditional Atlantic coastal villages. The Master Plan for East Beach was developed in the style of “New Urbanism” by world renowned TND master planners Duany Plater-Zyberk. Newly constructed homes reflect traditional classic detail and proportion of Tidewater Virginia homes, and are built with materials that will withstand the test of time and forces of Mother Nature and the Chesapeake Bay.


Other countries

New Urbanism is closely related to the Urban village movement in Europe. They both occurred at similar times and share many of the same principles although urban villages has an emphasis on traditional city planning. In Europe many brown-field sites have been redeveloped since the 1980s following the models of the traditional city neighbourhoods rather than Modernist models. One well-publicized example is Poundbury in England, a suburban extension to the town of Dorchester, which was built on land owned by the Duchy of Cornwall under the overview of Prince Charles. The original masterplan was designed by Leon Krier. A report carried out after the first phase of construction found a high degree of satisfaction by residents, although the aspirations to reduce car dependency had not been successful. Rising house prices and a perceived premium have made the open market housing unaffordable for many local people.WATSON, G., BENTLEY, I., ROAF, S. and SMITH, P., 2004. Learning from Poundbury, Research for the West Dorset District Council and the Duchy of Cornwall. Oxford Brookes University. The Council for European Urbanism (CEU), formed in 2003, shares many of the same aims as the U.S.'s New Urbanists. CEU's Charter is a development of the
Congress for the New Urbanism New Urbanism is an urban design movement which promotes environmentally friendly habits by creating Walkability, walkable neighbourhoods containing a wide range of housing and job types. It arose in the United States in the early 1980s, and has ...
Charter revised and reorganised to relate better to European conditions. An Australian organisation, Australian Council for New Urbanism has since 2001 run conferences and events to promote New Urbanism in that country. A New Zealand Urban Design Protocol was created by the Ministry for the Environment in 2005. There are many developments around the world that follow New Urbanist principles to a greater or lesser extent:


Europe

*
Le Plessis-Robinson Le Plessis-Robinson () is a commune An intentional community is a voluntary residential community designed from the start to have a high degree of group cohesiveness, social cohesion and teamwork. The members of an intentional community ty ...
, a 21st-century example of New classical architecture, neo-traditionalism, in the south-west of Paris. This city is in the process of transforming itself, destroying old modern blocklike buildings and replacing them with traditional buildings and houses in one of the biggest worldwide projects with Val d'Europe. In 2008 the city was nominated best architectural project of the European Union. * Poundbury, in Dorset, England, is a neotraditionalist urban extension focussed on high quality urban realm and the expression of traditional modes of urban or village life. * Tornagrain, between Inverness and Nairn, Scotland, The design is based on the architectural and planning traditions of the Highlands and the rest of Scotland. *Val d'Europe, east of Paris, France. Developed by Disneyland Resort Paris, this town is a kind of European counterpart to Walt Disney World Celebration City. *Jakriborg, in Southern Sweden, is a recent example of the New Urbanist movement. *Brandevoort, in Helmond, in the Netherlands, is a new example of the New Urbanist movement. *''Sankt Eriksområdet'' quarter in Stockholm, Sweden, built in the 1990s. *Other developments can be found at Heulebrug, part of Knokke-Heist, in Belgium, and Fonti di Matilde in :it:San Bartolomeo (Reggio Emilia), San Bartolomeo (outside of Reggio Emilia), Italy. *Kartanonkoski, in Vantaa, Finland, is the only example of neotraditional architecture in Finland implemented on a larger scale. The area has around 4000 inhabitants and its architecture has been mainly influenced by Nordic Classicism.


Americas

*Mahogany Bay Village, Belize, is New Urbanist community on Ambergris Caye, Belize. *Orchid Bay, Belize, is one of the largest New Urbanist projects in Central America and the Caribbean. *Las Catalinas, Costa Rica, is a coastal town in the Guanacaste Province of Northwest Costa Rica. Envisioned as a compact, walkable beach town, Las Catalinas was founded in 2006 by Charles Brewer (businessman), Charles Brewer and incorporates many of the principles of New Urbanism. *McKenzie Towne, Calgary, McKenzie Towne is a New Urbanist development which commenced in 1995 by Carma Developers LP in Calgary. *Cornell, Ontario, Cornell, within the city of Markham, Ontario, was designed with walkable neighborhoods, density to support public transit, a variety of housing types and retail. *New Amherst is a new urbanist development in the town of Cobourg, Ontario. *UniverCity, beside the Simon Fraser University campus on Burnaby Mountain in Burnaby, British Columbia, is a sustainable community that is designed to be walkable, dense, and well connected to public transit networks.


Asia

*The structure plan for Thimphu, Bhutan, follows Principles of Intelligent Urbanism, which share underlying axioms with the New Urbanism.


Africa

There are several such developments in South Africa. The most notable is Melrose Arch in Johannesburg. Triple Point (East London), Triple Point is a comparable mixed-use development in East London, Eastern Cape, East London, in Eastern Cape province. The development, announced in 2007, comprises 30 hectares. It is made up of three apartment complexes together with over 30 residential sites as well as 20,000 sq m of residential and office space. The development is valued at over R2 billion ($250 million). There have been cases where market forces of urban decay are confused with new urbanism i
African cities
This has led to a form of suburban mixed-use development that does not promote walkability.


Australia

Most new developments on the edges of Australia's major cities are master planned, often guided expressly by the principles of New Urbanism. The relationship between housing, activity centres, the transport network and key social infrastructure (sporting facilities, libraries, community centres etc.) is defined at structure planning stage. *Tullimbar Village, NSW Australia, is a new development which follows the principles of New Urbanism. Another important factor or principle of New Urbanism that guides Australia's major cities is how good their foot circulation seems to be which is guided by the wayfinding systems that are implemented. Kenneth B. Hall, Jr. and Gerald A. Porterfield said in their book, "Community by Design," the way to gain good circulation is to take some thoughtful consideration to things like wayfinding, sight lines, transition, visual clues, and reference points. Circulation design should work to create an interesting and informative system that utilizes subtle elements as well as technical ones. City of Port Philip, Australia, is a good example of wayfinding where they have come up with a comprehensive pedestrian signage system, specifically for their local areas of St Kilda, South Melbourne and Port Melbourne. The city's wayfinding system consists of 26 individually designed panels that are placed on some major streets such as St Kilda and St Kilda East, linking St Kilda Junction and Balaclava Station to the foreshore via Fitzroy, Carlisle and Acland Streets. City of Port Philip also created directional signage systems that makes use of the already existing street furniture such as trash cans to help provide for 130 directional indicators across Port Melbourne.


= 20-minute neighbourhoods

= Melbourne followed up a 2014 plan by launching 20-minute neighbourhoods in January 2018, aiming to provide for most daily needs within a 20-minute walk from home, together with safe cycling and public transport options. Another definition has used the time taken to cycle, or take a bus. In Melbourne the concept was initiated in the suburbs of Croydon South, Victoria, Croydon South, Strathmore, Victoria, Strathmore, and Sunshine West, Victoria, Sunshine West. The concept has since expanded to other cities, such as Singapore and Hamilton, New Zealand, Hamilton in New Zealand. Critics have pointed out that Melbourne's plan excludes jobs and that a previous target for public transport use has been shelved. The concept has been equated with Localism Act 2011, localism.


See also

*List of examples of New Urbanism


Urban planners, architects and New Urbanists

*Ivan Chtcheglov *Walter F. Chatham *Larry Beasley *Christopher Charles Benninger *
Peter Calthorpe Peter Calthorpe (born 1949) is a San Francisco San Francisco (/Help:IPA/English, ˌsæn fɹənˈsɪskoʊ/; Spanish language, Spanish for "Francis of Assisi, Saint Francis"), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is a cultural, com ...
* Andrés Duany *Hans Kollhoff *Leon Krier *Gabriele Tagliaventi *James Howard Kunstler *
Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk (born December 20, 1950) is an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), ...

Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk
*Sim Van der Ryn *Pier Carlo Bontempi *Ali Kemal Arkun


Locations

* Atlantic Station, Atlantic Station, Atlanta *Birkdale Village, Birkdale Village, North Carolina *Carlton Landing, Oklahoma *Daybreak (community), Daybreak, South Jordan, Utah *Downtown DeLand's Historic Garden District, DeLand, FL *Greenbelt, Maryland *Issaquah Highlands, Issaquah Highlands, Issaquah, Washington *Kentlands, Gaithersburg, Maryland *National Harbor, Maryland, National Harbor *New Town, Missouri *Orenco Station, Hillsboro, Oregon, Orenco Station, Oregon (New Urbanist transit-oriented development) *Port Melbourne, Victoria#Beacon Cove, Beacon Cove *Coed Darcy *Poundbury *Prospect New Town, Prospect New Town, Colorado *Verrado, Buckeye, Arizona *Uptown, Dallas, Texas (New Urbanist area rated most pedestrian-friendly in Texas) *Old York Village, Chesterfield Township, New Jersey


Topics

*Car-free movement *Carsharing *Circles of Sustainability *Community building *Crime prevention through environmental design *European Urban Renaissance *EcoMobility *Garden City Movement *Gentrification *International Network for Traditional Building, Architecture & Urbanism *Land recycling *Land value tax *Missing Middle Housing *MIU (Movement for Israeli Urbanism) *Mixed-use development *Naked streets/Shared space *New Classical Architecture *New pedestrianism * Principles of Intelligent Urbanism *Pedestrian-oriented development *Pedestrian Village *Preservation development *Traditional Neighborhood Development *Urban decay *Urbanism *Urban green space *Urban renaissance *Urban resilience *Urban sprawl *Walking audit *World Urbanism Day *YIMBY


References


Further reading

*Bohl, Charles C. "New Urbanism in the City: Potential Applications and Implications for Distressed Inner-City Neighborhoods." ''Housing Policy Debate'' 11.4 (2000): 761–801. (https://web.archive.org/web/20160611102029/http://www.botsfor.no/publikasjoner/litteratur/new%20urbanism/new%20urbanism%20and%20the%20city%20by%20charles%20bohl.pdf) *Brooke, Steven (1995). ''Seaside''. Gretna, La.: Pelican Publishing Company. *Calthorpe, Peter (1993). ''The Next American Metropolis: Ecology, Community, and the American Dream''. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. *Calthorpe, Peter and William Fulton (2001). ''The Regional City: Planning for the End of Sprawl''. Washington, DC: Island Press. * * * *Dutton, John A. (2001). ''New American Urbanism: Re-forming the Suburban Metropolis''. Milano: Skira editore. * *Gallini, Jared. 2010. "Demographics and Their Relationship to the Characteristics of New Urbanism: A Preliminary Study" . Applied Research Projects, Texas State University-San Marcos. Paper 340.http://ecommons.txstate.edu/arp/340 *Jacobs, Jane (1992). ''The Death and Life of Great American Cities''. New York: Vintage Books. . Originally published: New York: Random House, (1961). *Katz, Peter (1994). ''The New Urbanism: Toward an Architecture of Community''. New York: McGraw-Hill. *Kunstler, James Howard (1994). ''Geography Of Nowhere: The Rise And Decline of America's Man-Made Landscape''. New York: Simon & Schuster.
The New American Landscape: A New Urbanist's Perspective on Sildeshare
* * * *Waugh, David. 2004 Buying New Urbanism: A Study of New Urban Characteristics that Residents Value. Applied Research Project. Texas State University. http://ecommons.txstate.edu/arp/22/


External links


Congress for the New UrbanismAustralian Council for New UrbanismCouncil for European UrbanismNewUrbanism.orgTransit Oriented Development InstituteThe Next Generation of New UrbanistsA Vision of EuropeSustainable Urban Development Resource Guide
{{Urban Planning New Urbanism, Urban design Sustainable urban planning Sustainable communities Sustainable design Sustainable transport Environmentalism Human ecology Theories of aesthetics Urban studies and planning terminology