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) , population_demonym = New Mexican ( es, Neomexicano, Neomejicano, Nuevo Mexicano) , seat = Santa Fe , LargestCity =
Albuquerque Albuquerque ( ; ), ; kee, Arawageeki; tow, Vakêêke; zun, Alo:ke:k'ya; apj, Gołgéeki'yé. abbreviated ABQ, is the most populous city in the U.S. state of New Mexico. Its nicknames, The Duke City and Burque, both reference its founding in ...
, LargestMetro = Tiguex , OfficialLang = None , Languages = English,
Spanish Spanish might refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards are a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language, spoken in Spain and many Latin American countries **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Cana ...
( New Mexican),
Navajo The Navajo (; British English: Navaho; nv, Diné or ') are a Native American people of the Southwestern United States The Southwestern United States, also known as the American Southwest or simply the Southwest, is a geographic and cultur ...
, Keres, Zuni , Governor = , Lieutenant Governor = , Legislature =
New Mexico Legislature The New Mexico Legislature ( es, Legislatura de Nuevo México) is the legislative branch A legislature is an assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country A country is a distinct part of the ...
, Upperhouse =
Senate A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house An upper house is one of two Debate chamber, chambers of a bicameralism, bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the lower house.''Bicameralism'' (1997) by George Tseb ...
, Lowerhouse =
House of Representatives House of Representatives is the name of legislative bodies in many countries and sub-national entitles. In many countries, the House of Representatives is the lower house of a bicameral Bicameralism is a type of legislature, one divided ...
, Judiciary =
New Mexico Supreme Court The New Mexico Supreme Court is the supreme court, highest court in the U.S. state of New Mexico. It is established and its powers defined by Article VI of the New Mexico Constitution. It is primarily an appellate court which reviews civil and c ...
, Senators = * * , Representative = * * * , postal_code = NM , TradAbbreviation = N.M., N.Mex. , area_rank = 5th , area_total_sq_mi = 121,591 , area_total_km2 = 314,915 , area_land_sq_mi = 121,298 , area_land_km2 = 314,161 , area_water_sq_mi = 292 , area_water_km2 = 757 , area_water_percent = 0.24 , population_as_of = 2020 , population_rank = 36th , 2010Pop = 2,117,522 , population_density_rank = 45th , 2000DensityUS = 17.2 , 2000Density = 6.62 , MedianHouseholdIncome = $51,945 , IncomeRank = 45th , AdmittanceOrder = 47th , AdmittanceDate = January 6, 1912 , timezone1 =
Mountain A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust, generally with steep sides that show significant exposed bedrock. Although definitions vary, a mountain may differ from a plateau in having a limited Summit (topography), summit area, and ...
, utc_offset1 = −07:00 , timezone1_DST = MDT , utc_offset1_DST = −06:00 , timezone1_location = entire state (legally) , timezone2 = Central , utc_offset2 = −06:00 , timezone2_DST = CDT , utc_offset2_DST = −05:00 , timezone2_location = Nara Visa (informally) , Longitude = 103° W to 109°3′ W , Latitude = 31°20′ N to 37°N , width_mi = 344 , width_km = 552 , length_mi = 371 , length_km = 596 , elevation_max_point = Wheeler PeakElevation adjusted to
North American Vertical Datum of 1988 The North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88) is the vertical datum for orthometric heights established for vertical control surveying in the United States, United States of America based upon the General Adjustment of the North American Da ...
.
, elevation_max_ft = 13,161 , elevation_max_m = 4011.4 , elevation_ft = 5,701 , elevation_m = 1,741 , elevation_min_point = Red Bluff Reservoir on , elevation_min_ft = 2,845 , elevation_min_m = 868 , iso_code = US-NM , website = www.newmexico.gov , Capital = , Representatives = New Mexico ( es, Nuevo MéxicoIn
Peninsular Spanish Peninsular Spanish ( es, español peninsular) (also known as the Spanish of Spain ( es, español de España, links=no), European Spanish ( es, español europeo, links=no), Iberian Spanish ( es, español ibérico, links=no) or Spanish Spanish ( es ...
, a spelling, variant ''Méjico'', is also used alongside ''México''. According to the '' Diccionario panhispánico de dudas'' by
Royal Spanish Academy The Royal Spanish Academy ( es, Real Academia Española, generally abbreviated as RAE) is Spain's official royal institution with a mission to ensure the stability of the Spanish language. It is based in Madrid, Spain, and is affiliated with ...
and Association of Academies of the Spanish Language, the spelling version with J is correct; however, the spelling with X is recommended, as it is the one that is used in
Mexican Spanish Mexican Spanish ( es, español mexicano) is the variety of Dialect, dialects and Sociolect, sociolects of the Spanish language spoken in Mexican territory. Mexico has the largest number of Spanish speakers, with more than twice as many as in a ...
.
; nv, Yootó Hahoodzo ; nci, Yancuic MexicoIn Classical Nahuatl it has the following spelling variants Yancuic Mexico and Yancuic Mexihco ) is a
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, U ...
in the
Southwestern United States The Southwestern United States, also known as the American Southwest or simply the Southwest, is a geographic and cultural region of the United States that generally includes Arizona Arizona ( ; nv, Hoozdo Hahoodzo ; ood, Alĭ ṣonak ...
. It is one of the
Mountain States The Mountain states (also known as the Mountain West or the Interior West) form one of the nine geographic divisions of the United States that are officially recognized by the United States Census Bureau. It is a subregion of the Western Un ...
of the southern
Rocky Mountains The Rocky Mountains, also known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range and the largest mountain system in North America. The Rocky Mountains stretch in great-circle distance, straight-line distance from the northernmost part of western Can ...
, sharing the
Four Corners The Four Corners is a region of the Southwestern United States consisting of the Southwest Colorado, southwestern corner of Colorado, San Juan County, Utah, southeastern corner of Utah, northeastern corner of Arizona, and Northern New Mexi ...
region of the western U.S. with
Utah Utah ( , ) is a state in the Mountain West subregion of the Western United States. Utah is a landlocked U.S. state bordered to its east by Colorado Colorado (, other variants) is a state in the Mountain states, Mountain West su ...
,
Colorado Colorado (, other variants) is a state in the Mountain states, Mountain West subregion of the Western United States. It encompasses most of the Southern Rocky Mountains, as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the wes ...
, and
Arizona Arizona ( ; nv, Hoozdo Hahoodzo ; ood, Alĭ ṣonak ) is a U.S. state, state in the Southwestern United States. It is the list of U.S. states and territories by area, 6th largest and the list of U.S. states and territories by population, 14 ...
, and bordering
Texas Texas (, ; Spanish language, Spanish: ''Texas'', ''Tejas'') is a state in the South Central United States, South Central region of the United States. At 268,596 square miles (695,662 km2), and with more than 29.1 million residents in 2 ...
to the east and southeast,
Oklahoma Oklahoma (; Choctaw language, Choctaw: ; chr, ᎣᎧᎳᎰᎹ, ''Okalahoma'' ) is a U.S. state, state in the South Central United States, South Central region of the United States, bordered by Texas on the south and west, Kansas on the nor ...
to the northeast, and the
Mexican states The states of Mexico are first-level administrative territorial entities of the country of Mexico, which is officially named United Mexican States. There are 32 federal entities in Mexico (31 states and the capital, Mexico City Mexico City ( es ...
of Chihuahua and
Sonora Sonora (), officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Sonora ( en, Free and Sovereign State of Sonora), is one of the 31 states which, along with Mexico City, comprise the Administrative divisions of Mexico, Federal Entities of Mexico. The state is d ...
to the south. The
state capital Below is an index of pages containing lists of capital city, capital cities. National capitals *List of national capitals *List of national capitals by latitude *List of national capitals by population *List of national capitals by area *List of ...
is Santa Fe, which is the oldest capital in the U.S., founded in 1610 as the government seat of Nuevo México in
New Spain New Spain, officially the Viceroyalty of New Spain ( es, Virreinato de Nueva España, ), or Kingdom of New Spain, was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire, established by Habsburg Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Amer ...
; the largest city is
Albuquerque Albuquerque ( ; ), ; kee, Arawageeki; tow, Vakêêke; zun, Alo:ke:k'ya; apj, Gołgéeki'yé. abbreviated ABQ, is the most populous city in the U.S. state of New Mexico. Its nicknames, The Duke City and Burque, both reference its founding in ...
(1706). New Mexico is the fifth-largest of the fifty states, but with just over 2.1 million residents, ranks 36th in population and 46th in population density. 2020 U.S. Census Its climate and geography are highly varied, ranging from forested mountains to sparse deserts; the northern and eastern regions exhibit a colder
alpine climate Alpine climate is the typical weather (climate) for elevations above the tree line, where trees fail to grow due to cold. This climate is also referred to as a mountain climate or highland climate. Definition There are multiple definitions of ...
, while the west and south are warmer and more arid. The
Rio Grande The Rio Grande ( and ), known in Mexico as the Río Bravo del Norte or simply the Río Bravo, is one of the principal rivers (along with the Colorado River) in the southwestern United States and in northern Mexico. The length of the Rio G ...
and its fertile valley runs from north-to-south, creating a
riparian A riparian zone or riparian area is the interface between land and a river or stream. Riparian is also the proper nomenclature for one of the terrestrial biomes of the Earth. Plant habitats and communities along the river margins and Bank (ge ...
climate through the center of the state that supports a
bosque A bosque ( ) is a type of gallery forest habitat found along the riparian flood plains of stream and river banks in the southwestern United States. It derives its name from the Spanish language, Spanish word for 'wikt:bosque, woodlands'. Set ...
habitat and distinct
Albuquerque Basin The Albuquerque Basin (or Middle Rio Grande Basin) is a structural basin and ecoregion within the Rio Grande rift in central New Mexico. It contains the city of Albuquerque, New Mexico, Albuquerque. Geologically, the Albuquerque Basin is a half-g ...
climate. One–third of New Mexico's land is federally owned, and the state hosts many protected wilderness areas and national monuments, including three UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the most of any state. New Mexico's economy is highly diversified, including cattle ranching,
agriculture Agriculture or farming is the practice of cultivating Plant, plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of Sedentism, sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of Domestication, domesticated species created food ...
,
lumber Lumber is wood that has been processed into dimensional lumber, including beams and planks or boards, a stage in the process of wood production. Lumber is mainly used for construction framing, as well as finishing (floors, wall panels, w ...
,
scientific Science is a systematic endeavor that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictions about the universe. Science may be as old as the human species, and some of the earli ...
and
technological Technology is the application of knowledge to reach practical goals in a specifiable and reproducible way. The word ''technology'' may also mean the product of such an endeavor. The use of technology is widely prevalent in medicine Med ...
research, tourism, and
the arts The arts are a very wide range of human practices of creative expression, storytelling Storytelling is the social and cultural activity of sharing narrative, stories, sometimes with improvisation, theatre, theatrics or embellishment. E ...
, especially
textile Textile is an Hyponymy and hypernymy, umbrella term that includes various Fiber, fiber-based materials, including fibers, yarns, Staple (textiles)#Filament fiber, filaments, Thread (yarn), threads, different #Fabric, fabric types, etc. At f ...
s and
visual arts The visual arts are Art#Forms, genres, media, and styles, art forms such as painting, drawing, printmaking, sculpture, ceramics (art), ceramics, photography, video, filmmaking, design, crafts and architecture. Many artistic disciplines such as ...
. The state is a national leader in mining, oil and gas,
aerospace Aerospace is a term used to collectively refer to the atmosphere and outer space. Aerospace activity is very diverse, with a multitude of commercial, industrial and military applications. Aerospace engineering consists of aeronautics and astrona ...
,
media Media may refer to: Communication * Media (communication), tools used to deliver information or data ** Advertising media, various media, content, buying and placement for advertising ** Broadcast media, communications delivered over mass el ...
, and film. Its total
gross domestic product Gross domestic product (GDP) is a money, monetary Measurement in economics, measure of the market value of all the final goods and services produced and sold (not resold) in a specific time period by countries. Due to its complex and subjec ...
(GDP) in 2020 was $95.73 billion, with a GDP per capita of roughly $46,300. State tax policy is characterized by low to moderate taxation of resident personal income by national standards, with tax credits, exemptions, and special considerations for military personnel and favorable industries. Due to its large area and economic climate, New Mexico has a significant U.S. military presence, including
White Sands Missile Range White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) is a United States Army military testing area and firing range located in the US state of New Mexico. The range was originally established as the White Sands Proving Ground on 9July 1945. White Sands National Pa ...
, and strategically valuable federal research centers, such as Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories. The state hosted several key facilities of the
Manhattan Project The Manhattan Project was a research and development undertaking during World War II that produced the first nuclear weapons. It was led by the United States with the support of the United Kingdom and Canada. From 1942 to 1946, the project w ...
, which developed the world's first
atomic bomb A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or a combination of fission and fusion reactions ( thermonuclear bomb), producing a nuclear explosion. Both bom ...
, and was the site of the first nuclear test,
Trinity The Christian doctrine of the Trinity (, from 'threefold') is the central dogma concerning the nature of God in most Christian churches, which defines one God existing in three coequal, coeternal, consubstantial divine persons: God t ...
. In prehistoric times, New Mexico was home to
Ancestral Puebloans The Ancestral Puebloans, also known as the Anasazi, were an ancient Native American culture that spanned the present-day Four Corners region of the United States, comprising southeastern Utah Utah ( , ) is a state in the Mountain ...
, Mogollon, and the modern
Comanche The Comanche or Nʉmʉnʉʉ ( com, Nʉmʉnʉʉ, "the people") are a Native Americans in the United States, Native American tribe (Native American), tribe from the Great Plains, Southern Plains of the present-day United States. Comanche people t ...
and Utes;
Navajo The Navajo (; British English: Navaho; nv, Diné or ') are a Native American people of the Southwestern United States The Southwestern United States, also known as the American Southwest or simply the Southwest, is a geographic and cultur ...
s and
Apaches The Apache () are a group of culturally related Native Americans in the United States, Native American tribe (Native American), tribes in the Southwestern United States, which include the Chiricahua, Jicarilla Apache, Jicarilla, Lipan Apache ...
entered the state towards the end of the 15th century. Spanish explorers and settlers arrived in the 16th century from present-day Mexico, naming the territory ''Nuevo México'' after the Aztec legends about the
Pueblo In the Southwestern United States The Southwestern United States, also known as the American Southwest or simply the Southwest, is a geographic and cultural region of the United States that generally includes Arizona Arizona ( ; nv, ...
s of ''Yancuic Mexihco'', a new
Mexico Mexico (Spanish language, Spanish: México), officially the United Mexican States, is a List of sovereign states, country in the southern portion of North America. It is borders of Mexico, bordered to the north by the United States; to the so ...
, which evolved into the stories of the Seven Cities of Gold. Isolated by its rugged terrain and the relative dominance of its indigenous people, New Mexico was a
peripheral A peripheral or peripheral device is an auxiliary device used to put information into and get information out of a computer. The term ''peripheral device'' refers to all hardware components that are attached to a computer and are controlled by the ...
part of the
viceroy A viceroy () is an official who reigns over a polity in the name of and as the representative of the monarch of the territory. The term derives from the Latin prefix ''vice-'', meaning "in the place of" and the French word ''roy'', meaning "k ...
alty of
New Spain New Spain, officially the Viceroyalty of New Spain ( es, Virreinato de Nueva España, ), or Kingdom of New Spain, was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire, established by Habsburg Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Amer ...
. Following
Mexican independence The Mexican War of Independence ( es, Guerra de Independencia de México, links=no, 16 September 1810 – 27 September 1821) was an armed conflict and political process resulting in Mexico's independence from Spain. It was not a single, co ...
in 1821, it became an
autonomous region An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subnational administrative division or territory, internal territory of a sovereign state that has a degree of a ...
of Mexico, albeit increasingly threatened by the centralizing policies of the Mexican government, culminating in the Revolt of 1837; at the same time, the region became more economically dependent on the United States. At the conclusion of the
Mexican–American War The Mexican–American War, also known in the United States as the Mexican War and in Mexico as the (''United States intervention in Mexico''), was an armed conflict between the United States and Second Federal Republic of Mexico, Mexico f ...
in 1848, the U.S. annexed New Mexico as part of the larger
New Mexico Territory The Territory of New Mexico was an organized incorporated territory of the United States from September 9, 1850, until January 6, 1912. It was created from the U.S. provisional government of New Mexico, as a result of ''Santa Fe de Nuevo México ...
. It played a central role in U.S. westward expansion and was admitted to the Union as the 47th state on January 6, 1912. New Mexico's history has contributed to its unique demographic and cultural character. One of only six majority-minority states, it has the nation's highest percentage of
Hispanic and Latino Americans Hispanic and Latino Americans ( es, Estadounidenses hispanos y latinos; pt, Estadunidenses hispânicos e latinos) are Americans of Spaniards, Spanish and/or Latin Americans, Latin American ancestry. More broadly, these demographics include a ...
and the second-highest percentage of Native Americans after
Alaska Alaska ( ; russian: Аляска, Alyaska; ale, Alax̂sxax̂; ; ems, Alas'kaaq; Central Alaskan Yup'ik language, Yup'ik: ''Alaskaq''; tli, Anáaski) is a U.S. state, state located in the Western United States on the northwest extremity o ...
. New Mexico is home to part of the
Navajo Nation The Navajo Nation ( nv, Naabeehó Bináhásdzo), also known as Navajoland, is a Native Americans in the United States, Native American Indian reservation, reservation in the United States. It occupies portions of northeastern Arizona, northwe ...
, 19 federally recognized Pueblo communities, and three different federally recognized
Apache The Apache () are a group of culturally related Native American tribes in the Southwestern United States, which include the Chiricahua, Jicarilla, Lipan, Mescalero, Mimbreño, Ndendahe (Bedonkohe or Mogollon and Nednhi or Carrizaleño ...
tribes. Its large Hispanic population includes
Hispanos Hispanos (from es, adj. prefix Hispano- relating to Spain, from la, Hispānus) are Hispanic residents of the United States who are culturally descended from the original Spanish language, Spanish-speaking settlers in the areas which were once ...
, who descend from
Oasisamerica Oasisamerica is a term that was coined by Paul Kirchhoff (who also coined " Mesoamerica") and published in a 1954 article, and is used by some scholars, primarily Mexican anthropologists, for the broad cultural area defining pre-Columbian ...
n groups and settlers of ''Nuevo México'' in
New Spain New Spain, officially the Viceroyalty of New Spain ( es, Virreinato de Nueva España, ), or Kingdom of New Spain, was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire, established by Habsburg Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Amer ...
, as well as later groups of
Mexican Americans Mexican Americans ( es, mexicano-estadounidenses, , or ) are Americans of full or partial Mexicans, Mexican heritage. In 2019, Mexican Americans comprised 11.3% of the US population and 61.5% of all Hispanic and Latino Americans. In 2019, 71% ...
since the 19th century. The New Mexican flag, which is among the most recognizable in the U.S., reflects the state's eclectic origins, bearing the scarlet and gold coloration of the Spanish flag along with the ancient sun symbol of the Zia, a Puebloan tribe. The confluence of indigenous, Hispanic (Spanish and Mexican), and American influences is also evident in New Mexico's unique cuisine,
music genre A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from ''musical form'' and musical style, although in practice these terms are some ...
, and
architectural Architecture is the art and technique of designing and building, as distinguished from the skills associated with construction. It is both the process and the product of sketching, conceiving, planning, designing, and construction, constructin ...
style Style is a manner of doing or presenting things and may refer to: * Architectural style, the features that make a building or structure historically identifiable * Design A design is a plan or specification for the construction of an object or ...
.


Etymology

New Mexico received its name long before the present-day nation of
Mexico Mexico (Spanish language, Spanish: México), officially the United Mexican States, is a List of sovereign states, country in the southern portion of North America. It is borders of Mexico, bordered to the north by the United States; to the so ...
won independence from Spain and adopted that name in 1821. The name "Mexico" derives from
Nahuatl Nahuatl (; ), Aztec, or Mexicano is a language or, by some definitions, a group of languages of the Uto-Aztecan languages, Uto-Aztecan language family. Varieties of Nahuatl are spoken by about Nahuas, Nahua peoples, most of whom live mainly in ...
and originally referred to the heartland of the
Mexica The Mexica ( Nahuatl: , ;''Nahuatl Dictionary.'' (1990). Wired Humanities Project. University of Oregon. Retrieved August 29, 2012, frolink/ref> singular ) were a Nahuatl-speaking indigenous people of the Valley of Mexico who were the rulers ...
, the rulers of the
Aztec Empire The Aztec Empire or the Triple Alliance ( nci, Ēxcān Tlahtōlōyān, Help:IPA/Nahuatl, jéːʃkaːn̥ t͡ɬaʔtoːˈlóːjaːn̥ was an alliance of three Nahua peoples, Nahua altepetl, city-states: , , and . These three city-states ruled ...
, in the
Valley of Mexico The Valley of Mexico ( es, Valle de México) is a highlands plateau in central Mexico roughly coterminous with present-day Mexico City and the eastern half of the State of Mexico. Surrounded by mountains and volcanoes, the Valley of Mexico wa ...
. The
Classical Nahuatl Classical Nahuatl (also known simply as Aztec or Nahuatl) is any of the variants of Nahuatl spoken in the Valley of Mexico and central Mexico as a ''lingua franca'' at the time of the 16th-century Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire. During the s ...
term ''Yancuic Mexihco'', a new Mexico, was used to describe a mystical empire that rivaled the scale of their own Aztec Empire. These myths had a basis in the trade network of the Pueblos. These stories eventually evolved into the folklore of the Seven Cities of Gold. Following their conquest of the Aztecs in the early 16th century, the Spanish began exploring what is now the
Southwestern United States The Southwestern United States, also known as the American Southwest or simply the Southwest, is a geographic and cultural region of the United States that generally includes Arizona Arizona ( ; nv, Hoozdo Hahoodzo ; ood, Alĭ ṣonak ...
calling it ''Nuevo México'', a Spanish language translation of the prior Nahuatl term ''Yancuic Mexihco''. In 1581, the Chamuscado and Rodríguez Expedition named the region north of the Rio Grande ''San Felipe del Nuevo México''. The Spaniards had hoped to find wealthy indigenous cultures similar to the Mexica. The indigenous cultures of New Mexico, however, proved to be unrelated to the Mexica and lacking in riches, but the name persisted. Before statehood in 1912, the name "New Mexico" loosely applied to various configurations of territories in the same general area, which evolved throughout the Spanish, Mexican, and U.S. periods, but typically encompassed most of present-day New Mexico along with sections of neighboring states.


History


Prehistory

The first known inhabitants of New Mexico were members of the
Clovis culture The Clovis culture is a prehistoric Paleo-Indians, Paleoamerican culture, named for distinct stone and bone tools found in close association with Pleistocene fauna, particularly two mammoths, at Blackwater Locality No. 1 near Clovis, New Mexic ...
of Paleo-Indians. Footprints discovered in 2017 suggest that humans may have been present in the region as long ago as 21,000–23,000 BC. Later inhabitants include American Indians of the Mogollon and
Ancestral Pueblo The Ancestral Puebloans, also known as the Anasazi, were an ancient Native American culture that spanned the present-day Four Corners region of the United States, comprising southeastern Utah, northeastern Arizona, northwestern New Mexico, an ...
cultures.
Pueblo In the Southwestern United States The Southwestern United States, also known as the American Southwest or simply the Southwest, is a geographic and cultural region of the United States that generally includes Arizona Arizona ( ; nv, ...
s like those at
Acoma Pueblo Acoma Pueblo (, kjq, Áakʼu) is a Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Native American pueblo approximately west of Albuquerque, New Mexico, in the United States. Four communities make up the village of Acoma Pueblo: Sky City (Old Acoma), Acomi ...
,
Taos Pueblo Taos Pueblo (or Pueblo de Taos) is an ancient pueblo belonging to a Taos language, Taos-speaking (Tiwa languages, Tiwa) Native American tribe of Puebloan peoples, Puebloan people. It lies about north of the modern city of Taos, New Mexico. The ...
, and the ruins at
Chaco Culture National Historical Park Chaco Culture National Historical Park is a United States National Historic Sites (United States), National Historical Park in the Southwestern United States, American Southwest hosting a concentration of pueblos. The park is located in northw ...
, indicate the scale of Ancestral Puebloan dwellings within the area. The trade routes of the Ancestral Puebloan people were prolific enough that it led to legends, throughout
Mesoamerica Mesoamerica is a historical region and cultural area in southern North America and most of Central America. It extends from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica. Withi ...
and the
Aztec Empire The Aztec Empire or the Triple Alliance ( nci, Ēxcān Tlahtōlōyān, Help:IPA/Nahuatl, jéːʃkaːn̥ t͡ɬaʔtoːˈlóːjaːn̥ was an alliance of three Nahua peoples, Nahua altepetl, city-states: , , and . These three city-states ruled ...
(
Mexico Mexico (Spanish language, Spanish: México), officially the United Mexican States, is a List of sovereign states, country in the southern portion of North America. It is borders of Mexico, bordered to the north by the United States; to the so ...
), of an unseen empire that rivaled their own located somewhere within
Oasisamerica Oasisamerica is a term that was coined by Paul Kirchhoff (who also coined " Mesoamerica") and published in a 1954 article, and is used by some scholars, primarily Mexican anthropologists, for the broad cultural area defining pre-Columbian ...
. They called this unseen empire ''Yancuic Mexico'', literally translated as "a new Mexico".


Nuevo México


New Spain era

The Aztec legends of a new empire, to their north, became folklore of the Seven Cities of Gold. Several explorations by Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, Andrés Dorantes de Carranza, Alonso del Castillo Maldonado, Estevanico, and Marcos de Niza, were mixed with fables about the region. Francisco Vásquez de Coronado assembled an enormous expedition at Compostela in 1540–1542 to explore and find these fabled golden cities. Francisco de Ibarra was one of the first Spanish accounts to use the term New Mexico, when he explored far to the north of New Spain in 1563 and reported his findings as confirmation of "a New Mexico". Juan de Oñate officially established the name when he was appointed the first governor of the new Province of New Mexico in 1598. The same year, he founded the '' San Juan de los Caballeros'' capital at '' San Gabriel de Yungue-Ouinge'', the first permanent European settlement in New Mexico, on the Rio Grande near Ohkay Owingeh Pueblo. Oñate extended ''
El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro The Camino Real de Tierra Adentro ( en, Royal Road of the Interior Land), also known as the Silver Route, was a Viceroyalty of New Spain, Spanish road between Mexico City and San Juan Pueblo, New Mexico, San Juan Pueblo (''Ohkay Owingeh''), New ...
'', Royal Road of the Interior, by from Santa Bárbara, Chihuahua, to his remote colony. But following the heavy-handed treatment of the natives, Oñate was exiled from New Mexico. The settlement of '' La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís'' was established by Pedro de Peralta as a more permanent capital at the foot of the
Sangre de Cristo Mountains The Sangre de Cristo Mountains ( Spanish for "Blood of Christ Blood of Christ, also known as the Most Precious Blood of Our Lord Jesus Christ, in Christian theology refers to (a) the physical blood actually shed by Jesus Christ primarily on the ...
in 1610. As a result of the
Pueblo Revolt The Pueblo Revolt of 1680, also known as Popé's Rebellion or Popay's Rebellion, was an uprising of most of the indigenous Pueblo people against the Spanish colonizers in the province of Santa Fe de Nuevo México, larger than present-day New Me ...
, these early cities were occupied by the Puebloan peoples until the Spanish returned with an offer of better cultural and religious liberties for the Pueblos. After the death of the Pueblo leader Popé, Diego de Vargas restored the area to Spanish rule. The returning settlers founded '' La Villa de Alburquerque'' in 1706 at
Old Town Albuquerque Old Town is the historic original town site of Albuquerque, New Mexico, for the provincial kingdom of Santa Fe de Nuevo México, established in 1706 by New Mexico governor Francisco Cuervo y Valdés. It is listed on the New Mexico State Register ...
as a trading center for existing surrounding communities such as Barelas,
Isleta Pueblo of Isleta ( tix, Shiewhibak , kjq, Dîiw'a'ane ; nv, Naatoohó ) is an unincorporated community and Tanoan pueblo in Bernalillo County, New Mexico, United States, originally established in the . The Southern Tiwa language, Southern ...
, Los Ranchos, and Sandia, naming it for the viceroy of New Spain, Francisco Fernández de la Cueva, 10th Duke of Alburquerque. Then governor Francisco Cuervo y Valdés officially established the villa in Tiguex to provide
free trade Free trade is a trade policy that does not restrict imports or exports. It can also be understood as the free market idea applied to international trade. In government, free trade is predominantly advocated by political parties that hold Econo ...
access and facilitate cultural exchange in the region. Beyond establishing better relations with the Pueblos, some governors like Tomás Vélez Cachupín became well known for their forward thinking approach to indigenous rights. One of the reasons
Arizona Arizona ( ; nv, Hoozdo Hahoodzo ; ood, Alĭ ṣonak ) is a U.S. state, state in the Southwestern United States. It is the list of U.S. states and territories by area, 6th largest and the list of U.S. states and territories by population, 14 ...
and New Mexico have such large reservations is due to Spanish treaties recognizing indigenous rights to their land in Nuevo México.


Mexico era

As a part of New Spain, the claims for the province of New Mexico passed to the
First Mexican Empire The Mexican Empire ( es, Imperio Mexicano, ) was a constitutional monarchy, the first independent government of Mexico and the only former colony of the Spanish Empire to Monarchism in Mexico, establish a monarchy after Mexican War of Independenc ...
in 1821 following the
Mexican War of Independence The Mexican War of Independence ( es, Guerra de Independencia de México, links=no, 16 September 1810 – 27 September 1821) was an armed conflict and political process resulting in Mexico's independence from Spain. It was not a single, co ...
. The
Republic of Texas The Republic of Texas ( es, República de Tejas) was a sovereign state in North America that existed from March 2, 1836, to February 19, 1846, that bordered Mexico, the Republic of the Rio Grande in 1840 (another breakaway republic from Mex ...
claimed the portion east of the
Rio Grande The Rio Grande ( and ), known in Mexico as the Río Bravo del Norte or simply the Río Bravo, is one of the principal rivers (along with the Colorado River) in the southwestern United States and in northern Mexico. The length of the Rio G ...
when it seceded from Mexico in 1836 when it incorrectly assumed the older Hispanic settlements of the upper Rio Grande were the same as the newly established Mexican settlements of Texas. Texas's only attempt to establish a presence or control in the claimed territory was the failed Texan Santa Fe Expedition. Their entire army was captured and jailed by the Hispanic New Mexico militia. By 1800, the population of New Mexico had reached 25,000. During the turn of the 19th century, the extreme northeastern part of New Mexico, north of the Canadian River and east of the spine of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains was still claimed by
France France (), officially the French Republic ( ), is a country primarily located in Western Europe. It also comprises of Overseas France, overseas regions and territories in the Americas and the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic, Pacific Ocean, Pac ...
, which sold it in 1803 as part of the
Louisiana Purchase The Louisiana Purchase (french: Vente de la Louisiane, translation=Sale of Louisiana) was the acquisition of the Louisiana (New France), territory of Louisiana by the United States from the French First Republic in 1803. In return for fifteen ...
. When the
Louisiana Territory The Territory of Louisiana or Louisiana Territory was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from July 4, 1805, until June 4, 1812, when it was renamed the Missouri Territory. The territory was formed out of the ...
was admitted as a state in 1812, the U.S. reclassified it as part of the
Missouri Territory The Territory of Missouri was an organized incorporated territory of the United States The territory of the United States and its overseas possessions has territorial evolution of the United States, evolved over time, from the colonial United ...
. The region (along with territory that makes up present-day southeastern Colorado, the
Texas Texas (, ; Spanish language, Spanish: ''Texas'', ''Tejas'') is a state in the South Central United States, South Central region of the United States. At 268,596 square miles (695,662 km2), and with more than 29.1 million residents in 2 ...
and
Oklahoma Panhandle The Oklahoma Panhandle (formerly called No Man's Land, the Public Land Strip, the Neutral Strip, or Cimarron Territory) is a Salient (geography), salient in the extreme northwestern region of the U.S. state of Oklahoma, consisting of Cimarron ...
s, and southwestern
Kansas Kansas () is a U.S. state, state in the Midwestern United States, Midwestern United States. Its Capital city, capital is Topeka, Kansas, Topeka, and its largest city is Wichita, Kansas, Wichita. Kansas is a landlocked state bordered by Nebras ...
) was ceded to Spain under the Adams-Onis Treaty in 1819. When the
First Mexican Republic The First Mexican Republic, known also as the First Federal Republic ( es, Primera República Federal, link=no), was a Federal republic, federated republic, under the Constitution of 1824. It was a nation-state officially designated the United M ...
began to transition into the
Centralist Republic of Mexico The Centralist Republic of Mexico ( es, República Centralista de México), or in the anglophone scholarship, the Central Republic, officially the Mexican Republic ( es, República Mexicana), was a unitary political regime established in Mexico ...
, they began to centralize power ignoring the sovereignty of Santa Fe and disregarding Pueblo land rights. This led to the Chimayó Rebellion in 1837, led by genízaro José Gonzales. The death of then governor Albino Pérez during the revolt, was met with further hostility. Though José Gonzales was executed due to his involvement in the governors death, subsequent governors Manuel Armijo and Juan Bautista Vigil y Alarid agreed with some of the underlying sentiment. This led to New Mexico becoming financially and politically tied to the United States of America, and preferring trade along the
Santa Fe Trail The Santa Fe Trail was a 19th-century route through central North America that connected Franklin, Missouri, with Santa Fe, New Mexico, Santa Fe, New Mexico. Pioneered in 1821 by William Becknell, who departed from the Boonslick region along th ...
.


Territorial phase

Following the victory of the United States in the Mexican–American War (1846–48), the
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ( es, Tratado de Guadalupe Hidalgo), officially the Treaty of Peace, Friendship, Limits, and Settlement between the United States of America and the United Mexican States, is the peace treaty that was signed on 2 ...
resulted in Mexico ceding its northern holdings to the U.S., including the territories of Mexican California, Texas, and New Mexico. At first, the United States was heavy-handed in their treatment of the former Mexican citizens. But Hispano and Pueblo soldiers fought against the American military during the Taos Revolt in 1847. Following which time, the American government vowed to accept the Mexican residents' claims to their lands and to accept them as citizens. Years later, in 1864, President
Abraham Lincoln Abraham Lincoln ( ; February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was an American lawyer, politician, and statesman who served as the 16th president of the United States from 1861 until his assassination in 1865. Lincoln led the nation throu ...
symbolized the recognition of Native land rights with the Lincoln Canes,
sceptre A sceptre is a staff or wand held in the hand by a ruling monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. Life tenure, for life or until abdication, and therefore the hea ...
s of office gifted to each of the Pueblos, a tradition dating back to Spanish and Mexican eras. After Texas was admitted as a state in 1845, it continued to claim a northeastern portion of New Mexico east of the Rio Grande. Under the
Compromise of 1850 The Compromise of 1850 was a package of five separate bills passed by the United States Congress in September 1850 that defused a political confrontation between slave and free states on the status of Mexican Cession, territories acquired in t ...
, it was forced by the U.S. government to drop these claims in exchange for $10million in federal funds. Pursuant to the compromise, Congress established the separate
New Mexico Territory The Territory of New Mexico was an organized incorporated territory of the United States from September 9, 1850, until January 6, 1912. It was created from the U.S. provisional government of New Mexico, as a result of ''Santa Fe de Nuevo México ...
in September of that year; it included most of present-day Arizona and New Mexico, along with the
Las Vegas Las Vegas (; Spanish language, Spanish for "The Meadows"), often known simply as Vegas, is the List of United States cities by population, 25th-most populous city in the United States, the most populous city in the U.S. state, state of Neva ...
Valley A valley is an elongated low area often running between Hill, hills or Mountain, mountains, which will typically contain a river or stream running from one end to the other. Most valleys are formed by erosion of the land surface by rivers ...
and what would later become Clark County in
Nevada Nevada ( ; ) is a U.S. state, state in the Western United States, Western region of the United States. It is bordered by Oregon to the northwest, Idaho to the northeast, California to the west, Arizona to the southeast, and Utah to the east. N ...
. In 1853, the U.S. acquired the mostly desert southwestern bootheel of the state, along with Arizona land south of the Gila River, in the
Gadsden Purchase The Gadsden Purchase ( es, region=MX, la Venta de La Mesilla "The Sale of La Mesilla") is a region of present-day southern Arizona Arizona ( ; nv, Hoozdo Hahoodzo ; ood, Alĭ ṣonak ) is a U.S. state, state in the Southwestern United ...
, which was needed for the right-of-way to encourage construction of a
transcontinental railroad A transcontinental railroad or transcontinental railway is contiguous rail transport, railroad trackage, that crosses a continent, continental land mass and has terminals at different oceans or continental borders. Such networks can be via the R ...
. When the U.S. Civil War broke out in 1861, both Confederate and Union governments claimed ownership and territorial rights over New Mexico Territory. The Confederacy claimed the southern tract as its own
Arizona Territory The Territory of Arizona (also known as Arizona Territory) was a Organized incorporated territories of the United States, territory of the United States that existed from February 24, 1863, until February 14, 1912, when the remaining extent of ...
, and as part of the Trans-Mississippi Theater of the war, waged the ambitious New Mexico Campaign to control the
American Southwest The Southwestern United States, also known as the American Southwest or simply the Southwest, is a geographic and cultural region of the United States that generally includes Arizona Arizona ( ; nv, Hoozdo Hahoodzo ; ood, Alĭ ṣonak ...
and open up access to Union California. Confederate power in the New Mexico Territory was effectively broken after the
Battle of Glorieta Pass The Battle of Glorieta Pass (March 26–28, 1862) in the northern New Mexico Territory, was the decisive battle of the New Mexico campaign during the American Civil War. Dubbed the "Battle of Gettysburg, Gettysburg of the West" by some author ...
in 1862. However, the Confederate territorial government continued to operate out of Texas, and Confederate troops marched under the Arizona flag until the end of the war. More than 8,000 men from New Mexico Territory served in the Union Army. During the
American frontier The American frontier, also known as the Old West or the Wild West, encompasses the geography, history, folklore, and culture associated with the forward wave of American expansion in mainland North America that began with European colonial s ...
, many of the
folklore Folklore is shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group. This includes oral traditions such as Narrative, tales, legends, proverbs and jokes. They include material culture, r ...
characters of the
Western genre The Western is a genre Setting (narrative), set in the American frontier and commonly associated with Americana (culture), folk tales of the Western United States, particularly the Southwestern United States, as well as Northern Mexico and ...
had their origins in New Mexico, most notably businesswoman Maria Gertrudis Barceló, outlaw
Billy the Kid Billy the Kid (born Henry McCarty; September 17 or November 23, 1859July 14, 1881), also known by the pseudonym A pseudonym (; ) or alias () is a fictitious name that a person or group assumes for a particular purpose, which differs from t ...
, as well as lawmen Pat Garrett and
Elfego Baca Elfego Baca (February 10, 1865 – August 27, 1945) was a gunman, lawman, lawyer, and politician in New Mexico; during the later years of the New Mexico Territory American frontier, frontier he became an American folk hero. His goal in life was to ...
. In the late 19th century, the majority of officially European-descended residents in New Mexico were ethnic mestizos of Native Mexican and Native American (Pueblo, Navajo, Apache, Genízaro, and Comanche) ancestry, many of whom had deep roots in the area from early Spanish colonial times; this distinctly New Mexican ethnic group became referred to as the Hispanos of New Mexico. Politically, they still controlled most of the town and county offices through area elections, and wealthy sheepherder families commanded considerable influence, preferring
business Business is the practice of making one's living or making money by producing or Trade, buying and selling Product (business), products (such as goods and Service (economics), services). It is also "any activity or enterprise entered into for pr ...
,
legislative A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, political entity such as a Sovereign state, country or city. They are often contrasted with the Executive (government), executive and Judiciary, ...
, and
judicial The judiciary (also known as the judicial system, judicature, judicial branch, judiciative branch, and court or judiciary system) is the system of courts that adjudication, adjudicates legal disputes/disagreements and interprets, defends, and app ...
relations with fellow indigenous New Mexican groups. The Anglo Americans (which included recent African American arrivals) tended to have more ties to the territorial governor and judges, who were appointed by officials outside of the region. The Anglo minority was "outnumbered, but well-organized and growing".Charles Montgomery, "Becoming 'Spanish-American': Race and Rhetoric in New Mexico Politics, 1880–1928"
, ''Journal of American Ethnic History'' Vol. 20, No. 4 (Summer, 2001), pp. 59–84 (published by University of Illinois Press for Immigration and Ethnic History Society); accessed via JSTOR, July 20, 2016,
These newly arrived settlers often tried to maintain New Mexico as a territory, since the governor was being assigned by the President of the United States, and they were worried about Native and Hispano communities being in positions of power. This mob mentality would sometimes culminate in the lynching of the Native, Hispanic, and Mexican peoples, as was attempted at the Frisco shootout. Prominent people attempted to fight this prejudice, including
Vigil A vigil, from the Latin ''vigilia'' meaning ''wakefulness'' (Greek language, Greek: ''pannychis'', or ''agrypnia'' ), is a period of purposeful sleeplessness, an occasion for devotional watching, or an observance. The Italian word ''vigilia'' h ...
, Garrett, Otero,
Curry A curry is a dish with a sauce seasoned with spices, mainly associated with South Asian cuisine. In southern India, leaves from the curry tree may be included. There are many varieties of curry. The choice of spices for each dish in tradi ...
, Larrazolo, Baca, Hagerman, and major constituents from both major political parties, the Democratic Party of New Mexico and the Republican Party of New Mexico. Some territorial governors like
Lew Wallace Lewis Wallace (April 10, 1827February 15, 1905) was an American lawyer, Union Army, Union general in the American Civil War, governor of New Mexico, governor of the New Mexico Territory, politician, diplomat, and author from Indiana. Among his ...
served in both the Mexican and American militaries.


Statehood

The
United States Congress The United States Congress is the legislature of the federal government of the United States. It is Bicameralism, bicameral, composed of a lower body, the United States House of Representatives, House of Representatives, and an upper body, ...
admitted New Mexico as the 47th state on January 6, 1912. It had been eligible for statehood 60 years earlier but was delayed due to the perception of the population being majority "alien"
Mexican American Mexican Americans ( es, mexicano-estadounidenses, , or ) are Americans of full or partial Mexicans, Mexican heritage. In 2019, Mexican Americans comprised 11.3% of the US population and 61.5% of all Hispanic and Latino Americans. In 2019, 71% ...
. Indo-Hispano families had long been established since the Spanish and Mexican era, but most American settlers in the state had an uneasy relationship with the large Native American tribes. Most of indigenous New Mexicans lived on reservations and near old placitas and villas. At the beginning of the 20th century, Congress passed a law in 1924 that granting all Native Americans U.S. citizenship and the right to vote in federal and state elections. But American arrivals into New Mexico had established was among several states with
Jim Crow laws The Jim Crow laws were U.S. state, state and local laws enforcing Racial segregation in the United States, racial segregation in the Southern United States. Other areas of the United States were affected by formal and informal policies of ...
against those who do not pay taxes cannot vote.Willard Hughes Rollings, "Citizenship and Suffrage: The Native American Struggle for Civil Rights in the American West, 1830–1965"
, ''Nevada Law Journal'' Vol. 5:126, Fall 2004; accessed July 18, 2016
Because the Hispanos often had
interpersonal relationship The concept of interpersonal relationship involves social associations, connections, or affiliations between two or more people. Interpersonal relationships vary in their degree of intimacy or self-disclosure, but also in their duration, in t ...
s with indigenous groups, they were often subject to segregation,
social inequality Social inequality occurs when resources in a given society are distributed unevenly, typically through Norm (social), norms of allocation, that engender specific patterns along lines of socially defined categories of persons. It posses and cr ...
, and
employment discrimination Employment discrimination is a form of illegal discrimination in the workplace based on legally protected characteristics. In the U.S., federal anti-discrimination law prohibits discrimination by employers against employees based on age, race, ...
. The Republican Party of New Mexico was the first to incorporate Hispanic and Native voices into leadership roles, it wasn't until Octaviano Ambrosio Larrazolo that the Democratic Party of New Mexico began to fight for civil rights for Hispanic and Latino Americans in New Mexico. Republican president
Theodore Roosevelt Theodore Roosevelt Jr. ( ; October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919), often referred to as Teddy or by his initials, T. R., was an American politician, statesman, soldier, conservationist, naturalist, historian, and writer who served as the 26t ...
had much respect for the Hispanos, Mexican Americans, and indigenous communities of New Mexico, as many of them had been a part of his
Rough Riders The Rough Riders was a nickname given to the 1st United States Volunteer Cavalry, one of three such regiments raised in 1898 for the Spanish–American War and the only one to see combat. The United States Army was small, understaffed, and diso ...
. It is because of these positive Republican and Democratic connections to New Mexico's heritage, that despite often 'leaning blue' it is neither a red state or blue state, it remains a
bellwether A bellwether is a leader or an indicator of trends.bellwether
" ''Cambridge Dictionary''. Ret ...
purple state. During the fight for
women's suffrage in the United States In the 1700's to early 1800's New Jersey did allow Women the right to vote before the passing of the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, 19th Amendment, but in 1807 the state restricted the right to vote to "...tax-paying, ...
, New Mexico's Hispano and Mexican women at the forefront included Trinidad Cabeza de Baca, Dolores "Lola" Armijo, Mrs. James Chavez, Aurora Lucero, Anita "Mrs. Secundino" Romero, Arabella "Mrs. Cleofas" Romero and her daughter, Marie. A major oil discovery in 1928 brought wealth to the state, especially Lea County and the town of Hobbs. The town was named after James Hobbs, a homesteader there in 1907. The Midwest State No.1 well, begun in late 1927 with a standard cable-tool drilling rig, revealed the first signs of oil from the Hobbs field on June 13, 1928. Drilled to 4,330 feet and completed a few months later, the well produced 700 barrels of oil per day on state land. The Midwest Refining Company's Hobbs well produced oil until 2002. The New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources called it "the most important single discovery of oil in New Mexico's history". During
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a world war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved the World War II by country, vast majority of the world's countries—including all of the great power ...
, the first
atomic bomb A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or a combination of fission and fusion reactions ( thermonuclear bomb), producing a nuclear explosion. Both bom ...
s were designed and manufactured at Los Alamos, a site developed by the federal government specifically to support a high-intensity scientific effort to rapidly complete research and testing of this weapon. The first bomb was tested at
Trinity site Trinity was the code name of the first detonation of a nuclear weapon. It was conducted by the United States Army at 5:29 a.m. on July 16, 1945, as part of the Manhattan Project. The test was conducted in the Jornada del Muerto desert abo ...
in the desert between Socorro and Alamogordo on what is now
White Sands Missile Range White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) is a United States Army military testing area and firing range located in the US state of New Mexico. The range was originally established as the White Sands Proving Ground on 9July 1945. White Sands National Pa ...
. This
high technology High technology (high tech), also known as advanced technology (advanced tech) or exotechnology, is technology that is at the cutting edge: the highest form of technology available. It can be defined as either the most complex or the newest t ...
focus has remained a top priority of the state, so much so that the state became a center for
unidentified flying object An unidentified flying object (UFO), more recently renamed by US officials as a UAP (unidentified aerial phenomenon), is any perceived aerial phenomenon that cannot be immediately identified or explained. On investigation, most UFOs are Ide ...
s, especially following the 1947
Roswell incident The Roswell incident was an event that occurred in 1947, pertaining to the recovery of mundane metallic and rubber debris from a military balloon that crashed near Corona, New Mexico by United States Army Air Forces officers from Roswell Army ...
in Roswell. Native Americans from New Mexico fought for the United States in both the
First First or 1st is the ordinal form of the number 1 (number), one (#1). First or 1st may also refer to: *World record, specifically the first instance of a particular achievement Arts and media Music * 1$T, American rapper, singer-songwriter, D ...
and Second World Wars. Veterans were disappointed to return and find their civil rights limited by state discrimination. In Arizona and New Mexico, veterans challenged state laws or practices prohibiting them from voting. In 1948, after veteran Miguel Trujillo, Sr. of Isleta Pueblo was told by the county registrar that he could not register to vote, he filed suit against the county in federal district court. A three-judge panel overturned as unconstitutional New Mexico's provisions that Indians who did not pay taxes (and could not document if they had paid taxes) could not vote. Judge Phillips wrote: New Mexico has received large amounts of federal government spending on major military and research institutions in the state. It is home to three Air Force bases, the
White Sands Missile Range White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) is a United States Army military testing area and firing range located in the US state of New Mexico. The range was originally established as the White Sands Proving Ground on 9July 1945. White Sands National Pa ...
, and the federal research laboratories
Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos National Laboratory (often shortened as Los Alamos and LANL) is one of the sixteen research and development Laboratory, laboratories of the United States Department of Energy National Laboratories, United States Department of Energy ...
and
Sandia National Laboratories Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), also known as Sandia, is one of three research and development laboratories of the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). Headquartered in Kirtland Air Force ...
. The state's population grew rapidly after World War II, nearly doubling between 1940 and 1960; by 2000, residents numbered over 1.8 million from roughly 532,000 in 1940. While the high military presence brought considerable investment, it has also been the center of controversy; on May 22, 1957, a B-36 accidentally dropped a nuclear bomb 4.5 miles from the control tower while landing at
Kirtland Air Force Base Kirtland Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base located in the southeast quadrant of the Albuquerque, New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico urban area, adjacent to the Albuquerque International Sunport. The base was named for the ea ...
in Albuquerque; only its conventional "trigger" detonated. In addition to federal personnel and agencies, many residents and businesses moved to the state, particularly from the northeast, often drawn by its warm climate and low taxes. The pattern continues into the 21st century, with New Mexico adding over 400,000 residents between 2000 and 2020. In the early to mid 20th century, the art presence in Santa Fe grew, and it became known as one of the world's great art centers. The presence of artists such as
Georgia O'Keeffe Georgia Totto O'Keeffe (November 15, 1887 – March 6, 1986) was an American modernist artist. She was known for Flower paintings of Georgia O'Keeffe, her paintings of enlarged flowers, New York skyscrapers (O'Keeffe), New York skyscrapers, and ...
attracted many others, including those along
Canyon Road Canyon Road (formerly known as Great Plank Road) is a major road A road is a linear way for the conveyance of traffic that mostly has an road surface, improved surface for use by vehicles (motorized and non-motorized) and pedestrians. Unli ...
. In the late 20th century, Native Americans were authorized by federal law to establish gaming casinos on their reservations under certain conditions, in states which had authorized such gaming. Such facilities have helped tribes close to population centers generate revenues for reinvestment in the economic development and welfare of their peoples. The Albuquerque metropolitan area is home to several casinos because of this. In the 21st century, employment growth areas in New Mexico include
electronic circuit An electronic circuit is composed of individual electronic components, such as resistors, transistors, capacitors, inductors and diodes, connected by conductive wires or Conductive trace, traces through which electric current can flow. It is a t ...
ry,
scientific research The scientific method is an empirical Empirical evidence for a proposition is evidence, i.e. what supports or counters this proposition, that is constituted by or accessible to sense experience or experimental procedure. Empirical evidence ...
,
information technology Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to create, process, store, retrieve, and exchange all kinds of Data (computing), data . and information. IT forms part of information and communications technology (ICT). An information te ...
, New Mexican casinos, art of the American Southwest,
food Food is any substance consumed by an organism for nutritional support. Food is usually of plant, animal, or fungal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substanc ...
,
film A film also called a movie, motion picture, moving picture, picture, photoplay or (slang) flick is a work of visual art that simulates experiences and otherwise communicates ideas, stories, perceptions, feelings, beauty, or atmosphere ...
, and media in Albuquerque. The state was the founding location of
Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems (MITS) was an American electronics company founded in Albuquerque, New Mexico that began manufacturing electronic calculators in 1971 and personal computers in 1975. Ed Roberts (computer engineer), Ed R ...
, which led to the founding of
Microsoft Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational corporation, multinational technology company, technology corporation producing Software, computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, and related services headquartered at th ...
in Albuquerque.
Intel Intel Corporation is an American multinational corporation and technology company headquartered in Santa Clara, California, Santa Clara, California. It is the world's largest semiconductor chip manufacturer by revenue, and is one of the devel ...
maintains their F11X in
Rio Rancho Rio Rancho ( es, Río Rancho) is the most populous and only city in Sandoval County, part of the expansive Albuquerque metropolitan area, in the U.S. state of New Mexico ) , population_demonym = New Mexican ( es, Neomexicano, Neomejicano, ...
, the company HP Inc. maintains an IT center there. New Mexico's culinary scene became recognized and is now a source of revenue for the state. Albuquerque Studios has become a filming hub for
Netflix Netflix, Inc. is an American video on demand#Subscription models, subscription video on-demand Over-the-top media service, over-the-top Streaming media, streaming service and production company based in Los Gatos, California. Founded in 1997 b ...
, and it was brought international media production companies to the state like
NBCUniversal NBCUniversal Media, LLC is an American multinational mass media and entertainment Entertainment is a form of activity that holds the attention and interest of an audience or gives pleasure and delight. It can be an idea or a task, bu ...
.


Geography

With a total area of , New Mexico is the fifth-largest state, after Alaska, Texas, California, and Montana. Its eastern border lies along 103°W
longitude Longitude (, ) is a geographic coordinate system, geographic coordinate that specifies the east–west position of a point on the surface of the Earth, or another Celestial navigation, celestial body. It is an angular measurement, usually exp ...
with the state of
Oklahoma Oklahoma (; Choctaw language, Choctaw: ; chr, ᎣᎧᎳᎰᎹ, ''Okalahoma'' ) is a U.S. state, state in the South Central United States, South Central region of the United States, bordered by Texas on the south and west, Kansas on the nor ...
, and west of 103°W longitude with
Texas Texas (, ; Spanish language, Spanish: ''Texas'', ''Tejas'') is a state in the South Central United States, South Central region of the United States. At 268,596 square miles (695,662 km2), and with more than 29.1 million residents in 2 ...
(due to a 19th-century surveying error). On the southern border, Texas makes up the eastern two-thirds, while the Mexican states of Chihuahua and
Sonora Sonora (), officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Sonora ( en, Free and Sovereign State of Sonora), is one of the 31 states which, along with Mexico City, comprise the Administrative divisions of Mexico, Federal Entities of Mexico. The state is d ...
make up the western third, with Chihuahua making up about 90% of that. The western border with
Arizona Arizona ( ; nv, Hoozdo Hahoodzo ; ood, Alĭ ṣonak ) is a U.S. state, state in the Southwestern United States. It is the list of U.S. states and territories by area, 6th largest and the list of U.S. states and territories by population, 14 ...
runs along the 109° 03'W longitude. The southwestern corner of the state is known as the Bootheel. The 37°N parallel forms the northern boundary with Colorado. The states of New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah come together at the Four Corners in New Mexico's northwestern corner. Its surface water area is about . Despite its popular depiction as mostly arid desert, New Mexico has one of the most diverse
landscape A landscape is the visible features of an area of Terrestrial ecoregion, land, its landforms, and how they integrate with Nature, natural or man-made features, often considered in terms of their aesthetic appeal.''New Oxford American Dictionar ...
s of any U.S. state, ranging from wide, auburn-colored deserts and verdant grasslands, to broken
mesa A mesa is an isolated, flat-topped elevation, ridge or hill, which is bounded from all sides by steep escarpments and stands distinctly above a surrounding plain. Mesas characteristically consist of flat-lying soft sedimentary rocks capped by a ...
s and high, snow-capped peaks. Close to a third of the state is covered in timberland, with heavily forested mountain wildernesses dominating the north. The
Sangre de Cristo Mountains The Sangre de Cristo Mountains ( Spanish for "Blood of Christ Blood of Christ, also known as the Most Precious Blood of Our Lord Jesus Christ, in Christian theology refers to (a) the physical blood actually shed by Jesus Christ primarily on the ...
, the southernmost part of the
Rocky Mountains The Rocky Mountains, also known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range and the largest mountain system in North America. The Rocky Mountains stretch in great-circle distance, straight-line distance from the northernmost part of western Can ...
, run roughly north–south along the east side of the
Rio Grande The Rio Grande ( and ), known in Mexico as the Río Bravo del Norte or simply the Río Bravo, is one of the principal rivers (along with the Colorado River) in the southwestern United States and in northern Mexico. The length of the Rio G ...
, in the rugged, pastoral north. The
Great Plains The Great Plains (french: Grandes Plaines), sometimes simply "the Plains", is a broad expanse of plain, flatland in North America. It is located west of the Mississippi River and east of the Rocky Mountains, much of it covered in prairie, step ...
extend into the eastern third of the state, most notably the
Llano Estacado The Llano Estacado (), sometimes translated into English as the Staked Plains, is a region in the Southwestern United States that encompasses parts of eastern New Mexico and northwestern Texas. One of the largest mesas or tablelands on the North A ...
("Staked Plain"), whose westernmost boundary is marked by the
Mescalero Ridge The Mescalero Ridge forms the western edge of the great Llano Estacado The Llano Estacado (), sometimes translated into English as the Staked Plains, is a region in the Southwestern United States that encompasses parts of eastern New Mexico and no ...
escarpment An escarpment is a steep slope landform, slope or long cliff that forms as a result of faulting or erosion and separates two relatively level areas having different elevations. The terms ''scarp'' and ''scarp face'' are often used interchangea ...
. The northwestern quadrant of New Mexico is dominated by the
Colorado Plateau The Colorado Plateau, also known as the Colorado Plateau Province, is a United States physiographic region, physiographic and desert, desert region of the Intermontane Plateaus, roughly centered on the Four Corners region of the southwestern Uni ...
, characterized by unique volcanic formations, dry grasslands and shrublands, open pinyon-juniper woodland, and mountain forests. The
Chihuahuan Desert The Chihuahuan Desert ( es, Desierto de Chihuahua, ) is a desert ecoregion designation covering parts of northern Mexico and the southwestern United States. It occupies much of far West Texas, the middle to lower Rio Grande Valley and the lower P ...
, which is the largest in North America, extends through the south. Over four–fifths of New Mexico is higher than 4,000 feet (1,250 meters) above sea level. The average elevation ranges from up to 8,000 feet (2,500 meters) above sea level in the northwest, to less than 4,000 feet in the southeast. The highest point is Wheeler Peak at over 13,160 feet (4,011 meters) in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, while the lowest is the Red Bluff Reservoir at around 2,840 feet (866 meters), in the southeastern corner of the state. In addition to the Rio Grande, which is tied for the fourth-longest river in the U.S., New Mexico has four other major river systems: the Pecos,
Canadian Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, legal, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, many (or all) of these connections exist and are collectively the source of ...
, San Juan, and Gila. Nearly bisecting New Mexico from north to south, the Rio Grande has played an influential role in the region's history; its fertile floodplain has supported human habitation since prehistoric times, and European settlers initially lived exclusively in its valleys and along its tributaries. The Pecos, which flows roughly parallel to the Rio Grande at its east, was a popular route for explorers, as was the Canadian River, which rises in the mountainous north and flows east across the arid plains. The San Juan and Gila lie west of the
Continental Divide A continental divide is a drainage divide A drainage divide, water divide, ridgeline, watershed, water parting or height of land is elevated terrain that separates neighboring drainage basins. On rugged land, the divide lies along topograph ...
, in the northwest and southwest, respectively. With the exception of the Gila, all major rivers are dammed in New Mexico and provide a major water source for
irrigation Irrigation (also referred to as watering) is the practice of applying controlled amounts of water to land to help grow Crop, crops, Landscape plant, landscape plants, and Lawn, lawns. Irrigation has been a key aspect of agriculture for over 5,00 ...
and flood control. Aside from its rivers, New Mexico has few sizeable natural bodies of water; there are several artificial lakes and reservoirs, the largest being Elephant Butte Reservoir, which was created by the damming of the Rio Grande. At its height in the early 20th century, the reservoir was the largest man-made lake in the world. Conservation experts, hunters, and outdoors enthusiasts have expressed an appreciation for New Mexico's natural environment and even-handed New Mexico Department of Game and Fish. Author N. Scott Momaday discussed the indigenous, Hispanic, and American frontier setting of New Mexico and its shared relationship to the land, which was covered in a documentary he narrated titled ''Remembered Earth'' about New Mexico's high desert. Large game hunters such as Robert L. Runnels, fishing experts Van Beacham and Ti Piper, and duck hunters like Si Robertson of
Duck Commander Duck Commander is an American hunting and outdoor recreation company in West Monroe, Louisiana. Founded by Phil Robertson, a American football, football quarterback at Louisiana Tech University, he developed and patented the company's namesake d ...
, have acknowledged the wildlife hunting and fishing environment in New Mexico.


Climate

New Mexico has long been known for its dry, temperate climate. Overall the state is semi-arid to arid, with areas of continental and alpine climates at higher elevations. New Mexico's statewide average precipitation is a year, with average monthly amounts peaking in the summer, particularly in the more rugged north-central area around Albuquerque and in the south. Generally, the eastern third of the state receives the most rainfall, while the western third receives the least. Higher altitudes receive around 40 inches (1,000 mm), while the lowest elevations see as little as 8 to 10 inches (200–250 mm). Annual temperatures can range from in the southeast to below in the northern mountains, with the average being the mid-50s °F (12 °C). During the summer, daytime temperatures can often exceed at elevations below ; the average high temperature in July ranges from at the lower elevations down to 78°F (26°C) at the higher elevations. In the colder months of November to March, many cities in New Mexico can have nighttime temperature lows in the teens above zero, or lower. The highest temperature recorded in New Mexico was at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Loving on June 27, 1994; the lowest recorded temperature is at Gavilan (near Lindrith) on February 1, 1951. New Mexico's stable climate and sparse population provides for clearer skies and less
light pollution Light pollution is the presence of unwanted, inappropriate, or excessive use of artificial Visible spectrum, lighting. In a descriptive sense, the term ''light pollution'' refers to the effects of any poorly implemented lighting, during the day ...
, making it a popular site for several major astronomical observatories, including the
Apache Point Observatory The Apache Point Observatory (APO; obs. code: 705) is an astronomical Astronomy () is a natural science that studies astronomical object, celestial objects and phenomena. It uses mathematics, physics, and chemistry in order to explain th ...
, the
Very Large Array The Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) is a radio astronomy, centimeter-wavelength radio astronomy observatory located in central New Mexico on the Plains of San Agustin, between the towns of Magdalena, New Mexico, Magdalena and Datil, New Me ...
, and the Magdalena Ridge Observatory, among others.


Flora and fauna

Owing to its varied
topography Topography is the study of the forms and features of land surfaces. The topography of an area may refer to the land forms and features themselves, or a description or depiction in maps. Topography is a field of geoscience and planetary scien ...
, New Mexico has six distinct vegetation zones that provide diverse sets of habitats for many plants and animals. The Upper Sonoran Zone is by far the most prominent, constituting about three-fourths of the state; it includes most of the plains, foothills, and valleys above 4,500 feet, and is defined by prairie grasses, low piñon pines, and juniper shrubs. The
Llano Estacado The Llano Estacado (), sometimes translated into English as the Staked Plains, is a region in the Southwestern United States that encompasses parts of eastern New Mexico and northwestern Texas. One of the largest mesas or tablelands on the North A ...
in the east features
shortgrass prairie The shortgrass prairie is an ecosystem located in the Great Plains of North America. The two most dominant grasses in the shortgrass prairie are blue grama (''Bouteloua gracilis'') and buffalograss (''Bouteloua dactyloides''), the two less domina ...
with blue grama, which sustain
bison Bison are large bovines in the genus ''Bison'' (Greek: "wild ox" (bison)) within the tribe Bovini. Two extant taxon, extant and numerous extinction, extinct species are recognised. Of the two surviving species, the American bison, ''B. bison'' ...
. The
Chihuahuan Desert The Chihuahuan Desert ( es, Desierto de Chihuahua, ) is a desert ecoregion designation covering parts of northern Mexico and the southwestern United States. It occupies much of far West Texas, the middle to lower Rio Grande Valley and the lower P ...
in the south is characterized by shrubby
creosote Creosote is a category of carbonaceous chemicals formed by the distillation of various tars and pyrolysis of plant-derived material, such as wood or fossil fuel. They are typically used as preservatives or antiseptics. Some creosote types were ...
. The
Colorado Plateau The Colorado Plateau, also known as the Colorado Plateau Province, is a United States physiographic region, physiographic and desert, desert region of the Intermontane Plateaus, roughly centered on the Four Corners region of the southwestern Uni ...
in the northwest corner of New Mexico is high desert with cold winters, featuring
sagebrush Sagebrush is the common name In biology, a common name of a taxon or organism (also known as a vernacular name, English name, colloquial name, country name, popular name, or farmer's name) is a name that is based on the normal language ...
, shadescale, greasewood, and other plants adapted to the saline and seleniferous soil. The mountainous north hosts a wide array of vegetation types corresponding to elevation gradients, such as piñon-juniper woodlands near the base, through
evergreen In botany, an evergreen is a plant which has Leaf, foliage that remains green and functional through more than one growing season. This also pertains to plants that retain their foliage only in warm climates, and contrasts with deciduous plants, ...
conifers Conifers are a group of cone-bearing seed plants, a subset of gymnosperm The gymnosperms ( lit. revealed seeds) are a group of seed-producing plants that includes conifers, cycads, '' Ginkgo'', and gnetophytes, forming the clade Gym ...
,
spruce A spruce is a tree of the genus ''Picea'' (), a genus of about 35 species of coniferous evergreen trees in the family Pinaceae, found in the northern temperate and boreal ecosystem, boreal (taiga) regions of the Earth. ''Picea'' is the sole gen ...
- fir and
aspen Aspen is a common name for certain tree species; some, but not all, are classified by botanists in the section (botany), section Populus sect. Populus, ''Populus'', of the ''Populus'' genus. Species These species are called aspens: *''Popul ...
forests in the transitionary zone, and
Krummholz ''Krummholz'' (german: krumm, "crooked, bent, twisted" and ''Holz'', "wood") — also called ''knieholz'' ("knee timber") — is a type of stunted, deformed vegetation encountered in the subarctic and subalpine zone, subalpine tree line lands ...
, and
alpine tundra Alpine tundra is a type of natural region or biome that does not contain trees because it is at high elevation, with an associated alpine climate, harsh climate. As the latitude of a location approaches the poles, the threshold elevation for alp ...
at the very top. The Apachian zone tucked into the southwestern bootheel of the state has high-calcium soil, oak woodlands,
Arizona cypress ''Cupressus arizonica'', the Arizona cypress, is a North American species In biology, a species is the basic unit of Taxonomy (biology), classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is oft ...
, and other plants that are not found in other parts of the state. The southern sections of the Rio Grande and Pecos valleys have 20,000 square miles (52,000 square km) of New Mexico's best grazing land and irrigated farmland. New Mexico's varied climate and vegetation zones consequently support diverse wildlife. Black bears,
bighorn sheep The bighorn sheep (''Ovis canadensis'') is a species of Ovis, sheep native to North America. It is named for its large Horn (anatomy), horns. A pair of horns might weigh up to ; the sheep typically weigh up to . Recent genetic testing indicates ...
,
bobcat The bobcat (''Lynx rufus''), also known as the red lynx, is a medium-sized Felidae, cat native to North America. It ranges from southern Canada through most of the contiguous United States to Oaxaca in Mexico. It is listed as Least Concern o ...
s,
cougar The cougar (''Puma concolor'') is a large Felidae, cat native to the Americas. Its Species distribution, range spans from the Canadian Yukon to the southern Andes in South America and is the most widespread of any large wild terrestrial mamm ...
s,
deer Deer or true deer are hoofed ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae. The two main groups of deer are the Cervinae, including the muntjac, the elk (wapiti), the red deer, and the fallow deer; and the Capreolinae, including the ...
, and
elk The elk (''Cervus canadensis''), also known as the wapiti, is one of the largest species within the deer Deer or true deer are hoofed ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae. The two main groups of deer are the Cervinae, in ...
live in habitats above 7,000 feet, while
coyote The coyote (''Canis latrans'') is a species of canis, canine native to North America. It is smaller than its close relative, the wolf, and slightly smaller than the closely related eastern wolf and red wolf. It fills much of the same ecologica ...
s, jackrabbits,
kangaroo rat Kangaroo rats, small mostly nocturnal rodents of genus ''Dipodomys'', are native to arid areas of western North America. The common name derives from their bipedal form. They hop in a manner similar to the much larger kangaroo, but developed thi ...
s,
javelina A peccary (also javelina or skunk pig) is a medium-sized, pig-like Ungulate, hoofed mammal of the family Tayassuidae (New World pigs). They are found throughout Central America, Central and South America, Trinidad in the Caribbean, and in the so ...
,
porcupine Porcupines are large rodents with coats of sharp spines, or quills, that protect them against predation. The term covers two Family (biology), families of animals: the Old World porcupines of family Hystricidae, and the New World porcupines of ...
s, pronghorn antelope, western diamondbacks, and
wild turkey The wild turkey (''Meleagris gallopavo'') is an Upland game bird, upland ground bird native to North America, one of two extant species of Turkey (bird), turkey and the heaviest member of the order Galliformes. It is the ancestor to the domestic ...
s live in less mountainous and elevated regions. The iconic
roadrunner The roadrunners (genus ''Geococcyx''), also known as chaparral birds or chaparral cocks, are two species of fast-running ground cuckoos with long tails and crests. They are found in the southwestern United States, southwestern and south-central ...
, which is the state bird, is abundant in the southeast. Endangered species include the Mexican gray wolf, which is being gradually reintroduced in the world, and Rio Grande silvery minnow. Over 500 species of birds live or migrate through New Mexico, third only to California and Mexico.


Conservation

New Mexico and 12 other western states together account for 93% of all federally owned land in the U.S. Roughly one–third of the state, or 24.7 million of 77.8 million acres, is held by the U.S. government, the tenth-highest percentage in the country. More than half this land is under the
Bureau of Land Management The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is an agency within the United States Department of the Interior responsible for administering federal lands. Headquartered in Washington DC, and with oversight over , it governs one eighth of the country's la ...
, while another third is managed by the U.S. Forest Service. New Mexico was central to the early–20th century
conservation movement The conservation movement, also known as nature conservation, is a political, environmental, and social movement that seeks to manage and protect natural resources, including animal, fungus, and plant species as well as their habitat for the f ...
, with
Gila Wilderness Gila Wilderness was designated the world's first wilderness area on June 3, 1924. Along with Aldo Leopold Wilderness and Blue Range Wilderness, the 558,014 acre (225,820 ha) (872 sq. mi.) wilderness is part of New Mexico, New Mexico's Gila National ...
being designated the world's first
wilderness area Wilderness or wildlands (usually in the plural), are natural environments on Earth that have not been significantly modified by human activity or any nonurbanized land not under extensive agricultural cultivation. The term has traditionally re ...
in 1924. The state also hosts nine of the country's 84 national monuments, the most of any state after Arizona; these include the second oldest monument, El Morro, which was created in 1906, and the Gila Cliff Dwellings, proclaimed in 1907. Areas managed by the
National Park Service The National Park Service (NPS) is an List of federal agencies in the United States, agency of the Federal government of the United States, United States federal government within the United States Department of the Interior, U.S. Department of ...
include: National Wildlife Refuges in New Mexico managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service include: * Bitter Lake National Wildlife Refuge * Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Refuge * Grulla National Wildlife Refuge * Las Vegas National Wildlife Refuge * Maxwell National Wildlife Refuge * San Andres National Wildlife Refuge * Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge * Valle de Oro National Wildlife Refuge in the City of Albuquerque's South Valley independent wildlife refuges in New Mexico include: * Whitfield Wildlife Conservation Area in Valencia County
Whitfield Wildlife Conservation Area – Valencia Soil and Water Conservation District
Areas managed by the New Mexico State Parks Division:Vietnam Veterans Memorial State Park, Vietnam Veterans Memorial was a state park until 2017, when it was transferred to the Department of Veteran Services in 2017
Vietnam Veterans Memorial State Park , Angel Fire, NM 87045
(newmexico.org)


Environmental issues

In January 2016, New Mexico sued the United States Environmental Protection Agency over negligence after the 2015 Gold King Mine waste water spill. The spill had caused heavy metals such as cadmium and lead and toxins such as arsenic to flow into the Animas River, polluting water basins of several states. The state has since implemented or considered stricter regulations and harsher penalties for spills associated with resource extraction. New Mexico is a major producer of greenhouse gases. A study by Colorado State University showed that the state's oil and gas industry generated 60 million metric tons of greenhouse gases in 2018, over four times greater than previously estimated. The fossil fuels sector accounted for over half the state's overall emissions, which totaled 113.6 million metric tons, about 1.8% of the country's total and more than twice the national average per capita. The New Mexico government has responded with efforts to regulate industrial emissions, promote renewable energy, and incentivize the use of electric vehicles.


Settlements

With just 17 people per square mile (6/km2), New Mexico is one of the List of states and territories of the United States by population density, least densely populated states, ranking 45th out of 50; by contrast, the overall population density of the U.S. is 90 people per square mile (35.5/km2 ). The state is divided into 33 counties and 106 municipalities, which include cities, towns, villages, and a City-County, consolidated city-county, Los Alamos County, New Mexico, Los Alamos. Only two cities have at least 100,000 residents: Albuquerque and Las Cruces, whose respective metropolitan areas together account for the majority of New Mexico's population. Residents are concentrated in the north-central region of New Mexico, anchored by the state's largest city, Albuquerque. Centered in Bernalillo County, New Mexico, Bernalillo County, the Albuquerque metropolitan area includes New Mexico's third-largest city,
Rio Rancho Rio Rancho ( es, Río Rancho) is the most populous and only city in Sandoval County, part of the expansive Albuquerque metropolitan area, in the U.S. state of New Mexico ) , population_demonym = New Mexican ( es, Neomexicano, Neomejicano, ...
, and has a population of over 918,000, accounting for one-third of all New Mexicans. It is adjacent to Santa Fe, the capital and fourth-largest city. Altogether, the Albuquerque–Santa Fe–Las Vegas combined statistical area includes more than 1.17 million people, or nearly 60% of the state population. New Mexico's other major center of population is in south-central area around Las Cruces, New Mexico, Las Cruces, its second-largest city and the largest city in the southern region of the state. The Las Cruces metropolitan area includes roughly 214,000 residents, but with neighboring El Paso, Texas forms a El Paso–Las Cruces, Texas–New Mexico, combined statistical area, combined statistical area numbering over 1 million. New Mexico hosts 23 federally recognized tribal reservations, including part of the Navajo Nation, the largest and most populous tribe; of these, 11 hold off-reservation trust lands elsewhere in the state. The vast majority of federally recognized tribes are concentrated in the northwest, followed by the north-central region. Like several other southwestern states, New Mexico hosts numerous Colonia (United States), ''colonias'', Unincorporated area, unincorporated, low-income slums characterized by abject poverty, the absence of basic services (such as water and sewage), and scarce housing and infrastructure. The University of New Mexico estimates there are 118 colonias in the state, though the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development, U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development identifies roughly 150. The majority are located along the U.S.-Mexico border, Mexico-U.S. border.


Demographics


Population

The United States Census Bureau, 2020 census recorded a population of 2,117,522, an increase of 2.8% from 2,059,179 in the 2010 United States Census, 2010 census. This was the lowest rate of growth in the western U.S. after Wyoming, and among the slowest nationwide. By comparison, between 2000 United States Census, 2000 and 2010, New Mexico's population increased by 11.7% from 1,819,046among the fastest growth rates in the country. A report commissioned by the New Mexico Legislature attributed the slow growth to a Net migration rate, negative net migration rate, particularly among those 18 or younger, and to a 19% decline in the birth rate. However, growth among the Hispanic and Native American communities remained healthy. More than half of New Mexicans (51.4%) were born in the state; 37.9% were born in another state; 1.1% were born in either Puerto Rico, an Territories of the United States, island territory, or abroad to at least one American parent; and 9.4% were foreign born (compared to a national average of roughly 12%). Almost a quarter of the population (22.7%) was under the age of 18, and the state's median age of 38.4 is List of U.S. states and territories by median age, slightly above the national average of 38.2. New Mexico's somewhat older population is partly reflective of its popularity among retirees: It ranked as the most popular retirement destination in 2018, with an estimated 42% of new residents being retired. Hispanics and Latinos constitute nearly half of all residents (49.3%), giving New Mexico the highest proportion of Hispanic ancestry among the fifty states. This broad classification includes Spanish American, descendants of Spanish colonists who settled between the 16th and 18th centuries as well as recent immigrants from Latin America (particularly Mexico and Central America). From 2000 to 2010, the number of persons in poverty increased to 400,779, or approximately one-fifth of the population. The latest 2020 census recorded a slightly reduced poverty rate of 18.2%, albeit the List of U.S. states and territories by poverty rate, third highest among U.S. states, compared to a national average of 10.5%. Poverty disproportionately affects minorities, with about one-third of African Americans and Native Americans living in poverty, compared with less than a fifth of whites and roughly a tenth of Asians; likewise, New Mexico ranks 49th among states for education equality by race and 32nd for its racial gap in income.Why New Mexicans are Fleeing the State
, Best States , ''U.S. News & World Report''
New Mexico's population is among the most difficult to count, according to the Center for Urban Research at the City University of New York. Challenges include the state's size, sparse population, and numerous isolated communities. Likewise, the Census Bureau estimated that roughly 43% of the state's population (about 900,000 people) live in such "hard-to-count" areas. In response, the New Mexico government invested heavily in public outreach to increase census participation, resulting in a final tally that exceeded earlier estimates and outperformed several neighboring states.


Birth data

The majority of live births in New Mexico are to Hispanic whites, with Hispanics of any race consistently accounting for well over half of all live births since 2013.


Race and ethnicity

New Mexico is one of six Majority minority in the United States, "majority-minority" states where non-Hispanic whites constitute less than half the population. As early as 1940, roughly half the population was estimated to be nonwhite. Prior to becoming a state in 1912, New Mexico was among the few U.S. territories that was predominately nonwhite, which contributed to its delayed admission into the Union. According to the 2020 United States Census Bureau, census, the majority of Hispanics in New Mexico claim descendance from Spanish colonists who settled between the 16th and 18th centuries, when the state was part of New Spain. Most remaining Hispanics are first and second-generation immigrants from Mexico and Central America. New Mexico has the fourth largest Native American community in the U.S., at over 200,000. Comprising roughly one-tenth of all residents, this is the second largest population by percentage after Alaska. New Mexico is also the only state besides Alaska where indigenous people have maintained a stable proportion of the population for over a century: In 1890, Native Americans made up 9.4% of New Mexico's population, almost the same percentage as in 2020."Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States".
Census.gov. Archived from the original on August 12, 2012. Retrieved January 10, 2013.
By contrast, during that same period, neighboring Arizona went from one-third indigenous to less than 5%. According to the 2000 United States Census, 2000 United States census, the most commonly claimed ancestry groups in New Mexico were: * Mexican American, Mexican (16.3%) * Native American (10.3%) * German American, German (9.8%) * Spanish American, Spanish (9.3%) * English American, English (7.2%) Census data from 2020 found that 19.9% of the population identifies as multiracial/mixed-race, a population larger than the Native American, Black, Asian and NHPI population groups.


Languages

New Mexico ranks third after California and Texas in the number of multilingual residents. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, 2010 U.S. census, 28.5% of the population age5 and older speak Spanish at home, while 3.5% speak
Navajo The Navajo (; British English: Navaho; nv, Diné or ') are a Native American people of the Southwestern United States The Southwestern United States, also known as the American Southwest or simply the Southwest, is a geographic and cultur ...
. Some speakers of New Mexican Spanish are descendants of pre-18th century Spanish settlers. Contrary to popular belief, New Mexican Spanish is not an archaic form of 17th-century Castilian Spanish; though some archaic elements exist, linguistic research has determined that the dialect "is neither more Iberian nor more archaic" than other varieties spoken in the Americas. Nevertheless, centuries of isolation during the colonial period insulated the New Mexican dialect from "standard" Spanish, leading to the preservation of older vocabulary as well as its own innovations. Besides Navajo, which is also spoken in Arizona, several other Indigenous languages of the Americas, Native American languages are spoken by smaller groups in New Mexico, most of which are endemic to the state. Native New Mexican languages include Mescalero-Chiricahua language, Mescalero Apache, Jicarilla language, Jicarilla Apache, Tewa language, Tewa, Southern Tiwa language, Southern Tiwa, Northern Tiwa, Jemez language, Towa, Keres (Eastern and Western), and Zuni. Mescalero and Jicarilla Apache are closely related Southern Athabaskan languages, and both are also related to Navajo. Tewa, the Tiwa languages, and Towa belong to the Tanoan languages, Kiowa-Tanoan language family, and thus all descend from a Language family, common ancestor. Keres and Zuni are language isolates with no relatives outside of New Mexico.


Official language

New Mexico's original state constitution of 1911 required all laws be published in both English and Spanish for twenty years after ratification; this requirement was renewed in 1931 and 1943, with some sources stating the state was officially bilingual until 1953. Nonetheless, the constitution does not declare any language "official".''Constitution of the State of New Mexico''.
Adopted January 21, 1911.
While Spanish was permitted in the legislature until 1935, all state officials are required to have a good knowledge of English; consequently, some analysts argue that New Mexico cannot be considered a bilingual state, since not all laws are published in both languages. However, the state legislature remains constitutionally empowered to publish laws in English and Spanish, and to appropriate funds for translation. Amendments to the New Mexico constitution must be approved by referendum printed on the ballot in both English and Spanish. Certain legal notices must be published in English and Spanish, and the state maintains a list of newspapers for Spanish publication. With regard to the judiciary, witnesses and defendants have the right to testify in either of the two languages, and monolingual speakers of Spanish have the same right to be considered for jury duty as do speakers of English. In public education, the state has the constitutional obligation to provide bilingual education and Spanish-speaking instructors in school districts where the majority of students are Hispanophone. The constitution also provides that all state citizens who speak neither English nor Spanish have a right to vote, hold public office, and serve on juries. In 1989, New Mexico became the first of only four states to officially adopt the English Plus resolution, which supports acceptance of non-English languages. In 1995, the state adopted an official bilingual song, "New Mexico – Mi Lindo Nuevo México". In 2008, New Mexico was the first to officially adopt a
Navajo The Navajo (; British English: Navaho; nv, Diné or ') are a Native American people of the Southwestern United States The Southwestern United States, also known as the American Southwest or simply the Southwest, is a geographic and cultur ...
textbook for use in public schools.


Religion

Like most U.S. states, New Mexico is predominantly Christian, with Roman Catholicism and Protestantism each constituting roughly a third of the population. According to Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA), the largest denominations in 2010 were the Catholic Church (684,941 members); the Southern Baptist Convention (113,452); The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (67,637), and the United Methodist Church (36,424). Approximately one-fifth of residents are Irreligion, unaffiliated with any religion, which includes atheists, agnostics, deists. A 2020 study by the Public Religion Research Institute determined 67% of the population were Christian, with Roman Catholics constituting the largest denominational group. Roman Catholicism is deeply rooted in New Mexico's history and culture, going back to its settlement by the Spanish in the early 17th century. The oldest Christian church in the continental U.S., and the third oldest in any U.S. state or territory, is the San Miguel Mission in Santa Fe, which was built in 1610. Within the hierarchy of the Catholic Church, New Mexico belongs to the ecclesiastical province, Ecclesiastical Province of Santa Fe. The state has three diocese, ecclesiastical districts: the Archdiocese of Santa Fe, the Diocese of Gallup, and the Diocese of Las Cruces. New Mexico has been a leading center of the New Age, New Age movement since at least the 1960s, attracting adherents from across the country. The state's "thriving New Age network" encompasses various schools of alternative medicine, Holistic Health, holistic health, Energy medicine, psychic healing, and New religious movement, new religions, as well as festivals, pilgrimage sites, spiritual retreats, and communes. Reflecting centuries of successive migrations and settlements, New Mexico has developed a distinct syncretism, syncretic folk religion that is centered on Puebloans, Puebloan traditions and Hispanos of New Mexico, Hispano folk Catholicism, with some elements of Diné Bahaneʼ,
Apache The Apache () are a group of culturally related Native American tribes in the Southwestern United States, which include the Chiricahua, Jicarilla, Lipan, Mescalero, Mimbreño, Ndendahe (Bedonkohe or Mogollon and Nednhi or Carrizaleño ...
, Protestantism, Protestant, and Evangelicalism, Evangelical faiths. This unique religious tradition is sometimes referred to as "Pueblo Christianity" or "Placita Christianity", referring to both the
Pueblo In the Southwestern United States The Southwestern United States, also known as the American Southwest or simply the Southwest, is a geographic and cultural region of the United States that generally includes Arizona Arizona ( ; nv, ...
s and Hispanic town squares. Customs and practices include the maintenance of acequias, Pueblo architecture, Pueblo and Territorial Style churches, ceremonial dances such as the ''matachines,'' depictions of kachinas and Santo (art), santos, religious holidays celebrating saints such as Pueblo Feast Days, and pilgrimages like that of El Santuario de Chimayo. New Mexico's leadership within otherwise disparate traditions such as Christianity, the Native American Church, and New Age movements has been linked to its remote and ancient indigenous spirituality, which emphasized sacred connections to nature, and its over 300 years of syncretized Pueblo and Hispano religious and folk customs. The state's remoteness has likewise been cited as attracting and fostering communities seeking the freedom to practice or cultivate new beliefs. Global spiritual leaders including Billy Graham and Dalai Lama, along with community leaders of
Hispanic and Latino Americans Hispanic and Latino Americans ( es, Estadounidenses hispanos y latinos; pt, Estadunidenses hispânicos e latinos) are Americans of Spaniards, Spanish and/or Latin Americans, Latin American ancestry. More broadly, these demographics include a ...
and indigenous peoples of the North American Southwest, have remarked on New Mexico being a sacred space. According to a 2017 survey by the Pew Research Center, New Mexico ranks 18th among the 50 U.S. states in religiosity, with 63% of respondents stating they believe in God with certainty and 59% considering religion to be important in their lives.


Economy

Oil and gas production, tourism, and federal government spending are important drivers of the state economy. The state government has an elaborate system of tax credits and technical assistance to promote job growth and business investment, especially in new technologies.


Economic indicators

As of 2021, New Mexico's
gross domestic product Gross domestic product (GDP) is a money, monetary Measurement in economics, measure of the market value of all the final goods and services produced and sold (not resold) in a specific time period by countries. Due to its complex and subjec ...
was over $95 billion, compared to roughly $80 billion in 2010. State GDP peaked in 2019 at nearly $99 billion but declined in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic. In 2021, the per capita income, per capita personal income was slightly over $45,800, compared to $31,474 in 2007; it was the third lowest in the country after West Virginia and Mississippi. The percentage of persons below the poverty level has largely plateaued in the 21st century, from 18.4% in 2005 to 18.2% in 2021. Traditionally dependent on resource extraction, ranching, and railroad transportation, New Mexico has become increasingly reliant on tourism. Since 2017, the state has seen a steady rise in the number of annual visitors, culminating in a record-breaking 39.2 million tourists in 2021, which had a total economic income of $10 billion.


Oil and gas production

New Mexico is the second largest crude oil and ninth largest natural gas producer in the United States; it overtook North Dakota in oil production in July 2021 and is expected to continue expanding. The Permian Basin (North America), Permian and San Juan Basin, San Juan Basins, which are located partly in New Mexico, account for some of these natural resources. In 2000 the value of oil and gas produced was $8.2 billion, and in 2006, New Mexico accounted for 3.4% of the crude oil, 8.5% of the dry natural gas, and 10.2% of the natural gas liquids produced in the United States. However, the boom in hydraulic fracturing and directional drilling, horizontal drilling since the mid-2010s led to a large increase in the production of crude oil from the Permian Basin and other U.S. sources; these developments allowed the United States to again become the world's largest producer of crude oil by 2018. New Mexico's oil and gas operations contribute to the state's above-average release of the greenhouse gas methane, including from a national Four Corners Methane Hot Spot, methane hot spot in the
Four Corners The Four Corners is a region of the Southwestern United States consisting of the Southwest Colorado, southwestern corner of Colorado, San Juan County, Utah, southeastern corner of Utah, northeastern corner of Arizona, and Northern New Mexi ...
area. In common with other Western United States, states in the Western U.S., New Mexico receives royalties from the sale of federally owned land to oil and gas companies. It has the highest proportion of federal land with oil and gas, as well as the most lucrative: since the last amendment to the Mineral Leasing Act of 1920, U.S. Mineral Leasing Act in 1987, New Mexico had by far the lowest percent of land sold for the minimum statutory amount of $2 per acre, at just 3%; by contrast, all of Arizona's federal land was sold at the lowest rate, followed by Oregon at 98% and Nevada at 84%. The state had the fourth-highest total acreage sold to the oil and gas industry, at about 1.1 million acres, and the second-highest number of acres currently leased fossil fuel production, at 4.3 million acres, after Wyoming's 9.2 million acres; only 11 percent of these lands, or 474,121 acres, are idle, which is the lowest among Western states. Nevertheless, New Mexico has had recurring disputes and discussions with the U.S. government concerning management and revenue rights over federal land.


Federal government

Federal government spending is a major driver of the New Mexico economy. In 2005, the federal government spent $2.03 on New Mexico for every dollar of tax revenue collected from the state, higher than any other state in the Union. By 2017, federal expenditure per state tax dollar increased to $2.34, the third highest after Virginia and Kentucky. New Mexico received $9,624 per resident in federal services, or roughly $20 billion more than what the state pays in federal taxes. The state governor's office estimated that the federal government spends roughly $7.8 billion annually in services such as healthcare, infrastructure development, and public welfare. Federal employees make up 3.4% of New Mexico's labor force. Many federal jobs in the state relate to the military: the state hosts three air force bases (
Kirtland Air Force Base Kirtland Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base located in the southeast quadrant of the Albuquerque, New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico urban area, adjacent to the Albuquerque International Sunport. The base was named for the ea ...
, Holloman Air Force Base, and Cannon Air Force Base); a testing range (
White Sands Missile Range White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) is a United States Army military testing area and firing range located in the US state of New Mexico. The range was originally established as the White Sands Proving Ground on 9July 1945. White Sands National Pa ...
); and an army proving ground (Fort Bliss's McGregor Range). A 2005 study by New Mexico State University estimated that 11.7% of the state's total employment arises directly or indirectly from military spending. New Mexico is also home to two major federal research institutions: the
Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos National Laboratory (often shortened as Los Alamos and LANL) is one of the sixteen research and development Laboratory, laboratories of the United States Department of Energy National Laboratories, United States Department of Energy ...
and
Sandia National Laboratories Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), also known as Sandia, is one of three research and development laboratories of the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). Headquartered in Kirtland Air Force ...
. The former alone accounts for 24,000 direct and indirect jobs and over $3 billion in annual federal investment.


Economic incentives

New Mexico provides a number of economic incentives to businesses operating in the state, including various types of tax credits and tax exemptions. Most incentives are based on job creation: state and local governments are permitted to provide land, buildings, and infrastructure to businesses that will generate employment. Several municipalities impose an Economic Development Gross receipts tax, Gross Receipts Tax (a form of Municipal Infrastructure GRT) to pay for these infrastructure improvements and for marketing their areas. The New Mexico Finance Authority operates the New Market Tax Credits (NMTC) to provide greater access to financing for new, expanding, or relocating businesses in "highly distressed" areas (defined by metrics such as poverty above 30% and median family income below 60% of the statewide median).


Media and film

New Mexico provides financial incentives for film production. One such program, enacted in 2019, provides benefits to media companies that commit to investing in the state for at least a decade and that utilize local talent, crew, and businesses. The New Mexico Film Office estimated at the end of 2007 that the incentive program had brought more than 85 film projects to the state since 2003 and had added $1.2 billion to the economy. Data for 2021 found direct spending for film production at close to $624 million. In 2018,
Netflix Netflix, Inc. is an American video on demand#Subscription models, subscription video on-demand Over-the-top media service, over-the-top Streaming media, streaming service and production company based in Los Gatos, California. Founded in 1997 b ...
chose New Mexico for its first U.S. production hub, pledging to spend over $1 billion over the next decade to create one of the largest film studios in North America.
NBCUniversal NBCUniversal Media, LLC is an American multinational mass media and entertainment Entertainment is a form of activity that holds the attention and interest of an audience or gives pleasure and delight. It can be an idea or a task, bu ...
followed suit in 2019 with the opening of its own film studio and plans to employ New Mexican actors and crew members.


Taxation

New Mexico is one of the largest tax havens in the U.S., offering numerous economic incentives and tax breaks on Personal income in the United States, personal and Corporate tax in the United States, corporate income. It does not levy taxes on inheritance tax, inheritance, Estate tax in the United States, estate, or sales tax, sales. Personal income tax rates range from 1.7% to 5.9% within five income brackets; the top marginal rate was increased from 4.9% in 2021 per a 2019 law. Active duty, Active-duty military salaries are exempt from state income tax, as is income earned by Native American members of federally recognized tribes on tribal land. New Mexico imposes a Gross Receipts Tax (GRT) on many transactions, which may even include some governmental receipts. This resembles a sales tax but, unlike the sales taxes in many states, it applies to services as well as tangible goods. Normally, the provider or seller passes the tax on to the purchaser; however, legal incidence and burden apply to the business, as an excise tax. GRT is imposed by New Mexico Taxation and Revenue Department, the state and by some counties and municipalities. As of 2021, the combined tax rate ranged from 5.125% to 9.063%. Property tax is imposed on real property by the state, by counties, and by school districts. In general, personal-use personal property is not subject to property taxation. On the other hand, property tax is levied on most business-use personal property. The taxable value of property is one-third the assessed value. A tax rate of about 30 mill (currency), mills is applied to the taxable value, resulting in an effective tax rate of about 1%. In the 2005 tax year, the average millage was about 26.47 for residential property, and 29.80 for non-residential property. Assessed values of residences cannot be increased by more than 3% per year unless the residence is remodeled or sold. Property tax deductions are available for military veterans and heads of household. A 2021 analysis by the nonprofit Tax Foundation placed New Mexico 23rd in business tax climate; its property taxes were found to be the least burdensome in the U.S., while taxation for unemployment insurance and on corporations each ranked as the ninth least burdensome.


Wealth and poverty

New Mexico is one of the poorest states in the U.S. and has long struggled with poverty. Its poverty rate of roughly 18% is among the highest in the country, exceeded only by Louisiana and Mississippi. Nearly 30% of New Mexico's children were in poverty, which is 40% higher than the national average. The vast majority of births (72%) were financed by Medicaid, a federal healthcare program for the poor, the highest of any state. As of May 2021, around 44% of residents were enrolled in Medicaid. New Mexico is one of only eight states List of U.S. states by the number of billionaires, without a billionaire, ranking 39th in the List of U.S. states by the number of millionaire households, share of households with more than $1 million in wealth (5%), and among fourteen states without a Fortune 500 company. The state has a relatively high level of List of U.S. states by Gini coefficient, income disparity, with a Gini coefficient of 0.4769, albeit below the national average of 0.486. Household income is slightly less than $47,000, which is the fourth lowest in the U.S. The unemployment rate for June 2021 is 7.9%, tied with Connecticut as the highest in the country, and close to the peak of 8.0% for June–October 2010, following the Financial crisis of 2007–2008, 2007-2008 financial crisis. The New Mexico government has enacted several policies to address chronic poverty, including approving a minimum wage increase in January 2021 and requiring paid sick leave. The state's minimum wage of $10.50 is Minimum wage in the United States#State laws, higher than that of the federal government and 34 other states; it is set to increase to $11.50 on January 1, 2022, and $12.00 on January 1, 2023. Additionally, counties and municipalities have set their own minimum wages; Santa Fe County enacted a "Living Wage Ordinance" on March 1, 2021, mandating $12.32. The New Mexico Legislature is considering implementing a statewide Universal basic income, guaranteed basic income program targeting poorer residents; if enacted, it would be only the second U.S. state after California with such a policy. In August 2021, Santa Fe announced a one-year pilot program that would provide a "stability stipend" of $400 monthly to 100 parents under the age of 30 who attend Santa Fe Community College; the results of the program will determine whether the state government follows suit with its own basic income proposals. Las Cruces, the state's second largest city, is officially discussing the enactment of a similar program.


Transportation

New Mexico has long been an important corridor for trade and human migration, migration. The builders of the ruins at Chaco Canyon also created a radiating network of roads from the mysterious settlement. Chaco Canyon's trade function shifted to Casas Grandes in the present-day Mexican state of Chihuahua; however, north–south trade continued. The pre-Christopher Columbus, Columbian trade with Mesoamerican cultures included northbound exotic birds, seashells and copper. Turquoise, pottery, and salt were some of the goods transported south along the
Rio Grande The Rio Grande ( and ), known in Mexico as the Río Bravo del Norte or simply the Río Bravo, is one of the principal rivers (along with the Colorado River) in the southwestern United States and in northern Mexico. The length of the Rio G ...
. Present-day New Mexico's pre-Columbian trade is especially remarkable for being undertaken on foot. The north–south trade route later became a path for horse-drawn colonists arriving from
New Spain New Spain, officially the Viceroyalty of New Spain ( es, Virreinato de Nueva España, ), or Kingdom of New Spain, was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire, established by Habsburg Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Amer ...
as well as trade and communication; later called ''
El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro The Camino Real de Tierra Adentro ( en, Royal Road of the Interior Land), also known as the Silver Route, was a Viceroyalty of New Spain, Spanish road between Mexico City and San Juan Pueblo, New Mexico, San Juan Pueblo (''Ohkay Owingeh''), New ...
,'' it was among the four "royal roads" that were crucial lifelines to Spanish colonial possessions in North America. The
Santa Fe Trail The Santa Fe Trail was a 19th-century route through central North America that connected Franklin, Missouri, with Santa Fe, New Mexico, Santa Fe, New Mexico. Pioneered in 1821 by William Becknell, who departed from the Boonslick region along th ...
was the 19th-century territory's vital commercial and military highway link to the Eastern United States. All with termini in Northern New Mexico, the Camino Real, the Santa Fe Trail and the Old Spanish Trail (trade route), Old Spanish Trail are all recognized as National Historic Trails. New Mexico's latitude and low passes made it an attractive east–west transportation corridor. As a territory, the
Gadsden Purchase The Gadsden Purchase ( es, region=MX, la Venta de La Mesilla "The Sale of La Mesilla") is a region of present-day southern Arizona Arizona ( ; nv, Hoozdo Hahoodzo ; ood, Alĭ ṣonak ) is a U.S. state, state in the Southwestern United ...
increased New Mexico's land area for the purpose of constructing a southern
transcontinental railroad A transcontinental railroad or transcontinental railway is contiguous rail transport, railroad trackage, that crosses a continent, continental land mass and has terminals at different oceans or continental borders. Such networks can be via the R ...
, that of the Southern Pacific Railroad. Another transcontinental railroad was completed by the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway. The railroads essentially replaced the earlier trails but prompted a population boom. Early transcontinental auto trails later crossed the state, bringing more migrants. Railroads were later supplemented or replaced by a system of highways and airports. Today, New Mexico's Interstate Highways approximate the earlier land routes of the Camino Real, the Santa Fe Trail and the transcontinental railroads.


Road

Personal automobiles remain the primary means of transportation for most New Mexicans, especially in rural areas. The state had 59,927 route miles of highway , of which 7,037 receive federal aid. In that same year there were of freeways, of which a thousand were the route miles of Interstate Highways Interstate 10 in New Mexico, 10, Interstate 25 in New Mexico, 25 and Interstate 40 in New Mexico, 40. The former number has increased with the upgrading of roads near Pojoaque, New Mexico, Pojoaque, Santa Fe and Las Cruces, New Mexico, Las Cruces to freeways. Notable bridges include the Rio Grande Gorge Bridge near Taos, New Mexico, Taos. Larger cities in New Mexico typically have some form of public transportation by road; ABQ RIDE is the largest such system in the state. Rural and intercity public transportation by road is provided by Americanos USA, LLC, Greyhound Lines and several government operators. New Mexico is plagued by poor road conditions, with roughly a third of its roadways suffering from "inadequate state and local funding". , 703 highway bridges, or one percent, were declared "structurally deficient" or "structurally obsolete". Data from 2019 found 207 bridges and more than 3,822 miles of highway in less than subpar condition, resulting in greater commute times and higher costs in vehicles maintenance. New Mexico has had a problem with drunk driving, but that has lessened. According to the ''Los Angeles Times'', for years the state had the highest alcohol-related crash rates in the US but ranked 25th in alcohol-related fatal crash rates . The highway traffic fatality rate was 1.9 per million miles traveled in 2000, the 13th highest rate among U.S. states. A 2022 report cited poor road as a major factor in New Mexico's continually high traffic fatalities; between 2015 and 2019, close 1,900 people were killed in automotive crashes in the state.


Highways

New Mexico has only three List of Interstate Highways in New Mexico, Interstate Highways: Interstate 10 in New Mexico, Interstate 10 travels southwest from Arizona, the Arizona state line near Lordsburg, New Mexico, Lordsburg to the area between Las Cruces, New Mexico, Las Cruces and Anthony, New Mexico, Anthony, near El Paso, Texas; Interstate 25 in New Mexico, Interstate 25 is a major north–south interstate highway starting from Las Cruces to the
Colorado Colorado (, other variants) is a state in the Mountain states, Mountain West subregion of the Western United States. It encompasses most of the Southern Rocky Mountains, as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the wes ...
state line near Raton, New Mexico, Raton; and Interstate 40 in New Mexico, Interstate 40 is a major east–west interstate highway starting from the Arizona state line west of Gallup, New Mexico, Gallup to the Texas state line east from Tucumcari, New Mexico, Tucumcari. In
Albuquerque Albuquerque ( ; ), ; kee, Arawageeki; tow, Vakêêke; zun, Alo:ke:k'ya; apj, Gołgéeki'yé. abbreviated ABQ, is the most populous city in the U.S. state of New Mexico. Its nicknames, The Duke City and Burque, both reference its founding in ...
, I-25 and I-40 meet at a stack interchange called Big I, The BigI. The state is tied with Delaware, North Dakota, Puerto Rico, and Rhode Island in having the fewest primary interstate routes, which is partly a reflection of its rugged geography and sparse population. New Mexico currently has List of U.S. Routes in New Mexico, 15 United States Highways, which account for over 2,980 miles (4,797 km) of its highway system. All but seven of its 33 counties are served by U.S. routes, with most of the remainder connected by Interstate Highways. Most routes were built in 1926 by the state government and are still managed and maintained by state or local authorities. The longest is U.S. Route 70 in New Mexico, U.S. 70, which spans over 448 miles (721 km) across southern New Mexico, making up roughly 15% of the state's total U.S. Highway length; the shortest is U.S. Route 160 in New Mexico, U.S. 160, which runs just 0.86 miles (1.38 km) across the Four Corners, northwestern corner of the state, between the
Arizona Arizona ( ; nv, Hoozdo Hahoodzo ; ood, Alĭ ṣonak ) is a U.S. state, state in the Southwestern United States. It is the list of U.S. states and territories by area, 6th largest and the list of U.S. states and territories by population, 14 ...
and
Colorado Colorado (, other variants) is a state in the Mountain states, Mountain West subregion of the Western United States. It encompasses most of the Southern Rocky Mountains, as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the wes ...
borders. The most famous route in New Mexico, if not the United States, was U.S. Route 66, U.S. 66, colloquially known as the nation's "Mother Road" for its scenic beauty and importance to migrants fleeing West from the Dust Bowl of the 1930s. The road crossed through northern New Mexico, connecting the cities of
Albuquerque Albuquerque ( ; ), ; kee, Arawageeki; tow, Vakêêke; zun, Alo:ke:k'ya; apj, Gołgéeki'yé. abbreviated ABQ, is the most populous city in the U.S. state of New Mexico. Its nicknames, The Duke City and Burque, both reference its founding in ...
and Gallup, New Mexico, Gallup, before being replaced by I-40 in 1985. Much of U.S. 66 remains in use for tourism and has been preserved for historical significance. Another famous route was US 666, U.S. 666, which ran south to north along the western portion of the state, serving the Four Corners area. It was known as the "Devil's Highway" due to the number 666 (number), 666 denoting the "Number of the beast, Number of the Beast" in Christianity; this numerical designation, as well as its high fatality rate was subject to controversy, superstition, and numerous cultural references. U.S. 666 was subsequently renamed U.S. Route 491 in 2003. Many existing and former highways in New Mexico are recognized for their aesthetic, cultural, or historical significance, particularly for tourism purposes. The state hosts ten out of 184 "America's Byways", which are federally designated for preservation due to their scenic beauty or national importance.


Rail

There were 2,354 route miles of railroads in the year 2000; this number increased by a few miles with the opening of the New Mexico Rail Runner Express, Rail Runner's extension to Santa Fe in 2006.U.S. Department of Transportation Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Table 1-9: Freight Railroads in New Mexico and the United States: 200

In addition to local railroads and other tourist lines, the state jointly owns and operates a heritage narrow gauge, narrow-gauge steam railroad, the Cumbres and Toltec Scenic Railway, with the state of
Colorado Colorado (, other variants) is a state in the Mountain states, Mountain West subregion of the Western United States. It encompasses most of the Southern Rocky Mountains, as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the wes ...
since 1970. Narrow-gauge railroads once connected many communities in the northern part of the state, from Farmington, New Mexico, Farmington to Santa Fe. No fewer than 100 railroads of various names and lineage have operated in the state at some point. New Mexico's rail transportation system reached its height in terms of length following admission as a state; in 1914, eleven railroads operated 3124 route miles. Railroad surveyors arrived in New Mexico in the 1850s shortly after it became a U.S. territory. The first railroads incorporated in 1869, and the first railway became operational in 1878 with the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway (ATSF), which entered via the lucrative and contested Raton Pass. The ATSF eventually reached El Paso, Texas in 1881, and with the entry of the Southern Pacific Railroad from the Territory of Arizona, Arizona Territory in 1880, created the nation's Transcontinental railroad#United States, second transcontinental railroad, with a junction at Deming, New Mexico, Deming. The Denver & Rio Grande Railway, which generally used narrow gauge equipment in New Mexico, entered the territory from
Colorado Colorado (, other variants) is a state in the Mountain states, Mountain West subregion of the Western United States. It encompasses most of the Southern Rocky Mountains, as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the wes ...
, beginning service to Española, New Mexico, Española in December 1880. These first railroads were built as long-distance corridors; later railroad construction also targeted resource extraction. The rise of rail transportation was a major source of demographic and economic growth in the state, with many settlements expanding or being established shortly thereafter. As early as 1878, the ATSF promoted #Tourism, tourism in the region with an emphasis on Native American imagery. Named trains often reflected the territory they traveled: ''Super Chief'', the streamlined successor to the ''Chief''; ''Navajo (passenger train), Navajo'', an early transcontinental tourist train; and ''Cavern (passenger train), Cavern'', a through car operation connecting Clovis, New Mexico, Clovis and Carlsbad, New Mexico, Carlsbad (by the early 1950s as train 23–24), were some of the named Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway#Passenger train service, passenger trains of the ATSF that connoted New Mexico, The ''Super Chief'' became a favorite of early Hollywood stars and among the most famous named trains in the U.S.; it was known for its luxury and exoticness, with cars bearing the name of regional Native American tribes and outfitted with the artwork of many local artistsbut also for its speed: as brief as 39 hours 45 minutes westbound from Chicago to Los Angeles.At its height, passenger train service once connected nine of New Mexico's present #Settlements, ten most populous cities (the sole exception is
Rio Rancho Rio Rancho ( es, Río Rancho) is the most populous and only city in Sandoval County, part of the expansive Albuquerque metropolitan area, in the U.S. state of New Mexico ) , population_demonym = New Mexican ( es, Neomexicano, Neomejicano, ...
); currently, only Albuquerque and Santa Fe are connected by a rail network. With the decline of most intercity rail service in the U.S. in the late 1960s, New Mexico was left with minimal services; no less than six daily long-distance roundtrip trains, supplemented by many branch-line and local trains, served New Mexico in the early 1960s. Declines in passenger revenue, but not necessarily ridership, prompted many railroads to turn over their passenger services in truncated form to Amtrak, a state-owned enterprise. Amtrak, also known as the National Passenger Railroad Corporation, began operating the two extant long-distance routes on May 1, 1971. Resurrection of passenger rail service from Denver to El Paso, Texas, El Paso, a route once plied in part by the ATSF's ''El Pasoan'', has been proposed; in the 1980s, then–Governor Toney Anaya suggested building a high-speed rail line connecting the two cities with New Mexico's major cities. In 2004, the Colorado-based nonprofit Front Range Commuter Rail was established with the goal of connecting Wyoming and New Mexico with high-speed rail; however, it became inactive in 2011.Since 2006, a state owned, privately run commuter railway, the New Mexico Rail Runner Express, has served the Albuquerque metropolitan area, connecting the city proper with Santa Fe and other communities. The system expanded in 2008 with the adding of the BNSF Railway's line from Belen, New Mexico, Belen to a few miles south of Lamy. Phase II of Rail Runner extended the line northward to Santa Fe from the Sandoval County/US 550 (Rail Runner station), Sandoval County station, the northernmost station under Phase I service; the service now connects Santa Fe County, Santa Fe, Sandoval County, Sandoval, Bernalillo County, Bernalillo, and Valencia County, Valencia counties. Rail Runner operates scheduled service seven days per week, connecting Albuquerque's population base and central business district to downtown Santa Fe with up to eight roundtrips in a day; the section of the line running south to Belen, New Mexico, Belen is served less frequently. Amtrak's ''Southwest Chief'' passes through daily at stations in Gallup, New Mexico, Gallup, Albuquerque, Lamy, New Mexico, Lamy, Las Vegas, New Mexico, Las Vegas, and Raton, New Mexico, Raton, offering connections to Los Angeles, Chicago and intermediate points. A successor to the ''Super Chief'' and ''El Capitan (passenger train), El Capitan,'' the ''Southwest Chief'' is permitted a maximum speed of in various places on the tracks of the BNSF Railway; it also operates on New Mexico Rail Runner Express trackage. The ''Sunset Limited'' makes stops three times a week in both directions at Lordsburg, New Mexico, Lordsburg, and Deming, New Mexico, Deming, serving Los Angeles, New Orleans and intermediate points. The ''Sunset Limited'' is the successor to the Southern Pacific Railroad's train of the same name and operates exclusively on Union Pacific trackage in New Mexico. New Mexico is served by two of the nation's ten class I railroads, which denote the highest revenue railways for freight: the BNSF Railway and the Union Pacific Railroad. Together they operate 2,200 route miles of railway in the state.


Aerospace

New Mexico has four List of airports in New Mexico, primary commercial airports that are served by most major domestic and international airliners. Albuquerque International Sunport is the state's main Port of entry, aerial port of entry and by far the largest airport: It is the only one designated a medium-sized hub by the Federal Aviation Administration, serving millions of passengers annually. The only other comparatively large airports are Lea County Regional Airport, Roswell International Air Center, and Santa Fe Regional Airport, which have varying degrees of service by major airlines. Most airports in New Mexico are small, general aviation hubs operated by municipal and county governments, and usually served solely by local and regional Regional airliner, commuter airlines. Due to its sparse population and many isolated, rural communities, New Mexico ranks among the states most reliant on Essential Air Service, a federal program that maintains a minimal level of scheduled air service to communities that are otherwise unprofitable.


Spaceport America

New Mexico hosts the world's first operational and purpose-built commercial spaceport, Spaceport America, located in Upham, New Mexico, Upham, near Truth or Consequences, New Mexico, Truth or Consequences. It is operated by the state-backed New Mexico Spaceport Authority, New Mexico Spaceport Authority (NMSA). Rocket launches began in April 2007, with the spaceport officially opening in 2011. Tenants include HAPSMobile, UP Aerospace, SpinLaunch, and Virgin Galactic. Over 300 suborbital flights have been successfully launched from Spaceport America since 2006, with the most notable being Virgin Galactic's VSS Unity, VSS ''Unity'' on May 22, 2021, which made New Mexico the third U.S. state to launch humans into space, after California and Florida. On October 22, 2021, Spaceport America was the site of the first successfully tested vacuum-sealed "suborbital accelerator", which aims to offer a significantly more economical alternative to launching satellites via rockets. Conducted by Spaceport tenant SpinLaunch, the test is the first of roughly 30 demonstrations being planned.


Government and politics

The Constitution of New Mexico was adopted by referendum, popular referendum in 1911. It establishes a republican form of government based on popular sovereignty and a separation of powers. New Mexico has a bill of rights modeled on its United States Bill of Rights, federal counterpart, but with more expansive rights and freedoms; for example, victims of certain serious crimes, such as aggravated battery and sexual assault, have explicit rights to privacy, dignity, and the timely adjudication of their case. Major state issues may be decided by popular vote, while the constitution may be amended by a majority vote of both lawmakers and the electorate.


Governmental structure

Article Four of the United States Constitution, Mirroring the federal system, the New Mexico government consists of executive, legislative, and judicial departments. The executive is led by the Governor of New Mexico, governor and other popularly elected officials, including the Lieutenant Governor of New Mexico, lieutenant governor (elected on the same ticket as the governor), Attorney General of New Mexico, attorney general, Secretary of State of New Mexico, secretary of state, New Mexico State Auditor, state auditor, New Mexico State Treasurer, state treasurer, and New Mexico Commissioner of Public Lands, commissioner of public lands. New Mexico's governor is granted more authority than those of other states, with the power to appoint most high-ranking officials in the cabinet and other state agencies. The legislative branch consists of the bicameral
New Mexico Legislature The New Mexico Legislature ( es, Legislatura de Nuevo México) is the legislative branch A legislature is an assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country A country is a distinct part of the ...
, comprising the 70-member
House of Representatives House of Representatives is the name of legislative bodies in many countries and sub-national entitles. In many countries, the House of Representatives is the lower house of a bicameral Bicameralism is a type of legislature, one divided ...
and the 42-member
Senate A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house An upper house is one of two Debate chamber, chambers of a bicameralism, bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the lower house.''Bicameralism'' (1997) by George Tseb ...
. Members of the House are elected to two-year terms, while those of the Senate are elected every four years. New Mexican legislators are unique in the U.S. for being volunteers, receiving only a daily stipend while in session; this "citizen legislature" dates back to New Mexico's admission as a state, and is considered a source of civic pride. The judiciary is headed by the
New Mexico Supreme Court The New Mexico Supreme Court is the supreme court, highest court in the U.S. state of New Mexico. It is established and its powers defined by Article VI of the New Mexico Constitution. It is primarily an appellate court which reviews civil and c ...
, the state's highest court, which primarily appellate court, adjudicates appeals from lower courts or government agencies. It is made up of five judges popularly elected every eight years with overlapping terms. Below the state supreme court is the New Mexico Court of Appeals, which has intermediate appellate jurisdiction statewide. New Mexico has 13 judicial districts with circuit courts of general jurisdiction, as well as various municipal, State court magistrate judge, magistrate, and probate courts of limited jurisdiction. New Mexico is organized into a number of local governments consisting of counties, municipalities, and special districts.


Politics

Since 2018, New Mexico has been led by Governor Michelle Lujan Grisham and Lieutenant Governor Howie Morales, both of the Democratic Party (United States), Democratic Party. All constitutional officers are currently Democrats, including Secretary of State Maggie Toulouse Oliver, Attorney General Hector Balderas, State Auditor Brian Colón, State Land Commissioner Stephanie Garcia Richard, and State Treasurer Tim Eichenberg. Both chambers of the New Mexico State Legislature have Democratic majorities: 26 Democrats and 16 Republicans in the Senate, and 47 Democrats and 23 Republicans in the House of Representatives. Likewise, the state is represented in the United States Senate, U.S. Senate by Democrats Martin Heinrich and Ben Ray Luján. The state's three delegates to the United States House of Representatives, U.S. House of Representatives are Democrat Melanie Stansbury, Republican Yvette Herrell, and Democrat Teresa Leger Fernandez, representing the first, second, and third districts, respectively. Until 2008, New Mexico was traditionally a swing state in presidential elections. The 1992 United States presidential election, 1992 election of Bill Clinton marked the first time the state was won by a Democrat since Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964. Al Gore narrowly carried the state in 2000 United States presidential election, 2000 by 366 votes, and George W. Bush won in 2004 United States presidential election, 2004 by less than 6,000 votes. The election of Barack Obama in 2008 United States presidential election, 2008 marked the state's transition into Red states and blue states, a reliably Democratic stronghold in a largely Republican region; Obama was also the first Democrat to win a majority of New Mexico votes since Johnson. Obama won again in 2012, followed by Hillary Clinton in 2016, and Joe Biden in 2020. Since achieving statehood in 1912 United States presidential election, 1912, New Mexico has been carried by the national popular vote winner in every presidential election of the past 104 years, except 1976 United States presidential election, 1976, when Gerald Ford won the state by 2% but lost the national popular vote by 2%. In all but three elections1976 United States presidential election in New Mexico, 1976, 2000 United States presidential election in New Mexico, 2000, and 2016 United States presidential election in New Mexico, 2016the candidate who won New Mexico won the presidency. State politics, while decidedly Democratic leaning, have also been idiosyncratic: New Mexico's demographics have been described as atypical of most traditional liberal states with "political ideology [being] less important" than the profile or outreach efforts of the individual candidate. Consequently, while registered Democrats outnumber registered Republicans by nearly 200,000, New Mexico voters have historically favored moderate to conservative candidates of both parties at the state and federal levels, with Democrats' relative success attributed to a "multifaceted" strategy. Lujan Grisham succeeded two-term Republican governor Susana Martinez on January 1, 2019; Gary Johnson was governor from 1995 to 2003 as a Republican, but in 2012 United States presidential election, 2012 and 2016 United States presidential election, 2016 ran for president from the Libertarian Party (United States), Libertarian Party. New Mexico's Second Congressional District is among the most competitive in the country: Republican Herrel narrowly lost to Democratic Party (United States), Democrat Xochitl Torres Small in 2018 but retook her seat in 2020, subsequently losing to Democrat Gabe Vasquez in 2022. Recent election cycles within the past decade have seen moderate incumbents replaced by progressive Democrats in cities like Albuquerque, Santa Fe, and Las Cruces, with conservative Republicans being elected in rural areas Democrats in the state are usually strongest in the Santa Fe area, parts of the
Albuquerque Albuquerque ( ; ), ; kee, Arawageeki; tow, Vakêêke; zun, Alo:ke:k'ya; apj, Gołgéeki'yé. abbreviated ABQ, is the most populous city in the U.S. state of New Mexico. Its nicknames, The Duke City and Burque, both reference its founding in ...
metro area (such as the southeast and central areas, including the affluent Nob Hill neighborhood and the vicinity of the University of New Mexico), Northern and West Central New Mexico, and most Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Native American reservations, particularly the
Navajo Nation The Navajo Nation ( nv, Naabeehó Bináhásdzo), also known as Navajoland, is a Native Americans in the United States, Native American Indian reservation, reservation in the United States. It occupies portions of northeastern Arizona, northwe ...
. Republicans have traditionally had their strongholds in the eastern and southern parts of the state, the Farmington, New Mexico, Farmington area,
Rio Rancho Rio Rancho ( es, Río Rancho) is the most populous and only city in Sandoval County, part of the expansive Albuquerque metropolitan area, in the U.S. state of New Mexico ) , population_demonym = New Mexican ( es, Neomexicano, Neomejicano, ...
, and the newly developed areas in the northwest mesa. Albuquerque's Northeast Heights have historically leaned Republican but have become a key swing area for Democrats in recent election cycles. A 2020 study ranked New Mexico as the 20th hardest state for citizens to vote, due mostly to the inaccessibility of polling stations among many isolated communities.


Local government

Local government in New Mexico consists primarily of List of counties in New Mexico, counties and List of settlements in New Mexico, municipalities. There are 33 counties, of which the most populous is Bernalillo County, New Mexico, Bernalillo, which contains the state's largest city,
Albuquerque Albuquerque ( ; ), ; kee, Arawageeki; tow, Vakêêke; zun, Alo:ke:k'ya; apj, Gołgéeki'yé. abbreviated ABQ, is the most populous city in the U.S. state of New Mexico. Its nicknames, The Duke City and Burque, both reference its founding in ...
. Counties are usually governed by an elected five-member county commission, sheriff, assessor, clerk and treasurer. A municipality may call itself a village, town, or city, with no distinction in law and no correlation to any particular form of government. Municipal elections are non-partisan. In addition, limited local authority can be vested in special districts and landowners' associations.


Female minority representation

New Mexico has elected more women of color to public office than any other U.S. state. While the trend is partly reflective of the state's disproportionately high Hispanic and indigenous populations, it also reflects longstanding cultural and political trends; in 1922, Soledad C. Chacón, Soledad Chávez Chacón was the first woman elected secretary of state of New Mexico, and the first Hispanic woman elected to statewide office in the United States. Republican governor Susana Martinez was the first Hispanic female governor in the United States, and Democratic Party (United States), Democrat congresswoman Deb Haaland was among the first Native American women elected to the U.S. Congress. Research by the Center for American Women and Politics at Rutgers University found that two-thirds of all nonwhite women who have ever been elected governor in the U.S. are from New Mexico, including the current governor, Lujan Grisham. The state also accounts for nearly one-third of the women of color who have served in any statewide executive office, such as lieutenant governor and secretary of state, a distinction shared by only ten other states. New Mexico also has a relatively high percentage of state legislators who are women of color, which at 16% is the sixth highest in the country.


Law

New Mexico is one of 23 states without the death penalty, becoming the 15th state to abolish capital punishment in 2009. New Mexico has some of the least restrictive firearms laws in the country. Its constitution explicitly enshrines the right to bear arms and prevents local governments from regulating gun ownership. Residents may purchase any firearm deemed legal under federal law without a permit. There are no waiting periods under state law for picking up a firearm after it has been purchased, nor any restrictions on magazine capacity. Additionally, New Mexico is a "shall-issue" state for concealed carry permits, thus giving applicants a presumptive right to receive a license without giving a compelling reason. Before December 2013, New Mexico law was silent on the issue of Same-sex marriage in the United States, same-sex marriage. The issuance of marriage licenses to same-sex couples was determined at the county level, with some county clerks issuing marriage licenses to same-sex couples and others not. In December 2013, the
New Mexico Supreme Court The New Mexico Supreme Court is the supreme court, highest court in the U.S. state of New Mexico. It is established and its powers defined by Article VI of the New Mexico Constitution. It is primarily an appellate court which reviews civil and c ...
issued a unanimous ruling directing all county clerks to issue marriage licenses to same-sex couples, thereby making New Mexico the 17th state to recognize same-sex marriage statewide. Based on 2008 data, New Mexico had 146 law enforcement agencies across the state, county, and municipal levels.Brian A Reaves, "2008 Census of State and Local Law Enforcement Agencies", US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics, July 2011 State law enforcement is statutorily administered by the Department of Public Safety (DPS). The New Mexico State Police is a division of the DPS with jurisdiction over all crimes in the state. As of 2008, New Mexico had over 5,000 sworn police officers, a ratio of 252 per 100,000 residents, which is roughly the same as the nation. In April 2021, New Mexico became the 18th state to Legalization of non-medical cannabis in the United States, legalize cannabis for recreational use; possession, personal cultivation, and retail sales are permitted under certain conditions, while relevant marijuana-related arrests and convictions are expunged. New Mexico has long pioneered loosening cannabis restrictions: In 1978, it was the first to pass legislation allowing the Medicinal marijuana in the United States, medical use of marijuana in some form, albeit restricted to a federal research program. In 1999, Republican Governor Gary Johnson became the highest-ranking elected official in the U.S. to publicly endorse drug legalization. Medicinal marijuana was fully legalized in 2007, making New Mexico the 12th state to do so, and the fourth via legislative action. In 2019, it was the first U.S. state to decriminalize possession of drug paraphernalia. As of June 2022, New Mexico has one of the nation's Abortion law in the United States by state, most permissive abortion laws: Elective abortion care is legal at all stages of pregnancy, without restrictions such as long waiting periods and mandated parental consent. In 2021, the state repealed a 1969 "trigger law" that had banned most abortion procedures, which would have come into effect following the U.S. Supreme Court's ruling in ''Dobbs v. Jackson Women's Health Organization''. In response to the ''Dobbs'' decision, which held that abortion was not a constitutional right, New Mexico's governor issued an executive order protecting abortion providers from out-of-state litigation, in anticipation of the influx of nonresidents seeking abortions.


Fiscal policy

On a per capita basis, New Mexico's government has one of the largest state budgets, at $9,101 per resident. As of 2017, the state had an S&P Global Ratings, S&P Global Rating of AA+, denoting a very strong capacity to meet financial commitments alongside a very low credit risk. New Mexico has two constitutionally mandated permanent funds: The Land Grand Permanent Fund (LGPF), which was established upon statehood in 1912, and the Severance Tax Permanent Fund (STPF), which was created in 1973 during the oil boom.Legislative Finance Committee Finance Facts
''New Mexico Legislature'' (May 2021)
Both funds derive revenue from rents, royalties, and bonuses related to the state's extensive oil, gas, and mining operations; the vast majority of the LGPF's distributions are earmarked for "common (public) schools", while all distributions from the STPF are allocated to the LGPF. As of 2020, the Land Grant Permanent Fund was valued at $21.6 billion, while the Severance Tax Permanent Fund was worth $5.8 billion.


Education

Due to its relatively low population and numerous federally funded research facilities, New Mexico had the highest concentration of Doctor of Philosophy, Ph.D holders of any state in 2000. Los Alamos County, New Mexico, Los Alamos County, which hosts the Los Alamos National Laboratory, eponymous national laboratory, leads the state in the most post-secondary degree holders, at 38.7% of residents, or 4,899 of 17,950. However, New Mexico routinely ranks near the bottom in studies measuring the quality of primary and secondary school education. It places 34th in public education spending, but by some metrics ranks last in overall performance and quality, with some of the highest dropout rates and lowest math and reading scores. By national standards, New Mexico has one of the highest concentrations of persons who did not finish high school or have some college education, albeit by a low margin: Slightly more than 14% of residents did not have a high school diploma, compared to the national rate of 11.4%, the fifth lowest out of 52 U.S. states and territories. Almost a quarter of people over 25 (23.9%) did not complete college, compared with 21% nationally. New Mexico ranks among the bottom ten states in the proportion of residents with a bachelor's degree or higher (27.7%), but 21st in Ph.D. earners (12.2%); the national average is 33.1% and 12.8%, respectively. In 2020, the number of doctorate recipients was 300, placing the state 34th in the nation. In 2018, a state judge issued a landmark ruling that "New Mexico is violating the constitutional rights of at-risk students by failing to provide them with sufficient education", in particularly those with indigenous, non-English-speaking, and low-income backgrounds. The court ordered the governor and legislature to provide an adequate system by April 2019; in response, New Mexico increased teacher salaries, funded an extended school year, expanded prekindergarten childhood education programs, and developed a budget formula for delivering more funding to schools that serve at-risk and low-income students. Nevertheless, many activists and public officials contend that these efforts continue to fall short, particularly with respect to Native American schools and students.


Primary and secondary education

The New Mexico Public Education Department oversees the operation of primary and secondary schools; individual school districts directly operate and staff said schools. In January 2022, New Mexico became the first state in the U.S. to recruit national guardsmen and state workers to serve as substitute teachers due to staffing shortages caused by COVID-19. Partly in response to pandemic-related shortages, on March 1, 2022, Governor Grisham signed into law four bills to increase the salaries and benefits of teachers and other school staff, particularly in entry-level positions.


Postsecondary education

New Mexico has 41 accredited, degree-granting institutions; twelve are private and 29 are state-funded, including four tribal colleges. Additionally, select students can attend certain institutions in Colorado, at in-state tuition rates, pursuant to a reciprocity program between the two states. Graduates of four-year colleges in New Mexico have some of the lowest student debt burdens in the U.S.; the class of 2017 owed an average of $21,237 compared with a national average of $28,650, according to the The Institute for College Access and Success, Institute for College Access & Success. New Mexico ranked 13th in the 2022 Social Mobility Index (SMI), which measures the extent to which economically disadvantaged students (with family incomes below the national median) have access to colleges and universities with lower tuition and indebtedness and higher job prospects.


Major research universities

* University of New Mexico, University of New Mexico at Albuquerque * New Mexico State University, New Mexico State University at Las Cruces * New Mexico Tech, New Mexico Institute of Mining & Technology at Socorro


Regional state universities

* Eastern New Mexico University, Eastern New Mexico University at Portales * New Mexico Highlands University, New Mexico Highlands University at Las Vegas * Western New Mexico University, Western New Mexico University at Silver City


Lottery scholarship

New Mexico is one of eight states that fund college scholarships through the state lottery. The state requires that the New Mexico Lottery, lottery put 30% of its gross sales into the scholarship fund. The scholarship is available to residents who graduated from a state high school, and attend a state university full-time while maintaining a 2.5 GPA or higher. It covered 100% of tuition when it was first instated in 1996, decreased to 90%, then dropped to 60% in 2017. The value slightly increased in 2018, and new legislation was passed to outline what funds are available per type of institution.


Opportunity scholarship

In September 2019, New Mexico announced a plan to make tuition at its public colleges and universities free for all state residents, regardless of family income. The proposal was described as going further than any other existing state or federal plan or program at the time. In March 2022, New Mexico became the first state to offer free college tuition for all residents, after the legislature passed a bipartisan bill allocating almost 1 percent of the state budget toward covering tuition and fees at all 29 public colleges, universities, community colleges, and tribal colleges. The program, which takes effect July 1, 2022, is described as among the most ambitious and generous in the country, as it is available to all residents regardless of income, work status, or legal status, and is provided without taking into account other scholarships and sources of financial aid. Unm zimmermanlibrary.jpg, Zimmerman Library at The University of New Mexico NMSU Zuhl 2008.JPG, Zuhl Library at New Mexico State University Walkway outside Golden Library, NMU.jpg, Walkway outside Golden Library at Eastern New Mexico University donnelly library.jpg, Donnelly Library at New Mexico Highlands University


Culture

New Mexican culture is a unique fusion of indigenous, Spanish, Hispanic, and American influences. In addition to thousands of years of diverse indigenous heritage, the state is home to some of the earliest European settlements; centuries of successive migration by Spanish, Mexican, and Anglo-Americans, Anglo-American colonists, who often intermingled with native peoples, are reflected in the state's demographics, Toponymy, toponyms, cuisine, dialect, and identity. New Mexico's distinct culture and image is reflected in part by the fact that many Americans do not know it is part of the U.S.; this misconception variably provokes frustration or amusement, with some New Mexicans responding with pride that it evidences their unique heritage. Like other states in the Southwestern United States, American Southwest, New Mexico reflects the legacy of the "American frontier, Old West" period of American expansion into the region, characterized by cattle ranching, cowboys, American pioneer, pioneers, the
Santa Fe Trail The Santa Fe Trail was a 19th-century route through central North America that connected Franklin, Missouri, with Santa Fe, New Mexico, Santa Fe, New Mexico. Pioneered in 1821 by William Becknell, who departed from the Boonslick region along th ...
, and conflicts among and between settlers and Native Americans. The state's vast and diverse geography, sparse population, and List of ghost towns in New Mexico, abundance of ghost towns have contributed to its enduring frontier image and atmosphere. Many fictional works of the
Western genre The Western is a genre Setting (narrative), set in the American frontier and commonly associated with Americana (culture), folk tales of the Western United States, particularly the Southwestern United States, as well as Northern Mexico and ...
are List of films shot in New Mexico, set or produced in New Mexico. Compared to other Western states, New Mexico's Spanish and Mexican heritage remains more visible and enduring, due to it having been the oldest, most populous, and most important province in New Spain's northern periphery. However, persistent Black Legend (Spain), American biases and misconceptions regarding Spain's colonial history have allegedly contributed to the marginalization of its cultural contributions. New Mexico is an important center of Native American culture; nearly 200,000 residents, or about one-tenth of the population, is of indigenous descent, ranking fourth in the U.S. in absolute terms, and second proportionally. Both the Navajo Nation, Navajo and Apache Tribe, Apache share Athabaskan origin, and Apache and some Ute Tribe, Ute live on federal Native American reservation, reservations in the state. Spanning 16 million acres (6.5 millionhectare, ha), mostly in neighboring
Arizona Arizona ( ; nv, Hoozdo Hahoodzo ; ood, Alĭ ṣonak ) is a U.S. state, state in the Southwestern United States. It is the list of U.S. states and territories by area, 6th largest and the list of U.S. states and territories by population, 14 ...
, the
Navajo Nation The Navajo Nation ( nv, Naabeehó Bináhásdzo), also known as Navajoland, is a Native Americans in the United States, Native American Indian reservation, reservation in the United States. It occupies portions of northeastern Arizona, northwe ...
is the largest reservation in the U.S., with one-third of its members living in New Mexico. Pueblo Indians live in Puebloans, pueblos scattered throughout the state, which collectively span over 2 million acres (800,000 ha). Many indigenous New Mexicans have moved to urban areas throughout the state, and some cities such as Gallup are major hubs of Native American culture. Almost half of New Mexicans claim Hispanic origin; many are descendants of colonial settlers called Hispanos of New Mexico, ''Hispanos'' or ''Neomexicanos'', who settled mostly in the north of the state between the 16th and 18th centuries; by contrast, the majority of Mexican immigrants reside in the south. Some Hispanos claim Who is a Jew?#New Mexico's Crypto-Jews, Jewish ancestry through descendance from ''conversos'' or Crypto-Judaism, Crypto-Jews among early Spanish colonists. Many New Mexicans speak a unique dialect known as New Mexican Spanish, which was shaped by the region's historical isolation and various cultural influences; New Mexican Spanish lacks certain vocabulary from other Spanish dialects and uses numerous Native American words for local features, as well as anglicized words that express American concepts and modern inventions.


Art, literature, and media

The earliest New Mexico artists whose work survives today are the Mimbres Indians, whose black and white pottery could be mistaken for modern art, except for the fact that it was produced before 1130 CE. See Mimbres culture. Many examples of this work can be seen at the Deming Armory, Deming Luna Mimbres Museum and at the Western New Mexico University Museum. Santa Fe has long hosted a thriving artistic community, which has included such prominent figures as Bruce Nauman, Richard Tuttle, John Connell (artist), John Connell and Steina Vasulka. The capital city has several art museums, including the New Mexico Museum of Art, Museum of Spanish Colonial Art, Museum of International Folk Art, Museum of Indian Arts and Culture, Museum of Contemporary Native Arts, SITE Santa Fe and others. Colonies for artists and writers thrive, and the small city teems with art galleries. In August, the city hosts the annual Santa Fe Indian Market, which is the oldest and largest juried Native American art showcase in the world. Performing arts include the renowned Santa Fe Opera which presents five operas in repertory each July to August, the Santa Fe Chamber Music Festival held each summer, and the restored Lensic Theater a principal venue for many kinds of performances. The weekend after Labor Day boasts the burning of Zozobra, a fifty-foot (15m) marionette, during Fiestas de Santa Fe. As New Mexico's largest city, Albuquerque hosts many of the state's leading cultural events and institutions, including the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, the National Hispanic Cultural Center, the National Museum of Nuclear Science & History, and the famed annual Albuquerque International Balloon Fiesta. The National Hispanic Cultural Center has held hundreds of performing arts events, art showcases, and other events related to Spanish culture in New Mexico and worldwide in the centerpiece Roy E Disney Center for the Performing Arts or in other venues at the 53-acre facility. New Mexico residents and visitors alike can enjoy performing art from around the world at Popejoy Hall on the campus of the University of New Mexico. Popejoy Hall hosts singers, dancers, Broadway shows, other types of acts, and Shakespeare. Albuquerque also has the unique and iconic KiMo Theater built in 1927 in the Pueblo Revival Style architecture. The KiMo presents live theater and concerts as well as movies and simulcast operas. In addition to other general interest theaters, Albuquerque also has the African American Performing Arts Center and Exhibit Hall which showcases achievements by people of African descent and the Indian Pueblo Cultural Center which highlights the cultural heritage of the Native Americans in the United States, First Nations people of New Mexico. New Mexico holds strong to its Spanish heritage. Old Spanish traditions such zarzuelas and flamenco are popular; the University of New Mexico is the only institute of higher education in the world with a program dedicated to flamenco. Flamenco dancer and native New Mexican María Benítez founded the Maria Benítez Institute for Spanish Arts "to present programs of the highest quality of the rich artistic heritage of Spain, as expressed through music, dance, visual arts, and other art forms". There is also the Festival Flamenco Internacional de Alburquerque held each year in which native Spanish and New Mexican flamenco dancers perform at the University of New Mexico. In the mid-20th century, there was a thriving Hispanos, Hispano school of literature and scholarship being produced in both English and Spanish. Among the more notable authors were: Angélico Chávez, Adelina Otero-Warren, Nina Otero-Warren, Fabiola Cabeza de Baca, Aurelio Espinosa, Cleofas Jaramillo, Juan Bautista Rael, and Aurora Lucero-White Lea. As well, writer D. H. Lawrence lived near Taos, New Mexico, Taos in the 1920s, at the D. H. Lawrence Ranch, where there is a shrine said to contain his ashes. New Mexico's strong Spanish, Native American, and Wild West frontier motifs have provided material for many authors in the state, with New Mexican literature's internationally recognized Rudolfo Anaya, Tony Hillerman, and N. Scott Momaday. Western fiction folk heroes
Billy the Kid Billy the Kid (born Henry McCarty; September 17 or November 23, 1859July 14, 1881), also known by the pseudonym A pseudonym (; ) or alias () is a fictitious name that a person or group assumes for a particular purpose, which differs from t ...
,
Elfego Baca Elfego Baca (February 10, 1865 – August 27, 1945) was a gunman, lawman, lawyer, and politician in New Mexico; during the later years of the New Mexico Territory American frontier, frontier he became an American folk hero. His goal in life was to ...
, Geronimo, and Pat Garrett originate in New Mexico. These same Hispanic, indigenous, and frontier history has given New Mexico a place in the history of country music, country and Western music (North America), Western music, with its own New Mexico music genre, including the careers of Al Hurricane, Robert Mirabal, and Michael Martin Murphey. Silver City, New Mexico, Silver City, originally a mining town, is now a major hub and exhibition center for large numbers of artists, visual and otherwise. Another former mining town turned art haven is Madrid, New Mexico, which was brought to national fame as the filming location for the 2007 movie ''Wild Hogs''. Las Cruces, in southern New Mexico, has a museum system affiliated with the Smithsonian Institution Affiliations Program, and hosts variety of cultural and artistic opportunities for residents and visitors. Western (genre), Westerns immortalized the varied mountainous, riparian, and desert environment into film. Owing to a combination of financial incentives, low cost, and geographic diversity, New Mexico has long been a popular setting or filming location for various films and television series. In addition to ''Wild Hogs'', other movies filmed in New Mexico include ''Sunshine Cleaning'' and ''Vampires (1998 film), Vampires''. Various seasons of the A&E (TV channel), A&E/
Netflix Netflix, Inc. is an American video on demand#Subscription models, subscription video on-demand Over-the-top media service, over-the-top Streaming media, streaming service and production company based in Los Gatos, California. Founded in 1997 b ...
series ''Longmire (TV series), Longmire'' were filmed in several New Mexico locations, including Las Vegas, New Mexico, Las Vegas, Santa Fe, Eagle Nest, New Mexico, Eagle Nest, and Red River, New Mexico, Red River. The widely acclaimed ''Breaking Bad (franchise), Breaking Bad franchise'' were set and filmed in and around Albuquerque, this is due to the ongoing success of media in Albuquerque, New Mexico in large part helped by Albuquerque Studios, and the presence of production studios like
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and
NBCUniversal NBCUniversal Media, LLC is an American multinational mass media and entertainment Entertainment is a form of activity that holds the attention and interest of an audience or gives pleasure and delight. It can be an idea or a task, bu ...
.


Sports

No major league professional sports teams are based in New Mexico, but the Albuquerque Isotopes are the Pacific Coast League baseball affiliate of the MLB Colorado Rockies. The state hosts several baseball teams of the Pecos League: the Roswell Invaders, Ruidoso Osos, Santa Fe Fuego and the White Sands Pupfish (baseball), White Sands Pupfish. The Duke City Gladiators of the Indoor Football League (IFL) plays their home games at Tingley Coliseum in Albuquerque. The city also hosts two soccer teams: New Mexico United, which began playing in the United States soccer league system, second tier USL Championship in 2019, and Albuquerque Sol FC, which plays in the fourth tier USL League Two. Collegiate athletics are the center of spectator sports in New Mexico, namely the rivalry between various teams of the New Mexico Lobos, University of New Mexico Lobos and the New Mexico State Aggies. The intense competition between the two teams is often referred to as the "Rio Grande Rivalry" or the "Battle of Interstate 25 in New Mexico, I-25" in recognition of the campuses' both being located along that highway. NMSU also has a rivalry with the University of Texas at El Paso called "The Battle of I-10". The winner of the NMSU-UTEP football game receives the Silver Spade trophy. Olympic gold medalist Tom Jager, who is an advocate of controversial high-altitude training for swimming, has conducted training camps in Albuquerque at 5,312 feet (1,619m) and Los Alamos at 7,320 feet (2,231m). New Mexico is a major hub for various shooting sports, mainly concentrated in the NRA Whittington Center in Raton, which is largest and most comprehensive competitive shooting range and training facility in the U.S.


Historic heritage

Owing to its millennia of habitation and over two centuries of Spanish colonial rule, New Mexico features a significant number of sites with historical and cultural significance. Forty-six locations across the state are listed by the U.S. National Historic Landmark, U.S. National Register of Historic Places, the 18th highest of any state. New Mexico has nine of the country's 84 national monuments, which are sites federally protected by presidential proclamation; this is the second-highest number after Arizona. The monuments include some of the earliest to have been created: El Morro and Gila Cliff Dwellings, proclaimed in 1906 and 1907, respectively; both preserve the state's ancient indigenous heritage. New Mexico is one of 20 states with a List of World Heritage Sites in the United States, UNESCO World Heritage Site, and among only eight with more than one. Excluding sites shared between states, New Mexico has the most World Heritage Sites in the country, with three exclusively within its territory.


See also

* Climate change in New Mexico * Economy of New Mexico * Geology of New Mexico * Government of New Mexico ** Governor of New Mexico ** List of counties in New Mexico ** List of municipalities in New Mexico * History of New Mexico ** Timeline of New Mexico history * Index of New Mexico-related articles * List of mountain peaks of New Mexico * List of rivers of New Mexico * Outline of New Mexico * Paleontology in New Mexico


Notes


References


Further reading

* Beck, Warren and Haase, Ynez. ''Historical Atlas of New Mexico'' 1969. * * Carleton, William, R. "Fruit, Fiber and Fire: A history of Modern Agriculture in New Mexico. Lincoln, University of Nebraska, 2021, * Chavez, Thomas E. ''An Illustrated History of New Mexico'', 267 pages, University of New Mexico Press 2002, * Bullis, Don. ''New Mexico: A Biographical Dictionary, 1540–1980'', 2 vol, (Los Ranchos de Albuquerque: Rio Grande, 2008) 393 pp. * Erlinda Gonzáles-Berry, Gonzales-Berry, Erlinda, David R. Maciel, eds. ''The Contested Homeland: A Chicano History of New Mexico'', University of New Mexico Press 2000, , 314 pp. * Gutiérrez, Ramón A. ''When Jesus Came, the Corn Mothers Went Away: Marriage, Sexuality, and Power in New Mexico, 1500–1846'' (1991) * Hain, Paul L., F Chris Garcia, F. Chris Garcia, Gilbert K. St. Clair; ''New Mexico Government'' 3rd ed. (1994) * Paul Horgan, Horgan, Paul, ''Great River, The Rio Grande in North American History'', 1038 pages, Wesleyan University Press 1991, 4th Reprint, , Pulitzer Prize 1955 * Larson, Robert W. ''New Mexico's Quest for Statehood, 1846–1912'' (1968) * Nieto-Phillips, John M. ''The Language of Blood: The Making of Spanish-American Identity in New Mexico, 1880s–1930s'', University of New Mexico Press 2004, * Simmons, Marc. ''New Mexico: An Interpretive History'', University of New Mexico Press 1988, , 221 pp, good introduction * Szasz, Ferenc M., and Richard W. Etulain, eds. ''Religion in Modern New Mexico'' (1997) * Trujillo, Michael L. ''Land of Disenchantment: Latina/o Identities and Transformations in Northern New Mexico'' (2010) 265 pp; an experimental ethnography that contrasts life in the Espanola Valley with the state's commercial image as the "land of enchantment". * Weber; David J. ''Foreigners in Their Native Land: Historical Roots of the Mexican Americans'' (1973), primary sources to 1912


Primary sources

* Ellis, Richard, ed. ''New Mexico Past and Present: A Historical Reader''. 1971. primary sources * Tony Hillerman, ''The Great Taos Bank Robbery and other Indian Country Affairs'', University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, 1973, trade paperback, 147 pages, (), fiction


External links

*


State government


New Mexico Government

New Mexico State Databases
annotated list of searchable databases produced by New Mexico state agencies and compiled by the Government Documents Roundtable of the American Library Association
Bureau of Business and Economic Research (BBER)
at the University of New Mexico: credible and objective data and research to inform economic development and public policy


Federal government


New Mexico State Guide from the Library of Congress

Energy Profile for New Mexico: economic, environmental, and energy data

New Mexico
''Science In Your Backyard'', from the U.S. Geological Society
"American Southwest"
''Discover Our Shared Heritage'': travel itinerary from the National Park Service
New Mexico state facts
economic research service, U.S. Department of Agriculture


Tourism


Flora of the Gila National Forest in New Mexico
* {{coord, 34, -106, dim:300000_region:US-NM_type:adm1st, name=State of New Mexico, display=title New Mexico, Former Spanish colonies Southwestern United States States and territories established in 1912 States of the United States 1912 establishments in New Mexico Contiguous United States